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What is motion?

Matter and Motion


All matter in the universe is constantly in motion, from the revolution of Earth around the
Sun to electrons movi ng around the nucleus of an atom. Leaves rustle in the wind. Lava
flows from a volcano. Bees move from flower to flower as they gather pollen. Blood
circulates through your body. These are all examples of matter in motion. How can the
motion of these different objects be described?

Changing Position
To describe an object in motion, you must first recognize that the object is in motion.
Something is in motion if it is changing position. It could be a fast-movi ng airplane, a
leaf swirling in the wind, or water trickl ing from a hose. Even your school, attached to
Earth, is movi ng through space. When an object moves from one location to another, it is
changing position. The runners shown in a sport sprint from the start line to the finish
line. Their positions change, so they are in motion.

Relative Motion
Determining whether something changes position requires a point of reference. An object
changes position if it moves relative to a reference point. To vi sualize this, picture
yourself competing in a 100-m dash. You begin just behind the start line. When you pass
the finish line, you are 100 m from the start line. If the start line is your reference point,
then your position has changed by 100 m relative to the start line, and motion has
occurred.

Distance and Displacement Suppose you are to meet your friends at the park in
five minutes. Can you get there on time by walki ng, or should you ride your bike? To
help you decide, you need to know the distance you will travel to get to the park. This
distance is the length of the route you will travel from your house to the park.
Suppose the distance you traveled from your house to the park was 200 m. When you get
to the park, how would you describe your location? You could say that your location was
200 m from your house. However, your final position depends on both the distance you
travel and the direction. Did you go 200 m east or west? To describe your final position
exactly, you also would have to tell the direction from your starting point. To do this, you
would specify your displacement. Displacement includes the distance between the
starting and ending points and the direction in which you travel.

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Speed
To describe motion, you usually want to describe how fast something is movi ng. The
faster something is movi ng, the greater the distance it can travel in a unit of time, such as
one second or one hour. Speed is the distance an object travels in a
unit of time.

The unit for speed is the unit of distance divi ded by the unit of time. In SI units, speed is
measured in units of m/smeters per second. However, speed can be calculated using
other units such as ki lometers for distance and hours for time.

Average Speed A car traveling in city traffic might have to speed up and slow down
many times. How could you describe the speed of an object whose speed is changing?
One way is to determine the object s average speed between where it starts and
stops. The speed equation written above can be used to calculate the average speed.
Aver age speed is found by divi ding the total distance traveled by the total time taken.
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Instantaneous Speed An object in motion can change speeds many times as it


speeds up or slows down. The speed of an object at one instant of time is the object s
instantaneous speed. To understand the difference between average and instantaneous
speeds, think about walki ng to the library. If it takes you 0.5 h to walk 2 km to the
library, your average speed would be 4 km/h. However, you might not have been movi ng
at the same speed throughout the trip. At a crosswalk, your instantaneous
speed might have been 0 km/h. If you raced across the street, your speed might have been
7 km/h. If you were able to walk at a steady rate of 4 km/h during the entire trip, you
would have moved at a constant speed. Average speed, instantaneous speed, and constant
speed are illustrated in Figure 4.

Velocity
The motion of an object also depends on the direction in which the object is movi ng. The
direction of an object s motion can be described with its velocity. The velocity of an
object is the speed of the object and the direction of its motion. For example, if a car is
movi ng west with a speed of 80 km/h, the car s velocity is 80 km/h west. The velocity of
an object is sometimes represented by an arrow. The arrow points in the direction in
which the object is movi ng. The velocity of an object can change if the object s speed
changes, its direction of motion changes, or they both change. For example, suppose a car
is traveling at a speed of 40 km/h north and then turns left at an intersection and
continues on with a speed of 40 km/h. The speed of the car is constant at 40 km/h, but the
velocity changes from 40 km/h north to 40 km/h west.
Constant speed means steady speed, neither speeding up nor slowing down. Constant
velocity, on the other hand, means both constant speed and constant direction. Constant
direction is a straight line-the object's path doesn't curve. So constant velocity means
motion in a straight line at a constant speed-motion with no acceleration.
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Acceleration and Motion


When you watch the first few seconds of a liftoff, a rocket barely seems to move. With
each passing second, however, you can see it move faster until it reaches an enormous
speed. When an object changes its motion, it is accelerating. Acceler ation is the
change in velocity divi ded by the time it takes for the change to occur.
Like velocity, acceleration has a direction. If an object speeds up, the acceleration is in
the direction that the object is movi ng. If an object slows down, the acceleration is
opposite to the direction that the object is moving. What if the direction
of the acceleration is at an angle to the direction of motion? Then the direction of motion
will turn toward the direction of the acceleration.
Speeding Up You get on a bicycle and begin to pedal. The bike moves slowly at first,
but speeds up as you keep pedaling. Recall that the velocity of an object is the speed of
an object and its direction of motion. Acceleration occurs whenever the velocity of an
object changes. Because the bike s speed is increasing, the velocity of the bike is
changing. As a result, the bike is accelerating. For example, the toy car in Figure 7 is
accelerating because it is speeding up. The speed of the car is 10 cm/s after 1s, 20 cm/s
after 2s, and 30 cm/s after 3s. Here the direction of the car s acceleration is in the same
direction as the car s velocityto the right.

Figure : 7

Figure : 8
Slowing Down Now suppose you are biki ng at a speed of 4 m/s and you apply the
brakes. This causes you to slow down. When you slow down, your velocity changes
because your speed decreases. This means that acceleration occurs when an object
slows down, as well as when it speeds up. The car in Figure 8 is slowing down. During
each time interval, the car travels a smaller distance, so its speed is decreasing.

Changing Direction The velocity of an object also changes if the direction of motion
changes. Then the object doesn t move in a straight line, but instead moves in a curved
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path. The object is accelerating because its velocity is


changing. In this case the direction of acceleration
is at an angle to the direction of motion. Figure 9
shows an example of an object that is accelerating.
The ball starts movi ng upward,
but its direction of motion changes as its path
turns downward. Here the acceleration is downward.
The longer the ball accelerates, the more its
path turns toward the direction of acceleration.
Figur e: 9

Calculating Acceleration
If an object is moving in only one direction, its acceleration can be calculated using this
equation.

In this equation, time is the length of time over which the motion changes. In SI units,
acceleration has units of meters per second squared (m/s2).

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HANG TIME:

Some athletes and dancers have great jumping ability. Leaping straight up, they seem to defy gravi ty,
hanging in the air for what feels like at least two or
three seconds. In reality, however, the "hang time"
of even the best jumpers is almost always less than
1 s. What determines hang time? Now, the world record for a
standing vertical jump is held by basketball star
Spud Webb, who jumped 1.25 m in 1986. What was his hang
time when he made that jump? At the top of a jump, right when
you stop going up and are about to start coming down, your
speed is zero and you are at rest. The relationship between time
down and vertical height for a uni-formly accelerating object
starting from rest is

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The hang time is actually double this, since this is the time for only one way of an
up-and-down round trip-so Spud's total hang time is 1 s. And that, remember,
is a world record.

One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration

Figure:

A particle moving along the x axis with constant acceleration ax; (a) the position time graph, (b) the
velocitytime graph, and (c) the accelerationtime graph.

In Figure, match each vx -t graph on the left with the


ax -t graph on the right that best describes the motion

Worked-out Problems:
1.

2.

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3.

4.

5.

Problems:

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What is force?
When you shoot a basketball or ki ck a soccer ball, you are exerting a force on an object.
In fact, every push or pull you exert results in a force being applied to some object. A
for ce is a push or pull that one obj ect exer ts on another . Just like velocity and
acceleration, force also is a vector that has a size and a direction. The size of a force often
is called the strength of the force. The direction of a force is the direction in which the
push or pull is applied. For example, when you lift your backpack, you apply an upward
force. In SI units, force is measured in newtons (N).

Changing Motion What happens to the motion of an object when you exert a force on
it? A force can cause the motion of an object to change. If you have played billiards, you
know that you can cause a ball at rest to roll into a pocket by striki ng it with another ball.
The force applied by the movi ng ball causes the ball at rest to move in the direction of the
force.

Balanced Forces Force does not always change velocity. In Figure 12A, two
students are pushing on opposite sides of a box. Both students are pushing with an equal
force but in opposite directions. When two or more forces act on an object at the
same time, the forces combine to form the net for ce. The net force on the box in Figure
12A is zero because the two forces cancel each other. Forces on an object that are equal
in size and opposite in direction are called balanced for ces.

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Unbalanced Forces Another example of how forces combine is shown in Figure


12B. When two students are pushing with unequal forces in opposite directions, a net
force occurs in the direction of the larger force. When forces combine to produce a net
force that is not zero, the forces acting on the object are unbalanced for ces. The net
force that causes the box to accelerate will be the difference between the two forces
because they are in opposite directions.
In Figure 12C, the students are pushing on the box in the same direction. These forces
are combined, or added together, because they are exerted on the box in the same
direction. The net force that acts on this box is found by adding the two forces together.

Unbalanced Forces Change Velocity When the forces acting on an object are
balanced, the velocity of an object doesn t change. If you and a friend push on a door
from opposite sides with the same size force, the door doesn t move. The net force is zero
and the forces are balanced. But if you push harder, the door moves in the direction of
your push. The velocity the door, or any object, changes only when the forces on it are
unbalanced.

Friction
Suppose you give a skateboard a push with your hand. The skateboard speeds up as you
push it and then keeps movi ng after it leaves your hand. What happens to the
skateboard s speed if it is movi ng on a flat, level surface? You know the answer. The
skateboard slows down and finally stops. After it left your hand, the skateboard s velocity
changed because the forces acting on it were unbalanced. The unbalanced force that
slowed the skateboard was friction. Fr iction is the force that opposes the sliding motion
of two surfaces that are in contact.
What causes friction? The size of the frictional force exerted by one surface on
another depends on the materials the surfaces are made from and the roughness of the
surfaces. All surfaces have bumps and dips, including highly-polished metal surfaces that
seem very smooth. When two surfaces are in contact, sticki ng occurs where the bumps
and dips touch each other. This causes microwelds to form between the two surface.
These microwelds tend to make the surfaces stick together and cause friction to occur.
The frictional force between two surfaces increases when the force pushing the surfaces
together increases, as shown in Figure 13. When the surfaces are pushed together with
more force, more of the bumps and dips come into contact. This increases the strength of
the microwelds.

Figure 13
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Static Friction Suppose you push


on a heavy box, like the one in the
figure left, and it doesn t budge. The
velocity of the box didn t change, so
another force is acting on the box that
balances your push. This force is a
frictional force called static friction that
is due to the microwelds that have
formed between the box and the floor.
Static fr iction is the frictional force
that prevents two surfaces in contact
from sliding past each other. In this
case, the box didn t move because your
push is not large enough to break the microwelds between the two surfaces.
Sliding Friction You and a friend push together on the box and the box slides along the
floor, as shown in Figure below. As the box slides on the floor, another frictional
forcesliding friction opposes the motion of the box. Sliding fr iction is the force that
acts in the opposite direction to the motion of a surface sliding on another surface. If you
stop pushing, sliding friction causes the box to slow down and stop. The force due to
sliding friction between two surfaces is smaller than the force due to static friction.
Rolling Friction When an object rolls over a
surface, a frictional force due to rolling friction
slows the object down. Rolling friction usually is
much less than sliding friction. This is why it is
easier to move a heavy object if it is on wheels.

Air Resistance
When an object falls toward Earth, it is pulled downward by the force due to gravi ty.
However, a type of frictional force called air r esistance opposes the motion of objects
that move through the air. Air resistance causes objects to fall with different accelerations
and different speeds. If there were no air resistance, then all objects, like the apple and
feather would fall with the same acceleration.
Air resistance acts in the direction opposite to the velocity of an object movi ng in air. If
an object is falling downward, air resistance acts upward on the object. The size of the air
resistance force depends on the size and shape of an object. Imagine dropping two
identical plastic bags. One is crumpled into a ball and the other is spread out. When the
bags are dropped, the crumpled bag falls faster than the spread-out bag.
Air r esistance incr eases with incr easing velocity of the falling obj ect.
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The downward force of gravi ty on both bags is


the same, but the upward force of air resistance
on the crumpled bag is less. As a result, the net
downward force on the crumpled bag is greater,
as shown in Figure on the left. The amount of
air resistance on an object depends on the
speed, size, and shape of the object. Air
resistance, not the object s mass, is why
feathers, leaves, and sheets of paper fall more
slowly than pennies, acorns, and apples.

Terminal Velocity As an object falls, the


downward force of gravi ty causes the object to
accelerate. For example, after falling 2,000 m,
without the effects of air resistance a skydiver s
speed would be almost 200 m/s, or more than
700 km/h. However, as the speed of a falling
object increases, the upward force of air
resistance also increases.
This causes the net force on a sky diver to decrease as the
sky diver falls. Finally, the upward air resistance force
becomes large enough to balance the downward force of
gravi ty. The net force on the object is zero, and the
velocity of the object doesn t change. The object falls
with a constant velocity called the terminal velocity. The
terminal velocity is the highest velocity the falling object
will reach. The terminal velocity depends on the size,
shape, and mass of the falling object. The air resistance
force on an open parachute, like the one in Figure 18, is
much larger than the air resistance on the a sky diver with
a closed parachute. With the parachute open, the terminal
velocity of the sky diver becomes small enough that the
sky diver can land safely.

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Newtons Laws of Motion


When you lift a backpack, you exert a force on an object and cause it to move. The
backpack initially was at rest. The force you exerted caused its velocity to change. But if
you push downward on a table, the table doesn t move. The force you applied
did not cause the velocity of the table to change. How are forces and motion related?
The British scientist Isaac Newton, who lived from 1642 to 1727, published a set of three
rules in 1687 that explained how forces and motion are related. These three rules are
called Newton s laws of motion. They apply to the motion of all objects you encounter
every day.

The First Law of Motion


Newton s first law of motion describes how an object moves when the net force acting on
it is zero. According to Newton s fir st law of motion, if the net force acting on an object
is zero, the object remains at rest, or if the object is moving, it continues movi ng in a
straight line with constant speed. The first law of motion means that if the forces acting
on an object are balanced, then the velocity of the object doesn t change.

Inertia and Mass


All objects have a property called inertia. I ner tia is the tendency of an object to resist a
change in its motion. The inertia of an object depends on the object s mass. The greater
the mass of an object, the greater its inertia. For example, a bowling ball has more mass
than a volleyball. Which would be harder to stopa volleyball or a bowling ball rolling
at the same speed? You would have to exert a greater force on the bowling ball to make it
stop. The bowling ball has more inertia than the volleyball because it has more mass.

Inertia and the First Law of Motion According to the first law of motion, the
velocity of an object doesn t change unless the forces acting on the object are
unbalanced. In other words, if you observe a change in an object s velocity, you know
an unbalanced force acted on it. This is similar to the definition of inertiaan object
resists a change in its motion. As a result, the first law of motion sometimes is called the
law of inertia. Inertia and the first law of motion explain why the boxes in the Figure
below slide off the cart when the cart comes to a sudden stop. The student applies an
unbalanced force to the cart that makes it stop. However, the inertia of the boxes causes
them to keep moving even after the cart stops.

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What happens in a crash?


The first law of motion can explain what happens in a car crash. When a car traveling 50
km/h collides head-on with something solid, the car crumples, slows down, and stops
within about 0.1 s. Any passenger not wearing a safety belt continues to move forward at
the same speed the car was traveling. Within about 0.02 s after the car stops, unbelted
passengers slam into the dashboard, windshield, or steering wheel .
Passengers in the back seat might slam into the backs of the front seats. Because of their
inertia, they are traveling at the car s original speed of 50 km/habout the same speed
they would reach falling from a three-story building.

The Second Law of Motion


According to Newton s first law of motion, unbalanced forces cause the velocity of an
object to change. Newton s second law of motion describes how the net force on an
object, its mass, and its acceleration are related.
Force and Acceleration What s different about throwing a ball horizontally as hard
as you can and tossing it gently? When you throw hard, the net force on the ball is greater
than when you toss it. Also, the ball has a greater velocity when it leaves your hand. As a
result, the hard-thrown ball has a greater change in velocity, and this change can occur
over a shorter period of time. Recall that acceleration is the change in velocity divi ded by
the time needed for the change to occur. So, a hard-thrown ball has a greater acceleration
than a gently-thrown ball.
Mass and Acceleration If you throw a baseball and a softball with the same amount
of force, why does the baseball move faster? A softball has more mass than a baseball.
Even though the net force exerted on both balls is the same, the softball has less velocity
when it leaves your hand than the baseball does. If it takes the same amount of time to
throw both balls, the acceleration of the softball is less than that of the baseball. So, the
acceleration of an object depends on its mass, as well as the net force exerted on it. Net
force, mass, and acceleration are related.
Newton's second law states:
The acceler ation pr oduced by a net for ce on an obj ect is dir ectly pr opor tional to the
net for ce, is in the same dir ection as the net for ce, and is inver sely pr opor tional to
the mass of the obj ect. Or , in shor ter notation,
or
Acceleration equals the net force divi ded by the mass. If the net force acting on an object
is doubled, the object's acceleration will be doubled. Suppose instead that the mass is
doubled. Then the acceleration will be halved. If both the net force and the mass are
doubled, then the acceleration will be unchanged.

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Acceleration is directly
proportional to the force

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Acceleration is inversely
proportional to the mass

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WEIGHT AND MASS

Newton's Third Law of Motion


Newton's third law states:
Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal
and opposite force on the first.
We can call one force the action force, and we can call the other the reaction force. The
important thing is that they are coequal parts of a single interaction and that neither force
exi sts without the other. Action and reaction forces are equal in strength and opposite in
direction. They occur in pairs, and they make up a single interaction between two things.

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When walking, you interact with the floor.


Your push against the floor is coupled to the
floor's push against you. The pair of forces
occurs simultaneously. Likewise, the tires of
a car push against the road while the road
pushes back on the tires-the tires and the
road push against each other.

In swimming, you interact with the water


that you push backward, while the water
pushes you forward-you and the water
push against each other. The reaction
forces are what account for our motion in
these cases. These simultaneous forces
depend on friction; a person or a car on
ice, for example, may not be able to exert
the action force necessary to produce the
desired reaction force.
Simple Rule to I dentify Action and Reaction
There is a simple rule for identifying action and reaction forces. First, identify the
interaction-one thing (object A) interacts with another (object B). Then, action and
reaction forces can be stated in the following form:
Action: Object A exerts a force on object B.
Reaction: Object B exerts a force on object A.
When a cannon is fired, there is an
interaction between the cannon and the
cannonball. The sudden force that the
cannon exerts on the cannonball is exactly
equal and opposite to the force the
cannonball exerts on the cannon. This is
why the cannon recoils (ki cks). But the
effects of these equal forces are very
different. This is because the forces act on different masses. The different accelerations
are evi dent vi a Newton's second law,

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A given force exerted on a small mass produces a large acceleration, while the same force
exerted on a large mass produces a small acceleration. Thus we see why the change in
velocity of the cannonball is so large compared with the change in velocity of the cannon.
Same principle applies to a rocket, which continually "recoils" from the ejected exhaust
gas. Each molecule of exhaust gas is like a tiny cannonball shot from the rocket.
We see Newton's third law in action everywhere. A fish propels water backward with its
fins, and the water propels the fish forward. The wind caresses the branches of a tree, and
the branches caress back on the wind to produce whistling sounds. Forces are interactions
between different things. Every contact requires at least a two-ness; there is no way that
an object can exert a force on nothing. Forces, whether large shoves or slight nudges,
always occur in pairs, each opposite to the other.

SOLVED PROBLEMS
1.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

6.

6.

Problems

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Momentum and Energy


M omentum
We all know that a heavy truck is more difficult to stop than a small car movi ng at the
same speed. We state this fact by saying that the truck has more momentum than the car.
By momentum, we mean inertia in motion-or, more specifically, the product of the mass
of an object and its velocity; that is,

We can see from the definition that a movi ng object can have a large momentum if either
its mass or its velocity is large or both its mass and its velocity are large. A truck has
more momentum than a car movi ng at the same velocity because it has a greater mass.
We can see that a huge ship movi ng at a small velocity can have a large momentum, as
can a small bullet movi ng at a high velocity.
I mpulse
Changes in momentum may occur when there is a change in the mass of an object, or a
change in its velocity, or both. If momentum changes while the mass remains unchanged,
as is most often the case, then the velocity changes. Acceleration occurs. And what
produces acceleration? The answer is force. The greater the force acting on an object, the
greater will be the change in velocity and, hence, the change in momentum.
But something else is important also: time-how long the force acts. Apply a force briefly
to a stalled automobile and you produce a small change in its momentum. Apply the same
force over an extended period of time, and a greater momentum change results. A long
sustained force produces more change in momentum than the same force applied briefly.
So, for changing an object's momentum, both force and the time interval during which
the force acts are important.
The quantity " for ce X time inter val" is called impulse.
The gr eater the impulse exer ted on something, the gr eater will be its change in
momentum. This is known as the impulse-momentum r elationship. M athematically,
the exact r elationship is

which reads, "force multiplied by the time-during-which-it-acts equals change in


momentum"
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The I mpulse-M omentum Relationship in Spor ts


In sports, we use the impulse-momentum relationship to our advantage. In many cases,
we try to decrease momentum over an extended duration of time. For example,
A wrestler who is being thrown to the floor tries to prolong his time of arrival on the floor
by relaxi ng his muscles and spreading the crash into a series of impacts, as foot, knee,
hip, ribs, and shoulder fold onto the floor in turn. The increased time of impact reduces
the force of impact.
When you jump from an elevated position to a floor below, you bend your knees when
you land, which extends the time during which your momentum is reduced. Because this
extension of time can be 10 or 20 times more than that of an abrupt, stiff-legged landing,
it can reduce the forces on your bones by 10 to 20 times. Of course, falling on a mat is
preferable to falling on a solid floor, and this also increases the time of impact.
Bungee jumping puts the impulse-momentum relationship to a thrilling test. The
momentum gained during the fall must be decreased to zero by an impulse equal to the
gain in momentum. The long stretching time of the bungee cord insures a small average
force to bring the jumper to a safe halt. Bungee cords typically stretch to about twice their
original length during the fall.
If you're about to catch a fast baseball with your bare hand, you extend your hand
forward so you'll have plenty of space to allow your hand to move backward after making
contact with the ball. You extend the time of impact and thereby reduce the force of the
impact.
Sometime it's advantageous to decrease momentum over a short time-this is how a karate
expert is able to break a stack of bricks with the blow of her bare hand (Figure 4.7). She
brings her hand swiftly against the bricks with considerable momentum. This momentum
is quickl y reduced when she delivers an impulse to the bricks. The impulse is the force of
her hand against the bricks multiplied by the time her hand makes contact with the bricks.
By swift execution, her time of contact is very brief, with a correspondingly huge force of
impact.

