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Global Optimisation in the power management

of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV)


BERNARD J.', DELPRAT S.', BUECHI F.2, GUERRA T.M.'

'LAMIH, UMR CNRS 8530, Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis,


Le Mont Houy, 59313 Valenciennes Cedex 9, France
{jerome.bernard, sebastien.delprat, thierry.guerra}(univ-valenciennes.fr

2Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villingen PSI, Switzerland


felix.buechi@psi.ch

Abstract - This paper proposes a way to investigate the


benefit of hybridising a fuel cell vehicle with a second energy
source such as batteries or supercapacitors packs. A global
optimisation algorithm based on optimal control theory is

proposed to determine an efficient power splitting between the

fuel cell system (FCS) and the energy storage system (ESS).
Both hybridisation and control strategy should minimise the
hydrogen consumption for a given driving cycle. This method
has fast computation time, and as a consequence many
simulations can be performed within a short period, thus
providing an interesting tool to test and compare different
degree of hybridisation for various fuel cell hybrid vehicle
(FCHV) parameters and driving cycles.

II. THE VEHICLE AND THE POWERTRAIN


Thevehicle considered forthis study is a sedan car such
as the VW Bora Hy-Power fuel cell hybrid vehicle [2].
Its main parameters are summarized in Table 1.
TABLE 1

VEHICLE PARAMETERS

Vehicle total mass

2021 kg

Frontal area
Gear ratio

2.1 m2
8
~9500
Cr =Cro + kc V(t),
=
0.0136,
Cr
kc = 4*1 0-7 kM-1 *h

efE1ciency
GearGear
efficiency

Index Terms - Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle, supercapacitor,


global optimisation, optimal control, state constraint.

Rolling resistance [6]


I. INTRODUCTION

For vehicular application, hydrogen can be efficiently


used in electric vehicle using a fuel cell as power generator.
The Potonxchane Memrane PEM) uel cll is
appropriated for transportation purpose due to its solid
electrolyte (Nafion membrane), its operating temperature
range
compatible with automotive application and
its high power density [1]. The fuel cell being not reversible,
to enable kinetic energy recovery during braking phases an
auxiliary energy storage system (ESS) is required.
Successful
vehicle
prototypes
with
embedded
Suprcapacitors
feabii
o the
have
demonstrated
the
supercapacitors pack
feasibility of
concept, for example the VW Bora Hy-Power [2], the
Michelin Hy-Ligth [3][4], or the Honda FCX [5].

(60-90'C)

pahicklhe dmostatyped wthe

The powertrain is composed by a 50 kW fuel cell


system, a 200 supercapacitors pack (457 W.h), and a 75 kW
AC electric motor. A DC/DC converter is used to coupled
the two power sources (FCS and ESS), and a DC/AC
i
i u t
iS used to powered the electric motor
1). These

(Ftg.

cnverter

poblem ha ieal power cnvters witha

Xefficn.
efficiency.

constanti9

The powertrain arrangement (Fig. 1) corresponds to a series


sasu
dtob
hyrdaciete.TemorpwrP,
hemorpwe motiasuetob

hbinrhtcue

positive during traction phase and negative during braking

phase, the Fuel Cell System (FCS) power is necessary

positive, and the Energy Storage System (ESS) power is


positive during ESS discharge and negative during ESS
charge. The powers relation is:
an efficient power splitting which minimises the hydrogen
(1)
Pmot = fcs +PNESS
consumption under several constraints such as the fuel cell
with Pmot the power requested by the electric motor, j7jCs the
h nrysoaesse
system (FCS) power limit or the ESS storage capacity limit,.ulcl ytmpwrad
This paper presents a global optimisation algorithm based on
ESS
the optimal control theory with state constraint applied to a
power.
Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle.
The fuel economy of fuel cell hybrid vehicles does not
only rely on the powertrain technology, but also on the
control strategy used. The control strategy has to determine

1-4244-01 59-3/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE

the oxidation-reduction reaction (2), F the Faraday


L Z1

DC

constant (96,487

mot

fcs

As both the fuel cell system net power and the hydrogen
consumption are a function of the stack current, the
hydrogen consumption can be considered as a function of
the FCS net power (Fig. 3), which is the main map
considered in the optimization problem. The FCS maximum
power is obviously limited:

pESS

Electric motor [7]


FCS

75 kW AC
6 stacks, 155 cells/stack,

FCS power

50 kW

ESS

200 supercapacitors

ESS peak power

100 kW

< Pfs
f0

<

Pfcsmax3

200cm2/cell

-Instantaneous H2

----Net power PfcsLJ

<;<<--S-

40

0.6

L/

FCS dynamics may be modelled by deriving


mathematical equation from physics phenomenon [8] [9] but
this leads to very complex models that can not be easily
used for energetic optimisation. For this particular
application, fast transient dynamics may be neglected, and
therefore the mathematical model can be mainly reduced to
maps [1] (Fig. 2). ,
_ Gross power Pstack
50 . Auxiliaries power Paux

consumption

0.8

ESS energy
457 W.h
Fig. 1 Powertrain arrangement and parameters.

