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12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

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12/21/2016 Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: TechnologiesHome PRIVACY POLICY Menu Car Care Book brakes system Car Care car care center car covers car exhaust system car filters car fuel car speakers car stereos economy car Navigation Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies March 21, 2016 car exhaust system Defining the elements A typical cooling system consists of an engine water jacket, thermostat, water pump, radiator, cooling fan, hoses, heater core, oil cooler and overflow, or expansion tank. There are two types of cooling systems: air and water cooling. As the name suggests, air cooling systems involve fans which blow air over the engine block. According to Bosch, heat absorbed by the engine oil is dispersed by an air­cooled oil cooler mounted at a suitable position in the air stream. The noise emission level and the inefficiency in maintaining consistent engine temperatures are considered to be disadvantages compared to liquid­cooled engines. Today, air cooling is mainly used for motorcycle engines and in special applications. The oil cooler is a heat exchanger that uses an air­cooling system to maintain the optimised oil temperature of vehicle oils, including engine oil and automatic transmission oil. Water­cooled engines, on the other hand, have passages for the coolant to pass through the engine, absorbing the heat generated so it can be released through the radiator. The cooled fluid is recirculated around the engine while running. Water cooling has become the standard in both passenger cars and heavy­duty vehicles. Instead of pure water, coolants are now a mixture of water (drinking quality), anti­freeze and various corrosion inhibitors, says Bosch. An antifreeze concentration of 30­50 percent raises the coolant mixture boiling point to allow operating temperatures of up to 120°C at a pressure of 1.4 bar in passenger cars. According to Behr, the cooling module consists of a number of engine cooling components, as well as the condenser which forms part of the air­conditioner circuit. The modules are put together according to the vehicle design concept, reducing development, production and logistics expenses. http://www.carcarebook.com/global­light­vehicle­engine­cooling­market­forecasts­to­2030­2016­q1­edition­technologies/ 1/11 " id="pdf-obj-0-74" src="pdf-obj-0-74.jpg">

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies

March 21, 2016 car exhaust system

Defining the elements

A typical cooling system consists of an engine water jacket, thermostat, water pump, radiator, cooling fan, hoses, heater core, oil cooler and overflow, or expansion tank. There are two types of cooling systems: air and water cooling.

As the name suggests, air cooling systems involve fans which blow air over the engine block. According to Bosch, heat absorbed by the engine oil is dispersed by an air­cooled oil cooler mounted at a suitable position in the air stream. The noise emission level and the inefficiency in maintaining consistent engine temperatures are considered to be disadvantages compared to liquid­cooled engines. Today, air cooling is mainly used for motorcycle engines and in special applications. The oil cooler is a heat exchanger that uses an air­cooling system to maintain the optimised oil temperature of vehicle oils, including engine oil and automatic transmission oil.

Water­cooled engines, on the other hand, have passages for the coolant to pass through the engine, absorbing the heat generated so it can be released through the radiator. The cooled fluid is recirculated around the engine while running. Water cooling has become the standard in both passenger cars and heavy­duty vehicles. Instead of pure water, coolants are now a mixture of water (drinking quality), anti­freeze and various corrosion inhibitors, says Bosch. An antifreeze concentration of 30­50 percent raises the coolant mixture boiling point to allow operating temperatures of up to 120°C at a pressure of 1.4 bar in passenger cars.

According to Behr, the cooling module consists of a number of engine cooling components, as well as the condenser which forms part of the air­conditioner circuit. The modules are put together according to the vehicle design concept, reducing development, production and logistics expenses.

12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

‘Thermal management’ means products such as radiators, charge­air coolers and oil coolers that use a medium (air or liquid) to cool the heat that is produced by a vehicle engine.

As the primary component of the cooling module, the radiator includes the radiator core, the coolant tank and all the connections. The radiator core itself consists of a finned tube system with tube headers and side suppor ts. The cores of the coolant radiators in passenger cars are almost exclusively made of aluminium. Aluminium radiators are also being used to an increasing extent in a range of commercial vehicles worldwide.