Law of Conservation of Momentum The momentum of an object doesn t change


unless its mass, velocity, or both change. Momentum, however, can be transferred from
one object to another. Consider the game of pool. When the cue ball hits the group of
balls that are motionless, the cue ball slows down and the rest of the balls begin to move.
The momentum the group of balls gained is equal to the momentum that the cue ball lost.
The total momentum of all the balls just before and after the collision would be the same.
If no other forces act on the balls, their total momentum is conservedit isn t lost or
created.
This is the law of conser vation of momentum In the absence of an ext ernal force, the
momentum of a system remains unchanged.
Consider a cannon being fired. Both the force that drives the cannonball and the force
that makes the cannon recoil are equal and opposite (Newton's third law). To the system
consisting of the cannon and the cannonball, they are internal forces.
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No external net force acts on the cannoncannonball system, so the momentum of


the system undergoes no net change.
Before the firing, the momentum is zero;
after the firing, the net momentum is still
zero (Figure 4.8). Like velocity,
momentum is a vector quantity. The
momentum gained by the cannonball is
equal to and opposite to the momentum
gained by the recoiling cannon. -' They cancel. No momentum is gained, and no
momentum is lost.
Collisions
The conservation of momentum is especially useful in collisions, where the forces
involved are internal forces. In any collision, we can say that
Net momentum befor e collision = net momentum after collision.
When a movi ng billiard ball hits another billiard ball at rest head-on, the first ball comes
to rest and the second ball moves with the initial velocity of the first ball. We call this an
elastic collision; the colliding objects rebound without lasting deformation or the
generation of heat. In this collision, momentum is transferred from the first ball to the
second. Momentum is conserved.

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What is energy?
Wherever you are sitting as you read this, changes are taki ng placelight bulbs are
heating the air around them, the wind might be rustling leaves, or sunlight might be
glaring off a nearby window. Even you are changing as you breathe, blink, or shift
position in your seat. Every change that occurslarge or smallinvolves energy.
Imagine a baseball flying through the air. It hits a window, causing the glass to break.
The window changed from a solid sheet of glass to a number of broken pieces. The
movi ng baseball caused this changea movi ng baseball has energy. Even when you
comb your hair or walk from one class to another, energy is involved.
Energy and Work In science, ener gy is defined as the ability to do work. Work is
done when a force causes something to move. The ball does work on the window when it
exerts a force on the glass and causes it to break. Energy also can be defined as the ability
to cause change. When work is done, something moves and a change occurs. When work
is done and a change occurs, energy moves from place to place or changes from one form
to another.

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The unit of energy is the same as the unit of work so SI unit of KE is Joule
A car movi ng along a road has ki netic energy. A car that is twice as heavy moving at the
same speed has twice the ki netic energy. That's because a car that is twice as heavy has
twice the mass. Kinetic energy depends on mass. But note that it also depends on speednot just plain speed, but speed multiplied by itself speed squared. If you double the speed
of a car, you'll increase its ki netic energy by four (2x 2 = 4). Or, if you drive three times
as fast, you will have nine times the kinetic energy (3x 3 = 9). The fact that kinetic
energy depends on the square of the speed means that small changes in speed can
produce large changes in ki netic energy. The squaring of speed means that ki netic energy
can only be zero or positive-never negative.

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The Wor k-Ener gy Theor em


To increase the ki netic energy of an object, work must be done on it. The change in
ki netic energy is equal to the work done. This important relationship is called the workenergy theorem. We abbrevi ate "change in" with the delta symbol, and say
Work equals change in ki netic energy.

Conser vation of Ener gy


Whenever energy is transformed or transferred, none is lost and none is gained. In the
absence of work input or output, the total energy of a system before some process or
event is equal to the total energy after.

SOLVED PROBLEMS
1.

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2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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8.

9.

Problems:

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Gravity
The Legend of the Falling Apple
According to popular legend, Newton was sitting under an apple
tree when he made a connection that changed the way we see the
world. He saw an apple fall. Perhaps he then looked up through the
branches toward the origin of the falling apple and noticed the
Moon. In any event, Newton had the insight to realize that the
force pulling on the apple was the same force that pulls on the
Moon. Newton realized that Earth's gravi ty reaches to the Moon .

The Fact of the Falling Moon


If Earth's gravi ty is pulling the Moon toward it,
why doesn't the Moon fall toward the Earth, like an
apple falls from a tree? If an apple or anything else
drops from rest, it falls in a vertical straight-line
path. To get a better idea of this, consider a tree
sitting in the back of a truck. If the truck is at
rest when the apple falls, we see that the apple's
path is vertical. But if the truck is movi ng when the
apple begins to fall, the apple follows a curved
path. Can you see that, the faster the truck moves,
the wider the curved path of the falling apple? If
the apple or anything else moves fast enough so that its curved path matches the Earth's
curvature, it becomes a satellite.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

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Thus, the greater the masses m1 and m2, the greater the force of attraction between them.
The greater the distance of separation r , the weaker is the force of attraction-weaker as
the inverse square of the distance between their centers.

CHECK YOURSELF
1. According to the equation for gravi ty, what happens to the force between two bodies if
the mass of only one body is doubled?
2. What happens if the masses of both bodies are doubled?
3. What happens if the mass of one body is doubled and the other is tripled?
4. Gravi tational force acts on all bodies in proportion to their masses. Why, then, doesn't
a heavy body fall faster than a light body?

CHECK YOUR ANSWERS


1. When one mass is doubled, the force between them doubles.
2. The force is four times as much.
3. Double X triple = six. So the force is six times as much.
4. Heavy and light object fall with the same acceleration because both have the same ratio
of weight to mass. Newton's second law (a = F/m) reminds us that greater force acting on
greater mass does not result in greater acceleration.
Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Law
The greater the distance from Earth's center, the less the
gravitational force on an object. In Newton's equation for gravi ty,
the distance term d is the distance between the centers of the masses
of objects attracted to each other. Note that the girl at the top of the
ladder weighs only 1/4th as much as she weighs at the Earth's
surface. That's because she is twice the distance from Earth's center.

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CHECK YOURSELF
1. How much does the force of gravi ty change between the Earth and a receding rocket
when the distance between them is doubled? When it is tripled? When it is increased
tenfold?
2. Consider an apple at the top of a tree. The apple is pulled by Earth's gravi ty with a
force of 1 N. If the tree were twice as tall, would the force of gravity be only 1/4 as
strong?
CHECK YOUR ANSWERS
1. When the distance is doubled, the force is only as much. When the distance is
tripled, the force is only 1/9 as much. When the distance is increased tenfold, the force is
only 1/100 as much.
2. No, because the twice-as-tall apple tree is not twice as far from the Earth's center.
The taller tree would have to be 6370 km tall (as tall as the Earth's radius) for the
apple's weight to reduce to N. For a decrease in weight by 1 %, an object must be
raised 32 km-nearly four times the height of Mt. Everest. So, as a practical matter,
we disregard the effects of everyday changes in elevation for gravi ty. The apple has
practically the same weight at the top of the tree as it has at the bottom.
Weight and Weightlessness
When you step on a bathroom scale, in effect,
you compress a spring inside it that is affixed
to a pointer. When the pointer stops moving,
the elastic force of the deformed spring
balances the gravi tational force between you
and the Earth-you and the scale are in
equilibrium. The pointer is calibrated to show
your weight. If you stand on a bathroom scale
in a movi ng elevator, you'll find variations in
your weight. If the elevator accelerates
upward, the springs inside the bathroom scale
are more compressed and your weight reading
is greater. If the elevator accelerates
downward, the springs inside the scale are less
compressed and your weight reading is less. If
the elevator cable breaks and the elevator falls freely, the reading on the scale goes to
zero. According to the scale's reading, you would be weightless. Would you really be
weightless?

We know, weight is the force due to gravi ty on a body, mg. Your weight does have the
value of mg if you're not accelerating. To generalize, we now refine this definition by
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saying that the weight of something is the force it exerts against a supporting floor or
weighing scale.
According to this definition, you are as
heavy as you feel. So, in an elevator that
accelerates downward, the supporting force
of the floor is less and, therefore, you weigh
less. If the elevator is in free fall, your
weight is zero. Even in this weightless
condition, however, there is still a
gravi tational force acting on you, causing
your downward acceleration. But gravi ty
now is not felt as weight because there is no support force.
Center of Gravi ty of People

The center of gravi ty (CG) of an object is the point located at the object's average
position of weight. For a symmetrical object, this point is at the geometric center.
But an irregularly shaped object, such as a baseball bat, has more weight at one
end, so its CG is toward the heavi er end. A piece of tile cut into the shape of a triangle has its CG one third of the way up from its base. The position of an object's CG
relative to its base of support determines the object's stability. The rule for stability is
this: If the CG of an object is above the area of support, the object will remain upright. If
the CG extends outside the area of support, the object will topple.

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This is why the Leaning Tower of Pisa doesn't topple. Its CG does not extend beyond its
base. If the tower leaned far enough over so that its CG extended beyond its base, it
would topple . When you stand, your CG is somewhere above your support base, the area
bounded by your feet. In unstable situations, you place your feet farther apart to increase
this area. Standing on one foot greatly decreases the area of your support base. A baby
must learn to coordinate and position its CG above one foot. Many birds-pigeons for
example-do this by jerki ng their heads back and forth with each step.
Gravi ty Can Be a Centripetal Force
If you whirl an empty tin can on the end of a string, you find that you must keep
pulling on the string . You pull inward on the string to keep the can revolvi ng over your
head in a circular path. A force of some ki nd is required for any circular motion,
including the nearly circular motions of the planets around the Sun.

Any force that causes an object to follow a circular path is called a centripetal force.
Centripetal means "center-seeki ng," or "toward the center." Centripetal force is not a new
ki nd of force. It is simply a name given to any force that is directed at right angles to the
path of a movi ng object and that tends to produce circular motion. The gravi tational force
acting across space is a centripetal force that keeps the Moon in Earth's orbit. Likewise,
electrons that revolve about the nucleus of an atom are held by an electrical force that is
directed toward the central nucleus.

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Projectile Motion
Without gravi ty, you could toss a rock upward at an angle and it would follow a straightline path. But, due to gravi ty, the path curves. A tossed rock, a cannon- ball, or any object
that is projected by some means and continues in motion by its own inertia is called a
projectile.
A very simple projectile is a falling stone, as shown in Figure 5.22. The stone gains speed
as it falls straight down, as indicated by a speedometer. Remember that a freely falling
object gains 10 meters/second during each second of fall. This is the acceleration due to
gravity, 10 m/s-2 . If it begins its fall from rest, 0 m/s, then at the end of the first second of
fall its speed is 10 m/s. At the end of 2 seconds, its speed is 20 m/s-and so on. It keeps
gaining 10 m/s each second it falls.
Although the change in speed is the same each second, the distance of fall keeps
increasing. That's because the average speed of fall increases each second. Let's apply
this to a new situation-throwing the stone horizontally off the cliff. First, imagine that
gravi ty doesn't act on the stone. In Figure 5.23 we see the positions the stone would have
if there were no gravity. Note that the positions each second are the same distance apart.
That's because there's no force acting on the stone.
In the real world, there is gravi ty. The thrown stone falls beneath the straight
line it would follow with no gravi ty (Figure 5.24). The stone curves as it falls.
Interestingly, this familiar curve is the result of two ki nds of motion occurring at
the same time. One ki nd is the straight -down vertical motion of Figure 5.22. The
other is the horizontal motion of constant velocity, as imagined in Figure 5.23.
Both occur simultaneously. As the stone moves horizontally, it also falls straight
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downward-beneath the place it would be if there were no gravi ty. This is indicated in
Figure 5.24.

Projectile Altitude and Range


In Figure we see the paths of several
projectiles in the absence of air drag.
All of them have the same initial
speed but different projection angles.
Notice that these projectiles reach
different altitudes, or heights above
the ground. They also have different
ranges, or distances traveled
horizontally. The remarkable thing to note is that the same range is obtained from two
different projection angles-a pair that add up to 90! An object thrown into the air at an
angle of 60, for example, will have the same range as if it were thrown at the same speed

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at an angle of 30. For the smaller angle, of course, the object remains in the air for a
shorter time.
The Effect of Air Drag on Projectiles

We have considered projectile motion


without air drag. You can neglect air drag
for a ball you toss back and forth with your
friends because the speed is low. But at
higher speeds, air resistance matters. Air
drag is a factor for high- speed projectiles,
such as tennis balls, footballs, and
basketballs cast airborne in a vi gorous game.
The result of air drag is that both range and
altitude are decreased.
Consider baseball: Air drag greatly affects
the range of balls batted and thrown
in baseball games. Without air drag, a ball normally batted to the middle of center
field would be a home run. If baseball were played on the Moon, the range of balls would
be considerably farther-abour six times the ideal range on Earth. This is because there is
no atmosphere on the Moon, so air drag on the Moon is completely absent. In addition,
gravi ty is one-sixth as strong on the Moon, which allows higher and longer paths.
Fast-Movi ng Projectiles-Satellites
Suppose that a cannon fires a
cannonball so fast that its curved path
matches the curvature of the Earth.
Then, without air drag, it would be an
Earth satellite.
The same would be true if you could throw a stone fast enough. Any satellite is
simply a projectile movi ng fast enough to fall continually around the Earth.
In Figure, we see the curved paths of a stone thrown horizontally at different speeds.
Whatever the pitching speed, in each case the stone drops the same
vertical distance in the same time. For a 1-second drop, that distance is 5 meters.
So, if you simply drop a stone from rest, it will fall 5 meters in 1 second of fall. Toss the
stone sideways, and in I second it will be 5 meters below where it would have been
without gravi ty. To become an Earth satellite, the stone's horizontal velocity must be
great enough for its falling distance to match Earth's curvature.

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It is a geometrical fact that the


surface of the Earth drops a
vertical distance of 5 meters
for every 8000 meters tangent
to the surface. We live on a
round Earth. What do we call a projectile that moves fast enough to travel a horizontal
distance of 8 ki lometers during 1 second? We call it a satellite. Neglecting air drag, it
would follow the curvature of the Earth. A little thought tells you that the minimum
required speed is 8 ki lometers per second. If this doesn't seem fast, convert it to
kilometers per hour, and you will get an impressive 29,000 ki lometers per hour (18,000
mi/hr). Fast, indeed!
At this speed, atmospheric friction would incinerate the projectile. This happens to grains
of sand and other small meteors that graze the Earth's atmosphere, burn up, and appear as
"falling stars." That is why satellites like the space shuttles are launched to altitudes
higher than 150 ki lometers-to be above the atmosphere.
Solved Problems:
1.

2.

3.

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4.

5.

6.

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7.

Problems:

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Communications Satellites
Satellites are payloads carried above the atmosphere by rockets. Putting a payload into
orbit requires control over the speed and direction of the rocket. A rocket initially fired
vertically is intentionally tipped from the vertical course as it rises. Then, once above the
drag of the atmosphere, it is aimed horizontally, whereupon the payload is given a final
thrust to orbital speed.

For a satellite dose to Earth, the period (the time for a complete orbit about the Earth) is
about 90 minutes. For higher altitudes, gravi tation is less and the orbital speed is less, so
the period is longer. For example, communication satellites located at an altitude of 5.5
Earth radii have a period of 24 hours. This period matches the period of daily Earth
rotation. For an orbit around the equator, such a satellite stays above the same point on
the ground. That is, it is in geo-synchronous orbit.
Satellite television employs communications satellites. Satellite TV is much like
traditional broadcast televi sion, but it has a larger range. Both systems use
electromagnetic signals (radio waves) to send programming to your home. Broadcast
stations transmit the waves from powerful land-based antennas, and vi ewers pick up the
signals with smaller antennas.
The problem with this technology is that radio signals travel away from a broadcast
antenna in a straight line. To receive the signals, you need to be in the direct "line-ofsight" of the antenna. The Earth's curvature interrupts the line of sight, so the broadcast
signals can only be sent over a short distance. Satellite TV solves the problem by
transmitting the signals from satellites in orbit high above Earth. This way, Earth's
curvature doesn't interrupt the line of sight. Since the satellite is in geosynchronous orbit,
the relative positions of the satellite and receiving dish are fixed. You don't need to read
just your dish-just grab the remote.

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Escape Speed
We know that a cannonball fired horizontally at 8 kilometers per second from Newton's
mountain goes into orbit. But what would happen if the cannonball were instead fired at
the same speed vertically? It would rise to some maxi mum height, reverse direction, then
fall back to Earth. Then the old saying "What goes up must come down" would hold true,
just as surely as a stone tossed skyward will be returned by gravi ty (unless, as we shall
see, its speed is great enough.)
In this age of space travel, it is more accurate to say "What goes up may come down," for
there is a critical starting speed that allows a projectile to outrun gravi ty and to escape the
Earth. This critical speed is called the escape speed, or, if direction is involved, the
escape velocity. From the surface of the Earth, the escape speed is 11.2 kilometers per
second. Launch a projectile at any speed greater than that and it will leave the Earth,
traveling slower and slower, but never stopping due to Earth's gravi ty.
How much work would be required to lift a payload against the force of Earth's gravity to
a distance very, very far ("infinitely far") away? We might think that the change of
potential energy (PE) would be infinite because the distance is infinite. But gravitation
diminishes with distance by the inverse-square law. The force of gravi ty on the payload
would be strong only near the Earth. It turns out that the change of PE of a 1-ki logram
body moved from the surface of the Earth to infinite distance is 62 million joules, or 62
megajoules (62 MJ). SO to put a pay- load infinitely far from Earth's surface requires at
least 62 megajoules of energy per kilogram of load. We won't go through the calculation
here, but 62 megajoules per ki logram corresponds to a speed of 11.2 ki lometers per
second, whatever the total mass involved. This is the escape speed from the surface of the
Earth.
If we give the payload any more energy than 62 megajoules per kilogram at the surface of
the Earth-or, equivalently, any more speed than 11.2 ki lometers per second-then,
neglecting air resistance, the payload will escape from the Earth, never to return. As it
continues outward, its PE increases and its ki netic energy (KE) decreases. Its speed
becomes less and less, although it is never reduced to zero. The payload outruns the
gravi ty of the Earth. It escapes.
The escape speeds from various bodies in the solar system are shown in the following
Table . Note that the escape speed from the surface of the Sun is 620 km/s. Even at a
150,000,OOO-km distance from the Sun (Earth's distance), the escape speed needed to
break free of the Sun's influence is 42.5 km/s, which is consider- ably more than the
escape speed of the Earth. An object projected from the Earth at a speed greater than 11.2
km/s but less than 42.5 km/s will escape the Earth, but it will not escape the Sun. Rather
than receding forever, it will occupy an orbit around the Sun.

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Composition of Matter
Pure Substances
Every material has its own properties. The properties of materials can be used to classify
them into general categories. Every material is made of a pure substance or a mixture of
substances. A pure substance is a type of matter with a fixed composition. A substance
can be either an element or a compound. Some substances you might recognize are
helium, aluminum, water, and salt.
Elements You know that atoms make up the matter around you, from stars to steel to
chocolate ice cream. Given alI these various materials, you might think that there
must be many different ki nds of atoms. But the number of different ki nds of
atoms is surprisingly small. The great variety of substances results from the many
ways in which a few ki nds of atoms can be combined. Just as the three colors
red, green, and blue can be combined to form any color on a television screen, or
just as the 26 letters of the alphabet make up all the words in a dictionary, only a
few ki nds of atoms combine in different ways to produce all of the countless substances in the universe. To date, we know of 115 distinct ki nds of atoms. Of
these, about 90 are found in nature. The remaining ki nds of atoms have been
created in the laboratory.
Any mater ial that is made up of only one type of atom is classified as an element. Pure gold, for example, is an element-it contains only gold atoms. Nitrogen gas is
an element because it contains only nitrogen atoms. Likewise, the graphite in your pencil
is an element-carbon. Graphite is made up solely of carbon atoms.
Compounds When two or more different elements combine, the substance formed is
called a compound. A compound is a pure substance in which the atoms of two or more
elements are combined in a fixed proportion. For example, water is a compound
in which two atoms of the element hydrogen combine with one atom of the element
oxygen. Chalk contains calcium, carbon, and oxygen in the proportion of one atom each
of calcium and carbon to three atoms of oxygen.

