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# Fluid Mechanics

Assignment

10CV35

S J B INSTUTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BGS HEALTH CITY, UTTARHALLI KENGERI ROAD, KENGERI, BANGALORE 60
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Sub: Fluid Mechanics Unit-1
Subject Code: 10CV35
Staff In-charge: Dr. Nagaraj Sitaram
Date: 11 - 8 2014
Date of Submission: 15-8-2014
1 Name the three- important properties of fluid
2. 4m3of certain oil weighs 31N, calculate its specific weight, mass density, specific volume and
specific gravity with respect to water
3. Name the fluid property which are important in the following phenomenon
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

## Rinse of sap in trees

Birds walking on the surface of water
Spherical shape of a drop of a liquid
Rinse of oil in oil lamp

4. Define surface tension and prove that P = 4/D, where P- pressure difference between inside
and outside of the liquid droplets, surface tension.
5. What is capillarity? Derive the equation for capillary rise h= 4cos/ wd in a glass tube of
diameter d
6. The velocity distribution of flow over a plate is parabolic with vertex 30 cm from the plate, where
the velocity is 180cm/s. If the viscosity of the fluid is 1.0N s/m. Find the velocity gradients and
shear stress at distances of 0, 15 cm, 30 cm from the plate.
7. A shaft of 20 mm diameter and mass 15 kg slides vertically in a sleeve with a velocity of 5m/s.
the gap between the shaft and sleeve is 0.1 mm and is filled with oil. Calculate the viscosity of oil
if the length of the shaft is 500 mm
8. The surface tension at air-water interface is 0.075N/m. what is the pressure difference between
inside and outside of an air bubble of diameter 0.009 mm?
9. Calculate the capillary effect in millimeters in a glass tube of 5mm diameter when immersed in
(i) Water (=0) (ii) Mercury (=130). Given the surface tension of water and mercury are
0.0735N/m and 0.51N/m respectively
10. When a pressure of 20.7 MN/m2 is applied to 100 litres of a liquid, its volume decreases by
1-litre. Find the bulk modulus (K) at the liquid

Page 1

Fluid Mechanics

Assignment

10CV35

## SJB Institute of Technology, Bangalore

S J B INSTUTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BGS HEALTH CITY, UTTARHALLI KENGERI ROAD, KENGERI, BANGALORE 60
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Date: 2382014
10CV35 Dr. S. Nagaraj, Professor Assignment2

rd

## Unit2: Fluid Mechanics 3 sem B.E( Civil)

Date of Submission: 05 09 2014

## 1. State and Prove hydrostatic Pressure law in its Differential form

2.

Explain the working principle of Bourdon Pressure gauge with a neat sketch.

## 3. Distinguish between the following in brief:

a) U- tube differential manometer and Inverted U-tube differential manometer
b) Piezometer and Simple manometer
c) Gauge pressure and Absolute pressure
d) Vapour pressure and Vacuum pressure
4. List out the characteristics of manometric liquids. Give example for manometric liquid
5. Write short notes on following:a) Inclined manometer b) Pascals law c) Electronic Pressure Measuring devices
6. A hydraulic Pressure has a ram of 250mm diameter and a plunger of 45mm diameter. Find the
weight lifted by hydraulic pressure when the farce applied at the plunger is 500 N.
7. The left leg of a Utube mercury manometer is connected to a pipe line conveying water, the
level of mercury in the leg being 0.6m below the center of pipeline, and the right leg is open to
atmosphere. The level of mercury in the right leg is 0.45m above than that in the left leg and the
space above mercury in the right leg contain Benzene (S=0.88) to a height as 0.35m. Find the
pressure in the Pipe.
8. If mercury barometer reads 700mm and Bourdons gauge at appoint in a flow system reads 500
kN/m2. What is the absolute pressure at the point?
9. A U-tube manometer is connected to a closed tank containing air and water as shown in Figure
1. At the closed end of the manometer the absolute air pressure is 140kPa. Determine the reading
on the pressure gage for a differential reading of 1.5-m on the manometer. Express your answer in
gage pressure value. Assume standard atmospheric pressure and neglect the weight of the air
columns in the manometer.
10. A U-tube manometer contains oil, mercury, and water as shown in Figure 2. For the column
heights indicated what is the pressure differential between pipes A and B?