Aluminium reduces the total weight of a radiator by up to 50 percent compared with non­ferrous alloys. In production, the coolant tank is typically injection­moulded from fibreglass­reinforced polyamide. A gasket is then inserted before the tank is fitted on the tube headers. They are then crimped to provide a tight seal. According to Bosch, there are two basic radiator assembly variants: brazed radiators, and mechanically jointed or assembled radiators. For cooling high­performance engines, or when space is limited, Bosch reckons that the best solution is a brazed flat­tube and corrugated­fin radiator layout with minimised aerodynamic resistance on the air­intake side. The less expensive, mechanically assembled finned­tube system is generally used for applications with less powerful engines or when more space is available.

Two types of aluminium radiators are available according to the direction in which the coolant flows: the down flow type and the cross flow type:

* The down flow type – cooling water passes through the tube from the upper tank, dissipates its heat using the air coming through the fins and flows to the lower tank. A basic radiator where the coolant flows under the effect of gravity.

* The cross flow type – coolant passes through the tube from the side tank, dissipates its heat using the air coming through the fins and flows to the other tank. With this configuration, it is possible to make the tank smaller than with the down flow type.

Trends in engine development show a constant increase in specific engine output power. This development is in line with the current transition from naturally­aspirated engines to supercharged engines and ultimately to supercharged, inter­cooled (charge­air cooling) engines.

Charge­air cooling requirements are increasing due to higher turbocharger outlet temperatures and pressures, higher EGR rates, and requests by OEMs for intake manifold temperature control to manage combustion and exhaust temperatures. Charge­air coolers help to reduce emissions in diesel engines by making turbocharged or supercharged systems operate more efficiently. The systems are generally used to increase engine power. Sales in North America are primarily to the truck market, although there is a growing demand also in the off­highway market. Environmental factors have been driving the sales growth. In the US, emissions regulations on heavy trucks triggered demand in the early 1990s followed by similar regulations in Europe. The material used for both types of charge­air cooling is typically aluminium, although some air tanks are made from thermostable plastic materials.

There are two basic types of charge­air cooling:

* direct cooling (using ambient air);

* indirect cooling (using a coolant to dissipate heat to the atmosphere).

According to Behr, in contrast to the air­cooled direct charge air cooler, the indirect charge cooler can be mounted on the engine. The air lines to the front­end can this be omitted. This saves installation space and simplifies packaging. The indirect charge air cooler is cooled via a separate low­temperature coolant circuit. The charge air only travels a short distance to the cooler, which reduces the enclosed air volume and improves the dynamic performance of the engine.

12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts

to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

Most passenger cars are equipped with direct charge­air/air heat exchangers. These components are fitted before or alongside the radiators, or in the vicinity of the wheel case. For supercharged engines in commercial vehicles, most are fitted with an air­cooled charge­air cooler. These are typically positioned above the radiator, and are capable of cooling the charge­air to 15°C above the ambient temperature.

According to Behr, the trend is towards indirect charge air cooling which is preferable in terms of packaging size and dynamic response. The company states: “With indirect charge air cooling, the charge air cooler is placed very close to the engine rather than in the front end. The additional low­temperature radiator needed for indirect charge air cooling is an integral part of the cooling module. Due to the smaller depth of the low­temperature radiator compared to a conventional charge air cooler, more space is available in the front end, which can then be used for pedestrian protection, for example. The location close to the engine allows shorter charge air lines, cutting the pressure loss by about 50 percent. The higher density of the cooled charge air and lower pressure loss means there is more air available to the engine for combustion. The result: improved engine response. Stricter emission regulations will lead to increased demand for indirect charge air cooling design concepts for trucks. That means charge air coolers will have to withstand high pressures and temperatures, particularly for heavy trucks. With our strength­optimized charge air coolers, we will be able to meet this requirement, and development will continue to focus on strength improvements.”

In cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), the exhaust gas is cooled via a cooling system and then mixed with fresh intake air. Behr points out that this reduces the oxygen available in the cylinder charge and the combustion temperature drops. The result is less nitrogen oxide in the exhaust. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation reduces emissions in the engine and does not require any additional reduction agents, such as urea. A further advantage, notes Behr, is that car and truck makers can combine cooled exhaust gas recirculation with other pollutant reducing systems thus significantly undercutting the emission limits applicable today. Valeo points out that recent developments of EGR cooling systems for gasoline engines achieve higher compression ratios, for fuel savings of 5­7 percent.

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between liquids and gases of different temperature and mainly consists of three parts: tubes through which cooling water or refrigerant flows, a tank that holds such fluid, and folded fins for heat exchange. Vehicles use various heat exchangers including a radiator to cool the engine coolant, a heater core to warm the cabin air, a condenser to cool the air conditioner refrigerant, and an evaporator to cool the cabin air. These heat exchangers significantly affect the fuel efficiency and efficiency of the air conditioning system.

Drivers of change

Demands on powertrain cooling product performance, packaging and cost are continually increasing. As automakers expect economical solutions that help reduce emissions from cars and trucks,

Arnaud Gandon, chief engineer, global powertrain cooling and heat exchangers, Delphi Thermal, believes that there are several factors driving changes in the powertrain cooling sector.

“From a technology standpoint, the increasing demand for more diesel, turbo­charged engines and hybrids is driving new and improved technology along with more efficient transmissions that sometimes require heating as well as cooling.

“From a packaging point of view, Delphi expects that there will be a need to combine heat exchangers like the combicooler as well as wider use of charge air coolers. There is a legislative push to capture the heat from the exhaust and use it for cabin heating or transmission heating. For hybrids, there is also a need for a new heating source like an immersion PTC heater which drives electronics for operation and safety.”

Innovations

Heat exchangers

12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

Denso develops low­cost heat exchangers for the Indian automotive market

Denso has developed four low­cost heat exchangers designed for the India automotive market. Its radiator, heater core, condenser and evaporator are manufactured on a single production line. Conventionally, the company would have to manufacture each product on separate production lines. Denso says this new method has improved its manufacturing efficiency even at a small production quantity.

For example, Denso made improvements to the forming machine, which allowed it to combine the production of two different kinds of tubes using one single machine. Conventionally the two tubes; hollow tubes for radiators and heater cores, and pressure­resistant tubes with corrugated internal structure for evaporators and condensers, were produced using separate machines due to the difference in the tube’s structure.

The four heat exchangers are used in the Toyota Etios, among other models.

Visteon’s internal heat exchanger (IHX)

Visteon has developed an internal heat exchanger (IHX) that increases cooling power. It uses a novel coaxial tube design integrated in the refrigerant circuit for enhanced automotive air conditioning system performance. The internal heat exchanger, which replaces a part of the suction and liquid refrigerant lines in a traditional R134a system, exchanges energy in a counter­flow arrangement. When combined with tuning of the expansion device settings, the IHX increases system cooling performance up to 14% and improve operating efficiency up to 12% – depending on the base system and thermal expansion valve settings. Applied to the new near drop­in refrigerant R1234yf, the technology delivers similar performance improvements.

Webasto develops ‘Liquid Heat Generator’

Webasto has developed a device that rapidly heats engine coolant in extreme cold conditions. Webasto claims that its so­called Liquid Heat Generator will save fuel, cut emissions and improve driver comfort. The belt­ driven device mounts to the front of the engine and quickly heats the coolant by rapidly swirling it in a rotor. The fast heating of the coolant means that the vehicle’s interior heater and windshield defroster can be fully operation in about three minutes, down from ten minutes in a vehicle without such a device.

Indirect charge air cooling

The trend toward downsizing, that is, reducing displacement while maintaining performance, but with better fuel economy, is one of the main approaches to the ongoing development of the combustion engine.

