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Bohra's thesis

Monday, July 14, 2014


4:52 PM

Experimental results
Steady state conditions were reached before taking the readings (check how long does it take to reach
there with Anand)
Do energy balance and it should be within 15% (ask anand how much is the energy balance)
Ask if the data acquisition system shall be installed on the unit.

Total 36 readings by changing the steam pressure, cooling water temperature


Coolant flow rate
Coolant temp
Evaporator temp
Evaporator flow rate
Steam flow rate
Steam pressure
Check with Anand on these things
Gas side mass transfer coefficent
He says that the vapor phase mass transfer resistance is governing and not the liquid phase.
This is because his increase in the liquid flow rate didnt change the mass transfer coefficient.
Gas side Coeff 0.0025 m/s to 0.26 m/s

Liquid side mass transfer coefficient


Depends upon the pressure
Not depend upon the flow rate
Depends upon the concentration ?
Coeff. 5.5 to 33.1 *10^-6 m/s

Size and cost comparison


Problem with testing the absorber
ECC blacklisted (we cant take services from them)
Making a full scale loop or any loop is tricky
Ammonia lab is occupied by Dr. Radermacher
How PI can help?
If PI takes the ownership of the absorber then its easier to say that we are testing it at PI's TDU.
Through consortium, $40k

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How PI wants to get involve in this?


It cant be shipped to PI (we cant send it to PI via export control)

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Steel working temperature


Saturday, September 03, 2016
8:07 AM

Ref: ASM handbook volume 1: Properties and selection of Iron, Stainless steel and high strength alloys: Section : Service Characteristics of Carbon
and Low-Alloy Steels
Elevated-Temperature Properties of Ferritic Steels
CARBON STEELS and low-alloy steels with ferrite-pearlite or ferrite-bainite microstructures are used extensively at elevated
temperatures in fossil-fired power-generating plants, aircraft power plants, chemical-processing plants, and petroleum-processing
plants. Carbon steels are often used up to about 370 C (700 F) under continuous loading, but also have allowable stresses
defined up to 540 C (1000 F) in Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Carbon-molybdenum steels with
0.5% Mo are used up to 540 C (1000 F), while low-alloy with 0.51.0% Mo in combination with 0.59.0% Cr and sometimes
other carbide formers (such as vanadium, tungsten, niobium, and titanium) are often used up to about 650 C (1200 F). For
temperatures above 650 C (1200 F), austenitic alloys are generally used. However, these general maximum-use temperature
limits do not necessarily apply in specific applications with different design criteria. Tables 1 and 2 , for example, list
maximum-use temperatures in two specific application areas with different design criteria.

SS304 is Austenite steel with 18%Cr and 8% nickel

Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels for Elevated-Temperature Service


The numerous types of steels used in elevated-temperature applications include the following:
Carbon steels
Low-alloy steels
High steels
Stainless steels
Hot-work tool steels
Iron-base superalloys
Within the context of this article, the low-alloy steels considered are the creep-resistant steels with 0.5 to 1.0% Mo combined

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Within the context of this article, the low-alloy steels considered are the creep-resistant steels with 0.5 to 1.0% Mo combined
with 0.5 to 9.0% Cr and perhaps other carbide formers (such as vanadium, tungsten, niobium, and titanium). High-strength
low-alloy (HSLA) steels are not considered here because they typically have molybdenum contents below 0.5%, which limits
their resistance against creep and temper embrittlement. However, HSLA steels, which are discussed in the article "High-Strength
Structural and High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels" in this Volume, may be effective substitutes for carbon steels in
elevated-temperature applications. Another category of ferritic steels for elevated-temperature service are
manganese-molybdenum-nickel ferritic steels (ASTM A 302 and A 533), which are commonly used for pressure vessels in
light-water reactors. High-alloy steels, stainless steels, hot-work tool steels, and the iron-base superalloys are discussed in the
Section "Specialty Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys" in this Volume.

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Read Embrittlement of Steel chapter of the handbook

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Stainless steel properties


Saturday, September 03, 2016
8:40 AM

ASM Handbook, Volume 1, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High Performance Alloys
Section: Specialty Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys
Wrought Stainless Steels (page 1302)
STAINLESS STEELS are iron-base alloys containing at least 10.5% Cr. Few stainless steels contain more than 30% Cr or less
than 50% Fe. They achieve their stainless characteristics through the formation of an invisible and adherent chromium-rich oxide
surface film. This oxide forms and heals itself in the presence of oxygen. Other elements added to improve particular
characteristics include nickel, molybdenum, copper, titanium, aluminum, silicon, niobium, nitrogen, sulfur, and selenium. Car bon
is normally present in amounts ranging from less than 0.03% to over 1.0% in certain martensitic grades.