30

C).

0.4

0.2

C0

10

20

30

40

50

FCS power (kW)


Fig. 3 Hydrogen consumption map.
The supercapacitor energetic model is an ideal capacitor
in series connected with an ideal resistor [Io0] [1 ] (Fig. 4). It
is assumed that a positive power discharges the ESS whereas
a negative power corresponds to energy storage. In order to
find a compromise between the power/energy usable,
lifetime and efficiency, [11] proposes to restrict the current
and the voltage ranges as shown in Fig. 4.

20

RI.. '''"''' 11i

'10
,.
t)

50

Fig

100
Stack current (A)

2 Fuel cell

150

200

The hydrogen consumption rnH map over net available


2
power PJ,.5 is derived by consideringfcsthe polarisation curve
of the fuel cell stack (and thus the gross power produced by
the stack Pstack ) the power consumption of the auxiliary
components Pa,,,u and the instantaneous hydrogen reacting.
It is assumed that the consumed hydrogen is linearly
dependent on the stack current with 500 losses:

mH2 JfC)

Ncell*A/H2

Jfc Xl.O5

(2)

with Nceii the number of cells, MH2 the molar mass of

hydrogn (2gmol),

Vc

system powers.

the nmber o electons acing i

~~~~~~~~~Reference

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Resistiveloss RI
Capacitance C
Voltage / SOC ranges

Maxwell BOOSTCAP 2600F

0.7 mO

C = 2600F
E
V| [1.25 2.5V] #> SOC E [25:100%]

Current range
i, cE [-320 : 320A]
Fig. 4 Equivalent circuit of one supercapacitor and operating ranges

restrictions.

The energy stored in the ESS, expressed in Joules,


represents the state X (k) of the system. The ESS state of

charge (SOC) is the ratio between the energy stored X(k)


and the maximum energy storable Xmax
SOC (k) = X (k)/Xma_
(4)

lifetimes of the fuel cell system and of the energy storage


system are not considered in this preliminary study.
Consequently, the criterion to be minimised is the hydrogen
consumed over a driving cycle:

Since the ESS is cycled alternatively in charge and


discharge for any power and energy level, the computed
map (Fig. 5) depends on both power and energy stored. The
current limitation has been turned into a power limitation
over the state of charge:
charge:
PESSmin (xh <'-P<'ESS(5)
PESSmax J

Ts
M
k=_
with T the sampling time.

Charge/Discharge power map (kW)

10J0

Powerlimits
-160
-160

50

=,o o

o, -50

CIO
Lu

(6)

.2(Pfs(k))

Supercapacitor is reversible electrochemical device which


can an
be integral
modelledstructure
as power[12][13]:
integrator. Thus the state dynamic
has

X(k+1) = X(k)+Q(X(k),PESS (k)) ) Ts

(7)

-with Q (X (k), PESs (k)) the charge/discharge power map

(Fig. 5).

-~80-

-~'~60
80

N-1

The state of charge is limited and thus represents the state


constraint in the problem:

Xmin -X < Xmax r> SOC_ < SOCSOCmax

-404

(8)

.<- ,8,0 60 80 - To avoid the obvious solution PfcS (k) =0 Vk=0 N-1
20
that may leads to null fuel consumption, it is necessary to
-150~~~ '~~--integrate a constraint on the final state X (k):
(9)
X(N-1) = X (0) + AX
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
State of Charge
with AX a prescribed energy variation over the speed
Fig. 5 ESS Charge/Discharge power map Q(X,PESS).
cycle, an interesting case is AX 0 , i.e. the vehicle
propelling is globally ensured by the hydrogen chemical

-100

...

III. PROBLEM FORMULATION

energy.

Our objective being to obtain a a global optimisation


aOurithm,
ethedrivebeingccl obtoa
known.misi

chosen control variable is the net power of the fuel cell


needs to be a priori
priori known. The
TThe
algorithm, the driving cycle needs
sytmPsk)Thwolopisaonrbemedso
obtained algorithm is therefore restricted to simulation but it
system Pfcs (k). The whole optimisation problem needs to
may provide optimum solution, and so the power requested
be formulated using only this variable. By considering (1),
the FCS power limits (3) does not depend only on the
by the motor Pmot (k) is known for any sample k=0 ...N-1
system capabilities but should integrate the power requested
(Fig. 6).
by the motor Pmot (k) and the ESS power limits expressed
150in (5):

Pcso
<
(k) < Pcs (k) <Pf.sma (k)

501

60

<

OWE Pl g 1011M /\1 1117 10 |

200

600

400

800

1200

1000