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Fluid Mechanics

As signme nt

Figur e 1

## Department of Civil Engineering, SJB Institute of Technology, Banga lore

10CV 35

Figure 2

P age 3

Fluid Mechanics

Assignment

10CV35

S J B INSTUTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BGS HEALTH CITY, UTTARHALLI KENGERI ROAD, KENGERI, BANGALORE 60
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Sub: Fluid Mechanics Unit-3
Staff In-charge: Dr. Nagaraj Sitaram

## Subject Code: 10CV35

Date: 10 - 9 2014
Date of Submission: 15-9-2014

1. Determine the total pressure on a circular plate of diameter 1.5m, which is placed vertically in
water in such a way that the centre of plate is 2m below the free surface of water. Find the position
of centre of pressure also.
2. Determine the total pressure and centre of pressure on an isosceles triangular plate of base 5m
and altitude 5m when the plate is immersed vertically in an oil of Sp.Gr 0.8. The base of the plate
is 1m below the free surface of water.
3. A rectangular tank m long, 1.5m wide contains water uoto a height o 2m. Calculate the force due
to water pressure on the base of the tank. Find also the depth of centre of pressure from free
surface.
4. A Circular plate 3 m diameter is immersed in water in such a way that the plane of the plate
makes an angle of 60 degrees with the free surface of water. Determine the total pressure and
position of centre of pressure when the upper edge of the plate is 2m below the free water
surface.
5. Length of a tainter gate perpendicular to paper is 0.50m. Find:
i) Total horizontal thrust of water on gate.
ii) Total vertical component of water pressure against gate.
iii) Resultant water pressure on gate and its inclination with horizontal.

Fig.Q5

Fig.Q6

6.) Fig shows a rectangular flash board AB which is 4.5m high and is pivoted at C. What must be
the maximum height of C above B so that the flash board will be on the verge of tipping when
water surface is at A? Also determine if the pivot of the flash board is at a height h = 1.5m, the
reactions at B and C when the water surface is 4m above B.

## Department of Civil Engineering, SJB Institute of Technology, Bangalore

Page 4

Fluid Mechanics

Assignment

10CV35

S J B INSTUTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BGS HEALTH CITY, UTTARHALLI KENGERI ROAD, KENGERI, BANGALORE 60
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Sub: Fluid Mechanics Unit-4
Staff In-charge: Dr. Nagaraj Sitaram

## Subject Code: 10CV35

Date : 4-10-2014
Date of Submission 10.10.2014

Assignment
1. Differentiate between the Eulerian and Lagrangian method of representing fluid motion
2. Define path line, streak line, and streamline. For what type of flow these lines are identical
3. If u = yzt

## ; v = xzt; w = xyt m/s Is the motion possible for steady, incompressible

flow? Obtain equations of streamline passing through the point (1, 2, 1) at t = 1 sec.
4.

2

## u = 6xt + y z +15 ; v = 3xy +t + y; w = (2 +3ty) Classify this velocity field as steady or

unsteady, uniform or non-uniform and one, two or three dimensional. What is the velocity vector at
point P (3,2,4) at time t=3 sec? Also calculate the magnitude of this vector at this point and time.
[Ans:85i+47j+20k, 99.2m/s]
5. Define and distinguish between: (i) Rotational and Irrotational (ii) Uniform and Non Uniform flow
(iii) Steady and unsteady flow (iv) Laminar and Turbulent flow (v) Uniform and non-uniform flow
6. The x and y- components in a three dimensional flow are given by :
2

u=x +z ;v=y +z
continuity equation

## Find the simplest z-component of velocity that satisfies the

[w = - 2z(x + y)]

## V = 5xi + 5yj 10zk satisfy continuity equation for

incompressible flow
2

8. The velocity along a streamline passing through the origin is given by V = 3 x + y what is the
velocity and acceleration at (1, 2). Also compute the corresponding stream function()
9. Derive three- dimensional continuity equation and mention its assumptions
10. A 250 mm diameter is conveying water braches into two pipes of diameter 150mm and 100mm
respectively. If the average velocities in the 250mm diameter pipe is and 150mm pipe are 3m/s and
2m/s, determine the velocity in the 100mm pipe [Ans; 14.25m/s]
11. Show that the streamlines and equipotential lines form a net of mutually perpendicular lines
12. If = 3xy , find x and y-components of velocity at (1,3) and (3,3). Determine the discharge passing
between streamlines passing through these points [Ans: Q= (1,3)- (3,3) = -12 units
13. Describe flow net, methods of construction and its applications in brief

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Fluid Mechanics

As signme nt

10CV 35

## S J B INSTUTUTE OF TECHNO LOGY

BGS HEALTH CITY, UTTARHALLI KEN GERI ROAD, KENGERI, BA NGALORE 60
DEPART MENT OF CIVIL EN GINEERIN G
Sub: Fluid Mechanics Unit-5
Staff In-cha rge: Dr. Nagaraj Sit aram

## Subject Code : 10CV35

Date : 11-10-2014
Date of Submission 21.10.2014

Assignment
1. Derive Eulers equation and derive Bernoullis equation and state the assumptions
2.