The selection of stainless steels may be based on corrosion resistance, fabrication characteristics, availability, mechanical
properties in specific temperature ranges and product cost. However, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are usual ly
the most important factors in selecting a grade for a given application.
History: Original discoveries and developments in stainless steel technology began in England and Germany about 1910. The
commercial production and use of stainless steels in the United States began in the 1920s, with Allegheny, Armco, Carpenter,
Crucible, Firth-Sterling, Jessop, Ludlum, Republic, Rustless, and U.S. Steel being among the early producers.
Only modest tonnages of stainless steel were produced in the United States in the mid -1920s, but annual production has risen
steadily since that time. Even so, tonnage has never exceeded about 1.5% of total production for the steel industry.
Uses:
Over the years, stainless steels have become firmly established as materials for cooking utensils, fasteners cutlery, flatwar e,
decorative architectural hardware, and equipment for use in chemical plants, dairy and food -processing plants, health and
sanitation applications, petroleum and petrochemical plants, textile plants, and the pharmaceutical and transportation indust ries.
Some of these applications involve exposure to either elevated or cryogenic temperatures; austenitic stainless steels are wel l
suited to either type of service.

Classification of Stainless Steels


Stainless steels are commonly divided into five groups: martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic s tainless
steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels.
Martensitic stainless steels are essentially alloys of chromium and carbon that possess a distorted body -centered cubic
(bcc) crystal structure (martensitic) in the hardened condition. They are ferromagnetic, hardenable by heat treatments, and a re
generally resistant to corrosion only to relatively mild environments. Chromium content is generally in the range of 10.5 to 18%,
and carbon content may exceed 1.2%. The chromium and carbon contents are balanced to ensure a martensitic structure after
hardening. Excess carbides may be present to increase wear resistance or to maintain cutting edges, as in the case of knife b lades.
Elements such as niobium, silicon, tungsten, and vanadium may be added to modify the tempering response after hardening.
Small amounts of nickel may be added to improve corrosion resistance in some media and to improve toughness. Sulfur or
selenium is added to some grades to improve machinability.
Ferritic stainless steels are essentially chromium containing alloys with bcc crystal structures. Chromium content is
usually in the range of 10.5 to 30%. Some grades may contain molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and niobium to confer
particular characteristics. Sulfur or selenium may be added, as in the case of the austenitic grades, to improve machinabilit y. The
ferritic alloys are ferromagnetic. They can have good ductility and formability, but high -temperature strengths are relatively poor
compared to the austenitic grades. Toughness may be somewhat limited at low temperatures and in heavy sections.
Austenitic stainless steels (200 and 300 grades) have a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. This structure is attained through the liberal use of
austenitizing elements such as nickel, manganese, and nitrogen. These steels are essentially nonmagnetic in the annealed
condition and can be hardened only by cold working. They usually possess excellent cryogenic properties and good
high-temperature strength. Chromium content generally varies from 16 to 26%; nickel, up to about 35%; and manganese, up to
15%. The 2xx series steels contain nitrogen, 4 to 15.5% Mn, and up to 7% Ni. The 3xx types contain larger amounts of nickel a nd
up to 2% Mn. Molybdenum, copper, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and niobium may be added to confer certain characteristics
such as halide pitting resistance or oxidation resistance. Sulfur or selenium may be added to certain grades to improve
machinability.
Duplex stainless steels have a mixed structure of bcc ferrite and fcc austenite. The exact amount of each phase is a
function of composition and heat treatment (see the article "Cast Stainless Steels" in this Volume). Most alloys are designed to
contain about equal amounts of each phase in the annealed condition. The principal alloying elements are chromium and nickel,
but nitrogen, molybdenum, copper, silicon, and tungsten may be added to control structural balance and to impart certain
corrosion-resistance characteristics.
The corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels is like that of austenitic stainless steels with similar alloying content s.
However, duplex stainless steels possess higher tensile and yield strengths and improved resistance to stress -corrosion cracking
than their austenitic counterparts. The toughness of duplex stainless steels is between that of austenitic and ferritic stain less
steels.

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SS: High temperature properties


Saturday, September 03, 2016
8:54 AM

ASM Handbook, Volume 1, Properties and Selection: Irons,Steels, and High Performance Alloys
Section: Specialty Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys
Elevated-Temperature Properties of Stainless Steels
Note: SS304 and 316 are austenet Steel. 304 is also called 18/8 (18cr, 8Ni)

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