Molecules A particle consisting of two or more atoms that are bonded together is called
a molecule. Oxygen in the air, as an example, is a diatomic (two-atom) molecule. A
molecule is a basic unit of a molecular compound. The simple sugars you eat; the
proteins in your body; and the wool and cotton fibers in your clothes all consist of
molecules formed from bonded atoms.

States of Matter
Gases, liquids and solids are all made up of microscopic particles, but the behaviors of these
particles differ in the three phases.

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Note that:

Particles in a:
o gas are well separated with no regular arrangement.
o liquid are close together with no regular arrangement.
o solid are tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern.
Particles in a:
o gas vibrate and move freely at high speeds.
o liquid vibrate, move about, and slide past each other.
o solid vibrate (jiggle) but generally do not move from place to place.

Liquids and solids are often referred to as condensed phases because the particles are very close
together.
The following table summarizes properties of gases, liquids, and solids and identifies the
microscopic behavior responsible for each property.
The following table summarizes properties of gases, liquids, and solids and identifies the
microscopic behavior responsible for each property.

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Some Characteristics of Gases, Liquids and Solids and the Microscopic


Explanation for the Behavior
gas

liquid

solid

assumes the shape and


volume of its container
particles can move past
one another

assumes the shape of the


part of the container which
it occupies
particles can move/slide
past one another

retains a fixed volume and


shape
rigid - particles locked into
place

compressible
lots of free space between
particles

not easily compressible


little free space between
particles

not easily compressible


little free space between
particles

flows easily
particles can move past
one another

flows easily
particles can move/slide
past one another

does not flow easily


rigid - particles cannot
move/slide past one
another

Properties of Matter
Just as you use several adjectives to describe someone (color of hair or
eyes, how tall or short, etc.) several properties, or characteristics, must be
used in combination to adequately describe a kind of matter. Simply saying
that something is a colorless liquid isn't enough to identify it as water. The
following chart shows the differences between the two kinds of properties,
chemical and physical, as well as how the two kinds of physical properties,
intensive and extensive, differ.

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Brownian Motion
Brownian Motion is the erratic and constant movement of tiny particles when they are suspended
in a fluid or gas. For example, if you sprinkle tiny grains of dust into some water, and then look
at the dust particles under a microscope, the dust particles will appear to dance around, quite
randomly.This zig-zag motion happens regardless of how still the water is.

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The phenomenon was discovered in 1827 by the British botanist Robert Brown. He was
investigating pollen grains in water, and noticed that they wouldn't sit still under his
miscroscope. At first he thought the pollen was moving because it was alive. But even hundredyear old pollen grains danced around. When he looked at non-living particles, they moved too,
so he knew there had to be some other explanation.
Futher experiments by Brown and others showed that the motion became more rapid and the
particles moved farther in a given time interval when the temperature of the water was raised,
when the viscosity of the fluid was lowered, or when the size of the particles was reduced.
This motion makes sense if you imagine the pollen grain or dust mote being bombarded on
all sides by particles too tiny to see, that are in constant motion.
The atoms or molecules that make up a liquid or gas are in constant thermal motion, and their
velocity distribution is determined by the temperature of the system. The motion of the
molecules of the fluid, due to the fact that the fluid contains heat, causes the molecules to strike
the suspended particles at random. The impact makes the particles move ... the net effect is an
erratic, random motion of the particle through the fluid.

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Three Temperature Scales


The most commonly used temperature scale in the US today is the Fahrenheit scale, abbreviated F. In
this scale, water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees Another common scale is the Celsius
(also called Centigrade) scale. In this scale, water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees.
To convert between Fahrenheit and Celsius use this formula:
Fahrenheit Temperature = (Celsius Temperature)x(9/5) + 32
There are also temperature scales in which zero is absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature.
Absolute zero is at -273.15 Celsius, or -459.67 Fahrenheit.The Kelvin temperature scale uses the same
size degree as Celsius, but has its zero set to absolute zero. To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, add
273.15 to the Celsius reading.

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Worked Out Problems

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Problems

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The Beginning of Atomic Theory


Imagine that you cut something in half. Then, you cut each half in half and continue doing so.
Could you keep cutting the pieces in half forever? Around 440 BC, a Greek philosopher named
Democritus (di MAHK ruh tuhs) thought that you would eventually end up with a particle that
could not be cut. He called this particle an atom. The word atom is from the Greek
word atomos, which means not able to be divided. We now know that matter is made of
particles that we call atoms. An atom is the smallest particle into which an element can be
divided and still have the properties of that element.

Daltons Atomic Theory


By the late 1700s, scientists had learned that elements combine in certain proportions based on
mass to form compounds. For example, hydrogen and oxygen always combine in the same
proportion to form water, H2O. John Dalton, a British chemist and teacher, wanted to know why.
He experimented with different substances. His results suggested that elements combine
in certain proportions because they are made of atoms. Dalton, published his atomic theory in
1803. His theory stated the following ideas:
All substances are made of atoms. Atoms are small particles that cannot be created, divided,
or destroyed.
Atoms of the same element are exactly alike, and atoms of different elements are different.
Atoms join with other atoms to make new substances.
Daltons theory was an important step toward the current understanding of atoms. By the end of
the 1800s, scientists agreed that Daltons theory explained much of what they saw.
However, new information was found that did not fit some of Daltons ideas. The atomic theory
was then changed to describe the atom more accurately.

Thomsons Discovery of Electrons


In 1897, a British scientist named J. J. Thomson showed that Daltons theory was not quite
right. Thomson discovered that there are small particles inside the atom. Thus, atoms can
be divided into even smaller parts. Thomson experimented with a cathode-ray tube like the one
shown in Figure 3.
He discovered that a positively charged plate (marked with a plus sign in the drawing) attracted
the beam and made it bend down. Thomson concluded that the beam must be made of particles
that have negative electric charges, because opposite charges attract. The negatively charged
particles that Thomson discovered are now called electrons.

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Thomson showed that electrons are a part of atoms, but his


experiment did not provide a way of knowing where electrons
were located in atoms. So, he made a guess that the electrons
were mixed throughout an atom, like plums in a pudding.
Thomsons proposed model of the atom is sometimes called
the plum-pudding model, after a dessert that was popular in
Thomsons day. This model is shown in Figure 4. Today, you
might call Thomsons model the chocolate chip ice-cream model.
Chocolate chips represent electrons. The ice cream represents
the rest of the atom.

Figure 3

Rutherfords Atomic Shooting Gallery


In 1909, a former student of Thomsons named Ernest Rutherford decided to test Thomsons
theory. He designed an experiment to study the parts of the atom. He aimed a beam
of small, positively charged particles at a thin sheet of gold foil. Rutherford put a special coating
behind the foil. The coating glowed when hit by the positively charged particles. Rutherford
could then see where the particles went after hitting the gold. This experiment would show if
atoms have different parts or if they are all the same throughout, as the plum-pudding
model suggested. Figure 5 shows how Rutherfords experiment was set up.
Rutherford started with Thomsons idea that atoms are soft blobs of matter through which
electrons are evenly distributed. Therefore, he expected the particles to pass right through
the gold in a straight line. Most of the particles did just that. But to Rutherfords great surprise, a
few of the particles were deflected (turned to one side). Some even bounced straight
back. Rutherford reportedly said,
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The Nucleus and the Electrons


The plum-pudding model of the atom did not explain what Rutherford saw. Most of the tiny
particles went straight through the gold foil. A small number of them were deflected. He realized
that the explanation for this must be that most matter in an atom is found in a very small part of
the atom. Based on his experiment, Rutherford revised the atomic
theory in 1911. He made a new model of the atom, as Figure 6 shows. Rutherford proposed that
in the center of the atom is a tiny, extremely dense, positively charged area
called the nucleus. Because like charges repel, Rutherford reasoned that positively charged
particles that passed close by the nucleus were pushed away by the positive charges in the
nucleus. A particle that headed straight for a nucleus would be pushed almost straight back in
the direction from which it came. From his results, Rutherford calculated that the diameter
of the nucleus was 100,000 times smaller than the diameter
of the gold atom. From Rutherfords results, the important idea emerged that atoms are mostly
empty space with a tiny, massive
nucleus at the center.

Bohrs Electron Levels


In 1913, Niels Bohr, a Danish
scientist who worked with
Rutherford, studied the way that
atoms react to light. Bohrs results
led him to propose that electrons
move around the nucleus in definite
paths. In Bohrs model, there are no
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paths between the levels. But electrons can jump from a path in one level to a path in another
level. Think of the levels as rungs on a ladder. You can stand on the rungs of a ladder but not
between the rungs. Bohrs model was a valuable tool in predicting some atomic behavior. But
the atomic theory still had room for improvement.

The Modern Atomic Theory


Many 20th-century scientists added to our current
understanding of the atom. An Austrian physicist
named Erwin Schrdinger (ER veen SHROH ding uhr)
and a German physicist named Werner Heisenberg
(VER nuhr HIE zuhn berkh) did especially important
work. They further explained the nature of electrons in
the atom. For example, electrons do not travel in
definite paths as Bohr suggested. In fact, the exact
path of an electron cannot be predicted. According to
the current theory, there are regions inside the atom
where electrons are likely to be found. These regions
are called electron clouds. Sometimes the regions are
called orbitals. The electron-cloud model of the
atom is shown in Figure 8.

The Size of an Atom


Most of what we know about the atom was discovered without seeing a single atom. But how
small is an atom? Think about a penny. A penny contains about 2 x1022 atoms (which
can be written as 20,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms) of copper and zinc. Thats 20
thousand billion billion atoms more than 3,000,000,000,000 times more atoms than people
on Earth! If there are that many atoms in a penny, each atom
must be very small. Scientists know that aluminum is made of average sized atoms. An
aluminum atom has a diameter of about 0.00000001 cm. Thats one hundred-millionth of a
centimeter.

The Parts of
an Atom
Almost all kinds of
atoms are made of
the same three
particles. These
particles are
protons, neutrons,
and electrons, as
the model in Figure
1 shows. The
particles in the
pictures are not
shown in their
correct proportions.

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The Nucleus
Only two kinds of particles can make up a nucleus. Protons are positively charged particles of
the nucleus. The mass of a proton is about 1.7 x 1024 g. This number can also be written as
0.0000000000000000000000017 g. Because the masses of particles in atoms are so small,
scientists made a new unit for these particles. The SI unit that describes the mass of a
particle in an atom is the atomic mass unit (amu). Each proton has a mass of about 1 amu.
Neutrons are the particles of the nucleus that have no electric charge. Neutrons are a little more
massive than protons. But the difference in mass is so small that the mass of a neutron can be
thought of as 1 amu.

Outside the Nucleus


Electrons are the negatively charged particles in atoms. Electrons are found outside the nucleus
in electron clouds. Compared with protons and neutrons, electrons have a very small mass. It
takes more than 1,800 electrons to equal the mass of 1 proton. The mass of an electron is so
small that the mass is usually thought of as almost zero.
The charges of protons and electrons are opposite but equal, so the charges cancel out.
Because an atom has no overall charge, an atom is neutral. If the numbers of electrons and
protons become unequal, the atom becomes a charged particle called an ion (IE ahn). An atom
that loses one or more electrons becomes a positively-charged ion. An atom that gains one or
more electrons becomes a negatively-charged ion.

Atoms and Elements


There are more than 110 different elements. The atoms of each of these elements are different
from the atoms of all other elements. What makes atoms different from each other?
To find out, imagine that you could build an atom by putting together protons, neutrons, and
electrons.

The Simplest Atom


To understand atoms, you should start with the simplest atom. Protons and electrons are found
in all atoms. The simplest atom is made of just one of each. The atom is so simple
that it doesnt even have a neutron. To build this atom, put just one proton in the center of the
atom for the nucleus. To have a neutral charge, your atom will also need the same
number of electrons as protons. So, you put one electron in the electron cloud outside the
nucleus. Congratulations! You have just made a hydrogen atom.

The Role of Neutrons


Now, build an atom that has two protons. Both of the protons are positively charged, so they
repel one another. You cannot form a nucleus with them unless you add some neutrons.
For this atom, two neutrons will do. Then, add two electrons outside the nucleus. You have just
made an atom of the element helium.

Building Bigger Atoms


You could build a carbon atom using 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons. You could build a
fluorine atom using 9 protons, 10 neutrons, and 9 electrons. You could even build a gold atom
using 79 protons, 118 neutrons, and 79 electrons! As you can see, an atom does not have to
have equal numbers of protons and neutrons.

Protons and Atomic Number


How can you tell which elements these atoms represent? The key is the number of protons. The
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is the atomic number of that atom.
All atoms of an element have the same atomic number. The element hydrogen has an atomic
number of 1, which means that every hydrogen atom has only one proton in its nucleus.
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The element carbon has an atomic number of 6. So, every carbon atom has six protons in its
nucleus. Similarly, if an atom has 8 protons, you know that it is an oxygen atom, because
the element oxygen has an atomic number of 8. The atomic number of each element is listed on
the periodic table.

Mass Number The mass number of an atom is the sum of the number of protons and
the number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. Look at Table 3 to see that this is
true. If you know the mass number and the atomic number of an atom, you can calculate
the number of neutrons. The number of neutrons is equal to the atomic number subtracted
from the mass number.
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons can have different
properties. For example, carbon with a mass number equal to 12, or carbon-12, is the
most common form of carbon. Carbon-14 is present on Earth in much smaller quantities.
Carbon-14 is radioactive, while carbon-12 is not.

Isotopes
Models of two kinds of
hydrogen atoms are shown
in Figure 4. They are both
hydrogen atoms because
they each have one proton.
But one of the atoms also
has a neutron in its nucleus.
The two hydrogen atoms are
isotopes of each other.
Isotopes are atoms that have
the same number of protons but have different numbers of neutrons. Atoms that are isotopes of
each other are always the same element, because isotopes of the same element always have
the same number of protons. They have different numbers of neutrons, however, which gives
them different masses.

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The Difference Between


Isotopes
You can identify each isotope of an
element by its mass number. The
mass number is the sum of the
protons and neutrons in an atom.
Electrons are not included in an
atoms mass number because their
mass is so small that they have
little effect on the atoms total mass.
Look at the two boron isotope
models shown in Figure. The
isotope on the left has 5 protons and
5 neutrons. This isotope has a mass
number of 10. The isotope on the
right has a mass number of 11 because it has one more neutron than the one on the left.

How atoms are arranges?

Discovering a Pattern
In the late 1800s, Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, searched for a way to
organize the elements. When he arranged all the elements known at that
time in order of increasing atomic masses, he discovered a pattern. Chemical properties
found in lighter elements could be shown to repeat in heavi er elements. Because the
pattern repeated, it was considered to be periodic. Today, this arrangement is called the
periodic table of elements. In the per iodic table, the elements are arranged by increasing
atomic number and by changes in physical and chemical properties.

Mendeleevs Predictions Mendeleev had to leave blank spaces in his periodic table
to keep the elements properly lined up according to their chemical properties. He looked
at the properties and atomic masses of
the elements surrounding these blank
spaces. From this information, he was
able to predict the properties and the
mass numbers of new elements that had
not yet been discovered. Table 4
shows Mendeleev s predicted
properties for germanium, which he
called ekasilicon. His predictions
proved to be accurate. Scientists later
discovered these missing elements and
found that their properties were
ext remely close to what Mendeleev had
predicted.
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Improving the Periodic Table Although Mendeleev s arrangement of elements was


successful, it did need some changes. On Mendeleev s table, the atomic mass gradually
increased from left to right. In 1913, the work of Henry G. J. Moseley, a young English
scientist, led to the arrangement of elements based on their increasing atomic numbers
instead of an arrangement based on atomic masses. This new arrangement seemed to
correct the problems that had occurred in the old table. The current periodic table uses
Moseley s arrangement of the elements.

The Atom and the Periodic Table


Objects often are sorted or classified according to the properties they have in common.
This also is done in the periodic table. The vertical columns in the periodic table are
called gr oups, or families, and are numbered 1 through 18. Elements in each group have
similar properties. For example, in Group 11, copper, silver, and gold have similar
properties. Each is a shiny metal and a good conductor of electricity and heat.

Electron Cloud Structure


In a neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. Therefore, a
carbon atom, with an atomic number of 6, has six protons and six electrons. These
electrons are located in the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.
Scientists have found that electrons within the electron cloud have different amounts of
energy. Scientists model the energy differences of the electrons by placing the electrons
in energy levels, as in Figure. Ener gy levels near er the nucleus have lower ener gy
than those levels that ar e far ther away. Electrons fill these energy levels from the inner
levels (closer to the nucleus) to the outer levels (farther from the nucleus). Elements that
ar e in the same gr oup have the same number of electr ons in their outer ener gy
levels. It is the number of electrons in the outer energy level that determines the chemical
properties of an element. It is important to understand the link between the location on
the periodic table, chemical properties, and the structure of the atom.

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Energy Levels Energy levels are named using the numbers one to seven. Energy level
one can contain a maxi mum of two electrons. Energy level two can contain a maxi mum
of eight electrons. Notice that energy levels three and four contain several electrons. A
complete and stable outer energy level will contain eight electrons. In elements in periods
three and higher, additional electrons can be added to inner energy levels, although the
outer energy level contains only eight electrons.

Rows on the Table Remember that an atomic number found on the periodic table is
equal to the number of electrons in an atom. Look at Figure 10. The first row has
hydrogen with one electron and helium with two electrons both in energy level one.
Because energy level one is the outermost level containing an electron, hydrogen has one
outer electron. Helium has two outer electrons. Recall from Figure 9 that energy level
one can hold only two electrons. Therefore, helium has a full or complete outer energy
level.
The second row begins with lithium, which has three electrons, two in energy level one
and one in energy level two. Lithium has one outer electron. Lithium is followed by
beryllium, with two outer electrons, boron with three, and so on until you reach neon,
with eight outer electrons. Again, looki ng at Figure 9, energy level two can hold only
eight electrons. Therefore, neon has a complete outer energy level. Do you notice how
the row in the periodic table ends when an outer energy level is filled? In the third row of
elements, the electrons begin filling energy level three. The row ends with argon, which
has a full outer energy level of eight electrons.

Figure 10

Electron Dot Diagrams Did you notice that hydrogen, lithium, and sodium
each have one electron in their outer energy levels? Elements that are in the
same group have the same number of electrons in their outer energy levels. An
electr on dot diagr am uses the symbol of the element and dots to represent the
electrons in the outer energy level. Figure shows the electron dot diagram for
four of the Group 1 elements.
Same Group, Similar Properties The elements in Group 17, the
halogens, have electron dot diagrams similar to chlorine, shown in Figure 12.
All halogens have seven electrons in their outer energy levels.
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A common property of the halogens is the ability to form compounds readily with
elements in Group 1.Group 1 elements each have only one electron in their outer energy
levels. Figure 12 shows an example of a compound formed by one such reaction. The
Group 1 element, sodium, reacts easily with the Group 17 element, chlorine. The result is
the compound sodium chloride, or NaCl, ordinary table salt.
Not all elements will combine readily with other elements. The elements in Group 18
have complete outer energy levels. This special configuration makes Group 18 elements
relatively unreactive.

Fig: 12

Regions on the
Periodic Table
The periodic table has several
regions with specific names. The
horizontal rows of elements on the
periodic table are called per iods.
The elements incr ease by one
pr oton and one electr on as you
go fr om left to r ight in a per iod.
All of the elements in the blue
squares in Figure are metals.
Iron, zinc, and copper are
examples of metals. Most metals
exi st as solids at room temperature. They are shiny, can be drawn into wires, can be
pounded into sheets, and are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Those elements on the right side of the periodic table, in yellow, are classified as
nonmetals. Oxygen, bromine, and carbon are examples of nonmetals. Most nonmetals are
gases, are brittle, and are poor conductors of heat and electricity at room temperature.
The elements in green are metalloids or semimetals. They have some properties of both
metals and nonmetals. Boron and silicon are examples of metalloids.

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Radioactivity
Protons and Neutrons in the Nucleus Protons and neutrons are packed together
tightly in a nucleus. The region outside the nucleus in which the electrons are located is
large compared to the size of the nucleus. The nucleus occupies only a tiny fraction of the
space in the atom. If an atom were enlarged so that it was 1 km in diameter, its nucleus
would have a diameter of only a few centimeters. But the nucleus contains almost all the
mass of the atom, because the mass of one proton or neutron is almost 2,000 times greater
than the mass of an electron.

The Strong Force

How do you suppose protons and neutrons are held together so tightly in the nucleus?
Positive electric charges repel each other, so why don t the protons in a nucleus push
each other away? Another force, called the str ong for ce, causes protons and
neutrons to be attracted to each other, as shown in Figure. The strong force is one of the
four basic forces in nature and is about 100 times stronger than the electric force. The
attractive forces between all the protons and neutrons in a nucleus keep the nucleus
together. However, protons and neutrons have to be close together, like they are in the
nucleus, to be attracted by the strong force. The strong force is a short-range force that
quickl y becomes extremely weak as protons and neutrons get farther apart. The electric
force is a long-range force, so protons that are far apart still are repelled by the electric
force.

