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Principles of Teaching 1

1. 1. Control the knowledge and learning and use of hisknowledge to guide the science and art
of his/herteaching practice.Disposition and skills to approach all aspects ofhis/her work in a
perfectives, collegial and problem solving manner.View of learning to teach as lifelong
process anddisposition and skills for working towardsimproving his/her own teaching as well
asimproving schools.
2. 2. 1. Sense of efficacy give effect to his/her learner2. Subject matter knowledge
knowledge equipped3. Pedagogical knowledge have skills in teaching that considers
teaching style, methodology, techniques4. Sense of service dedicated and committed to
teach as their badge ; valuated
3. 3. 1. PASSION the intimate desire tosacrifice2. HUMOR different ways to makestudents
not to bore3. VALUES AND ATTITUDES Open mindednessImpartiality and fairness4.
PATIENCE a virtue (genuine)5. ENTHUSIASM eagerness(commitment is a strong
promise)
4. 4. 1. Verbal linguistic2. Logical mathematical3. Spatial4. Bodily kinesthetic5. Musical6.
Interpersonal7. Intrapersonal8. Naturalist9. Existentialist
5. 5. 1.Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the
learner.2.Learning is the discovery of person meaning and relevance of ideas.3.Learning
(behavioral change) is a consequence of experience.4. Learning is a cooperative and
collaborative process.5. Learning is a evolutionary process.6. Learning is sometimes is a
painful process.7. Learning : one of the richest resources of learning is thelearner himself.8.
The process of learning is emotional as well asintellectual.9. The process of problem solving
and learning are highlyunique and individual.
6. 6. 1. MASTERY sensing thinking2. UNDERSTANDING intuitive thinking3. SELF
EXPRESSIVE intuitive feeling4. INTERPERSONAL sensing - feeling
7. 7. 1. LEARNING IS AN ACTIVE PROCESS -This means that we have to actively engage the
learners in learning activities if we want them to learn what we intend to teach. We have to
give our students opportunities to participate in classroom activities. We have to give varied
activities to our students for hands on minds on learning. Danielson, 2002; 75% and
90% retention rates are learning by doing. What I hear, I forget. What I see, I remember.
What I do, I understand.2. The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and he
better the learningHumans are intensely visual animals. The eyes contain nearly 70 percent
of thebodys receptors and send millions of signals along the optic nerves to the
visualprocessing centers of the brainwe take in more information visually than throughany
of the other senses (Wolfe,2001).
8. 8. 3. A non threatening atmosphere enhances learningA non threatening and conducive
classroomatmosphere is not only a function of physical conditionof the classroom but more a
function of a psychologicalclimate that prevails in the classroom.4. Emotion has the power to
increase retention andlearningLet us not feel afraid to bring in emotion into ourclassroom. Let
us add an emotional touch to learning.Without the emotional dimension, our subject

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matterwill remain cold and lifeless.5. Learning s meaningful when it is connected tostudents
everyday life. Give sufficient examplesrelating to students experiences.
9. 6. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information.Good thinking concerns itself with
HOTS to developcreative and critical thinking. 7. An integrated teaching approach is far more
effective than teaching isolated bits of information It considers multiple intelligences and
varied learning style of students. 8. An integrated approach incorporates successful,
research- based and brain based instructional strategies .
10. 1. Without rehearsal or constant attention, informationremains in working memory for
only about 15 20 seconds.This implies the need for memory aids.2. Learning is a process
of building neural networks.3. Our brains have difficulty comprehending very largenumbers
because we have nothing in our experience tohook them to.4. The eyes contain nearly 70%
of the bodys sensory receptorsand send millions of signals every second along the
opticnerves to the visual processing of the brain.5. Information is embedded I music or
rhyme, its recall iseasier than when it is in prose.
11. 1. Involving Students in Real life or Authentic Problem Solving.2. Student asks us when
and where they need this and that they are learning in school. This question implies that
students hardly see the relevance and the practical application of what they taught in school.
3. Simulations and Role plays and Meaning Makers 4. Classroom Strategies Using Visual
Processing 5. Mnemonic Strategy 6. Writing Strategy 7. Active Review 8. Hands on Activity
12. 1. Instructional objectives2. Nature of subject matter3. Nature of the learners4. Teacher5.