In practice, downsizing means turbocharging, and therefore requires effective cooling of charge air because hot charge air presents disadvantages, such as lower density, greater nitrogen oxide formation due to higher combustion temperature, increased tendency to knocking in gasoline engines, and a greater thermal load on the engine components.

Up to now, charge air is still primarily cooled directly with external air. This means that it is fed to the front end of the vehicle after exiting the compressor, then flows through a directly cooled charge air cooler, and is then returned to the engine.

Mahle points out that indirect charge air cooling has a number of advantages.

For the indirect variant, the charge air is cooled by a coolant, which is then re­cooled by external air in a separate low­temperature coolant circuit. The indirect charge air cooler can be located close to the engine, between the compressor and the throttle valve. Despite its greater complexity, indirect charge air cooling has distinct advantages over conventional direct cooling:

* Improved packaging: the LT cooler required can be made more compact for the same power output, thus opening up critical installation space in the front end of the vehicle. At the same time, the large­volume charge

12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

air hoses used for direct charge air cooling are replaced by much thinner coolant lines. This simplifies integration of the engine in various vehicles.

* Lower pressure loss: due its reduced volume, indirect charge air has up to 20 percent less pressure loss. This results in greater density recovery and higher volumetric efficiency in the cylinder.

* Greater thermal inertia: in case of a sudden change in load, such as under strong acceleration on the freeway, the engine has cooler air available for a significantly longer period of time. This has a positive effect on performance, and is evident in the dynamic responsiveness of the engine.

For these reasons, and despite the greater complexity of the system, indirect charge air cooling is being used ever more often, even in high­volume production models.

In the next step, says Mahle, indirect charge air cooling has shifted closer to the engine: the integrated indirect charge air cooler is installed in the intake pipe. This eliminates all the charge air lines, and amplifies the benefits of indirect charge air cooling.

Mahle develops intake pipes and Behr designs the matching charge air coolers.

More use of electronics

Generally speaking, in respect of fuel economy, there a trend toward more use of electronics to try to more closely monitor engine temperature for maximum efficiency i.e. using electronic thermostats and electronic water pumps to completely take control of the heat rejection itself. But there is always a trade­off the carmaker must make between adding weight and cost (through electronics) and saving fuel.

Gabriele Maione, R&D manager, engine cooling systems and components, Denso Thermal Systems SpA, adds that fuel economy is attracting more and more interest from carmakers. “This is largely due to the new environmental laws that fix limits on pollutant emissions and incur fines for any transgression. Carmakers and suppliers are considering a very wide range of devices to reduce fuel consumption. Electronics can help the engine temperature to warm up faster, for example, to reduce friction and cold start problems. Working together, carmakers and suppliers are evaluating the effects of such devices to understand both the benefits and the costs. This is not only related to fuel economy; use of these devices has also some indirect benefits. For example, the electrical water pump can avoid overheating at engine shutdown.”

On balance, we should expect to see further innovation in cooling systems and components due to the trends noted here. The challenge for suppliers will be to meet demands from automakers for improved engine efficiency and output, as well as respond to rising production of diesel vehicles and direct­injection and turbocharged gasoline vehicles. In terms of social trends and legal regulations, the supply sector will continue to face demands for improved fuel efficiency due to surging gasoline prices and stricter fuel consumption regulations, as well as for more compact and thinner radiators and other parts in response to the more stringent legislation designed to protect pedestrians.

Oil coolers

The oil cooler is a heat exchanger that uses an air­cooling system to maintain the optimised oil temperature of vehicle oils, including engine oil and automatic transmission oil. As the name suggests, oil coolers are required in order to maintain the temperature of the oil itself needed for the correct and safe operation of the engine. Vehicles with automatic transmissions and highly stressed manual transmissions require transmission oil coolers.