Derive Impulse momentum equation. Apply the principle to instigate hydraulic forces on a pipe bend of angle

3.

A liquid of relative density 0.7 flows through a horizontal pipe whose diameter r educes from 200 mm to 100 mm.

The pressure in 200 mm pipe just upstream of constriction is 76 k Pa. Determine the maximum discharge that can
be passed through the constriction without occurrence of cavitation. Neglect losses. The vapour pressure of liquid
is 50 kPa (abs).
4. Water flows through an expander held in a vertical p lane and having a volume of 0.5 m3 and a mass of 20kg. The
velocity at inlet is 20 m/s and is parallel to xdirection an d the outlet velocity is at 4 5 to the xaxis. The inlet
pressu re and diameter are 700 kPa and 300 mm and those at the outlet are 200 kPa and 450 mm. Determine
force required at the ex pander support to hold it in position. Assume steady state condition and atmospheric
pressure as 100 kPa.
5. Water flow s through a 1 0cm diameter pipe with velocity 8m/s. compute the discharge rate. If the same flow
3

through a 20cm diameter pipe, evaluate the new flow velocity. [0. 628m /s, 2m/ s]
6. Derive an expression for kinetic energy correction factor () by mentioning its typical values. Is it important in an
ideal flow situations
7. The discharge

of water through a

140

## bend, show n in Figure 1 , is 30 litres/s. The

bend is lying in the horizontal plane and the
diameters at the entrance and exit

are

200mm and

The

100mm respectively.

2

## kN/m , what is the magnitude and

direction o f the force exerted by the water
on the bend? (Ans R = 3857N, = 8.1)
1

8.

v=

2
find

y0

## Department of Civil Engineering, SJB Institute of Technology, Bangalore

P age 6

Fluid Mechanics

Assignment

10CV35

S J B INSTUTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BGS HEALTH CITY, UTTARHALLI KENGERI ROAD, KENGERI, BANGALORE 60
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Sub: Fluid Mechanics Unit-6
Staff In-charge: Dr. Nagaraj Sitaram

## Subject Code: 10CV35

Date : 27-10-2014
Date of Submission 03.11.2014

Assignment - 6
1. Derive expressions for (i) Sudden Enlargement (ii) Sudden Contraction (iii) Equivalent pi
diameter
2. What are the major and minor losses in a pipe flow
3. Derive Darcy-Weisbach equation for head loss due to friction in pipe
4. A pipe line consists of 3-pipes in series :
a. 300 m long, 15cm diameter
b. 200 m long, 10cm diameter
c. 250 m long, 20cm diameter
5. The pipeline takes off from a reservoir with water at an elevation of 500m, The elevation at exit
is 400m. Find the discharge by (I) Neglecting the minor losses (II) Considering the minor losses
6. A pipeline 0.225m in diameter and 1580 m long has a slope of 1 in 200 for the first 790m and
1 in 100 in next 790m. The pressure at the upper end is 100 kPa and at the lower end is 55 kPa.
Determine the discharge through the pipe (neglecting minor losses) if 4f = 0.03
7. A hydraulic pipeline 3.5 km long and 50cm diameter is used to convey water with a velocity of
2.0 m/s. Determine the rise in pressure head in the pipeline if the valve provided at the outflow
end is closed in (i) 20 seconds (ii) 3.5 seconds with rigid pipe (iii) 3.0 sec with elastic pipe of
thickness 2.0mm. Given Bulk modulus of water K = 2 GPa, Epipe material = 2.06 1011 Gpa
8. Determine the difference in elevation between the water surfaces of two tanks which are
connected by a horizontal pipe of diameter 300mm and length 400m. The rate of flow of water
through the pipe is 300 LPS. Consider all losses and assume friction factor 4f = 0.032. Sketch
9. Two pipes A and B are connected in parallel as shown in Fig. Pipe A is 150m long and 15cm
in diameter. Pipe B is 100m long and 12 cm in diameter. Both the pipes have friction factors f =
2

0.018 used in Hf = fLV /2gD. A partly closed valve in pipe A causes the discharges in two
pipes to be same. Estimate the value of valve coefficient K. Neglect other minor losses