School policies
13. A. Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization ofContent1. One guiding principle
related to subject matter content is to observethe following qualities in the selection and
organization of content:a. Validity teaching are the content that we ought to teach according
tonational standard; explicit in the Basic Education Curriculum; it alsomeans teaching the
content in order to realize the goals and objectives ofthe course as laid down in the basic
education curriculumb. Significance respond to the needs and interest of the learner,
hencemeaningful and significant.c. Balance Content includes not only facts but also
concepts and values.The use of the three-level approach ensures a balance ofcognitive,
psychomotor and affective lesson content.
14. d. Self-sufficiency Content fully covers the essentials. Learningcontent is not milewide-and-inch-deep. The essentials are sufficientlycovered and are treated in depth. This is
a case of less is more.e. Interest Teacher considers the interest of the learners,
theirdevelopmental stages and cultural and ethnic background.f. Utility Will this content be
of use to the learners? It is not meant onlyto be memorized for test and grade purposes.
What is learned has afunction even after examinations are over.g. Feasibility feasible in the
sense that the essential content can becovered in the amount of time available for
instruction.2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content arefacts. We
cant do away with facts but be sure to go beyond facts byconstructing an increasingly richer
and more sophisticated knowledgebase and by working out a process of conceptual
understanding.
15. 3. Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive, skills, and affective elements - it is
an integration of facts, concepts, principles, hypotheses, theories, and laws, thinking skills,

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manipulated skills, values and attitudes. 1. begin with the end in mind a. We must begin our
lesson with a clearly defined lesson objective.2. Share lesson objective with studentsa. Make
known to our students our instructional objective and encourage them to make the lesson
objective their own.3. Lesson objectives must be in the two or three domainsknowledge
(cognitive), skill (psychomotor) and values(affective).
16. a. A lesson is worthwhile if it gets connected to everyday life, how the students is and
ought to be concerned with it, what difference it makes for a fuller existence4.Work on
significant and relevant lesson objectives.5. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims
ofeducational as embodied in the Philippine Constitution andother laws and on the vision
mission statements of theeducational institution of which you are part.6.Aim at the
development of critical and creative thinking.7. For the accountability of learning, lesson
objectives must beSMART. i.e., Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result o orientedand
Relevant, Time bound and Terminal.
17. Benjamin Blooms Cognitive domain Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis
Synthesis EvaluationAnita Harlows psychomotor domain Imitation Manipulation Precision
Articulation Naturalization
18. Characterization Different Approaches and Methods Direct/ Expositive Instruction
ApproachDirect Instruction- is a way of teaching which is aimed athelping students acquire
some basic skills and proceduralknowledgeOrganization Valuing Responding
Receiving
19. Instructional Characteristics1. The strategy is teacher- directed.2. The emphasis is on the
teaching of skill.3. Taught in a step-by-step fashion, it ensures thelearning of the entire
procedure with no step missed.4. Lesson objectives include easily observedbehaviors that
can be measured accurately.5. This is a form of learning throughimitation, sometimes termed
behavioral modeling.Deductive Method-starts from the general to specificAdvantages of the
Deductive Method1. Coverage of a wider scope of subject matter.2. No bother on the part of
the teacher to lead learners to the formulation of the generalization or rule.
20. Disadvantages of the Deductive Method1. It is not supportive of the principle that learning
is an activeprocess.2. Lesson appears uninteresting at first.Inductive Method-starts from the
specific to generalAdvantages of the Inductive Method1. The learners are more engaged in
the teaching-learningprocess.2. Learning becomes more interesting at the outset becausewe
begin with the experiences of our students.3. It helps the development of our learners
higher-order-thinking skills.Disadvantages of the Inductive Method1. It requires more time
and so less subject matter will becovered.2. It demands expert facilitating skills on the part of
theteacher.
