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MONITORING

1.

Outline ways in which an organization can monitor its health and safety performance:
The ways in which an organization can monitor its health and safety performance are.
Active Monitoring Techniques: active monitoring is carried out before wrongs occur.
Examples are inspections & audits.
Reactive Monitoring Techniques: reactive monitoring is carried out after occurrence /
incident data and enforcement action.

2.

Outline TWO reactive measures and TWO proactive measures that can be used in
monitoring an organizations health and safety performance.
Examples of reactive measures to monitor health & safety performance:
Accident / incident records.
III health records.
Enforcement actions.
Civil actions.
Example of proactive (active) measures to monitor health & safety performance.
Safety inspections.
Safety audits.
Environmental monitoring records.
Assessment of health health surveillance.
Assessment of training needs,
Risk assessment

3.

Outline the factors that should be considered when planning a safety inspection.
The factors that should be considered when planning a safety inspection are:
The composition and competence of the inspection team.
The need for standardized structure of inspection (for comparison).
The use of necessary documents & related data.
The scheduling of inspection.
Consideration of legislations and standards.
Means to ensure the safety of those undertaking the inspection.
Planning for follow-up action that should be taken after inspection

4.

Outline the main topic areas that could be included in health and safety inspection of
workplace.
The topic areas that could be included in a health and safety inspection of workplace.
Housekeeping.
Electrical safety.
Provision and use of PPE.
Storage & use of hazardous substances.
Environmental conditions (lighting, temperature, noise, etc.)

Condition of traffic routes (including access and egress).


Machinery.
Internal transport.
Provision of safety signs.
Provision of emergency equipment (fire extinguishers, first aid, etc).
Welfare facilities.
5.

Explain the main features of:


a).
b).

Safety Inspection
Safety Audit

The
main
features
of
a
SAFETY
INSPECTION:
Is a straightforward observation of a workplace, activities or equipment. The aim is to
identify hazards, usually carried out routinely. This is carried out by an employee
representative, supervisor or a manager (usually carried out by one from within the
organization), and is often aided by the use of a checklist, not lengthy process.
The main feature of a SAFETY AUDIT: Is a thorough, critical examination of an
organizations safety management system and procedures. This normally a lengthy
process and carried out infrequently (usually yearly) and carried out by a trained
auditor (often by someone from outside the organization). The aim is to assess health
and safety performance of an organization, usually involves a scoring system,
auditing is more formal than inspection.
6.

Explain how the following may be used to improve safety performance within an
organization:
a).
b).

Accident Data
Safety Inspection

a).

How Accident Data can be used to improve safety performance:

b).

7.

To identify specific problem areas by recording areas in which control


measures have failed
To show general trends of accident thus allowing comparisons to be made
To increase health and safety awareness
To estimate accident costs helping in allocation of resources.

How safety inspections data can be used to improve safety performance.

To identify areas where improvements are needed

To demonstrate management commitment to safety.

To improve workers morale by implementing simple improvements at time


of inspection.

Outline the advantages and disadvantages of using stain detector for environmental
monitoring.
Advantage:

Is cheap (low cost).


Simple and easy to use.
Disadvantage:
Required the chemical reagent to be homogeneously distributed throughout the
tube.
Reaction in the tube will be effected by other factors as temperature.
Cross reactivity may occur.
8.

Explain FOUR advantages of a safety inspection as opposed to a sampling exercise.


Inspection
Inspections are in-depth review.

Sampling
Sampling tends to skate over the
surface.
An inspection is a training exercise for Sampling is carried out by trained
the manager, supervisor and safety persons.
representative.
The inspection puts the manager on the In sampling, manager sees the results
spot
only.
An inspection allows time to ask question Sampling does not allow time to do this.
and to discuss matters.
An inspection can cover any aspect of Sampling has limited scope
safety
9.

Outline FOUR proactive monitoring methods that can be used in assessing the health
and safety performance of an organization.
Safety inspection: are regular schedule activities with the objective to identify
safety defects. It ranges from simple observations of work and behavior to
systematic inspection of premises, plant and equipment.
Safety surveys: focuses on a particular activity e.g.
- Manual handling
- Training programs.
- Employees attitude towards safety
Tour: are unscheduled workplace inspections to check on issues such as:
- Housekeeping.
- Wearing PPE.
Sampling: which targets specific areas e.g.: unsafe working practices.
Environmental monitoring: to monitor for gases, vapors, fumes, radiations, etc.
Safety Audits: are comprehensive examination of all aspects of an organizations
health and safety performance against stated objectives.
Risk assessments: and categorization of the work activities according its risk
rating.
Health surveillance: by the use of techniques as:
- Audiometriy for hearing loss.
- Blood examination for blood lead level.
Direct observation of behavior at work.
Consultation with employees & their representatives.
Examination of documents: e.g.

- Training records.
- Performance reviews.
Comparing performance with that of other similar business: e.g. comparing accident
rates, management practices, etc.