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Attraction and Repulsion Some atoms,


such as uranium, have many protons and neutrons
in their nuclei. These nuclei are held
together less tightly than nuclei containing only
a few protons and neutrons. To understand this,
look at Figure A. If a nucleus has only a few
protons and neutrons, they are all close enough
together to be attracted to each other by the
strong force. Because only a few protons are in
the nucleus, the total electric force causing protons
to repel each other is small. As a result, the
overall force between the protons and the neutrons
attracts the particles to each other.
Forces in a Large Nucleus However, if
nuclei have many protons and neutrons, each
proton or neutron is attracted to only a few neighbors
by the strong force, as shown in Figure B.The other
protons and neutrons are too far away. Because only the closest protons and neutrons
attract each other in a large nucleus, the strong force holding them together is about the
same as in a small nucleus. However, all the protons in a large nucleus exert a repulsive
electric force on each other. Thus, the electric repulsive force on a proton in a large
nucleus is larger than it would be in a small nucleus. Because the r epulsive for ce
incr eases in a lar ge nucleus while the attr active for ce on each pr oton or neutr on
r emains about the same, pr otons and neutr ons ar e held together less tightly in a
lar ge nucleus.

Radioactivity
Many types of nuclei are held together permanently and are stable. However, there are
many other types of nuclei that are unstable. These nuclei break apart, or decay, by
emitting particles and energy. This process of nuclear decay is called r adioactivity.
A nucleus that decays is called a radioactive nucleus.
Nuclei that contain large numbers of protons and neutrons tend to be unstable. In fact, all
nuclei that contain more than 83protons are radioactive. However, many other nuclei that
contain fewer than 83 protons also are radioactive. Even some nuclei with only one or a
few protons are radioactive.
Almost all elements with more than 92 protons don t exi st naturally on Earth. They have
been produced only in laboratories and are called synthetic elements. These synthetic
elements are unstable and decay soon after they are created.

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Converting Mass into Energy When an unstable nucleus decays, energy is emitted.
If energy is conserved and cannot be created or destroyed, where does this energy come
from? Recall that in nuclear reactions, mass can be converted into energy. As an unstable
nucleus decays, a small amount of mass is converted into energy. As a result, the mass of
the initial nucleus is slightly larger than the mass of the final nucleus plus the mass of any
particles that are emitted. A large amount of energy is produced by the conversion of only
a small amount of mass.

Nuclear Numbers A nucleus can be described by the number of protons and neutrons
it contains. A nucleus can be represented by a symbol that includes its atomic number,
mass number, and the symbol of the element it belongs to. The symbol for the nucleus of
the stable isotope of carbon is shown below as an example.

This isotope is called carbon-12. The number of neutrons in the nucleus is the mass
number minus the atomic number. So the number of neutrons in the carbon-12 nucleus is
12 - 6 = 6. Carbon-12 has six protons and six neutrons. Now, compare the isotope
carbon-12 to this radioactive isotope of carbon:

Nuclear Radiation
When an unstable nucleus decays, particles and energy called nuclear radiation are
emitted from it. The three types of nuclear radiation are alpha, beta (BAY tuh), and
gamma radiation. Alpha and beta radiation are particles. Gamma radiation is an
electromagnetic wave.

Alpha Particles
When alpha radiation occurs, an alpha par ticlemade of two protons and two neutrons,
is emitted from the decaying nucleus. An alpha particle is the same as the nucleus of a
helium atom. It has a charge of +2 and an atomic mass of 4.Its symbol is the same as the
symbol of a helium nucleus,42

Compared to beta and gamma radiation, alpha particles are much more massive. They
also have the most electric charge. As a result, alpha particles lose energy more quickl y
when they interact with matter than the other types of nuclear radiation do. When alpha
particles pass through matter, they exert an electric force on the electrons in atoms in
their path. This force pulls electrons away from atoms and leaves behind charged ions.
Alpha particles lose energy quickl y during this process. As a result, alpha particles are the
least penetrating form of nuclear radiation. Alpha particles can be stopped by a sheet of
paper.

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Damage from Alpha Particles Alpha particles can be dangerous if they are released
by radioactive atoms inside the human body. Biological molecules inside your body are
large and easily damaged. A single alpha particle can damage many fragile biological
molecules. Damage from alpha particles can cause cells not to function properly, leading
to illness and disease.

Transmutation When an atom emits an alpha particle, it has two fewer protons, so it is
a different element. Tr ansmutation is the process of changing one element to another
through nuclear decay. In alpha decay, two protons and two neutrons are lost from the
nucleus. The new element has an atomic number two less than that of the original
element. The mass number of the new element is four less than the original element.

Beta Particles
A second type of radioactive decay is called beta decay. Sometimes in an unstable
nucleus a neutron decays into a proton and emits an electron. The electron is emitted
from the nucleus and is called a beta par ticle. Because the atom now has one more
proton, it becomes the element with an atomic number one greater than that of the
original element. Atoms that lose beta particles undergo transmutation. However, because
the total number of protons and neutrons does not change during beta decay, the mass
number of the new element is the same as that of the original element.
Figure 9 shows a transmutation caused by beta decay.

Damage from Beta Particles Beta particles are much faster and more penetrating
than alpha particles. They can pass through paper but are stopped by a sheet of aluminum
foil. Just like alpha particles, beta particles can damage cells when they are emitted by
radioactive nuclei inside the human body.
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Gamma Rays
The most penetrating form of nuclear radiation is gamma radiation. Gamma r ays are
electromagnetic waves with the highest frequencies and the shortest wavelengths in the
electromagnetic spectrum. They have no mass and no charge and travel at the speed of
light. They usually are emitted from a nucleus when alpha decay or beta decay occurs.
Thick blocks of dense materials, such as lead and concrete, are required to stop gamma
rays. However, gamma rays cause less damage to biological molecules as they pass
through livi ng tissue. Suppose an alpha particle and a gamma ray travel the same distance
through matter. The gamma ray produces fewer ions because it has no electric charge.

Radioactive Half-Life
If an element is radioactive, how can you tell when its atoms are going to decay? Some
radioisotopes decay to stable atoms in less than a second. However, the nuclei of certain
radioactive isotopes require millions of years to decay. A
measure of the time required by the nuclei of an isotope to decay
is called the half-life. The half-life of a radioactive isotope is the
amount of time it takes for half the nuclei in a sample of the
isotope to decay. The nucleus left after the isotope decays is
called the daughter nucleus. For example, radium-226 has a halflife of 1620 years, which means that half of a pure radium-226
sample will be converted to other elements by the end of 1620
years. In the next 1620 years, half of the remaining radium
will decay, leaving only one-fourth the original amount of
radium. (After 20 half-lives, the initial quantity of radium-226
will be diminished by a factor of about 1 million; Figur e 11)
The half-life of an element is remarkably constant and not
affected by external conditions. Some radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less
than a millionth of a second, while others have half-lives of more than a billion years.
Figure 10 shows how the number of decaying nuclei decreases after each half-life.
Half-lives vary widely among the radioactive isotopes. For example, polonium-214 has a
half-life of less than a thousandth of a second, but uranium-238 has a half-life of 4.5
billion years. The half-lives of some other radioactive elements are listed in Table 4.

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Figure 11

Radioactive Dating
Some geologists, biologists, and archaeologists, among others, are interested in the ages
of rocks and fossils found on Earth. The ages of these materials can be determined using
radioactive isotopes and their half-lives. First, the amounts of the radioactive isotope and
its daughter nucleus in a sample of material are measured. Then, the number of half-lives
that need to pass to give the measured amounts of the isotope and its daughter nucleus is
calculated. The number of half-lives is the amount of time that has passed since the
isotope began to decay. Also, it is usually the amount of time that has passed since the
object was formed, or the age of the object. Different isotopes are useful in dating
different types of materials.

Carbon Dating The radioactive isotope carbon-14 often is used to estimate the ages of
plant and animal remains. Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5,730 years and is found in
molecules such as carbon dioxi de. Plants use carbon dioxi de when they make food, so all
plants contain carbon-14.When animals eat plants, carbon-14 is added to their bodies.

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The decaying carbon-14 in a plant or animal is replaced when an animal eats or when a
plant makes food. As a result, the ratio of the number of carbon-14 atoms to the number
of carbon-12 atoms in the organism remains nearly constant. But when an organism dies,
its carbon-14 atoms decay without being replaced. The ratio of carbon-14 to carbon 12
then decreases with time. By measuring this ratio, the age of an organism s remains can
be estimated. However, only material from plants and animals that lived within the past
50,000 years contains enough carbon-14 to be measured.

Nuclear Fission
In the 1930s, physicist Enrico Fermi thought that by bombarding nuclei with neutrons,
nuclei would absorb neutrons and heavi er nuclei would be produced. However, in 1938,
Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann found that when a neutron strikes a uranium-235
nucleus, the nucleus splits apart into smaller nuclei. In 1939 Lise Meitner was the first to
offer a theory to explain these results. She proposed that the uranium-235 nucleus is so
distorted when the neutron strikes it that it divi des into two smaller nuclei, as shown in
Figure 16. The process of splitting a nucleus into several smaller nuclei is nuclear
fission. The word fission means to divide.

Mass and Energy Albert Einstein proposed that mass and energy were related in his
special theory of relativi ty. According to this theory, mass can be converted to energy and
energy can be converted to mass. The relation between mass and energy is given by this
equation:

A small amount of mass can be converted into an enormous amount of energy. For
example, if one gram of mass is converted to energy, about 100 trillion joules of energy
are released.

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Chain Reactions When a


nuclear fission reaction
occurs, the neutrons emitted
can strike other nuclei in the
sample and cause them to
split. These reactions then
release more neutrons,
causing additional nuclei to
split, as shown in Figure 17.
The series of repeated fission
reactions caused by the
release of neutrons in each
reaction is a chain r eaction.
If the chain reaction is
uncontrolled, an enormous
amount of energy is released
in an instant. However, a chain reaction can be controlled by adding materials that absorb
neutrons. If enough neutrons are absorbed, the reaction will continue at a constant rate.
For a chain reaction to occur, a critical mass of material that can undergo fission must be
present. The cr itical mass is the amount of material required so that each fission reaction
produces approxi mately one more fission reaction. If less than the critical mass of
material is present, a chain reaction will not occur.

Nuclear Fusion
Even though nuclear fission reactions release tremendous amounts of energy, even more
energy can be released by nuclear fusion reactions. In a nuclear fusion reaction, two
nuclei with small masses combine to form a nucleus of larger mass. Nuclear fission
reactions release millions of times more energy than can be released by chemical
reactions.

Temperature and Fusion For nuclear fusion to occur, positively charged nuclei
must get close to each other. However, nuclei repel each other because they have the
same positive electric charge. If nuclei are movi ng fast, they can have enough
ki netic energy to overcome the repulsive electrical force between them and get close to
each other. Remember that the ki netic energy of atoms or molecules increases as their
temperature increases. Only at temperatures of millions of degrees Celsius are nuclei
movi ng so fast that they can get close enough for fusion to occur. These extremely high
temperatures are found in the center of stars, such as the Sun.

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Nuclear Fusion and the Sun


The Sun is composed mainly of
hydrogen. Most of the energy given
off by the Sun is produced by a
process involvi ng the fusion of
hydrogen nuclei. This process occurs
in several stages, and one of the
stages is shown in Figure 18. The
net result of this process is that four
hydrogen nuclei are converted into
one helium nucleus. As these nuclear
reactions occur, a small amount of
mass is changed into an enormous amount of energy. Earth receives a small amount of
this energy as thermal energy and light. As the Sun ages, the hydrogen nuclei are used up
as they are converted into helium. So far, only about one percent of the Sun s mass has
been converted into energy. It is estimated that the Sun has enough hydrogen to keep this
reaction going for another 5 billion years.

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Problems:

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Solved Questions/Problems
1.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

6.

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Problems:

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Chemical Bonding
Formulas
The chemical symbols Na and Cl
represent the elements sodium and
chlorine. When written as NaCl, the
symbols make up a formula, or chemical
shorthand, for the compound sodium
chloride. A chemical for mula tells what
elements a compound contains and the
exact number of the atoms of each
element in a unit of that compound. The
compound that you are probably most
familiar with is H2O, commonly known
as water. This formula contains the
symbols H for the element hydrogen and
O for the element oxygen.
Notice the number 2 written as a
subscript after the H for hydrogen.
Subscript means written below. A
subscript written after a symbol tells
how many atoms of that element are in a
unit of the compound. If a symbol has no subscript, the unit contains only one atom
of that element. A unit of H2O contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
Look at the formulas for each compound listed in Table 1. What elements combine to
form each compound? How many atoms of each element are required to form each of the
compounds?

Atomic Stability
Why do atoms form compounds? The electric forces between electrons and protons,
which are oppositely charged, hold atoms and molecules together, and thus they are the
forces that cause compounds to form. The periodic table on the inside back cover of your
book lists the known elements. However, the six noble gases in Group 18 do not form
compounds, or do so with difficulty. Atoms of noble gases are unusually stable.
Compounds of these atoms rarely form because they are almost always less stable than
the original atoms.

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The Unique Noble Gases To understand the


stability of the noble gases, it is helpful to look at
electron dot diagrams across a period. Electron dot
diagrams show only the electrons in the outer energy
level of an atom. They contain the chemical symbol
for the element surrounded by dots representing its
outer electrons. How do you know how many dots
to make? For Groups 1 and 2 and 13 through 18.
Elements in Group 1 each have one outer electron.
Those in Group 2 each have two. Those in Group 13
each have three, those in Group 14, four, and so on
to Group 18, the noble gases, which each have eight.
Chemical Stability An atom is chemically stable
when its outermost energy level has the maximum
number of electrons. The outer energy levels of
helium and hydrogen are stable with two electrons.
The outer energy levels of all the other elements
are stable when they contain eight electrons. Figure
4 shows electron dot diagrams of some of the noble
gases. Notice that eight dots surround Kr, Ne, Xe,
Ar, and Rn, and two dots surround He.

Energy Levels and Other Elements How do the dot diagrams represent other
elements, and how does this relate to their ability to make compounds? Hydrogen and
helium, the elements in period 1 of the periodic table, can hold a maximum of two
electrons in their outer energy levels. Hydrogen contains one electron in its lone energy
level. A dot diagram for hydrogen has a single dot next to its symbol. This means that
hydrogen s outer energy level is not full. It is more stable when it is part of a compound.

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In contrast, helium s outer energy level contains two electrons. Its dot diagram has two
dotsa pair of electronsnext to its symbol. Helium has a full outer energy level and is
chemically stable. Helium rarely forms compounds and the element is a commonly used
gas. When you look at the elements in Groups 13 through 17, you see that none of the
elements has a stable energy level. Each group contains too few electrons for a stable
level of eight electrons.

Outer LevelsGetting Their Fill As you just learned, hydrogen is an element that
does not have a full outer energy level. How does hydrogen, or any other element,
become stable? Atoms with partially stable outer energy levels can lose, gain, or share
electrons to obtain stable outer energy levels. They do this by combining with other
atoms that also have partially complete outer energy levels. As a result, each becomes
stable. Figure 5 shows electron dot diagrams for sodium and chlorine. When they
combine, sodium loses one electron and chlorine gains one electron. You can see from
the electron dot diagram that chlorine now has a stable outer energy level, similar to a
noble gas. But what about sodium?

Stability Is Reached Sodium had only one electron in its outer energy level, which it
lost when it combined with chlorine to form sodium chloride. However, look back to the
next, outermost energy level of sodium. This is now the new outer energy level, and it is
stable with eight electrons. When the outer electron of sodium is removed, a complete
inner energy level becomes the new outer energy level. Sodium and chlorine are
stable now because of the exchange of an electron. In the compound water, each
hydrogen atom needs one electron to have a stable outer energy level. The oxygen atom
needs two electrons for its outer level to be stable with eight electrons. Hydrogen and
oxygen become stable and form bonds in a different way from sodium and chlorine.
Instead of gaining or losing electrons, they share them. Figure 6 shows how hydrogen
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and oxygen share electrons to achieve a more stable


arrangement of electrons.
Atoms, too, lose or gain to meet a goala stable energy
level. They do not lose or gain an advantage. Instead, they
lose or gain electrons. An atom that has lost or gained
electrons is called an ion. An ion is a charged particle
because it now has either more or fewer electrons than
protons. The positive and negative charges are not balanced.
It is the electric forces between oppositely charged particles,
such as ions, that hold compounds together.

Gain or Loss of Electrons


You and a friend decide to go to the movies. When you arrive at the theater, you discover
that you do not have enough money to buy a ticket. Your friend has enough money for
both tickets and loans you the money. Now you both have enough money to go to the
movi es.
Recall that atoms also can loan electrons to other atoms so that both can reach a stable
energy level. When atoms gain, lose, or share electrons, an attraction forms that pulls the
atoms together to form a compound. This attraction is called a chemical bond. A
chemical bond is the force that holds atoms together in a compound. A compound has
different physical and chemical properties from those of the atoms that make up
the compound. Some of the most common compounds are made by the loss and gain of
just one electron. These compounds contain an element from Group 1 on the periodic
table and an element from Group 17. Some examples are sodium chloride, commonly
known as table salt, and potassium iodide, an ingredient in iodized salt.
Why do people need iodized salt? A lack of iodine causes a wide range of problems
in the human body. The most obvi ous is an enlarged thyroid gland, but the problems can
include mental retardation, neurological disorders, and physical problems.

A Bond Forms What happens when potassium and iodine atoms collide? A neutral
atom of potassium has one electron in its outer level. This is not a stable outer energy
level. When potassium forms a compound with iodine, potassium loses one electron from
its fourth level, and the third level becomes the complete outer level. However, the atom
is no longer neutral. The potassium atom has become an ion. When a potassium atom
loses an electron, the atom becomes positively charged because there is one electron less
in the atom than there are protons in the nucleus. The 1+charge is shown as a superscript
written after the element s symbol, K + , to indicate its charge. Superscript means
written above. The iodine atom in this reaction undergoes change as well. An iodine
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atom has seven electrons in its outer energy level. Recall that a stable outer energy level
contains eight electrons. During the reaction with potassium, the iodide atom gains an
electron, leavi ng its outer energy level with eight electrons. This atom is no longer neutral
because it gained an extra negative particle. It now has a charge of 1- and is called an
iodide ion, written as I - . The compound formed between potassium and iodine is called
potassium iodide. The dot diagrams for the process are shown in Figure 8.
Another way to look at the electron in the outer shell of a potassium atom is as an
advertisement to other atoms saying, Available: One electron to lend. The iodine atom
would have the message, Wanted: One electron to borrow. When the two atoms get
together, each becomes a stable ion. Notice that the resulting compound has a neutral
charge because the positive and negative charges of the ions cancel each other.

The Ionic Bond


When ions attract in this way, a bond is formed. An ionic bond is the force of attraction
between the opposite charges of the ions in an ionic compound. In an ionic bond, a
transfer of one or more electrons takes place. With this transfer of electrons to form an
ionic compound, a large amount of energy is released. Now that you have seen how an
ionic bond forms when one electron is involved, see how it works when more than one
electron is involved. The formation of magnesium chloride, MgCl 2, is another example of
ionic bonding. When magnesium reacts with chlorine, a magnesium atom loses two
electrons and becomes a positively charged ion, Mg+2 . At the same time, two chlorine
atoms gain one electron each and become negatively charged chloride ions, Cl -. In this
case, a magnesium atom has two electrons to lend, but a single chlorine atom needs to
borrow only one electron. Therefore, it takes two chlorine atoms, as shown in Figure 10,
to take the two electrons from the magnesium ion to form the compound magnesium
chloride.
Zero Net Charge The result of this bond is a neutral compound. The compound as a
whole is neutral because the sum of the charges on the ions is zero. The positive charge
of the magnesium ion is equal to the negative charge of the two chloride ions.
In other words, when different atoms form an ionic compound, electrons move from one
atom to a different atom, but the overall number of protons and electrons of the combined
atoms remains equal and unchanged. Therefore, the compound is neutral.
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Metals and nonmetals usually combine by forming ionic bonds. Looki ng at the periodic
table, you will see that the elements that bond ionically are often across the table from
each other. Ionic compounds are often crystalline solids with high melting points.

Sharing Electrons
Some atoms of nonmetals are unlikely to lose or gain electrons. For example, the
elements in Group 14 of the periodic table have four electrons in their outer levels. They
would have to either gain or lose four electrons to have a stable outer level.
Losing four electrons takes a great deal of energy. Each time an electron is removed, the
nucleus holds the remaining electrons even more tightly. These atoms become more
chemically stable by sharing electrons, rather than by losing or gaining electrons.
The attraction that forms between atoms when they share electrons is known as a
covalent bond. A neutral particle that forms as a result of electron sharing is called a
molecule, as shown in Figure 11.
Single Covalent Bonds A single covalent bond is made up of two shared electrons.
Usually, one of the shared electrons comes from one atom in the bond and the other
comes from the other atom in the bond. A water molecule contains two single bonds. In
each bond, a hydrogen atom contributes one electron to the bond, and the oxygen atom
contributes the other. The two electrons are shared, forming a single bond. The result of
this type of bonding is a stable outer energy level for each atom in the molecule.