Oil cooling can be achieved by air­cooled heat exchangers or coolant­based oil coolers. The latter involves simplified oil circuits and lower cost compared to the oil­air solutions which offer higher performances and do not result in additional thermal load for the radiator. An air­cooled oil cooler are typically fitted with an additional fan. Coolant­cooled oil coolers can be incorporated in the coolant tank or engine block, or fitted externally on the engine, transmission, cooling module or oil filter housing as required.

12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

For some time, air cooled transmission oil coolers have been used to supplement the cooling function performed by water cooled oil coolers. However, there has been a trend to free up the usage of the radiator fluid for cooling peripheral functions such as transmission oil. This has the advantages of minimising the size of both the water cooling radiator and the lines to and from the transmission.

Due to the typical service conditions of oil coolers in terms of pressure (up to 15 bar) and temperature (up to 150­degrees C), they cannot be mechanically assembled but brazed.

For its part, Modine develops and manufactures liquid­to­liquid layered­core oil coolers (LCOCs) which are engineered to reduce the high oil and fuel temperatures encountered in today’s vehicles. Typical applications include commercial and specialty vehicle, agriculture, construction, and industrial equipment, including retarder transmission oil cooling. The coolers are made of aluminium or either copper­ or nickel­brazed stainless steel using controlled atmosphere or vacuum brazing. Stainless steel construction eliminates the need for external coating (e.g. E­coat) for corrosion protection and provides increased durability and performance.

Other

Aisin Seiki’s electric cooling pump

Aisin Seiki says it has developed a smaller, cheaper electric cooling pump. Cars traditionally use mechanical water cooling pumps, which have a flow rate dependent on the engine speed. Electric cooling pumps offer greater control over the water flow allowing significant fuel economies, particularly important in view of rising environmental concerns. However electric pumps are traditionally much larger than their mechanical counterparts. Aisin’s electric pump uses a newly shaped impeller to improve performance. In addition, the design positions the components so that both the motor efficiency and the centrifugal pump mutually benefit. The pump also uses fewer components, allowing it to occupy less space.

Aluminium engine cooling parts for trucks

Kustom Cooling Products, (KCP) is offering an aluminium radiator and air conditioner condenser line for trucks. The company claims these products are 100 percent aluminium including the core, side supports and tanks. The core features a wavy style fin built in a bar and plate configuration. Aluminium allows much higher operating temperatures and since the tubes themselves are thicker than OE, it allows for better thermal stress, vibration and shock absorption.

BorgWarner Thermal Systems supplies novel fan for Freightliner

BorgWarner Thermal Systems is supplying Visctronic fan drives as optional equipment for Freightliner Cascadia trucks powered by DD13 and DD15 engines. The electronically controlled Visctronic fan drives operate only when needed and at the appropriate speed.

“To meet stringent emissions regulations, today’s heavy­duty commercial truck engines run at higher temperatures, making cooling systems a critical engine component,” said BorgWarner Thermal Systems’ Daniel CasaSanta. “[The] Visctronic fan drives respond directly to engine demands, delivering precise cooling to keep truck fleets running more efficiently. Through specifically calibrated software, the fan drive communicates with the engine’s electronic control unit to continuously determine the engine’s cooling needs.”

Cooling system sealant

Rislone is offering its vehicle cooling system sealant in Central and South America. The company’s so­called Liquid Copper Block Seal and Radiator Stop Leak is designed to seal major cooling system leaks in vehicle gaskets, radiators, heater cores, intake manifolds, blocks, heads and freeze plugs. The company says the system is easy to use; the driver pours the bottle into the radiator, idle the engine for five minutes, cool, top off with coolant, and continues on his or her journey.

12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

Ford’s active grille shutter

Certain Ford models use ‘active’ aerodynamic features to cut drag, resulting in fuel savings and reduced emissions. For example, Ford’s active grille shutter uses a variable shutter system to blank off the flow of air to the car’s cooling system, and when fully closed can reduce aerodynamic drag by up to six per cent.