21. Demonstration MethodDemonstration- is a learning activity which is performed by a
student, agroup of 3 to 4 members or a teacher while the rest become observers.Advantages
of Demonstration Method1. It follows a systematic procedure, hence students will be able to
learnfrom a well-tried procedure since the demonstrators are selected andadjudged to be
skilled.2. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized.3. Possible
wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided since thedemonstration is supposed to
be well- planned in advance.4. It will not result to trial-and-error learning as what happens

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withunplanned learning activities.5. The findings are reliable and accurate since the
procedure has beentried before.
22. Guided/ Expository Approach Inquiry Approach -sometimes termed discovery,
heuristic and problem solving is simply a teaching method which is modeled after the
investigative processes of scientists. Instructional Characteristics 1. Investigative processes
such as inferring, measuring, predicting, classifying, analyzing and experimenting,
formulating conclusions and generalizations are employed. 2. The procedure in gathering
information is not prescribed by the teachers.3. The children are highly motivated to search,
hence activeparticipation is the best indicator or inquisitiveness.4. The answers arrived at are
genuine products of their ownefforts.5. Focused questions before, during and after are
criticalingredients that provide direction and sustain action.
23. Problem Solving MethodProblem Solving is a teaching strategy that employsthe scientific
method in searching for information. 5 Basic Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Sensing and
defining the problem 2. Formulating hypothesis 3. Testing the likely hypothesis 4. Analysis,
interpretation and evaluation of evidence 5. Formulating conclusion Advantages of Problem
Solving Method 1. This approach is most effective in developing skill in employing the
science processes. 2. The scientific method can likewise be used effectively in other nonscience subjects. 3. The students active involvement resulting in meaningful experiences
serves as a strong motivation to follow the scientific procedure in future undertaking. 4.
Problem solving develops higher level thinking skills.
24. 5. A keen sense of responsibility, originality andresourcefulness are developed, which are
much-needed ingredients for independent study.6. The students become appreciative and
grateful forthe achievement of scientists. 7. Critical thinking, open-mindedness and wise
judgment are among scientific attitudes and values inculcated through competence in the
scientific method. 8. The students learn to accept the opinions and evidence shared by
others.Project Method-is a teaching method that requires the students to presentin concrete
form the results of information gathered abouta concept, principle or innovation.
25. ADVANTAGES1. It is a teaching strategy that emphasizes learning by doing2.
Constructing projects develops the students manipulative skills.3. The planned design of the
project tests the students originality in choosing thematerials to be used. They become
resourceful and innovative.4. It can be employed among students who are weak in oral
communication5. The completed project adds to ones feeling of accomplishment
andsatisfaction, thus motivating students to continue constructing new projectsin school and
at home.6. It instills the values of initiative, industry and creativity.7. Working on a project in
groups develops the spirit of cooperation andsharing of ideas.8. In addition to learning a
concept, students become productive andenterprising
26. Metacognitve Approach -meta means beyond An approach that goes beyond cognition
that makes students think about theirthinking and think it aloud.The Constructivist
ApproachIs anchored on the belief that every individual constructs and reconstructmeanings
depending on past experiences and continue reflecting and evaluatingaccumulated
knowledge with an end in view of constructing new meaning. Reflective Teaching Is
anchored on the ability of the teacher to guide students to reflect on their own experiences in
order to arrive at new understanding and meanings. CHARACTERISTICS 1.An ethic of

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caring Confirmation Dialogue Cooperative process 2. Constructivist approach 3. Tactful


problem solving
27. STRATEGIES1. Self analysis2. Writing journals3. Keeping a portfolio4. Observation of
students responses5. Questions at the end of every lessonCOOPERATIVE LEARNING
APPROACH - An approach makes use of classroom organization where students work in
groups or teams to help each other learn.PEER TUTORING -Is commonly employed when
the teacher requests the older, brighter and more cooperative member of the class to tutor
other classmates.TUTORING ARRANGEMENTSa. Instructionalb. Same agec. Monitoriald.