Figure 12

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Multiple Bonds A covalent bond also can contain more than one pair of shared
electrons. An example of this is the bond in nitrogen (N2), shown in Figure 12. A
nitrogen atom has five electrons in its outer energy level and needs three more electrons
to become stable. It does this by sharing three of its electrons with another nitrogen atom.
The other nitrogen atom also shares three of its electrons. When each atom contributes
three electrons, they share six electrons, or three pairs of electrons. Each pair of electrons
represents a bond. Therefore, three pairs of electrons represent three bonds, or a triple
bond. Each nitrogen atom is stable with eight electrons in its outer energy level. In a
similar way, a bond that contains two shared pairs of electrons is a double bond. Carbon
dioxi de is an example of a molecule with double bonds. Covalent bonds form between
nonmetallic elements. These elements are close together in the upper right-hand corner of
the periodic table. Many covalent compounds are liquids or gases at room temperature.

Covalent
Compounds
and
Molecules
An atom is the
smallest particle into
which an element can
be divided and still be
the same element.
Likewise, a molecule
is the smallest particle
into which a covalently
bonded compound
can be divided and
still be the same
compound. The
models in Figure 4
show how a sample of
water is made up of many individual molecules of water. Imagine dividing water again and
again. You would finally end up with a single molecule of water. What would happen if you
separated the hydrogen and oxygen atoms that make up a water molecule? Then, you would no
longer have water.

Unequal Sharing Electrons are not always shared equally between atoms in a
covalent bond. The strength of the attraction of each atom to its electrons is related to the
size of the atom, the charge of the nucleus, and the total number of electrons the atom
contains. Part of the strength of attraction has to do with how far the electron being
shared is from the nucleus. For example, a magnet has a stronger pull when it is right
next to a piece of metal rather than several centimeters away. The other part of the
strength of attraction has to do with the size of the positive charge in the nucleus. Using a
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magnet as an example again, a strong magnet will hold the metal more firmly than a
weak magnet will.
One example of this unequal sharing is found in a molecule of hydrogen chloride, HCl,
which is shown in Figure 13. In water, HCl is hydrochloric acid, which is used in
laboratories and in industry to clean metal, and is found in your stomach, where it helps
to digest food. Chlorine atoms have a stronger attraction for the shared electrons than
hydrogen atoms do. As a result, the shared electrons in hydrogen chloride will spend
more time near the chlorine atom than near the hydrogen atom. The chlorine atom has a
partial negative charge, represented by a lowercase Greek symbol delta followed by a
negative superscript, -. The hydrogen atom has a partial positive charge, represented by
a +.

Tug-of-War You might think of a covalent bond as the rope in a tug-of-war, and the
shared electrons as the knot in the center of the rope. Each atom in the molecule attracts
the electrons that they share. However, sometimes the atoms aren t the same size.
The same thing happens in tug-of-war. Sometimes one team has more people or stronger
participants than the other. When this is true, the knot in the middle of the rope ends up
closer to the stronger team. Similarly, the electrons being shared in a molecule are held
more closely to the atoms with the stronger pull or larger nucleus.

Polar or Nonpolar? For the molecule involved in this


electron tug-of-war, there is another consequence. Again, look
at the molecule of hydrogen chloride. The unequal sharing of
electrons gives each chlorine atom a slight negative charge and
each hydrogen atom a slight positive charge. The atom holding
the electron more closely always will have a slightly negative
charge. The charge is balanced but not equally distributed. This
type of molecule is called polar. The term polar means havi ng
opposite ends. A polar molecule is one that has a slightly
positive end and a slightly negative end, although the overall
molecule is neutral. Water is an example of a polar molecule, as
shown in Figure 15. Two atoms that are exactly alike can share
their electrons equally, forming a nonpolar molecule. A

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nonpolar molecule is one in which electrons are shared equally in bonds. Such a
molecule does not have oppositely charged ends. This is true of molecules made from
two identical atoms or molecules that are symmetric, such as CCl 4.
Properties:

Ionic Compounds
The ions that make up an ionic compound are bonded in a repeating three-dimensional pattern
called a crystal lattice. In ionic compounds such as table salt, the crystal lattice is built up so that
the positive ions are nearest to the negative ions, forming a solid. The model in Figure 5 shows
a small part of a crystal lattice. The shape of the crystals of an ionic compound depends on the
pattern of ions in its crystal lattice.

Properties of Ionic Compounds


The strong attraction between ions in a crystal lattice gives ionic compounds certain physical
properties. Ionic compounds tend to be brittle solids at room temperature. So, these solids will
break apart when they are hit with a hammer. Ionic compounds have high melting points. For
example, magnesium oxide has to be heated to 2,800C before it will melt.
Because most substances have to melt before they boil, ionic compounds also have very high
boiling points. Another property of many ionic compounds is high solubility in water. High
solubility means that compounds dissolve easily in water. Sea water tastes salty because it has
sodium chloride and many other ionic compounds dissolved in it.

Covalent Compounds The covalent bonds between atoms in molecules are strong.
However, the attraction between indivi dual molecules is weak. It is the weak forces
between indivi dual molecules that are responsible for the properties of covalent
compounds. Melting and boiling points of covalent compounds are relatively lower when
compared to ionic compounds. Sugar will melt at approxi mately 185C, whereas table
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salt will melt at 801C. Covalent compounds, which will form soft solids, have poor
electrical and thermal conductivi ty. Candles and propane gas are covalent compounds.

Metallic Bonds
Think about a metal sculpture. Some metal pieces can be flattened, and others can be shaped
into wires. How could the artist change the shape of the metal into all of these different forms
without breaking the metal into pieces? Metal can be shaped because of the presence of
metallic bonds, a special kind of chemical bond. A metallic bond is a bond formed by the
attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around the ions. Positively
charged metal ions form when metal atoms lose electrons.

Movement of Electrons Throughout a Metal


Bonding in metals is a result of many metal atoms being so close to one another that their
outermost energy levels overlap. Because of this overlapping, metallic bonds extend throughout
the metal in all directions. So, valence electrons can move throughout the metal. You can think
of a metal as being made up of positive metal ions that have valence electrons swimming
around, as shown in Figure 7. The electrons keep the ions together and cancel the positive
charge of the ions.

Properties of Metals
Metallic bonding gives metals their particular properties. These properties include electrical
conductivity, malleability, and ductility.

Conducting Electric Current


Metallic bonding allows metals to conduct electric current. For example, when you turn on a
lamp, electrons move within the copper wire that connects the lamp to the outlet. The electrons
that move are the valence electrons in the copper atoms. These electrons are free to move
because the electrons are not connected to any one atom.

Reshaping Metals
Because the electrons move freely around the metal ions, the atoms in metals can be
rearranged. As a result, metals can be reshaped. The properties of ductility (the ability to be
drawn into wires) and malleability (the ability to be rolled or pounded) describe a metals ability
to be reshaped. For example, copper is made into wires for use in electrical cords. Aluminum
can be pounded into thin sheets and made into aluminum foil.

Bending Without Breaking


When a piece of metal is bent, some of the metal ions are forced closer together. You may

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expect the metal to break because all of the metal ions are positively charged. Positively
charged ions repel one another. However, positive ions in a metal are always surrounded by
and attracted to the electrons in the metaleven if the metal ions move.
The electrons constantly move around and between the metal ions. The moving electrons
maintain the metallic bonds no matter how the shape of the metal changes. So, metal objects
can be bent without being broken.
Ionization Energy

Q& A

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Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds


Binary Ionic Compounds
The first formulas of compounds that you will write are for binary ionic compounds. A
binar y compound is one that is composed of two elements. Potassium iodide, the salt
additive mentioned in Section 2, is a binary ionic compound. Before you can write a
formula, you must have all the needed information at your fingertips. What will you need
to know?

Oxidation Numbers You need to know which elements are involved and what
number of electrons they lose, gain, or share to become stable. Section 1 discussed the
relationship between an element s position on the periodic table and the number of
electrons it gains or loses. Because all elements in a given group have the same number
of electrons in their outer energy levels, they must gain or lose the same number of
electrons. Metals always lose electrons and nonmetals always gain electrons when
they form ions. The charge on the ion is known as the oxidation number of the atom.
For ionic compounds, the oxi dation number is the same as the charge on the ion. For
example, a sodium ion has a charge of 1+ and an oxi dation number of 1+ . A chloride ion
has a charge of 1- and an oxi dation number of 1-.

Oxidation Numbers and the Periodic Table The numbers with positive or
negative signs in above Fig are the oxi dation numbers for the elements in the columns
below them. Notice how they fit with the periodic-table groupings. The elements in
Table 3 can have more than one oxi dation number. When naming these compounds, the
oxi dation number is expressed in the name with a roman numeral. For example,
the oxi dation number of iron in iron(III) oxi de is 3+.
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Ionic Compounds Are Neutral When writing formulas, it


is important to remember that although the indivi dual ions in a
compound carry charges, the compound itself is neutral. A
formula must have the same number of positive ions and
negative ions so the charges balance. For example, sodium
chloride is made up of a sodium ion with a 1+ charge and a
chloride ion with a 1- charge.
However, what if you have a compound such as calcium
fluoride? A calcium ion has a charge of 2+ and a fluoride ion
has a charge of 1-. In this case, you need to have two fluoride
ions for every calcium ion for the charges to cancel and the
compound to be neutral with the formula CaF2.
Some compounds require more thought. Aluminum oxi de
contains an ion with a 3+ charge and an ion with a 2- charge.
You must find the least common multiple of 3 and 2 to
determine how many of each ion you need. You need two
aluminum ions and three oxygen ions to have a 6+ charge and, a 6-charge and, therefore,
the neutral compound Al 2O3.

Writing Formulas After you ve learned how to find the oxi dation numbers and their
least common multiple, you can write formulas for ionic compounds. Write the formula
for an ionic compound containing sodium and oxygen by using the following
rules in this order.
1. Write the symbol of the element that has the positive oxi dation number or charge.
Sodium, a Group 1 element, has an oxi dation number of 1+.
2. Write the symbol of the element with the negative number. Nonmetals other than
hydrogen have negative oxi dation numbers. Oxygen has an oxi dation number of 2-.
3. To have a neutral compound, the positive charges have to balance the negative
charges. It takes two sodium ions to balance the one oxygen ion. Thus, the formula
becomes Na2O.

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Writing Names You can name a binary ionic compound


from its formula by using these rules.
1. Write the name of the positive ion.
2. Using Table 3, check to see if the positive ion is capable of
forming more than one oxi dation number. If the ion has
only one possible oxi dation number, proceed to step 3. If it
has more than one, determine the oxi dation number of the
ion from the formula of the compound. To do this, keep in
mind that the overall charge of the compound is zero and
the negative ion has only one possible charge. Write the
charge of the positive ion using roman numerals in parentheses
after the ion s name.
3. Write the root name of the negative ion. The root is the first part of the element s
name. For chlorine, the root is chlor-.
4. Add the ending -ide to the root. Table 4 lists several elements and their -ide
counterparts. For example, sulfur in a binary compound becomes sulfide. Subscripts do
not become part of the name for ionic compounds. However, subscripts can be used to
help determine the charges of these metals that have more than one positive charge.

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Compounds with Polyatomic Ions


Not all ionic compounds are binary. Baki ng sodaused in cooking, as a medicine, and
for brushing your teethhas the formula NaHCO3. This is an example of an ionic
compound that is not binary. Some ionic compounds are composed of more than two
elements. They contain polyatomic ions. The prefix poly- means many, so the term
polyatomic means havi ng many atoms. A polyatomic ion is a positively or negatively
charged, covalently bonded group of atoms. Thus, the polyatomic ions as a whole contain
two or more elements. The polyatomic ion in baki ng soda is the bicarbonate or hydrogen
carbonate ion, HCO3-.

Writing Names Several polyatomic ions are listed in


Table 5. To name a compound that contains one of these
ions, first write the name of the positive ion. Use Table 5
to find the name of a polyatomic ion. Then write the
name of the negative ion. For example, K 2SO4 is
potassium sulfate. What is the name of Sr(OH)2? Begin
by writing the name of the positive ion, strontium. Then
find the name of the polyatomic ion,OH-, which is
hydroxi de. Thus, the name is strontium hydroxi de.

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Writing Formulas To write


formulas for these compounds,
follow the rules for binary
compounds, with one addition.
When more than one polyatomic
ion is needed, write parentheses
around the polyatomic ion before
adding the subscript.
How would you write the formula
of barium chlorate? First, identify
the symbol of the positive ion.
Barium has the symbol Ba and
forms a 2+ ion, Ba2+. Next, identify
the negative chlorate ion. Table 5
shows that it is ClO3-. Finally, you
need to balance the charges of the
ions to make the compound neutral.
It will take two chlorate ions with a
1- charge to balance the 2+ charge
of the barium ion. Because the
chlorate ion is polyatomic, you use
parentheses before adding the
subscript. The formula is Ba(ClO3)2.
Another example of naming complex compounds is shown in Figure 21.

Compounds with Added Water


Some ionic compounds have water molecules as part of their structure. These compounds
are called hydrates. A hydr ate is a compound that has water chemically attached to its
ions and written into its chemical formula.
Common Hydrates The term hydrate comes from a word that means water. When
a solution of cobalt chloride evaporates, pink crystals that contain six water molecules for
each unit of cobalt chloride are formed. The formula for this compound is
CoCl 2 .H2O and is called cobalt chloride hexahydrate. You can remove water from these
crystals by heating them. The resulting blue compound is called anhydrous, which means
without water. When anhydrous (blue) CoCl 2 is exposed to water, even from the air, it
will revert back to its hydrated state. The plaster of paris shown in Figure 22 also forms
a hydrate when water is added. It becomes calcium sulfate dihydrate, which is also
known as gypsum. The water that was added to the powder became a part of the
compound.
To write the formula for a hydrate, write the formula for the compound and then place a
dot followed by the number of water molecules. The dot in the formula represents a ratio
of a compound to water molecules. For example, calcium sulfate dihydrate,
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CaSO4 . 2H2O, is the formula for the hydrate of calcium sulfate that contains two
molecules of water.

Naming Binary Covalent Compounds


Covalent compounds are those formed between elements that
are nonmetals. Some pairs of nonmetals can form more than
one compound with each other. For example, nitrogen and
oxygen can form N2O, NO, NO2 and N2O5. In the system you
have learned so far, each of these compounds would be called
nitrogen oxi de. You would not know from that name what the
composition of the compound is.

Using Prefixes Scientists use the Greek prefixes in Table 6


to indicate how many atoms of each element are in a binary
covalent compound. The nitrogen and oxygen compounds
N2O, NO, NO2, and N2O5 would be named dinitrogen oxi de,
nitrogen oxi de, nitrogen dioxi de, and dinitrogen pentoxi de.
Notice that the last vowel of the prefix is dropped when the
second element begins with a vowel, as in pentoxi de. Often,
the prefix mono- is omitted, although it is used for emphasis
in some cases. Carbon monoxide is one example.

Describing Chemical Reactions


Chemical reactions are taki ng place all around you and even within you. A chemical
r eaction is a change in which one or more substances are converted into new substances.
The substances that react are called r eactants. The new substances produced are called
pr oducts.
Chemical and Nuclear Reactions When chemical
reactions occur, new compounds form when bonds between
atoms in the reactants break and new bonds form. Recall that
chemical bonds form when outer electrons, called valence
electrons, are shared between atoms or are transferred from
one atom to another. As a result, only the outer electrons of
atoms are involved in chemical reactions. The nucleus of an
atom is not affected by a chemical reaction. An atomic nucleus
changes only when nuclear decay or a nuclear reaction, such
as nuclear fission or fusion, occurs. The energy released by a
nuclear reaction is millions of times greater than the energy
released by a chemical reaction. Figure summarizes the
difference between nuclear and chemical reactions.

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Conservation of Mass
By the 1770s, chemistry was changing from the art of alchemy to a true science. Instead
of being satisfied with a superficial explanation of unknown events, scientists began to
study chemical reactions more thoroughly. Through such study, the French chemist
Antoine Lavoisier established that the total mass of the products always equals the total
mass of the reactants.

The Father of Modern Chemistry When Lavoisier demonstrated the law of


conservation of mass, he set the field of chemistry on its modern path. In fact, Lavoisier
is known today as the father of modern chemistry.
Lavoisiers Contribution One of the questions that motivated Lavoisier was the
mystery of exactly what happened when substances changed form. He began to answer
this question by experimenting with mercury. In one experiment, Lavoisier placed a
carefully measured mass of solid mercury(II) oxi de, which he knew as mercury calx, into
a sealed container. When he heated this container, he noted a dramatic change. The red
powder had been transformed into a silvery liquid that he recognized as mercury metal,
and a gas was produced. When he determined the mass of the liquid mercury and gas,
their combined masses were exactly the same as the mass of the red powder he had
started with.

Writing Equations
Consider the reaction:
Nickel(I I ) chlor ide, dissolved in water , plus sodium hydr oxide, dissolved in water ,
pr oduces solid nickel(I I ) hydr oxide plus sodium chlor ide, dissolved in water .
This series of words is rather cumbersome, but all of the information is important. The
same is true of descriptions of most chemical reactions.
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Many words are needed to state


all the important information. As a result, scientists have
developed a shorthand method to describe chemical
reactions. A chemical equation is a way to describe a
chemical reaction using chemical formulas and other
symbols. Some of the symbols used in chemical
equations are listed in Table 1.
The chemical equation for the reaction described above
in words looks like this:

On the left side of the equation are the reactants,


nickel(II) chloride and sodium hydroxi de. On the right
side of the equation are the products, nickel(II)
hydroxi de and sodium chloride.

Unit Managers
What do the numbers to the left of the formulas for
reactants and products mean? Remember that according
to the law of conservation of mass, matter is neither
made nor lost during chemical reactions. Atoms are
rearranged but never lost or destroyed. These numbers,
called coefficients, represent the number of units of each substance taking part in a
reaction. Coefficients can be thought of as unit managers.
Knowing the number of units of reactants enables chemists to add the correct amounts of
reactants to a reaction. Also, these units, or coefficients, tell them exactly how much
product will form. An example of this is the reaction of one unit of NiCl 2 with two units
of NaOH to produce one unit of Ni(OH)2 and two units of NaCl. You can see these units
in Figure 5.

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Balanced Equations
Lavoisier s mercury(II) oxi de reaction, can be written as:

Notice that the number of mercury atoms is the same on both sides of the equation but
that the number of oxygen atoms is not the same. One oxygen atom appears on the
reactant side of the equation and two appear on the product side.

But according to the law of conservation of mass, one oxygen atom cannot just become
two. Nor can you simply add the subscript 2 and write HgO2 instead of HgO. The
formulas HgO2 and HgO do not represent the same compound. In fact, HgO2 does not
exist. The formulas in a chemical equation must accurately represent the compounds that
react. Fixi ng this equation requires a process called balancing. Balancing an equation
doesn t change what happens in a reaction t simply changes the way the reaction is
represented. The balancing process involves changing coefficients in a reaction to
achieve a balanced chemical equation, which has the same number of atoms of each
element on both sides of the equation.

Choosing Coefficients Finding out which coefficients to use to balance an equation


is often a trial-and-error process. In the equation for Lavoisier s experiment, the number
of mercury atoms is balanced, but one oxygen atom is on the left and two are on the right.
If you put a coefficient of 2 before the HgO on the left, the oxygen atoms will be
balanced, but the mercury atoms become unbalanced. To balance the equation, also put a
2 in front of mercury on the right. The equation is now balanced.

Balancing Equations Magnesium burns with such a brilliant white light that it is
often used in emergency flares. Burning leaves a white powder called magnesium
oxi de. To write a balanced chemical equation for this and most other reactions, follow
these four steps.
Step 1 Write a chemical equation for the reaction using formulas and symbols. Recall
that oxygen is a diatomic molecule.

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Step 3 Choose coefficients that balance the equation. Remember, never change
subscripts of a correct formula to balance an equation. Try putting a coefficient of 2
before MgO.

Step 4 Recheck the numbers of each atom on each side of the equation and adjust
coefficients again if necessary. Now two Mg atoms are on the right side and only one is
on the left side. So a coefficient of 2 is needed for Mg to balance the equation.

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Solved Problems

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Problems:

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Solved Problems:

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Problems:

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Classifying Chemical Reactions


Types of Reactions
Chemists have defined five main categories of chemical reactions: combustion, synthesis,
decomposition, single displacement, and double displacement.

Combustion Reactions If you have ever observed something burning, you have
observed a combustion reaction. A combustion r eaction occurs when a substance reacts
with oxygen to produce energy in the form of heat and light. Combustion reactions also
produce one or more products that contain the elements in the reactants. For example, the
reaction between carbon and oxygen produces carbon dioxi de.
Many combustion reactions also will fit into other categories of reactions. For example,
the reaction between carbon and oxygen also is a synthesis reaction.

Synthesis Reactions One of the easiest reaction types to recognize is a synthesis


reaction. In a synthesis r eaction, two or more substances combine to form another
substance. The generalized formula for this reaction type is as follows:
The reaction in which hydrogen burns in oxygen to form water is an example of a
synthesis reaction. This reaction is used to power some types of rockets.
Another synthesis reaction is the combination of oxygen with iron in the presence of
water to form hydrated iron(II) oxide or rust.