Mounted in the grille aperture ahead of the radiator, Ford’s active grille shutter features motorised horizontal vanes which can rotate through 90 degrees to block the air flow.

Controlled by the car’s electronic control unit, the vanes can be rotated into 16 different positions – from fully closed to fully open – depending on the amount of cooling air required.

SKF’s Engine Fan Support Module

SKF is offering its so­called SKF Engine Fan Support Module, an integrated unit for cooling of truck engines. Claimed benefits include high robustness, low weight and reduced application costs. New technologies, such as two­stage turbo chargers, high­pressure fuel systems and high rate exhaust gas recirculation, are required for trucks to comply with new regulations requiring lower emissions. These technologies demand efficient cooling of the engine. The module is produced in Lüchow, Germany and distributed by certified distributors.

Solutions for alternative powertrains

Behr

Behr America has developed a number of its electric and hybrid­electric vehicle technologies and engine­ mounted components for downsized engines. More specifically, Behr demonstrated its new storage evaporator developed for vehicles equipped with start­stop systems. Hybrid vehicles are equipped with a start­stop function that shuts off the engine when the vehicle is stopped or idling, reducing emissions and lowering fuel consumption. Some of that fuel conservation is due to the air conditioning compressor being switched off as well. In doing that, however, temperature inside the vehicle rises quickly making it uncomfortable for occupants.To alleviate that condition, Behr engineers have developed a storage evaporator which helps maintain cabin temperatures and air flow up to 95 percent of all idle stops in city traffic. The air flowing into the vehicle is adequately cooled by the latent medium, even during vehicle stops.

Behr also showcased its engine­mounted components, including charge­air coolers for turbocharged engines and engine­mounted charge­air coolers for gasoline engines which support engine downsizing.

Dana

In October 2014, Dana introduced a new aluminium cooling technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. The supplier said it is using the efficiency of aluminium in its Long brand of integrated cooling plates that improve heat transfer of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switches. This latest addition to Dana’s thermal­ management portfolio provides customers with – it is claimed – optimised, compact cooling components to address the high­heat, high­power demands of electric and hybrid vehicles. The IGBT cooling plates will be manufactured at Dana’s facility in Cambridge, Ontario, with production expected to begin in early 2015.

Valeo

Valeo is involved in a technology partnership with Leroy­Somer, Johnson Controls, GKN, Michelin and Leoni to pool their skills and expertise to offer automakers a complete electric driveline. Valeo is involved in two major drivetrain functions: control electronics and the vehicle’s heat management. The supplier has expertise covering the operation of the motor, vehicle safety, battery autonomy and climate control for passengers. More specifically, Valeo has pushed back the technical boundaries in the thermal management arena.

12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

Electric vehicles have a number of thermal management needs which are more complex than those of an internal combustion engine vehicle. The system must cool the electric motor and electronics and provide thermal comfort for passengers both in all year round. It also impacts the range of the vehicle, and battery durability and reliability.

For its part, Valeo has designed a new architecture, with three fluid loops operating at different temperatures. The main water loop cools the drivetrain and heats the cabin, the refrigerant loop cools the cabin and the third loop, also a water loop, provides thermal management for the battery.

An electric vehicle must offer the same level of thermal comfort as a conventional vehicle. Since electric motors generate very little heat, Valeo has therefore developed a thermal accumulator that can store heat when the vehicle is charging at the grid charging point. It is a thermally insulated box containing a special material which stores the heat and redistributes it through a water circuit connected to the vehicle’s heating system. The complete system includes a heating resistance and a water pump. The system means that the cabin can be heated for a cer tain time without depleting the battery. As a result, the additional range generated by this concept represents about 10 percent in one urban journey at an outside temperature of around 0°C.

Valeo is also developing others solutions adapted to different types of vehicle and usage, to restrict the energy required for cabin heating. These solutions offer different trade­offs between the amount of energy recovered, the complexity of the solution itself and the additional cost incurred.