Structurale. Semi structured
28. -method implies, this learning with a partner. A student chooses partner fromamong
his/her classmates. This may also means assigning study habit.APPROPRIATE
LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN THE DIFFERENT PHASESOF THE LESSON.Introductory
activitiesDevelopmental activitiesConcluding activitiesGUIDING PRINCIPLES IN
ASSESSMENT OF LEARNINGThese principles "adapted" from Corpus and Salandanan,
2007)1. Teaching and learning is never complete without assessment. This means
thatassessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process. We need to test how far
the learners have learned, either before, during or afterinstruction, in line with our objectives.
Thus, if learners are made to realize about this, negative attitudes about assessment will be
minimized since the quizzes and tests will be just "usual" to them. They will come to realize
the purpose of assessment, that is, to check how far they have learned.
29. 2. Assessment tool and objectives must be collinear. The test/quiz or anyassessment
techniques must be in line with the objectives. This also includes thetype of assessment
appropriate for a certain objective. This is like a teacher whohas an objective about "Singing
the Philippine National Anthem". Which ismore appropriate assessment tool: let the student
write down completely theanthem, or let them sing the anthem?3. Assessment results should
be fed back to the students. This is one of themortal sins of some of the teachers. They will
give quizzes, tests, projects, etc yetthey fail to return these to the students, or to just inform
the grade/score thestudents acquired.The purpose of assessment is to give learners a
feedback to what extent theirlearning is. How will the learners learn this if the teacher wont
give their scoresor return their papers?4. In assessment, consider learners multiple
intelligences and learning styles.The traditional paper and pencil test puts verbally and
linguistically intelligentstudents at the advantage.
30. 5. It is wise to give some positive feedback as well as constructive criticisms. Dontforget
to praise the students on a job well done. This can boost their morale tostudy and appreciate
the value of success. Further, lets give them someconstructive criticisms on the areas they
need to improve. Remember that thebiggest room in the world is the room for
improvement.6. Emphasize self-assessment. Assessment must be intracomparative rather
thanintercomparative. In short, if learning is as well a personal process, then, let thelearners
assess their performance on their own against a certain criteria. Let thembe aware of and
reflect on their own progress.7. Build the culture of success in the classroom. Avoid the bell
curve mentality, orthe belief that it is normal that some students pass while some fail. Have
thatmentality that ALL learners can achieve.8. Never use assessment as a disciplinary action

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or a punishment. This distortsthe true purpose of assessment. This will enkindle the negative
attitudes towardassessment.
31. 9. Assessment should be communicated regularly and clearly to parents. Take
notehowever the importance of accountability, transparency and confidentiality.10.
Emphasize on real world application that favors realistic performances over out ofcontext drill
items. Hence, assessment must focus on real life application, as well asdeveloping higher
ordered thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating and most of allcreating.Selection and
Use of Instructional MaterialsPRINCIPLES1.All instructional materials are aids to instruction.
They do not replace the teacher.2.Choose the instructional material that best suits your
instructional objectives.3.If possible, use a variety of tools.4.Check out your instructional
materials before class starts to be sure it is workingproperly.5.For results, abide by the
general utilization guide on the use of media given:a. Learn how to use the instructional
materialsb. Prepare introductory remarks, questions or initial comments you may need.c.
Provide a conducive environment.d. Explain the objectives of the lesson.e.Stress what to be
watch or listened to carefully.f. State what they will be expected to do with the information
they will learn.g.There is a need to summarize or review the experience.
32. 1.Audio-recordings Includes Tapes, record and compact disc.2.Overhead Transparencies
and Overhead Projector (OPH)- a transparencycan show pictures, diagrams and sketches at
a time when they are needed in adiscussion.3.Bulletin boards- usually stationary on a wall or
it can be removable.4.Chalkboard- this includes not only those with flat and wide surfaces
but alsothe portable types which can be moved or even serve as dividers.5.Charts- may be
in form of maps, graphs, photographs, and cut-outs.6.Mock-ups- is a replica of an object that
may be larger or smaller in scale.7.Realia- stands for the real thing that is to studied like
using real insects andplants.8.Video Tapes/Films- in form of 8 mm and 16 mm. can be
purchased orrented.9.Models- scaled replicas of a real object.10.Pictures- these include flat,
opaque and still pictures.11.Books- textbooks and all kinds of books are also classified as
media or sub-strategies.12.Electronic Materials- CD, DVD, CD-ROMS and the internet.
