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Typical Lives and Factors Determining the Life of Some Importan Industrial Catalyst (Addapted from Denny and

Twig, 1980)

Ammonia synthesis
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
Methanation (ammonia and H2 plants)
CO/CO2 + H2 CH4 + H2O
Acetylene hydrogenation (front end)
C2H2 + H2 C2H4
Sulfuric acid manufacture
2SO2 + O2 2SO3
Methanol synthesis
CO + 2H2 CH3OH
Low-Temperatur CO shift
CO + H2O CO2 + H2

Operating
Conditions
450-470 oC
200-300 atm
250-350 oC
30 atm
30-150 oC
20-30 atm
420-600 oC
1 atm
200-300 oC
50-100 atm
200-250 oC
10-30 atm

Hydrocarbon hydrodesulfurization
R2S + 2H2 H2S + R2

300-400 oC
30 atm

High-Temperatur CO shift
CO + H2O CO2 + H2
Steam reforming, natural gas
CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2
Ethylene partial oxidation
2C2H4 + O2 2C2H4O
Butane oxidation to maleic anhydride

350-500 oC
20-30 atm
500-850 oC
30 atm
200-270 oC
10-20 atm

7
C4H10 + 2 O2 C4H2O3 + 4H2O

400-520 oC
1-3 atm

Reduction of aldehydes to alcohols


RCHO + H2 RCH2OH
Ammonia oxidation

Reactions

Catalyst

Typical Life
(Years)

Process Affecting Life of Catalyst Charge

Catalyst Property
Affected

Fe with K2O promoter


and Al2O3 stabilizer

10-15

Slow sintering

Activity

Supported Nikel

5-10

Slow poisoning, S, As, K2CO3 from plants


upsets

Activity, pore blockage

Supported Palladium

5-10

Slow sintering

Activity/selectivity

Inactive compound formation, pellet fracture,


plugging by dust
Slow sintering, poisoning by S, Cl, and
carbonyls
Slow poisoning and accelerated sintering by
poisons

Activity, pressure drop


and mass transfer

1-10

Slow coking, poisoning by metals from


organometallic in residual

Activity; mass transfer;


pressure drop

1-4

Slow sintering, pellet breakage due to steam

Activity; pressure drop

1-3

Sintering, sulfur poisoning, carbon formation,


and pellet breakage due to plant upset

Activity; pressure drop

1-3

Slow sintering, poisoning by S, Cl

Activity, selectivity

Vanadium phosphorus
oxide with transition
metal additives

1-2

Loss of P; attrition or pellet breakage; S, Cl


poisoning

Activity, selectivity

220-270 oC
100-300 atm

Copper on zinc oxide

0,5-1

Slow sintering; pellet breakage (depends on


feedstock)

Activity or pressure
drop

5
2NH3 + 2 O2 2NO + 3H2O

800-900 oC
1-10 atm

Pt-Rh alloy gauze

0,1-0,5

Surface roughness, loss of platinum, fouling by


Fe

selectivity

Oxychlorination ethylene to ethylene


dichloride
2C2H4 + 4HCl + O2 2C2H4Cl2 + 2H2O

230-270 oC
1-10 atm

Copper chloride on
alumina (fluidized bed)

0,2-0,5

Loss by attrition, and other causes resulting


from plant upsets

Fluidized state, activity

Catalytic hydrocarbon reforming

460-525 oC
8-50 atm

Platinum alloys on
treated allumina

0,01-0,5

Coking, frequent regeneration

Activity, mass transfer

Vanadium and potassium


sulfates on silica
Cooper on Zinc and
Aluminium oxide
Cooper on Zinc and
Aluminium oxide
Cobalt and Molybdenum
sulfides on Aluminium
oxide
Fe3O4 on chromia
Nikel on Calcium
Alumnate or -Al2O3
Silver on -Al2O3 with
alkali metal promoters

5-10
2-5
2-4

Activity
Activity

Catalytic cracking of oils

500-560 oC
2-3 atm (fluid bad)

Synthetic zeolites

1-2 s

Very rapid coking (continuous regeneration)


poisoning by organic bases and organometallic

Activity, mass transfer