More specifically, thermal management of the lithium­ion battery is of importance, since this is what determines the battery’s capacity to store and deliver energy, its durability and reliability. The battery’s optimal operating temperature is between 20°C and 30°C, whatever the conditions of use (charging, running) and outside temperature, and this temperature must be evenly distributed across all cells, in order to guarantee homogenous ageing.

EMP supplies ‘mini­Hybrid’ cooling system to bus maker

Engineered Machined Products Inc (EMP) is supplying its electrified cooling systems to bus maker New Flyer Industries Inc. The modular kit replaces the conventional cooling system on diesel­powered and natural gas engines. Use of the ‘mini­Hybrid’ cooling systems can improve fuel economy up to 10 percent, according to EMP. The mini­Hybrid is a drop­in cooling module that replaces a conventional hydraulic system with an array of electric fans developed by EMP. The system includes an air­cooled brushless alternator. EMP has been developing its electrified cooling system since 2006.

Thermal management systems for hybrid vehicles

Designing thermal management systems for hybrid vehicles requires special considerations. The thermal comfort of vehicle occupants must be maintained even when the engine is at a standstill. To maintain thermal comfort for passengers in the summer months, Behr has created an evaporator with a cooling battery. This so­ called storage evaporator prevents the cabin from heating up when the compressor idles.

The faster a cold vehicle reaches its operating temperature, the faster it can begin start­stop operation. Manufacturers say this is why all of the resulting waste heat should be used to heat the engine and not discharged outside. Some solutions for the fastest possible warm­up include exhaust gas heat transfer, which uses exhaust gas heat to warm up the engine coolant, as well as shutting down the main coolant circuit during the warm­up phase.

Start­stop phases can represent about 20 percent of driving time in urban traffic. During the winter months, say manufacturers, it is important that the cabin is sufficiently heated during these phases. The same applies for solely electric operation over longer distances. Because the combustion engine is not running, the energy for heating must come from a different source. For example, residual heat from the engine can be used or an auxiliary heating system.

12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

Cooling of high­performance batteries also requires novel solutions since the necessary temperature level here is too low for a conventional cooling circuit. For its part, Denso Corp has developed a new high­output power control unit (PCU) and battery cooling system for hybrid vehicles. The products are installed on the Lexus LS600h and LS 600hL. The high­output PCU consists of a boost converter that raises the main battery voltage (288V) up to the maximum system voltage (650V), and the two inverters that convert direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC) to drive the main traction motors. Denso claims that its new PCU can produce higher output power by about 60 percent per unit volume, compared to the supplier’s conventional technology, thus improving the hybrid system performance. For this PCU, Denso developed a new structure to handle the increased cooling requirements. To deliver a higher PCU output, says Denso, the power devices must handle more power, resulting in more heat generation by the devices. Using a conventional cooling structure where power devices are mounted horizontally on a cooling unit through a heat sink so that only the side facing the cooling unit is through a heat sink so that only the side facing the cooling unit is cooled made it difficult to adequately cool the higher power devices, says Denso. In the company’s new cooling structure, the power devices are sandwiched between two heat sinks and inserted in layers between stacked cooling tubes. This structure allows both sides of the power devices to be cooled, which improves the cooling performance.

Lithium­ion batteries operate with an optimum performance and long service life only within a narrow temperature range between 10° C and 40° C. For this reasons, they pose a special cooling challenge. Ambient air is not sufficient to cool the batteries. Instead, battery cooling must be integrated in the vehicle’s air conditioning circuit. For its part, Behr has a hybrid battery cooling solution.