33. Graphic Organizers - is an instructional tool used to illustrate a student or classs prior
knowledge about a topic or section of text.Spider MapUsed to describe a central idea: a thing
(ageographic region), process(meiosis), concept (altruism), or proposition
34. Series of Events ChainUsed to describe the stages of something(the life cycle of a
primate); the steps in alinear procedure (how to neutralize an acid);a sequence of events
(how feudalism led tothe formation of nation states); or thegoals, actions, and outcomes of a
historicalfigure or character.
35. Paragraph Graphic Organizer
36. Inferencing Writing Graphic Organizers
37. Story Film Sequencing Organizer
38. KWL Graphic Organizer
39. LANGUAGE Graphic Organizers
40. Sandwich Graphic Organizer
41. MANAGING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Furniture Arrangement The physical
features in the classroom must be located in areaswhere the contents could be viewed well
and be made available for use.Well arranged, they make the room look spacious and

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orderly. Also thechairs and tables must be positions appropriately. White board for writing
and clarifying lesson discussions, togetherwith bulletin boards, are available for posting
important messages andoutstanding pieces of students work, art and illustrations.Seating
Arrangement It deserves foremost consideration since the students stay in eachat the
longest time during the day. Match the seating arrangement with theformat and activities of
your lesson plan. The semi permanent arrangement of the chairs is one where theyare
arranged in four rows with six to eight in a row. Sufficient space isallotted in the aisles and in
between the seats for ease in moving around.If the activities need groupings, the chairs are
organized in groups of fouror five facing each other for fast exchange of communication.
42. Clean rooms, hallways and surroundings arewholesome places to stay in. the teacher
should schedule whois responsible for their neatness on a regular basis. Usedinstruments
and devices must be returned to their properplaces. Always erase the board after use. It
must be a safe place where curious, overactive andenergetic children are always on the go.
Avoid slipperyfloors, rickety chairs and old furniture.For a lively and freshlook, potted indoor
plants can be p[laced at the corners andflowers on the teachers table. Proper lightning and
ventilation must be provided andmaintained for everybodys comfort.Noise and
disciplineproblems in the physical environment can be avoided in anorderly and well
managed classroom.Let us not forget that equally important, if is the
psychologicalatmosphere that reigns in the classroom.
43. Teaching assistants always have a long list of things we need toaccomplish and
generally, too little time in which to do them. Here aresome helpful hints on how to make the
best of your classroom time whilemaintaining a realistic approach to how much you can
accomplish.BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSROOM TIME MANAGEMENT Define your
objectives for each class and try to remain focused onthem. Allowing the class to digress too
far, or for too long, may sacrificemore critical discussion or activities. Become comfortable
early on with compromise. Youll rarelyaccomplish everything you ideally would like to
accomplish. Getting out of the way. Recognize when you should step asideand let the
students take over; be responsive to the classroom dynamic. Be flexible. Be able to reshape
your lesson plan on the fly, torespond to the demands of different groups.
44. Review the assigned material, even if youve taught thematerial before. If youre working
through problem sets withstudents, make sure you do the problem sets yourself first.
Workthrough any exercises yourself first, etc. This will allow you toidentify potential problem
areas and plan your lesson accordingly. Take into account other time demands, such as the
need toreview assignment requirements. Allow for time for questions on difficult
topics/concepts.Build time for questions into your lesson plan. Estimate the time each task
will take, and be prepared to findout that your estimate is low. Be aware of course objectives,
not just class objectives.Longer-term planning allows you to make connections
betweenmaterial across weeks, as well as divide other tasks such as preparingfor
assignments into more manageable units. It also lets you seewhere there are lighter weeks
in the syllabus.
45. Assess what your students already know, and the time availableversus the number of
tasks that need to be accomplished.Prioritize your established tasks to ensure that you
cover themost important concepts/subjects.Keep the classroom dynamic in mind. Is the

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group fond ofdebates (allow more time) or do they have difficulty participatingin discussion?