Decomposition Reactions A decomposition reaction is


just the reverse of a synthesis. Instead of two substances
coming together to form a third, a decomposition r eaction
occurs when one substance breaks down, or decomposes,
into two or more
substances. The general formula for this type of reaction can
be expressed as follows:
Most decomposition reactions require the use of heat, light,
or electricity. An electric current passed through water
produces hydrogen and oxygen

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Single Displacement When one element replaces another element in a compound, it


is called a single-displacement r eaction. Single-displacement reactions are described by
the general equation
. Here you can see that atom A displaces atom
B to produce a new molecule AC. Example of a single displacement reaction: a copper
wire is put into a solution of silver nitrate. Because copper is a more active metal than
silver, it replaces the silver, forming a blue copper(II) nitrate solution. The silver, which
is not soluble, forms on the wire.

The Activity Series Sometimes singledisplacement reactions can cause


problems. For example, if iron-containing
vegetables such as spinach are cooked in
aluminum pans, aluminum can displace
iron from the vegetable. This causes a
black deposit of iron to form on the sides
of the pan. For this reason, it is better to
use stainless steel or enamel cookware
when cooki ng spinach.
We can predict which metal will replace
another using the diagram shown in
Figure, which lists metals according to how reactive they are. A metal can replace any
metal below it on the list but not above it. Notice that copper, silver, and gold are the
least active metals on the list. That is why these elements often occur as deposits of the
relatively pure element. For example, gold is sometimes found as veins in quartz rock.
Copper is found in pure lumps known as native copper. Other metals can occur as
compounds.

Double Displacement In a double-displacement r eaction, the positive ion of one


compound replaces the positive ion of the other to form two new compounds. A doubledisplacement reaction takes place if a precipitate, water, or a gas forms when two ionic
compounds in solution are combined. A precipitate is an insoluble compound that comes
out of solution during this type of reaction. The generalized formula for this type of
reaction is as follows:
The reaction of barium nitrate with potassium sulfate is an example of this type of
reaction. A precipitatebarium sulfate forms,

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions One characteristic that is common to many


chemical reactions is the tendency of the substances to lose or gain electrons. Chemists
use the term oxidation to describe the loss of electrons and the term r eduction to
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describe the gain of electrons. Chemical reactions involving electron transfer of this sort
often involve oxygen, which is very reactive, pulling electrons from metallic elements.
Corrosion of metal is a vi sible result of this type of reaction. Reduction is the partner to
oxi dation; the two always work as a pair, which is commonly referred to as redox.

Reaction Rates and Energy


All chemical reactions release or absorb energy. This energy can take many forms, such
as heat, light, sound, or electricity. The heat produced by a wood fire and the light
emitted by a glow stick are two examples of reactions that release energy.

Conservation of Energy in Chemical Reactions


According to the law of conservation of energy, energy cannot be created or destroyed,
but can only change form. In compounds, chemical potential energy is stored in chemical
bonds between atoms. In some chemical reactions, chemical potential energy is changed
to other forms of energy, such as heat or light, and is released. In other chemical
reactions, forms of energy such as heat or light are converted to chemical potential
energy and stored in bonds that form, and energy is absorbed. In all chemical reactions,
energy is never created or destroyed, but only changes form. All reactions follow the laws
of conservation of mass and energy.

Activation Energy
As you learned earlier, atoms and molecules have to bump into each other before a
product can be formed. In order to form new bonds, atoms have to be close together. In
addition to being close, the reactants require a certain amount of energy in order to allow
the reaction to start. This minimum amount of energy needed to start a reaction is called
activation ener gy.

Heat Absorption When the energy needed is in the form of heat, the reaction is called
an endother mic r eaction. The term endothermic is not just related to chemical
reactions. It also can describe physical changes. The process of dissolvi ng a salt in water
is a physical change. If you ever had to soak a swollen ankl e in an Epsom salt solution,
you probably noticed that when you mixed the Epsom salt in water, the solution became
cold. The dissolvi ng of Epsom salt absorbs heat. Thus, it is a physical change that is
endothermic. Some reactions are so endothermic that they can cause water to freeze.

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Endothermic
Reactions With an
endothermic reaction, the
chemical reaction will not
take place unless energy is
added. A constant source of
energy must be added to
keep the reaction going.
The products have more
stored energy than the
reactants.
Figure shows an energy
diagram for the reaction of
carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen monoxi de (NO). With an endothermic reaction, the
reactants have a lower energy level than the products. In order for the products to form,
an input of energy is needed for the reactants to overcome the activation energy barrier.

Exothermic
Reactions When the
energy given off in a
reaction is primarily in
the form of heat, the
reaction is called an
exother mic r eaction.
The burning of wood and
the explosion of
dynamite are exothermic
reactions. Exothermic
reactions provi de most of
the power used in homes
and industries. Fossil
fuels that contain carbon, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas, combine with oxygen
to yield carbon dioxi de gas and energy. Unfortunately impurities in these fuels, such as
sulfur, burn as well, producing pollutants such as sulfur dioxi de. Sulfur dioxi de combines
with water in the atmosphere, producing acid rain.
Energy Release The energy diagram for an exothermic reaction is the reverse of an
endothermic reaction. With an exothermic reaction, the products have less stored energy
than the reactants. As shown in Figure 21, the reactants, carbon monoxi de (CO) and
nitrogen dioxi de (NO2) have a higher energy level than the products. The molecules have
enough energy to overcome the activation energy barrier.

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Chemical Reaction Rates


According to the kinetic theory of matter, atoms and molecules are always moving. In
order for a chemical reaction to occur, the atoms and molecules that are the reactants
have to bump into each other or collide. The r ate of r eaction is the speed at which
reactants are consumed and products are produced in a given reaction.
Reaction rate is important in the manufacturing industry because the faster the product
can be made, the less it usually costs. Sometimes a fast reaction rate is undesirable, such
as the rate of reaction that causes food spoilage. In this case, the slower the reaction
rate, the longer the food will stay edible.
What conditions control the reaction rate, and how can the rate be changed?

Temperature Energy is needed by atoms and molecules to break old bonds and to
form new ones. One way to increase the activation energy is to add heat or increase the
temperature. With an increase in temperature, atoms and molecules move faster and
ki netic energy increases. With faster moving atoms and molecules, more molecules
have ki netic energy greater than activation energy. The atoms and molecules now will
have enough energy to break old bonds at higher temperature, which will increase the
reaction rate.
Concentration When you walk through the hallways at school, you are more likely to
bump into another student if the hallways are crowded. The closer atoms and molecules
are to each other, the greater the chance of collision. The amount of substance present
in a certain volume is called its concentration. Increasing the concentration of a substance
increases the reaction rate.

Surface Area Only atoms or molecules in the outer layer of a substance can collide
with other reactants. When a substance is finely divi ded, it has a larger surface area than
when it was whole. Increasing the surface area increases the chance for collisions,
which will increase the reaction rate.

Agitation If you are maki ng lemonade, the water, sugar, and lemon juice are mixed in
order to get the product. Agitation or stirring is a physical process that allows reactants to
mix. A low stirring rate will slow the reaction due to fewer collisions. Chemical reactions
can be controlled by agitation.

Pressure Another way to influence the reaction rate is with pressure. By increasing the
pressure of gases, molecules have less room to move about and the concentration of the
reactants increases. This will boost the chance of collisions, which means the reaction
rate increases. Decreasing the pressure means fewer collisions, and lower reaction rate.

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Catalysts and Inhibitors Some reactions proceed too slowly to be useful. To speed
them up, a catalyst reaction can be added. A catalyst is substance that speeds up a
chemical reaction without being permanently changed itself. When you add a catalyst
to a reaction, the mass of the product that is formed remains the same, but it will form
more rapidly. At times, it is worthwhile to prevent certain reaction from occurring.
Substances that are used to slow down a chemical reaction are called inhibitor s. The
food preservations BHT and BHA are inhibitors that prevent spoilage of certain foods,
such as cereals and crackers.

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Solved Problems:

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Problems:

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How Solutions Form


A solution in which water is the solvent is called an aqueous (A kwee us) solution.

How Substances Dissolve


Fruit drinks and sports drinks are examples of solutions made by dissolvi ng solids in
liquids. Both contain sugar as well as other substances that add color and flavor. How do
solids such as sugar dissolve in water?
The dissolvi ng of a solid in a liquid occurs at the surface of the solid. To understand how
water solutions form, keep in mind two things you have learned about water. Like the
particles of any substance, water molecules are constantly movi ng. Also, water molecules
are polar, which means they have a positive area and a negative area. Molecules of sugar
also are polar.

How It Happens Molecules of sugar dissolvi ng in water are shown in Figure in the
next page. First, water molecules cluster around sugar molecules with their negative
ends attracted to the positive ends of the sugar. Then, the water molecules pull the sugar
molecules into solution. Finally, the water molecules and the sugar molecules mix
evenly, forming a solution.

The process described in Figure repeats as layer after layer of sugar molecules move
away from the crystal, until all the molecules are evenly spread out. The same three steps
occur for most solid solutes dissolvi ng in a liquid solvent.

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Dissolving Liquids and Gases The same


process takes place when a gas dissolves in a
liquid. Particles of liquids and gases move much
more freely than do particles of solids. When
gases dissolve in gases or when liquids dissolve
in liquids, this movement spreads solutes evenly
throughout the solvent, resulting in a
homogenous solution.
Dissolving Solids in Solids How can you
mix solids to make alloys? Although solid
particles do move a little, this movement is not
enough to spread them evenly throughout the
mixt ure. The solid metals are first melted and
then mixed together. In this liquid state, the metal
atoms can spread out evenly and will remain
mixed when cooled.

Rate of Dissolving
When two substances form a solution, the
dissolvi ng occurs at different rates. Sometimes
the rate at which a solute dissolves into a solvent
is fast, while other times it is slow. There are
several things you can do to speed up the rate of
dissolvi ngstirring, reducing crystal size, and
increasing temperature.
Stirring How does stirring speed up the
dissolving process? Think about how you make a
drink from a powdered mix. After you add the
mix to water, you stir it. Stirring a solution
speeds up the dissolvi ng process because it
brings more fresh solvent into contact with more
solute. The fresh solvent attracts the particles
of solute, causing the solid solute to dissolve
faster.
Crystal Size Another way to speed the
dissolvi ng of a solid in a liquid is to grind large
crystals into smaller ones. Suppose you
want to use a 5-g crystal of rock candy to
sweeten your water. If you put the whole crystal into a glass of water, it might take
several minutes to dissolve, even with stirring. However, if you first grind the crystal of
rock candy into a powder, it will dissolve in the same amount of water in a few seconds.
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Why does breaki ng up a solid cause it to dissolve faster? Breaki ng the solid into many
smaller pieces greatly increases its surface area, as you can see in Figure 5. Because
dissolvi ng takes place at the surface of the solid, increasing the surface area allows more
solvent to come into contact with more solid solute. Therefore, the speed of the
dissolvi ng process increases.

Temperature In addition to stirring and decreasing particle size, a third way to


increase the rate at which most solids dissolve is to increase the temperature of the
solvent. Think about maki ng hot chocolate from a mix. You can make the sugar in the
chocolate mix dissolve faster by putting it in hot water instead of cold water. Increasing
the temperature of a solvent speeds up the movement of its particles. This increase causes
more solvent particles to bump into the solute. As a result, solute particles
break loose and dissolve faster.
Controlling the Process Think about how the three factors you just learned about
affect the rate of dissolvi ng. Can these factors combine to further increase the rate, or
perhaps control the rate of dissolvi ng? Each techniquestirring, crushing, and heating
is known to speed up the rate of dissolvi ng by itself. However, when two or more
techniques are combined, the rate of dissolvi ng is even faster. Consider a sugar cube
placed in cold water. You know that the sugar cube eventually will dissolve.
You can predict that heating the water will increase the rate by some amount. You also
can predict that heat and stirring will increase the rate further. Finally, you can predict
that crushing the cube combined with heating and stirring will result in the fastest rate of
dissolvi ng. Knowing how much each technique affects the rate will allow you to control
the rate of dissolvi ng more precisely.

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Types of Solutions
How much solute can dissolve in a given amount of solvent? That depends on a number
of factors, including the solubility of the solute. Here you will examine the types of
solutions based on the amount of a solute dissolved.
Saturated Solutions If you add 35 g of copper(II) sulfate, CuSO4, to 100 g of water
at 20C, only 32 g will dissolve. You have a saturated solution because no more
copper(II) sulfate can dissolve. A satur ated solution is a solution that contains all the
solute it can hold at a given temperature. However, if you heat the mixture to a higher
temperature, more copper(II) sulfate can dissolve. Generally, as the temperature of a
liquid solvent increases, the amount of solid solute that can dissolve in it also
increases. Table 2 shows the amounts of a few solutes that can dissolve in 100 g of water
at different temperatures to form saturated solutions.
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Unsaturated Solutions An
unsatur ated solution is any solution that
can dissolve more solute at a given
temperature. Each time a saturated
solution is heated to a higher temperature,
it generally becomes unsaturated. The term
unsaturated isn t precise. If you look at
Table 2, you ll see that at 20C, 35.9 g of
NaCl (sodium chloride) forms a
saturated solution in 100 g of water.
However, an unsaturated solution of NaCl
could be any amount less than 35.9 g in
100 g of water at 20C.

Solubility of Gases
When you shake an opened bottle of soda, it bubbles up and may squirt out. Shaki ng or
pouring a solution of a gas in a liquid causes gas to come out of solution. Agitating the
solution exposes more gas molecules to the surface, where they escape from the liquid.
Pressure Effects What might you do if you want to dissolve more gas in a liquid?
One thing you can do is increase the pressure of that gas over the liquid. Soft drinks are
bottled under increased pressure. This increases the amount of carbon dioxi de that
dissolves in the liquid. When the pressure is released, the carbon dioxide bubbles out.
Temperature Effects Another way to increase the amount of gas that dissolves in a
liquid is to cool the liquid. This is just the opposite of what you do to increase the speed
at which most solids dissolve in a liquid. Imagine what happens to the carbon
dioxi de when a bottle of soft drink is opened. Even more carbon dioxide will bubble out
of a soft drink as it gets warmer.

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Problems:

Acids
Properties of Acids When an acid dissolves in water, some of the hydrogen is

released as hydrogen ions, H_. An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions in a
water solution. It is the ability to produce these ions that gives acids their characteristic
properties. When an acid dissolves in water, H- ions interact with water molecules to form
H3O_ ions, which are called hydronium ions.
Acids have several common properties. For one thing, all acids taste sour. The familiar,
sour taste of many foods is due to acids. However, taste never should be used to test for
the presence of acids. Some acids can damage tissue by producing painful burns. Acids
are corrosive. Some acids react strongly with certain metals, eating away the metals and
forming metallic compounds and hydrogen gas. Acids also react with indicators

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to produce predictable changes in color. An indicator is an organic compound that


changes color in acids and bases. For example, the indicator litmus paper turns red in
acid.
Common Acids Many foods contain acids. In addition to citric acid in citrus fruits,
lactic acid is found in yogurt and buttermilk, and food, such as pickl es, contain vi negar,
also known as acetic acid. Your stomach uses acid to help digest your food. At least four
acids (sulfuric, phosphoric, nitric, and hydrochloric) play roles in industrial applications.

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Bases
You might not be as familiar with bases as you are with acids. Although you eat some
foods that are acidic, you don t consume many bases. Some foods, such as egg whites,
are slightly basic. Another example of basic materials is baki ng powder, which is
found in some foods. Medicines, such as milk of magnesia and antacids, are basic, too.
Still, you come in contact with many bases every day. Each time you wash your hands
using soap, you are using a base. One characteristic of bases is that they feel slippery,
like soapy water.
Bases can be defined in two ways. Any substance that for ms hydr oxide ions, OH _, in
a water solution is a base. I n addition, a base is any substance that accepts H _ fr om
acids. The definitions ar e r elated, because the OH _ ions pr oduced by some bases
do accept H _ ions.

Properties of Bases One way to think about bases is as the complements, or


opposites, of acids. Although acids and bases share some common features, bases have
their own characteristic properties. In the pure, undissolved state, many bases are
crystalline solids. In solution, bases feel slippery and have a bitter taste. Like strong
acids, strong bases are corrosive, and contact with ski n can result in severe burns. Taste
and touch never should be used to test for the presence of a base or an acid.
Finally, like acids, bases react with indicators to produce changes in color. The indicator
litmus turns blue in bases.

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Dissociation of Acids You have learned that substances such as HCl, HNO3, and
H2SO4 are acids because of their ability to produce hydrogen ions (H+) in water. When an
acid dissolves in water, the negative areas of nearby water molecules attract the positive
hydrogen in the acid. The acid dissociates into ions and the hydrogen atom combines
with a water molecule to form hydronium ions (H3O+). Dissociation is the process in
which an ionic solid separates into its positive and negative ions. An acid can more
accurately be described as a compound that produces hydronium ions when dissolved in
water, as shown in above Figure.

Dissociation of Bases Compounds that can form hydroxi de ions (OH) in water are
classified as bases. When bases that contain OH dissolve in water, the negative areas of
nearby water molecules attract the positive ion in the base. The positive areas of nearby
water molecules attract the OH of the base. The base dissociates into a positive ion and
a negative iona hydroxi de ion (OH). This process also is shown in Figure.
Neutralization Advertisements for antacids claim that these products neutralize the
excess stomach acid that causes indigestion. Normally, gastric juice is acidic. Too much
acid can produce discomfort. Antacids contain bases or other compounds containing
sodium, calcium, magnesium, or aluminum that react with acids to lower acid
concentration. What happens when you ingest an antacid tablet containing sodium
bicarbonate, NaHCO3? The acid (HCl) is neutralized by the base (NaHCO3).
Neutralization is a chemical reaction between an acid and a base that takes place in a
water solution. When HCl is neutralized by NaOH, hydronium ions from the acid
combine with hydroxi de ions from the base to produce water.

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Acid-Base Reactions The following general equation represent acid-base reactions


in water.

A few common salts are listed in Table.

Salt Formation The acid-base equation accounts for only half of the ions in the
solution. The remaining ions react to form a salt. A salt is a compound formed when the
negative ions from an acid combine with the positive ions from a base. In the reaction
between HCl and NaOH, the salt formed in water solution is sodium chloride.

An Exception Ammonia is a base that does not contain OH. In a water solution,
dissociation takes place when the ammonia molecule attracts a hydrogen ion from a water
molecule, forming an ammonium ion (NH4+). This leaves a hydroxide ion (OH).

Ammonia (NH3) is a colourless pungent gas that is familiar to us as the smell of urine. In fact
probably no other compound can be identified by its smell and correctly named by as many
people as ammonia. It can be detected in the air at a level of only about 50-60 ppm, and at levels
of 100-200 ppm it sharply irritates the eyes and lungs. At even higher concentrations it makes the
lungs fill with fluid and can quickly cause death. Ammonia takes it name from the worshippers
of the Egyptian god Amun - the Ammonians, because they used ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in
their rites. Ammonium chloride (also known as sal volatile) occurs naturally in cracks near
volcanoes, and when it is warmed it decomposes into the pungent ammonia.

The Haber Process


Industrially ammonia is made by the Haber-Bosch process which converts nitrogen gas into the
air into ammonia. This process was discovered by the German chemists Fritz Haber (nobel prize
1918) and Karl Bosch, just in time for the beginning of WW1. This had important consequences
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for the length of the war, since without this process Germany would not have been able to make
explosives (since it had no natural sources of nitrates from which explosives were made), and the
war might have ended much sooner than it did.

The Haber-Bosch Process - which takes place at 400-500C and about 200 atm pressure, in the
presence of an iron catalyst.
In the mid-1980s, the annual production rate for ammonia was about 16 million tons. About 25%
of this went directly for fertiliser, and the rest was used to make nitric acid (and from there into
explosives), dyes, pharmaceuticals and cleaning agents. It has a relatively high heat of
vaporisation, and so some ammonia is used as the heat-exchanger gas in large refrigeration units
(rather than the ozone-destroying CFCs). With all of these important applications, it is no
surprise that more molecules of ammonia are produced each year than any other industrial
chemical.

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Organic Chemistry
Like tiny toy Lego pieces, carbon atoms can link together in countless different
orientations to form an endless diversity of molecules. Interestingly, carbon is the only
element of the periodic table to have this property. Life itself is based upon this unique
ability of carbon. Reflecting this fact, the br anch of chemistr y that is the study of
car bon-containing compounds has come to be known as or ganic chemistr y.
Hydrocarbons
Organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen are hydrocarbons. These
differ from one another by the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms they contain. The
simplest hydrocarbon is methane, CH4, with only one carbon per molecule. Methane is
the main component of natural gas. The hydrocarbon octane, C8H18 , has eight carbons
per molecule and is a component of gasoline. The hydrocarbon polyethylene contains
hundreds of carbon and hydrogen atoms per molecule. Polyethylene is a plastic used to
make many items, including milk containers and plastic bags.
Hydrocarbons also differ from one another in the way the carbon atoms connect to each
other. Figure 14.2 shows the three hydrocarbons n-pentane, iso-pentane, and neo-pentane.
These hydrocarbons all have the same molecular formula, C5 H12 , but are structurally
different from one another.
M olecules such as n-pentane, iso-pentane, and neo-pentane, which have the same
molecular for mula but differ ent str uctur es, ar e known as str uctur al isomer s.
Structural isomers have different physical and chemical properties. For example, npentane has a boiling point of 36C, iso-pentane's boiling point is 30C, and neopentane's is l0C. The number of possible structural isomers for a chemical formula
increases rapidly as the number of carbon atoms increases.
There are three structural isomers for compounds havi ng the formula C5 H12, 18
for C8H18 , 75 for C10H22, and a whopping 366,319 for C20 H42.