Tomorrow’s hybrid vehicles and cooling systems

Delphi reports that, given the emergence of hybrid electric / IC engine systems, the implications for thermal management systems for both are significant. Delphi states: “There is a wide range of possible hybrid vehicle configurations and the important implications for thermal management system design depend upon the power split between electric and IC engine driv e. Since the electric traction motor rejects significantly less heat than an equivalent power IC engine then the higher the fraction of electric power the lower will be the requirement for cooling air flow. The cooling requirement for the electric drive per unit power is approximately half that of the IC engine. However, the hybrid vehicle systems will have a significant increase in complexity needing separate cooling systems for IC engine, traction motor / generator and inverter drive, battery pack and transmission system.”

Packaging concerns

Packaging the cooling system is certainly a major driver of innovation. Given the pressure on suppliers to squeeze higher performing products and systems into a smaller space under the bonnet, radiators have gradually become smaller in size. For example, a modern aluminium radiator is about two­thirds the size of a unit produced in the late 1970s. The high cost of fuel, particularly in Europe, means that designers are seeking ways of reducing the airflow in the car, which is leading towards the use of smaller heat exchangers.

“Pedestrian impact regulations and insurance tests are becoming ever more stringent,” said Gabriele Maione, R&D manager, engine cooling systems and components, Denso Thermal Systems SpA. “Car manufacturers and suppliers therefore have to join efforts to fit the increasing number of components under the bonnet, and meet European regulations. To do so, Denso is studying new heat exchangers with higher specific heat rejection, i.e. higher heat exchanged per surface unit. This may lead to smaller heat exchangers that can be more easily fitted into the front­end. Engine module fixations also have to be changed to aid damage reduction and serviceability. Moreover, Denso is developing indirect exchangers (e.g. water­cooled CAC) that can be positioned under the bonnet to make the front end module simpler and lighter.”

Not only are auto powertrain cooling parts becoming smaller but there is a clear trend toward more component integration. For example, combining the condenser and radiator can save space and help cut costs. Modularity plays an important role in packaging engine cooling systems. This approach can, of course, help cut costs and simplify the entire installation on the assembly line.

12/21/2016

Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

Denso has developed a radiator that is 40 percent smaller and lighter, compared to Denso’s previous radiators. “The radiator’s reduced size translates into greater design flexibility ftallation in the engine compartment. This also helps make the vehicle safer in the event of a frontal collision because the reduced size allows for a larger impact or crash zone,” said Akio Shikamura, senior executive dir of Denso’s Thermal Systems Business Group. “In addition, the radiator’s tank is made of a plant­derived resin, which Denso has been mass­producing since 2009, making the radiator greener and environmentally cleaner traditional radiators.” The new radiator is only 16 mm wide, but equal in performance to the conventional 27 mm wide radiators, resulting in a substantial size and weight reduction. The design change allows the radiator to 10 percent more efficient heat radiation than Denso’s conventional radiators. The newly developed 16 mm wide radiator is installed in the Lexus GS.

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    12/21/2016 Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: TechnologiesWordPress.org © 2016 Car Care Book Powered by WordPress | Theme Designed by: R4 3DS Card | Thanks to r43dsworld.co.uk , Sky3DS and Nintendo R4 3ds xl http://www.carcarebook.com/global­light­vehicle­engine­cooling­market­forecasts­to­2030­2016­q1­edition­technologies/ 11/11 " id="pdf-obj-10-4" src="pdf-obj-10-4.jpg">

    Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: Technologies – Car Care Book

    © 2016 Car Care Book Powered by WordPress | Theme Designed by: R4 3DS Card | Thanks to r43dsworld.co.uk, Sky3DS and Nintendo R4 3ds xl

    12/21/2016 Global light vehicle engine cooling market – forecasts to 2030 – 2016 Q1 Edition: TechnologiesWordPress.org © 2016 Car Care Book Powered by WordPress | Theme Designed by: R4 3DS Card | Thanks to r43dsworld.co.uk , Sky3DS and Nintendo R4 3ds xl http://www.carcarebook.com/global­light­vehicle­engine­cooling­market­forecasts­to­2030­2016­q1­edition­technologies/ 11/11 " id="pdf-obj-10-23" src="pdf-obj-10-23.jpg">