The extra time it takes to get a discussion going willaffect your planning for the class. Try to
experiment with allowingtime for individual writing in response to a question instead ofalways
running a discussion.Consider making use of time-controlled activities (groupwork, roleplaying, in-class writing, individual presentations, etc).Be aware of hidden time demands
(administrativeissues, explanation of test procedures or assignments, questionsfrom lectures,
setting up technology, rearranging the room, etc.).
46. Make students aware of your learning objectivesfor the day. It is sometimes helpful to put
anoutline for that days class on an overheadtransparency or in one corner of the
board.Indicate not only what activities youll be doingand what exercises/problems youll be
workingon, but how much time youll be allotting eachpart of the class. Indicate what the
overall goal isfor that day.Always keep an eye on the passage of time duringclass.Assess
the success of the lesson plan aftereach class and adapt for the next week.
47. Routines have to be learned. We get used to doing them in order for themto become
reutilized. It is, therefore, necessary that we identify andexplain specific rules and procedures
in our classrooms. The first days ofschool will be most timely.TRANSITIONSManagement of
most instructional interruptions is fully within the teacherscontrol. Transitions can either be
anticipated or unanticipated.EXAMPLES OF ANTICIPATED INTERRUPTIONS ARE:
Beginning of an instructional episode Between instructional episodes After an instructional
episode Equipment set up and take-down Material distribution/ collection From teacher-tostudent-centered activity Beginning/ end of class or school day
48. Make clear your rules and procedures on the distribution andcollection of materials,
storage of common materials, the teachersdesk and storage areas, students desk and
storage areas, the use ofthe pencil sharpener.GROUP WORK Research shows that group
work like cooperative learninghas a positive impact on student achievement,
interpersonalrelationships and attitudes about learning.RULES AND PROCEDURES ON
GROUP WORKADDRESS THE FF. AREAS: Movement in and out of the group Expected
behaviors of students in the group Expected behaviors of students not in the group Group
communication with the teacher
49. RULES AND PROCEDURES IN THESE AREAS PERTAIN TO: Student attention during
presentations Student participation Talking among students Obtaining help Out-of-seat
behavior Behavior when work has been completed. HERE ARE SOME EFFECTIVE
SIGNALS USED BY NEW AND EXPERIENCED TEACHERS: 5,4,3,2,1 countdown 5 for
freeze 4 for quiet 3 for eyes on the teacher 2 for hands free (put things down) 1 for listen for
instructions Raise you hand if you wish to participate. To obtain teachers attention: One
finger= I need to sharpen my pencil Two fingers= I need a tissue Three fingers= I need your
help
50. Teachers hand signal means: Freeze (Stop what you are doing) Gently tap on your
neighbors arm to get his/her attention to freeze Face the teacher and listen to
instructionsDISCIPLINE -is a controlled behavior. It constitutes the next important concernof
teachers as part of good management. No matter how well managed alearning environment
is, students will occasionally misbehave. Teachersmust be ready to deal with them with
utmost care and consideration.CAUSES OF DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS1. Unfavorable

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learning conditionsOvercrowded with more than the regular number of students to a


class.Poor lightning facilities and inadequate ventilation.2. Teachers poor management
skillsKnowledge and skill in employing a wide range of classroomstrategies and
proceduresPersonal and emotional attributes3. Students varied backgroundFamily
backgroundPhysical and mental capacitiesEmotional traits among others
51. Employ more group oriented methodologiesUse varied teaching techniquesDevelop
patience, compassion, genuine respect and care for your students.Various modes of
establishing discipline/classroom controlstudents responsibilityteachers exclusive
responsibilitiesa result of effective teaching strategiesan effect of group dynamics on
behaviorARE YOU A GOOD DISCIPLINARIAN?Tips that can make a teacher a good
disciplinarian.Can face a class with varied behavior tendenciesKnow your studentsShow
sincere concern for their welfareCommendable behavior is reciprocalCalm, poised and
tactfulAre firm and consistentEnthusiasticHave a sense of humorHave a well modulated
voiceHumble.
