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With this issue, of key determinants of perceived learning, the research article includes various

related literatures. The literature shows strong and positive relationship between teachers
involvement and student interest in learning. Also, literature included was how course structure
effects the learning and from literature its shows the positive relation. Another study about the
likeability and learning included shows teaching style with personal attractiveness enhances the
learning. Similarly, other literature included in the research were about learning performance,
how are learning performance related with the instructors concern and shows that if students
have positive attitude towards the learning than teachers are also more willing to commit
themselves to the learning of their students; the study related to what motivates students was
included, which shows that students perception about course helps them become more interested
and competent. The study relating to learning perception and perceived learning were also
included, which give rise to addition hypothesis in the study.
Based on the literature review that was done on the topic nine hypothesis are developed in the
article which are:
H1. A higher degree of studentinstructor interaction leads to a higher level of pedagogical affect.
H2. A higher degree of instructor responsiveness leads to a higher level of student interest.
H3. A higher degree of course organization leads to a higher level of pedagogical affect.
H4. A higher level of instructor likeability/concern leads to a higher level of learning
H5. A higher degree of student learning performance leads to a higher level of pedagogical affect.
H6. A higher degree of student learning performance leads to a higher level of student interest.
H7. Higher learning performance leads to higher perceived learning.
H8. Higher student interest leads to higher perceived learning.
H9. A higher degree of pedagogical affect leads to higher perceived learning.

Based on the literature review the article came up with the following conceptual framework:


Pedagogical Affect



Student Interest




Independent Variables

Learning Performance

Intervening Variables

Dependent Variables

Figure: Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework shows the relationships between various independent variables and
intervening variables with dependent variable, Perceived learning. The figure above explains that
there is positive relationship between stronger student-instructors interaction and structured
course organization with Pedagogical affect which in turn has positive effect on perceived
learning; higher responsiveness of teacher has positive relation with student interest which in
turn effects perceived learning positively.
In the research design, the purpose of the study was descriptive hypothesis testing. Using the
hypothesis, the researcher is trying to describe or explain about the phenomenon, how various
factors (variables) such as student-instructors interaction, responsiveness, organization,
likeability effects the perceived performance of students. Similarly, it is the correlation study,
showing the relationship between dependent and independent variable. Natural setting or field
study (data collected in class) is used to collect the data from students. This is cross-sectional
study in which each students from the sample are asked to fill questionnaire separately showing
unit of analysis to be individual. The double sampling method was used while doing the survey.
First, 10 different Portuguese schools were selected using the simple random sampling than 1095

students were selected from that 10 different schools, here the researcher could have used
convenience sampling or simple random sampling. Data were collected by asking 1095 students
to fill up the questionnaire, from largest school 173 questionnaire were completed and 14
questionnaire from smallest school. Average number of respondent by school was 110, which
consist of 47.5% male and 52.5% female students. In order to analyze the data chi-square,
comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI), TuckerLewis index (TLI), and root
mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), were used, it was done using LISREL software.
With chi-square of 1323.24 (d.f. = 335 and p<0.00) in final structural model and fit indexes
suggesting good fit of model to the data, all the nine hypothesis of the study was accepted.
Although all the hypothesis was accepted, showing positive relationship between independent
variables and dependent variable, perceived learning. However, student interest primarily
influences the perceived learning, which is followed by pedagogical affect and learning
performance. Regarding hypothesis 5, Finding suggest motivation to be major factors to obtain
better result in students. Regarding hypothesis 1, 3 and 7 the finding shows that course
organization has twice as greater impact on pedagogical affects as student instructor interaction
and learning performance. According to finding students having strong and open relationship
with their teacher invest more on learning process as well as students benefits and enjoy learning
processes that have strong interaction.
The general conclusion that was drawn from this study was that, teachers most designed wellstructured and organized course, there should be higher level of student-teacher interaction,