401

ll
B^ zott 4
t! 4

0/

LA i;

0~

_________20_____________________
0

200

400

600

time (s)

800

1000

with

P6n

(k)

(10)

=Fmax{t,Pmot(k)-PPEssm,

l~ ~ ~Pflsmaqx (k)(k= min {P-nxrPo

(k)}

)PSin()

By introducing (1) into (7), the state X(k+1) becomes:

X~~~~~~~X(k+1) = X(k) +Q (X(k)

P ..ot(k) -

Pfs(k))

Pmot (k) being known at each sample k


1200

Fig. 6 Example of P,, (k) requested for the NEDC driving cycle.

This paper focuses on minimising hydrogen consumption


over a driving cycle. Other considerations such as the

simplified:

X (k + 1 ) =X (k) + Qk (X (k), Pfs (k)) Ts(12)

TS
(II)

(I11)
may

be

- ...* a(0) 2A(0)


2A(k+1) =a(k) .2A(k) =a(k) a(k-l)

Let us remind the problem formulation:


* Criterion:
N-1

Z i

(prc (k)) T,

The calculation of A (k + 1) is expressed in a recurrence


form (16) and thus depends on the initial condition A2(0).

Assuming A2(0) known,

System:

X(k+l)=X(k)+Qk(X(k),PfCS(k))
*

Ts

problem

may

aQk (X (k),P

a solution to the optimisation


found.
The
derivative
map

be

(k))_

is approximated by using piecewise


aX (k)
2nd order polynomial equation as described in [12][13].
Once the value A(k+l) is established, a numerical
computation determines the control value Pfcs (k) which
minimises the Hamiltonian H (k) . By iterating at each

Under constraints:
Pfmin (k) < (k) . P<m (k)
X__ (k) <X(k) . Xm (k)
X (N) = X (0) + AX

IV. A SOLUTION BASED ON OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY

J7,

sequence is achieved for the

(k) < Pf,m(k

(17)

sampling time, the optimal

WITHOUT STATE CONSTRAINT

wholee cycle:
Vk 1 .eN-1

For sake of convenience, let us consider first a


simplified version of the optimisation problem without the

..

rPfCS (k) = arg min (H (k))

state constraint (8).

To apply the classical optimal control theory, the state of the


system X (k) is introduced in the criterion (6) with the

< P)
{7(k)
f

Lagrange parameters A(k+l) [12][13] to derive the


Hamiltonian [14][15]:
Vfke[l..N-l]VfPfCS (k)e [f n(k),<

Assuming A2(0) known, it is possible to compute a value for


the control variable Pfcs (k) at each sample k, and so a final
state X(N-1) is obtained at the end of the cycle by

H(k) = 1hh (PIC(k)) T,

iterating equation (7). To find the initial value A2(0), it is


necessary to take into account constraint (9). To illustrate
the influence of A2(0) , some results are presented for the
NEDC driving cycle: the smaller (larger) A(0) is, the more
the ESS (FCS) is used and the lower (higher) admissible
hydrogen consumption is obtained. This leads to an
important discharge (recharge) of the ESS (Fig. 7 & 8).

()

f(k)ji

-A (k + 1) LX (k) + Qk (X (k), PfCs (k)).T]

(13)

The system trajectory is obtained by minimising the


Hamiltonian H(k) whichleadstothefollowingconditions:
Fp
VP
VkE
k P'
'fecs
rLcsm (k)
rcsm \fmi
aH (k) _

[1..N-1]

(k)e

(k)s

aX(k)

200

aQk (X (k) Pf,,Acso).(124


(k)) 5221(k+lI>rl+Qk(o
0
,

3X(k)

100

60

()(4
_ -0[_arg/

aH(k)

aPf,, (k)

afl2(Pf, k))-i
aPf, (k)

aQk(X (k), Pf,,(k))=


oPf,, (k)

_200

-40

(15)

The condition (14) allows evaluating the Lagrange


parameter i1(k+1l):
7

A(k+l)=,(&

kk

01+Q4X(k),PfS(k))

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0Storage system
l

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

200

400

600
time (s)

800

1000

12 00

Cl)0 0.5

00)

7 NEDC driving cycle, smaller A(0) case,


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Fig.
1.) l9kg/lOOkm.

H2 consumption of

by the brake instead of being recovered. As this constraint

2_ 200
Z~
100

was
100
r(8)
X not taken into account by the simplified optimisation
f; 5 V the obtained result may be improved.
:/problem,

00
40

200

400

800

600

1000

1200

2000

L-2(
20

200
;

Fuel Cell System


0

200

400

200
0

400

800

1000

1200

600
time (s)

800

1000

1200

008

06

s
t
Asacosqune,fr
tivenmseedccee
to
for a given
As a consequence,
speed cycle it iS possible
express the final state of charge SOC (N-1) as a function
of AZ(0) (Fig. 9). For the considered vehicle and driving
cycle, this function exhibits a very smooth behaviour,
therefore a simple dichotomy is used to determine the value