52. Acceptable and effectiveUse verbal reinforces that encourage good behaviorand
discourage bad tendencies.Use non verbal gestures, frown or a hard look todissuade them
from mischief.Dialogues can help in discovering problems andagreeing on mutually
beneficial solution.Focus attention on one who is unruly and is about todisturb the
neighbors. Lead him/her to a secluded areaand nicely convince him/her to be quiet.Award
merits for good behavior and demerits for cconsistencies and lapses.A private one on
one brief conference can lead to abetter understanding of mistakes that need to beremedied
or improved.Give students the freedom to express or explainagitated feeling and misgivings
rather than censurethem right away.
53. Scolding and harsh words as a reprimand will have a negative effect on theentire
class.Nagging and faultfinding, together with long sermons are repugnant
andnasty.Keeping a student in a detention area during or after classes as a penalty
formisbehavior is a waste of time and occasion for learning. The shamefulexperience is not
easy to forget.Denying a student some privileges due to unnecessary hyperactivity can all
themore encourage repetition.Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can
make themdislike the subject.Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a for
mentor.Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to
misdemeanor.Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make
themdislike the subject.Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a for
mentor.Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor.
54. To establish discipline, use acceptable ways of dealing with discipline problemsand avoid
the unacceptable measures by all means.MotivationHighly Motivated StudentsActively
participates in every class activityOften seen procuring over additional referencesCuriously
examining the proboscis of a butterflyVolunteers to borrow and return materials used Poorly
motivated StudentsPassively stuck to the seat during discussionsUninterested look and
facial expressionEndlessly bother neither rather than listenUnable to follow simple
instructionsLeaves learning task half done Meaning of MotivationMotivation is a driving force
that impels one to react. It refers to the teachers and thestudent rationale or purpose

55. 55. Intrinsic Motivation is also called internal motivation. It originates fromthe students
inner selves or from factors inherent in the task beingperformed.Intrinsic Motivation is greatly
influenced by the innate values and attitudespossessed by the students.Extrinsic Motivationis also called external motivation. It originates from thestudents learning environment or from
factors external to the students andunrelated to the task at hand. It takes the form of rewards
or incentives orrecognitions.Effective Questioning and Reacting TechniquesTypes of
Questions According to PurposeAssessing Cognition used to determine ones knowledge
in understanding. Theypromote high level of thinking.Verification determines the exactness
or accuracy of the results of anactivity or performance.Creative thinking- it probes into ones
originalityEvaluating it elicits responses that include judgments, value and choice
56. 56. Productive thinking it includes cognitive reasoning. It analyzes facts,
recognizespatterns or trends and invokes memory and recallMotivating a number of
questions about the topic can serve to arouse their interestand focus attentionInstructing
directs, guides and advise on what and how to do an activityTypes of Questions According to
Level / AnswerLow Level QuestionHigh Level QuestionConvergent QuestionDivergent
QuestionQuestioning SkillVarying type of questionAsking non- directed questionCalling on
non-volunteersRephrasingSequencing logicallyRequiring abstract thinkingAsking openended questionAllowing sufficient wait timeAssessing comprehensionInvolving as many as
possible
57. 57. Know your own style of questioningRequest colleague to critique your own
styleIncrease your own repertoire of type of questionsConsider the individual abilities and
interests of the studentsSpend time reflecting on the type of question you askEncourage
Questions from StudentsThe teachers questioning technique is the key in encouraging
students to askcorrect, relevant and high level questions. Her questions can serves as good
examplesAttend to their questions. Avoid dismissing irrelevant questions. Assist in
clarifyingor refocusing in order to solicit correct responsesPraise the correctly formulated
questions. It develops confidence and makesknowledge search easy and satisfying.Allot an
appropriate time slot for open questioning. This will encourage the slowthinkers to participate
freely.Handling Pupils ResponsesProviding feedback on the correctness or incorrectness of
a responseGiving appropriate praise to high quality responsesMaking follow up questions
58. 58. Redirecting questionsFollowing up a students response with related
questionsRephrasing the seemingly unclear questionsShowing non-verbal
encouragementEncouraging learners to ask questions HomeworkAway of extending the
school day by providing students the opportunity torefine and extend their
knowledge.Function of HomeworkExtend of practiceIs advance preparation for the
nextlessonHelp cultivate good study habitIs an assessment tool