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Making Fossil Fuels


In one hour of freeway drivi ng a car might use several gallons of gasoline. It may be hard
to believe that it took millions of years to make the fuels that are used to produce
electricity, provi de heat, and transport people and materials. Figure 4 on the next
page shows how coal, petroleum, and natural gas are formed by the decay of ancient
plants and animals. Fuels such as petroleum, or oil, natural gas, and coal are called
fossil fuels because they are formed from the decaying remains of ancient plants and
animals.
Concentrated Energy Sources When
fossil fuels are burned, carbon and hydrogen
atoms combine with oxygen molecules in the
air to form carbon dioxide and water
molecules. This process converts the chemical
potential energy that is stored in the chemical
bonds between atoms to heat and light.
Compared to other fuels such as wood, the
chemical energy that is stored in fossil fuels is
more concentrated. For example, burning 1 kg
of coal releases two to three times as much
energy as burning 1 kg of wood. Figure
compares the amount of energy that is
produced by burning different fossil fuels.

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Petroleum
Millions of gallons of petroleum, or crude oil, are pumped every day from wells deep in
Earth s crust. Petr oleum is a highly flammable liquid formed by decayed ancient
organisms, such as microscopic plankton and algae. Petroleum is a mixture of thousands
of chemical compounds. Most of these compounds are hydrocarbons, which means their
molecules contain only carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms.
The hydrocarbons we use are obtained primarily from coal and petroleum. These fossil
fuels are both formed from the remains of organisms that decayed under water in the
absence of oxygen millions of years ago. Coal is a solid material containing many large,
complex hydrocarbon molecules. Most of the coal mined today is used for the production
of steel and for generating electricity at coal-burning power plants. Petroleum, or "cr ude
oil," is a liquid readily separated into its hydrocarbon components through a process
known as fr actional distillation, shown in Figure 14.3. Distillation is a method of
separating mixtures often used in chemistry. During distillation, a liquid is boiled to
produce a vapor that is then condensed again to a liquid. Fractional distillation refers
specifically to the distillation of petroleum.

Petroleum is heated in a pipe still to a temperature high enough to vaporize most of the
components. The hot vapor flows into the bottom of a fractionating towel; which is
warmer at the bottom than at the top. As the vapor rises in the tower and cools, the
various components begin to condense. Hydrocarbons that have high boiling points, such
as tar and lubricating stocks, condense first at warmer temperatures. Hydrocarbons that
have low boiling points, such as gasoline, travel to the cooler regions at the top of the
tower before condensing. Pipes drain the various liquid hydrocarbon fractions from the
tower. Natural gas, which is primarily methane, does not condense. It remains a gas and
is collected at the top of the tower.

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Differences in the strength of molecular attractions explain why different hydrocarbons


condense at different temperatures. Larger hydrocarbons experience many more
attractions among themselves than smaller hydrocarbons do. For this reason, the larger
hydrocarbons condense readily at high temperatures and so are found at the bottom of the
rower. Smaller molecules, because they experience fewer attractions to neighbors,
condense only at the cooler temperatures found at the top of the tower.

Other Uses for Petroleum Not all of the products obtained from petroleum are
burned to produce energy. About 15 percent of the petroleum-based substances that are
used in the United States go toward nonfuel uses. Look around at the materials in
your home or classroom. Do you see any plastics? In addition to fuels, plastics and
synthetic fabrics are made from the hydrocarbons found in crude petroleum. Also,
lubricants such as grease and motor oil, as well as the asphalt used in surfacing roads, are
obtained from petroleum.

Natural Gas
The chemical processes that produce petroleum as ancient organisms decay also produce
gaseous compounds called natural gas. These compounds rise to the top of the petroleum
deposit and are trapped there. Natural gas is composed mostly of methane, CH4, but it
also contains other hydrocarbon gases such as propane, C3H8, and butane, C4H10.Natural
gas is burned to provi de energy for cooki ng, heating, and manufacturing. About one
fourth of the energy consumed in the United States comes from burning natural
gas. There s a good chance that your home has a stove, furnace, hot-water heater, or
clothes drier that uses natural gas. Natural gas contains more energy per ki logram than
petroleum or coal does. It also burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels, produces fewer
pollutants, and leaves no residue such as ash.

Coal
Coal is a solid fossil fuel that is found in mines underground. In the first half of the
twentieth century, most houses in the United States were heated by burning coal. In fact,
during this time, coal provi ded more than half of the energy that was used in the United
States. Now, almost two-thirds of the energy used comes from petroleum and natural gas,
and only about one-fourth comes from coal. About 90 percent of all the coal that is used
in the United States is burned by power plants to generate electricity.

Origin of Coal Coal mines were once the sites of ancient swamps. Coal formed from
the organic material that was deposited as the plants that lived in these swamps died.
Worldwide, the amount of coal that is potentially available is estimated to be 20 to 40
times greater than the supply of petroleum. Coal also is a complex mixture of
hydrocarbons and other chemical compounds. Compared to petroleum and natural gas,
coal contains more impurities, such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds. As a result, more
pollutants, such as sulfur dioxi de and nitrogen oxi des, are produced when coal is burned.
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Generating Electricity
How is the chemical energy contained in fossil fuels converted to electrical energy in an
electric power station?
The process is shown in Figure 8. In the first stage, fuel is burned in a boiler or
combustion chamber, and it releases thermal energy. In the second stage, this thermal
energy heats water and produces steam under high pressure. In the third stage, the steam
strikes the blades of a turbine, causing it to spin. The shaft of the turbine is connected to
an electric generator. In the fourth stage, electric current is produced when the spinning
turbine shaft rotates magnets inside the generator. In the final stage, the electric current is
transmitted to homes, schools, and businesses through power lines.

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Efficiency of Power
Plants
When fossil fuels are burned in power
plants, not all of the chemical energy
stored in the fuels is converted into
electrical energy. In each energy
transformation, some energy is converted
into thermal energy that cannot be used.
As a result, no stage of the process is 100
percent efficient. The efficiency of each
stage of the process in a fossil-fuel
burning power plant is given in Table 1. The overall efficiency is found by multiplying
the efficiencies together, and is only about 35 percent. This means that only about 35
percent of the chemical energy contained in fossil fuels is converted into electrical energy
by power plants. The other 65 percent is converted into thermal energy that is transferred
to the envi ronment.

The Costs of Using


Fossil Fuels
Although fossil fuels are a useful
source of energy for generating
electricity and providing the power
for transportation, their use has
some undesirable side effects. When
petroleum products and coal are
burned, smoke is given off that
contains small particles called
particulates. These particulates
cause breathing problems for some
people. Burning fossil fuels also
releases carbon dioxide. Figure shows how the carbon dioxi de concentration in the
atmosphere has increased from 1960 to 2000. One consequence of increasing the
atmospheric carbon dioxi de concentration could be to cause Earth s surface temperature
to increase.
Using Coal The most abundant fossil fuel is coal, but coal contains even more
impurities than oil or natural gas. Many electric power plants that burn coal remove some
of these pollutants before they are released into the atmosphere. Removi ng sulfur dioxi de,
for example, helps to prevent the formation of compounds that might cause acid rain.
Mining coal also can be dangerous. Miners risk being ki lled or injured, and some suffer
from lung diseases caused by breathing coal dust over long periods of time.
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Nonrenewable Resources
All fossil fuels are nonr enewable
r esour ces, which means they are
resources that cannot be replaced by
natural processes as quickl y as they are
used. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are
decreasing at the same time that
population and industrial demands are
increasing. Figure shows how the
production of oil might decline over the
next 50 years as oil reserves are used up.
As the production of energy from fossil
fuels continues, the remaining reserves
of fossil fuels will decrease. Fossil fuels
will become more difficult to obtain, causing them to become more costly in the future.

Conserving Fossil Fuels


Even as reserves of fossil fuels decrease and they become more costly, the demand for
energy continues to increase as the world s population increases. One way to meet these
energy demands would be to reduce the use of fossil fuels and obtain energy from other
sources.

Polymers
Polymers are exceedingly long molecules that consist of repeating molecular units called
monomers, as Figure 14.21 illustrates. Monomers have relatively simple structures
consisting of anywhere from 4 to 100 atoms per molecule. When chained together, they
can form polymers consisting of hundreds of thousands of atoms per molecule. These
large molecules are still too small to be seen with the unaided eye. They are, however,
giants in the world of the submicroscopic-if a typical polymer molecule were as thick as a
ki te string, it would be 1 ki lometer long.

Many of the molecules that make up livi ng organisms are polymers, including DNA,
proteins, the cellulose of plants, and the complex carbohydrates of starchy foods. For
now, we focus on the human-made polymers, also known as synthetic polymers, that
make up the class of materials commonly known as plastics.
We begin by exploring the two major types of synthetic polymers used today-addition
polymers and condensation polymers.

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Addition Polymers
Addition polymers form simply by the joining together of monomer units. For this to
happen, each monomer must contain at least one double bond. As shown in Figure 14.22,
polymerization occurs when two of the electrons from each double bond split away from
each other to form new covalent bonds with neighboring monomer molecules. During
this process, no atoms are lost, meaning that the total mass of the polymer is equal to the
sum of the masses of all the monomers.
Nearly 12 million tons of polyethylene are produced annually in the United States; that's
about 90 pounds per U.S. citizen. The monomer from which it is synthesized, ethylene, is
an unsaturated hydrocarbon produced in large quantities from petroleum.

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Two principal forms of polyethylene are


produced by using different catalysts and
reaction conditions. High-density
polyethylene (HDPE), shown schematically
in Figure 14.23a, consists of long strands of
straight-chain molecules packed closely
together. The tight alignment of
neighboring strands makes HOPE a
relatively rigid, tough plastic useful for such
things as bottles and milk jugs. Low-density
polyethylene (LDPE), shown in Figure
14.23b, is made of strands of highly
branched chains, an architecture that
prevents the strands from packi ng closely
together. This makes LDPE more bendable
than HDPE and gives it a lower melting
point. HDPE holds its shape in boiling
water, LDPE deforms. It is most useful for
such items as plastic bags, photographic
film, and electrical wire insulation.
Other addition polymers are created by using different monomers. The only requirement
is that the monomer must contain a double bond. The monomer propylene, for example,
yields polypropylene, a tough plastic material useful for pipes, hard-shell suitcases, and
appliance parts. Fibers of polypropylene are used for upholstery, indoor-outdoor carpets,
and even thermal underwear. Using styrene as the monomer yields polystyrene.
Transparent plastic cups are made of polystyrene, as are thousands of other household
items. Blowing gas into liquid polystyrene generates Styrofoam, widely used for coffee
cups, packi ng material, and insulation.

The addition polymer polyvinylidene chloride (trade name Saran), shown in Figure
14.24, is used as plastic wrap for food.
The addition polymer
polytetrafluoroethylene,
shown in Figure 14.25, is

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what you know as Teflon. In contrast to the chlorine-containing Saran, fluorinecontaining Teflon has a nonstick surface because the fluorine atoms tend not to
experience any molecular attractions. (Fluorine atoms are relatively small and so they
don't readily form induced dipoles.) In addition, because carbon-fluorine bonds are
unusually strong, Teflon can be heated to high temperatures before decomposing. These
properties make Teflon an ideal coating for cooki ng surfaces. It is also relatively inert,
which is why many corrosive chemicals are shipped or stored in Teflon containers.
Condensation Polymers

A condensation polymer forms when the joining of monomer units is accompanied by the
loss of a small molecule, such as water or hydrochloric acid. Any monomer capable of
becoming part of a condensation polymer must have a functional group on each end.
When two such monomers come together to form a condensation polymer, one functional
group of the first monomer links up with one functional group of the other monomer. The
result is a two-monomer unit that has two terminal functional groups, one from each of
the two original monomers. Each of these terminal functional groups in the two-monomer
unit is now free to link up with one of the functional groups of a third monomer, and then
a fourth, and so on. In this way a polymer chain is built.
Figure 14.26 shows this process for the condensation polymer called nylon, created in
1937 by DuPont chemist Wallace Carothers (1896-1937). Because this polymer is
composed of two different monomers, it is classified as a copolymer. One monomer is
adipic acid, which contains two reactive end groups, both carboxyl groups. The second
monomer is hexamethylenediamine, in which two amine groups are the reactive end
groups. One end of an adipic acid molecule and one end of a hexamethylamine molecule
can be made to react with each other, splitting off a water molecule in the process. After
twO monomers have joined, reactive ends still remain for further reactions, which leads
to a growing polymer chain. Aside from its use in hosiery, nylon also finds great use in
the manufacture of ropes, parachutes, clothing, and carpets.

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The synthetic-polymers industry has grown remarkably over the past 50 years.
Annual production of polymers in the United States alone has grown from 3 billion
pounds in 1950 to 100 billion pounds in 2000. Today, it is a challenge to find any
consumer item that does not contain a plastic of one sort or another.
In the future, watch for new kinds of polymers havi ng a wide range of
remarkable properties. We already have polymers that conduct electricity, others
that emit light, others that replace body parts, and still others that are stronger but
much lighter than steel. Imagine synthetic polymers that mimic photosynthesis by
transforming solar energy to chemical energy or efficiently separate fresh water
from the oceans. These are not dreams. They are realities chemists have already
demonstrated in the laboratory. Polymers hold a clear promise for the future.
The plastics industry is but one outgrowth of our knowledge of organic
chemistry. As we explore in the next chapter, our understanding of life itself is
based on our understanding of the properties of carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
and nucleic acids, all of which are polymers containing the functional groups introduced in this chapter.

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What Is Environmental Science?


Environmental science is a group of sciences that attempt to explain how life on the
Earth is sustained, what leads to environmental problems, and how these problems can
be solved.

Why Is This Study Important?

We depend on our environment. People can live only in an environment with certain
kinds of characteristics and within certain ranges of availability of resources. Because
modern science and technology give us the power to affect the environment, we have to
understand how the environment
works, so that we can live within its constraints.
People have always been fascinated with nature, which is, in its broadest view, our
environment. As long as people have written, they have asked three questions about
ourselves and nature:
What is nature like when it is undisturbed by people?
What are the effects of people on nature?
What are the effects of nature on people?
Environmental science is our modern way of seeking answers to these questions.
We enjoy our environment. To keep it enjoyable, we must understand it from a
scientific viewpoint.
Our environment improves the quality of our lives. A healthy environment can help
us live longer and more fulfilling lives.
Its just fascinating.

Ecosystems
Although humans are primarily land dwellers, the Earth s surface is largely water. World s
oceans make up 99% of the planet s biosphere and contain the greatest diversity of life. Even the
most biologically rich tropical rain forests cannot match the biodiversity (measured by the
number of species) found in a coral reef community (Coral reefs are underwater structures
made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals).Rain forests, deserts, coral reefs, grasslands,
and a rotting log are all examples of ecosystems.
An ecosystem is a complex community of plants, animals, and micr oor ganisms linked by
ener gy and nutr ient flows that inter act with each other and their envir onment.

Biosphere
The part of the Earth system that directly supports life, including the oceans, atmosphere, land,
and soil, is the biosphere. All the Earth s plants and animals live in this layer, which is measured
from the ocean floor to the top of the atmosphere. All livi ng things, large and small, are grouped
into species,
or separate types. The main compounds that make up the biosphere contain carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen. These elements interact with other Earth systems.
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The biospher e includes the hydr ospher e, cr ust, and atmospher e. I t is located above the
deeper layer s of the ear th.
The vertical range that contains the biosphere is roughly 20,000 meters high. The section most
populated with livi ng species is only a fraction of that. It includes a section measured from just
below the ocean s surface to about 1,000 meters above it. Most livi ng plants and animals live in
this narrow layer of the biosphere. Fig. 2-1 gives an idea of the depth of the biosphere.

Hydrosphere
The global ocean, the Earth s most noticeable feature from space, makes up the largest single
part of the planet s total covering. The Pacific Ocean, the largest ocean, is so big that the land
mass of all the continents could fit into it. The combined water of all of the oceans makes up
nearly 97% of the earth s water. These oceans are much deeper on average than the land is high,
and make up what is known as the hydrosphere.
The hydr ospher e descr ibes the ever -changing total water cycle that is par t of the closed
envir onment of the ear th.

Life and Global Chemical Cycles


All living things are made up of chemical elements but of the more than 103 known chemical
elements, only 24 are required by organisms (see Figure 6.8). These 24 are divided into the
macronutrients, elements required in large amounts by all life, and micronutrients, elements
required either in small amounts by all life or in moderate amounts by some forms of life and not
at all by others.
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The macronutrients in turn include the big six elements that are the fundamental building
blocks of life: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Each one plays a
special role in organisms. Carbon is the basic building block of organic compounds; along
with oxygen and hydrogen, carbon forms carbohydrates.

Nitrogen, along with these other three, makes proteins. Phosphorus is the energy elementit
occurs in compounds called ATP and ADP, important in the transfer and use of energy within
cells.
Other macronutrients also play specific roles. Calcium, for example, is the structure element,
occurring in bones and teeth of vertebrates, shells of shellfish, and wood-forming cell walls of
vegetation. Sodium and potassium are important to nerve-signal transmission. Many of the
metals required by living things are necessary for specific enzymes. (An enzyme is a complex
organic compound that acts as a catalystit causes or speeds up chemical reactions, such as
digestion.)
For any form of life to persist, chemical elements must be available at the right times, in the right
amounts, and in the right concentrations. When this does not happen, a chemical can become a
limiting factor, preventing the growth of an individual, a population, or a species, or
even causing its local extinction.
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Chemical elements may also be toxic to some life-forms and ecosystems. Mercury, for example,
is toxic even in low concentrations.
A biogeochemical cycle is the complete path a chemical takes through the four major
components, or reservoirs, of Earths system: atmosphere, hydrosphere (oceans, rivers, lakes,
groundwaters, and glaciers), lithosphere (rocks and soils), and biosphere (plants and animals).
A biogeochemical cycle is chemical because it is chemicals that are cycled, bio- because the
cycle involves life, and geo- because a cycle may include atmosphere, water, rocks, and soils.

The Geologic Cycle


Throughout the 4.6 billion years of Earths history, rocks and soils have been continuously
created, maintained, changed, and destroyed by physical, chemical, and biological processes.
This is another illustration that the biosphere is a dynamic system, not in steady state.
Collectively, the processes responsible for formation and change of Earth materials are referred
to as the geologic cycle.

The Tectonic Cycle

The tectonic cycle involves the creation and destruction of Earths solid outer layer, the
lithosphere. The lithosphere is about 100 km (60 mi) thick on average and is broken into several
large segments called plates, which are moving relative to one another (Figure 6.11). The slow
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movement of these large segments of Earths outermost rock shell is referred to as plate
tectonics. The plates float on denser material and move at rates of 2 to 15 cm/year (0.8 to 6.9
in./year), about as fast as your fingernails grow. The tectonic cycle is driven by forces originating
deep within the earth.
Plate tectonics has important environmental effects. Moving plates change the location and size
of continents, altering atmospheric and ocean circulation and thereby altering climate. Plate
movement has also created ecological islands by breaking up continental areas. When this
happens, closely related life-forms are isolated from one another for millions of years, leading
to the evolution of new species. Finally, boundaries between plates are geologically active
areas, and most volcanic activity and earthquakes occur there. Earthquakes occur when the
brittle upper lithosphere fractures along faults (fractures in rock within the Earths crust).
Movement of several meters between plates can occur within a few seconds or minutes, in
contrast to the slow, deeper plate movement described above.
Three types of plate boundaries occur: divergent, convergent, and transform faults.

The Hydrologic Cycle


The hydrologic cycle (Figure 6.13) is the transfer of water from the oceans to the atmosphere
to the land and back to the oceans. It includes evaporation of water from the oceans;
precipitation on land; evaporation from land; transpiration of water by plants; and runoff from
streams, rivers, and subsurface groundwater.

The Earths Water


Water covers over 70% of the Earth s surface, but it s hard to picture that much water. Standing on a
beach and looki ng seaward, ocean water stretches to the horizon and seems to go on forever. The
oceans hold 97% of the Earth s water, the land masses hold 3%, and the atmosphere holds less than
0.001%. The water on the land masses is stored as fresh water in glaciers and icecaps, groundwater,
lakes, rivers, and soil. The annual precipitation for the Earth has been estimated at more than 30
times the atmosphere s total ability to hold water. This points to the fact that water is quickl y
recycled between the Earth s surface and the atmosphere. Table 5-1 shows how long water stays in a
reservoir before recycling.

Even the world s total amount of rainfall is incredibly large. To give you an idea of the volume of
water we are talki ng about, think of this: If all the rain that falls on the Earth in one year fell on the
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state of Texas (total area around 692,408 km2) in one day, the entire state would be covered with
approxi mately 560 meters of water!
A water r eser voir is a place in the atmospher e, ocean, or under gr ound, wher e water is stor ed
for some per iod of time.
Water is constantly circulating between the atmosphere and the Earth and back to the atmosphere
through a cycle involving condensation, precipitation, evaporation, and transpiration. This is called
the hydrologic cycle. Fig. 5-1 illustrates the many ways water is transported through the hydrologic
cycle.