A (0) with respect to the final state of charge constraint (9)
with a prescribed accuracy (0. I%). Usually the algorithm
converges in less than 10 iterations.

1.35
o

1.75

1.7

1.8

1.3

CD

1200

Storage system
200
400

600

800

1000

1200

10-________________________
0 0.5
200

400

600

time (s)

800

1000

1200

Fig. 10 NEDC driving cycle, ASOC <0. 1%, H2 consumption of


1.27kg/lOOkm.
V. OPTIMAL CONTROL WITH STATE CONSTRAINT
The state constraint is considered by introducing a penalty in
the criterion [16][17]:
N(1
J ={h1
(18)
(Pfs (k)) -Ts + r-p (X(k))}
k=O

th,2

on the state of charge X (k) . This function introduces extracost when the state of charge approaches its limits.

-20

_30
1.65

1000

where p (X (k)) is called the penalty function and depends

lo

10

800

Fuel cell system

0
0

Fig. 8NEDC driving cycle, higherA(O) case, H2 consumption of


1 .34kg/lOOkm.

-o

600

600

20

400

1.2

Consequently, operating points near the state limits will be


rejected by the optimisation algorithm. The parameter r is a
tuning parameter. The Hamiltonian is thus modified as
follow:
k5/[I .N -1], VPfcs ( k
)fsnn(k),Pf,sm. ( k )]2
E

-~
H(k)

lambda(0) xl1 e-5


0~~~~~~~~~

Fig. 9 ASOC and H2 consumption fulnction of AZ(O)


Fig. 10 illustrates the obtained result on the European
Normalised Cycle (NEDC) for SOC(O) = 0.8 The final
state f chareis
sc(N-1) 0.7996(ASOC .0400)
and the hydrogen consumption is l1.27kg/iOO km.

However Fig. 10 clearly shows that the state of charge


reaches its admissible bounds. This phenomenon is due to
the low energy density (around 3.8 Wh/kg) of the
supercapacitors which are quickly fully charged or fully
discharged. As a consequence, a lot of energy is dissipated

rnh2 (Pfs (k)) T +r p(X(k))

-uk1.xk+k((),fS().]

(9

The algorithm used to solve the new problem is exactly the


same as defined in the previous paragraph. An important
point is that the penalty function has to be continuous and
differentiable over the entire SOC range. A quadratic
piecewise function is used (Fig. 11):

r0 X(k) -(X
p(X)=

+6 12 fX()<(Xi

j
mx
(20)
2
X kO -X )'
|~aa ifX(k) > (Xlaa -a)
F1 ()(n8
L
Xma
0
otherwise
L

The powertrain model used by the proposed tool is


based on lookup tables. As a consequence it is possible to
take into account different ESS types (batteries) and various
/fuel cell power ranges without modifying the algorithm.
Further works will be devoted to the powertrain sizing that is
\ J:to find a compromise between the power sources size (ESS
and FCS), the vehicle dynamics, and the fuel economy for
different driving conditions.

I?

x1
XQ_ 0

\
\

/
L

-1 .2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.1

0.6

0.9

0.8

0.7

-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

-:

0.05

z: -This work is supported in part by the Nord Pas-deregion and FEDER (European Funds for Regional
------Calais
Development) through the project AUTORIS T3 1.

o0
-0.05

-0.1

*0.2

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.6
0.7
Soc

0.8

Fig. 1 p (X) and its derivative

o.9

dp(X)

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The results exhibit the desired behaviour Fig. 12. The ESS is
not fully charged during the cycle (the SOC is smoothed)
and it allows recovering all the kinetic energy without any

Schonfelder C., Schneuwly A., Barrade P., Hy.Power-A technology

mechanical braking, thus resulting in hydrogen economy.


The hydrogen consumption obtained considering the
simplified optimisation problem was 1 .27kg/100km for the
NEDC cycle. Considering the state constraint leads to
1.24kg/i 00 km hydrogen consumption.

eE

200

a)

200

40 )-

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20 -za

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800

1000

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Fig. 12 Results for the NEDC driving cycle, H2 consumption of


1 .24kg/lOOkm.

VI. CONCLUSION

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1969.
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Vehicle. It computes the power splitting between two power
to

criterion.

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