## Department of Civil Engineering, SJB Institute of Technology, Bangalore

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Fluid Mechanics

Assignment

10CV35

S J B INSTUTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BGS HEALTH CITY, UTTARHALLI KENGERI ROAD, KENGERI, BANGALORE 60
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Sub: Fluid Mechanics Unit-7
Staff In-charge: Dr. Nagaraj Sitaram

## Subject Code: 10CV35

Date : 04-11-2014
Date of Submission 10.11.2014

Assignment - 7
1. Distinguish between:
a. Weight gauge and Float gauge
b. Point gauge and Hook gauge
c. Self recording and Staff gauge
d. Surface Velocity and mean velocity
e. Pitot tube and Pitot-static tube
2. Explain with the help of a neat sketch, the working of cup type current meter. Give the equation
for finding the velocity of flow using current meter
3. A Pitot tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipe. The stagnation pressure is 6m
and static pressure head is 5m. Calculate the velocity of flow assuming the coefficient of Pitot
tube = 0.98
4. With a neat sketch explain the working of a Pitot tube for velocity measurements
5. How would you estimate the discharge of a river with the help of staff gauge and current meter
instrument? Explain with the help of diagrams
6. The current meter observations taken during the gauging of a stream are given in Col. (1) to
Col (5) in the Table. The current meter rating may be taken as v = 0.04 + 0.35 N, where v is in
m/s and N is in rev/s. Compute the discharge in the stream.

## Department of Civil Engineering, SJB Institute of Technology, Bangalore

Page 8

Fluid Mechanics

Assignment

10CV35

S J B INSTUTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BGS HEALTH CITY, UTTARHALLI KENGERI ROAD, KENGERI, BANGALORE 60
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Sub: Fluid Mechanics Unit-8
Staff In-charge: Dr. Nagaraj Sitaram

## Subject Code: 10CV35

Date : 8-11-2014
Date of Submission 17.11.2014

Assignment
1.

Explain the working principle of a Venturimeter, with a neat sketch. Derive the expression for
the measurement of discharge through a horizontal Venturimeter

2.

Define an orifice meter. Prove that the discharge through an orifice-meter is given by,
AA

2 gH

d
2

2
A0

6.

A1
3.
Where, A1 = Area of pipe, A0 Area of orifice, H Differential head H between pipe and orifice
A Venturimeter has its axis vertical, the inlet and throat diameter being 150mm, 75mm
respectively. The throat is 223 mm above inlet and Cd = 0.96. Petrol of specific gravity 0.78
3
flows up through the meter at a constant rate of 0.029m /s. Find the pressure difference
between inlet and throat
Explain rotometer and Venturi flume with neat sketches

7.

Derive a relationship to determine the coefficient of velocity for flow through an orifice

8.

The head of water over an orifice of 100mm diameter is 10m. The discharge through the orifice
is 70 LPS. If the coordinates of a point on the jet, measured from vena-contracta are 4.25m
Horizontal, and 0.55 m vertical, determine Cd, Cv and Cc
A tank has two identical orifices 50mm in diameter in one of its vertical sides and is situated
one above the other. The upper orifice is 4m below the water surface and the lower one is 6m
below the water surface. The value of Cc = 0.64, Cv = 0.98 for both the orifices. Find the

4.
5.

9.

## a. The combined rate of discharge from two orifices

b. The distances of point of intersection of the two jets from vertical side
10. Distinguish between (i) Notch and weir (ii) Free nappe and clinging nappe (iii) Cv and Cd

## 11. Derive the expressions: (i) C

V

Q=

Cd

2g L H

(ii) Q = 8 C
2 yH
15 d

2g tan

5
H

(iii)

32

3
12. A rectangular orifice 1.6m wide and 1.0m deep is discharging water from a tank. If the water
level in the tank is 3m above the top edge of the orifice, find the discharge through the orifice.
Given Cd = 0.61. Calculate the %error in discharge if the opening is treated as small orifice.
13. What are the advantages of V-notch over triangular notch?
14. Water flows through a rectangular notch 1m wide and 0.5m deep and then over a sharp crested
Cipoletti weir of crest length 60cms. If the water level in the channel is 22.5cm above the weir
crest, calculate the discharge over the weir. Take Cd = 0.6 and make correction for velocity
approach

## Department of Civil Engineering, SJB Institute of Technology, Bangalore

Page 9

Fluid Mechanics
15.

Assignment

10CV35

A broad crested weir 50m length has 500mm height of water above its crest. Find the
maximum discharge. Give Cd = 0.6, neglect velocity of approach. If the velocity of
approach is taken into account find the maximum discharge when the channel cross
2

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