Water vapor is carried by wind and air currents throughout the atmosphere. When an air mass cools
down, its vapor condenses into clouds and eventually falls to the ground as precipitation in the form
of snow, rain, sleet, or hail.
Water takes one route from the atmosphere to the ground, but can take a variety of paths and time
periods to get back up into the atmosphere. These paths include the following:
Absorption by plants;
Evaporation from the sun s heating;
Storage in the upper levels of soil;
Storage as groundwater deep in the earth;
Storage in glaciers and polar regions;
Storage or transport in springs, streams, rivers, lakes; and
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Storage in the oceans.


When water is stored somewhere for any length of time, it is called a water reservoir. A reservoir is a
holding area. Nature s reservoirs are oceans, glaciers, polar ice, underground storage (aquifers),
lakes, rivers, streams, the atmosphere, and the biosphere (within living organisms).
Surface water in streams and lakes returns to the atmosphere as a gas (vapor) through the process of

evaporation.
Water held inside plants returns to the atmosphere as a vapor through a biological process called
transpiration. When plants pull water up through their roots from the soil, use some of the dissolved
minerals to grow, and then release the water back through the leaves, the entire cycle is known as

evapotranspiration.
This happens the most during times of high temperatures, wind, dry air, and sunshine. In temperate
climates, this occurs during the summertime. When air currents rise into the colder atmospheric
layers, water vapor condenses and sticks to tiny particles in the air. This is called condensation.
When a lot of water vapor coats enough particles (dust, pollen, or pollutant), it forms a cloud.
As the air gets wetter and wetter (saturated), water droplets accumulating within the cloud get bigger
and bigger. When these droplets get too heavy, gravity wins and they fall as precipitation.
After rain hits the ground, it can evaporate quickly, be absorbed (by the land or the sea), or run off
into storm sewers, streams, or rivers. Even though the hydrologic cycle balances what goes up with
what comes down, one part of the cycle gets stuck in polar regions during the wintertime.
In cold climates, rain is stored as snow or ice on the ground for several months. In glacial areas, the
time period can extend from years to thousands of years. Then, as the temperature climbs in the
spring, the water is released. When this happens in a very short period of time, flooding occurs.

Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen (N2) makes up 79% of the atmosphere. All life, like proteins, requires nitrogen compounds
to survive. However, they can t generally use nitrogen in the gaseous form.
To be used by an organism, nitrogen must be combined with hydrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen is taken
out of the atmosphere by lightning or nitrogen-fixi ng bacteria. During storms, large amounts of
nitrogen are oxi dized by lightning and mixed with water (rain). This falls and is converted into
nitrates. Plants take up nitrates to form proteins. Plants are consumed by herbivores(Herbivores are
organisms that are anatomically and physiologically adapted to eat plant-based foods) or
carnivores(meaning 'meat eater' (Latin carne meaning 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour'), is an
organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively
of animal tissue). When these die (organic matter), the nitrogen compounds are broken down into
ammonia. Ammonia can be taken up by plants again, dissolved by water, or remain in the soil to be
converted to nitrates (nitrification). Nitrates stored in soil can end up in rivers and lakes through
runoff. They can also be changed into free nitrogen and returned to the atmosphere. Fig. gives you an
idea of the nitrogen cycle.

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Carbon Cycle
Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. At
last count, there were more than 2 million known organic compounds, nearly 20 times more than all
the other known chemicals combined. Carbon is known as the building block of life and is the
foundational element of all organic substances, from molds to mosquitoes to fossil fuels. Carbon
cycles through the land, ocean, atmosphere, and the Earth s interior in a major biogeochemical cycle.
Or ganic matter must contain carbon from living or nonliving material in order to be considered
organic.
The transport of carbon takes place in the atmosphere, biosphere, oceans, and landmasses. All of
carbon s different lives are described by the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle has many different
storage spots, also known as reservoirs or sinks, where carbon exchanges take place. The carbon
cycle is shown in Fig. 11-3. The global carbon cycle is divided into two types, the geological carbon
cycle, which has been going on for millions of years, and the biological carbon cycle, which stretches
from days to thousands of years.

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GEOLOGICAL CARBON CYCLE


In the geological carbon cycle, carbon moves between rocks and minerals, seawater and the
atmosphere through weathering.
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reacts with water and minerals to form calcium carbonate. Calcium
carbonate rock (limestone) is dissolved by rainwater through erosion and carried to the oceans.
There, it settles out of the ocean water, forming sedimentary layers on the sea floor. Then, through
plate tectonics, these sediments are subducted underneath the continents. With the ext reme heat and
pressure deep beneath the Earth s surface, the limestone melts and reacts with other minerals, freeing
carbon dioxi de. This carbon jumps back into the carbon cycle, returning to the atmosphere as carbon
dioxi de during volcanic eruptions.

BIOLOGICAL CARBON CYCLE


The biosphere and all living organisms, including you and me, play a big role in the movement of
carbon in and out of the land and ocean through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. On
this planet, nearly every living thing depends on the creation of sugars from photosynthesis and the
metabolism (respiration) of those sugars to support growth and reproduction.
The biological car bon cycle occur s when plants absor b car bon dioxide and sunlight to make
glucose and other sugar s (car bohydr ates) to build cellular str uctur es.

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Plants and animals use carbohydrates during respiration, the opposite of photosynthesis. Respiration
converts this biological (metabolic) energy back to carbon dioxi de. As a process pair, respiration and
decomposition (respiration by bacteria and fungi) restore the biologically fixed carbon to the
atmosphere. Yearly carbon levels taken up by photosynthesis and sent back to the atmosphere by
respiration are 1,000 times higher than carbon levels transported through the geological cycle each
year.
We ve seen how photosynthesis and respiration play a big part in the long term geological cycling of
carbon. Land plants pull carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In the oceans, the calcium carbonate
shells of dead phytoplankton sink to the sea bed and form sediments. When photosynthesis is higher
than respiration, organic matter gradually builds over millions of years and forms coal and oil
deposits. These biologically regulated activities characterize atmospheric carbon dioxi de removal and
the storage of carbon in geologic sediments.

Atmosphere
Next to the ground we walk on, the atmosphere is the easiest to identify. The atmosphere also
provides the air (oxygen) we breathe. Humans can survive for about 28 days without food and 3 days
without waterbut only three to four minutes without air. For this reason, it is the single most
important resource we have. All other environmental concerns must tie into the preservation
of our atmosphere.
Atmospheric variables include temperature, pressure, and water vapor. The gradients and interactions
of these variables and how they change over time are also important.
A meteor ologist is a per son who
studies the weather and its
atmospher ic patter ns.

Composition
The atmospheric gases blanketing the
Earth exist in a mixture. This mixture is
made up (by volume) of about 79%
nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 0.036% carbon
dioxi de, and trace amounts of other
gases.
The atmosphere is divided into four
layers according to the mixi ng of gases
and their chemical properties, as well as
temperature. The layer nearest the earth
is the troposphere, which reaches an
altitude of about 8 km in polar regions
and up to 17 km around the equator. The
layer above the troposphere is the
stratosphere, which reaches to an
altitude of around 50 km. The
mesosphere reaches up to approxi mately
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90 km and lies above the stratosphere. Finally, the thermosphere, or ionosphere, is still further out
and eventually fades to black in outer space. There is
very slight mixi ng of gases between the layers.

TROPOSPHERE
The lowest of the atmospheric layers, the troposphere, extends from the earth s surface up to about
14 km in altitude. Virtually all human activities occur in the troposphere. Mt. Everest, the tallest
mountain on the planet, is only about 9 km high.
Nitrogen and oxygen make up the majority of the Earth s gases, even in the higher altitudes. But it s
the atmospheric level closest to the Earth where everything is perfect to support life. At this level,
living organisms are protected from harmful cosmic radiation showers that constantly assault the
earth s atmosphere.
This active layer is called the troposphere. If you have ever survived a hurricane or tornado, you
know that the troposphere is an active place. It is the atmospheric layer where all the weather we
experience takes place. Rising and falling temperatures, as well as circulating masses of air, keep
things lively. Air pressure also adds to the mix.
The warmest portions of the troposphere are found at the lowest altitudes. This is because the earth s
surface absorbs the sun s heat and radiates it back into the atmosphere. Commonly, temperature
decreases as altitude increases

STRATOSPHERE
Above the troposphere is the stratosphere, where air flow is mostly sideways There is a gradual
change from the troposphere to the stratosphere, which starts at around 14 km in altitude. The
stratosphere extends from 14 km to around 50 km. Most commercial aircraft travel takes place in the
lower part of the stratosphere. Military aircraft travel at much higher altitudes: Some classified
stealth aircraft are thought to graze the boundary of the mesosphere and beyond.
NASA s Space Shuttle generally travels to altitudes between 160 and 500 km.
Although the temperature in the lower stratosphere is cold and constant, hovering around at 57C,
there are strong winds in this layer that are part of specific circulation patterns. Extremely high and
wispy clouds can form in the lower stratosphere. In general, there are no major weather formations
that take place regularly in the stratosphere.

Ozone
Ozone is one of our atmospheric bodyguards. Even small amounts have an important role in
protecting planetary life. Concentrated in a thin layer in the upper stratosphere, atmospheric ozone is
an exceptionally reactive form of oxygen. It is found in the stratospheric layer, around 15 to 30 km
above the Earth s surface. The ozone layer is largely responsible for absorbing most of the sun s
ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Most importantly, it absorbs the fraction of ultraviolet light called UVB.
Ultraviolet radiation is a bad, bad thing! It causes breaks in the body s nuclear proteins, leaving the
door open for cancers and other health issues to get a foothold. UVB has been connected with many
serious health problems, like different ki nds of ski n cancer and cataracts. It is also harmful to certain
crops, materials, and marine organisms
Ozone is much less widespread than normal oxygen. The formation of the ozone layer is a tricky
matter. Out of every 10 million air molecules, about 2 million are normal oxygen and only three are
ozone molecules. Instead of two atoms of oxygen like normal oxygen molecules (O2), ozone (O3)
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contains three oxygen atoms. Ozone has a distinctive odor and is blue in color. Regular oxygen has
no odor or color.

Ozone Depletion
For the past 50 years, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) held the answer to lots of material problems. They
were stable, nonflammable, not too toxic, and cheap to produce. They had a variety of uses including
applications as refrigerants, solvents, and foam-blowing agents.
Chlorine has been used for everything from disinfecting water to serving as solvents (methyl
chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) in chemistry labs.
Unfortunately, these compounds are not so good for the atmosphere. They don t just break down and
disappear. They hang around. This lingering characteristic allows them to be carried by winds into
the stratosphere. The net effect is to destroy ozone faster than it is naturally created. Roughly 84% of
stratospheric chlorine comes from manmade sources, while only 16% comes from natural
sources.
Unfortunately, CFCs break down only by exposure to strong UV radiation. When that happens, CFCs
release chlorine. Scientists have found that one atom of chlorine can destroy over 100,000 ozone
molecules. As CFCs decay, they release chlorine and damage the ozone layer.
In 1985, since chlorine compounds were still being used, the policy of the Vienna Convention was
adopted to gather international cooperation and reduce the number of all CFCs by half. It s important
to remember that just because CFCs were banned doesn t mean that long-lived chemicals will
disappear immediately from the atmosphere. Until CFCs degrade to negligible levels, the annual
South Polar ozone hole will keep appearing for many years to come. The annual hole or thinning
of the ozone layer over Antarctica was first noticed in 1985.
In 1992, with new information on the ever-shrinki ng ozone layer, developed countries decided to
totally stop production of halons by 1994 and CFCs by 1996. Halons are compounds in which
hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon are replaced by bromine or fluorine. The halons are used as fireextinguishing agents, both in built-in systems and in handheld fire extinguishers.
Halons cause ozone depletion because they contain bromine, which is a lot stronger than CFCs in
destroying ozone. Halons are also very stable and break down slowly once formed.
This course of action turned out to be what turned the tide in falling ozone levels. Levels of inorganic
chlorine in the atmosphere stopped increasing in 19971998, and stratospheric chlorine levels peaked
and are no longer rising. If nothing happens to change this trend, natural ozone recovery should mend
the ozone layer in about 50 years.

MESOSPHERE
Above the stratosphere is the mesosphere, a middle layer separating the lower stratosphere from the
inhospitable thermosphere. Extending from 80 to 90 km and with temperatures around 101C, the
mesosphere is the intermediary of the earth s atmosphere layers.

THERMOSPHERE
The changeover from the mesosphere to the thermosphere layer begins at a height of approxi mately
80 km. The thermosphere is named because of the return to rising temperatures that can reach an
amazing 1,982C.

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Greenhouse Effect
and Global Warming
Have you ever been in a greenhouse? Greenhouses are special buildings usually made from glass and
steel. They are used to grow plants that need humidity, tropical temperatures, and constant growing
conditions. Gardeners also use greenhouses to protect plants from freezing in the winter.
Greenhouses, sometimes called hothouses, work by trapping the sun s heat. A greenhouse s glass
sides and roof let sunlight in, but keep heat from escaping.
The earth s atmosphere surrounds our planet like a blanket. It protects us from harmful cosmic
radiation, regulates temperature and humidity, and controls the weather. The atmosphere is critical to
life on this planet and provides the air we breathe.

Greenhouse gases are a natural part of the atmosphere. They trap the sun s warmth, and preserve the
earth s surface temperature at a median level needed to support life. Atmospheric greenhouse gases
act like the glass windows of a greenhouse. Sunlight enters the Earth s atmosphere, passing through
greenhouse gases that act like a lens. Then, as it reaches the Earth s surface, the land, water, and
biosphere absorb the sun s energy. Once absorbed, this energy gets recycled into the atmosphere. A
portion of the heat is reflected into space, but a lot of it stays locked in the atmosphere by greenhouse
gases, causing the Earth to heat.
The gr eenhouse effect descr ibes how atmospher ic gases pr event heat fr om being r eleased back
into space, allowing it to build up in the Ear th s atmospher e.
The more gases there are, the more the Earth heats
up. The greenhouse effect is important. Without it,
the Earth would not be warm enough for most
living things to survive. However, if the
greenhouse effect gets too strong, it can make the
Earth warmer than normal. The problem is that
even a little more heat (a few degrees higher)
creates problems for people, plants, and animals.

Greenhouse Gases
We know that the earth is surrounded by a mixture
of gases. The Earth s atmosphere consists of
roughly 79.1% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, 0.03%
carbon dioxi de, and trace amounts of other gases.
Greenhouse gases are a natural part of the
atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include water
vapor, carbon dioxi de, methane, nitrous oxi de,
halogenated fluorocarbons, ozone, perfluorinated
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carbons, and hydrofluorocarbons. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, but human
activity doesn t have much direct impact on its amount in the atmosphere.
Global warming is caused by an increase in the levels of these gases brought about by human
activity. The greatest impact on the greenhouse effect has come from industrialization and increases
in the amounts of carbon dioxi de, methane, and nitrous oxi de. The clearing of land and burning of
fossil fuels, for example, have raised atmospheric gas concentrations of soot and other aerosols (fine
particles in the air).
Manufactured greenhouse gases and particles, rather than the occasional volcanic eruption, now
account for higher gas concentrations. The planet has begun to warm at a steep rate, and future
temperature increases are predicted by climatic models programmed with the volumes of gases
released yearly into the atmosphere. Some scientists are already seeing the consequences of global
warming, such as the melting of the polar ice sheets and rising sea levels. Since 1991, the National
Academy of Sciences has found clear evidence of global warming and recommended immediate
reductions in greenhouse gases. Depending on whether or not changes are made, they have predicted
temperature increases of between 3 and 9 Fahrenheit in the next 100 to 200 years, with sea
level increases of 3 to 25 feet.

CARBON DIOXIDE
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural greenhouse gas and also the biggest human supplied gas to the
greenhouse effect (about 70%). A heavy, colorless gas, carbon dioxi de is the main gas we exhale
during breathing. It dissolves in water to form carbonic acid, is formed in animal respiration, and
comes from the decay or combustion of plant/animal matter. Carbon dioxi de is absorbed from the air
by plants in photosynthesis and is also used to carbonate drinks.
You may be thinki ng that the Earth s
inhabitants don t have the option to
stop breathing. You re right.
However, the amount of carbon
dioxi de in the atmosphere,
unfortunately, is about 30% higher
now than it was at the beginning of
the 1800s. Fig. 4-2 shows carbon
dioxi de concentration trends over the
past 250 years. The industrial
revolution is responsible for this
jump. Ever since fossil fuels
such as oil, coal, and natural gas
were first burned to create energy for
electricity and transportation fuel,
carbon dioxi de levels have climbed.
Additionally, when farmers clear and
burn weeds and crop stubble, carbon
dioxi de is also produced.

NITROGEN OXIDES
The colorless gas known as nitrous oxi de is an atmospheric pollutant produced by combustion. It is
also one of the greenhouse gases. There are several ways that nitrogen and oxygen team up in the
atmosphere, including nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide. Nitrogen oxi des are stable
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gases and do not break down quickl y. For this reason, they build up in the atmosphere in greater and
greater concentrations.
Nitrogen combines with moisture in the atmosphere to form nitric acid. This comes down as rain and
acidifies lakes and soils, ki lling fish, and small animal populations and damaging forests. Acid
particulates are also precipitated, along with the leaching of heavy metals, into water supplies.
Nitrous oxi de is also used in dentistry to put patients to sleep during dental procedures and is
sometimes called laughing gas. The amount of nitrous oxi de in the atmosphere is about 15% higher
now than it was in the 1800s.
At high altitudes, nitrogen oxi des are responsible for some ozone depletion. When ozone is thin or
gone in places, the amount of solar ultraviolet radiation that reaches the ground is increased. This
causes plant damage and injury to animals and humans in the form of ski n cancers and other
problems. As a greenhouse gas, nitrogen oxi des trap heat much more efficiently than
carbon dioxi de.

METHANE
Another greenhouse gas, methane, is a colorless, odorless, flammable hydrocarbon that is released by
the breakdown of organic matter and the carbonization of coal. This gas is the second biggest
additive, after carbon dioxide, to the greenhouse effect at around 20%.
Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is found in deposits, like oil, in the earth s
crust. Methane is a byproduct of the production, transportation, and use of natural gas. Underwater
decaying plants create methane known as marsh or swamp gas.
One of the best known sources of methane in rural populations is that of belching (Belching (also
known as burping, ructus, or eructation) involves the release of gas from the digestive tract (mainly
esophagus and stomach) through the mouth.) farm animals. Cows have complicated digestive
systems, and release large amounts of methane in satisfying belches. It sounds funny, but when you
consider herds of hundreds of animals, it adds up!
The amount of methane in the atmosphere is about 145% higher now than it was in the 1800s. The
major causes of this increase are thought to include:
Digestive gases of sheep and cattle
Growth and cultivation of rice
Geologic release of natural gas
Decomposition of garbage and landfill waste

HALOCARBONS
As we learned earlier, halocarbons levels dropped since being banned in the 1990s. The phasing out
of chlorofluorocarbons has removed a lot of the ozone threat and is allowing the protective ozone
layer to recover.

Formation of Greenhouse Gases


The burning of fossil fuels for energy creates most greenhouse gases. When oil, gas, or coal burns,
carbon in the fuel mixes with atmospheric oxygen to form carbon dioxi de. Methane is produced from

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coal mining and certain natural gas pipelines. Animals, especially sheep and cattle, produce methane
as food breaks down within their stomachs. Some fertilizers release nitrous oxide. Rice production
in paddy fields generates methane under water.
When organic matter such as table scraps, garden waste, and paper is left in landfills, its
decomposition forms methane and carbon dioxi de. Sewage and water treatment plants also release
these gases in the process of breaki ng down wastes.
Many industrial processes create greenhouse gases. Cement production, used for everything from
building roads to laying the foundations of homes and businesses, requires chemical processes that
produce an assortment of greenhouse gases.

GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND OZONE


The difference between the greenhouse effect and ozone reduction can be confusing. Both are
important environmental topics and are affected by molecules released into the atmosphere by human
activities. The greenhouse effect refers to the ability of the greenhouse gases to trap heat within the
atmosphere. These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxi de, methane, and nitrous oxi de. Without
them, life on Earth would not be possible. A problem occurs when greenhouse gases increase, and
affect the atmosphere and climate.
Ozone reduction is a global issue since it makes the earth vulnerable to solar radiation. When the
protective ozone layer is thin or absent, the sun s harmful UV radiation is able to get through the
atmosphere and reach the Earth s surface. Exposure to this radiation causes ski n cancer, eye damage,
and other health problems. We learned that ozone depletion is strongly affected by
chlorofluorocarbons and halons that make their way into the stratosphere. Ozone drops in the
stratosphere are thought to have allowed the upper part of the atmosphere to cool and attend ozone
distribution.
Ozone is also an atmospheric pollutant, especially in urban areas. Ozone pollution is believed to
cause planet-wide heating in addition to its bad health effects. To slow ozone s contribution to global
warming, exceptional international cooperation is crucial.

ENHANCED GREENHOUSE EFFECT


Solar cycles and changes in the sun s radiation increase the Earth s temperature naturally. They
affect local climate and allow the sun s energy to reach the Earth s surface, keeping heat from
escaping. The Earth gets slowly hotter.
Industrial activity produces greenhouse gases that serve as additional blankets to heat the Earth even
more.
Global warming effects differ around the world and make it hard to predict exactly how the climate
may change. Temperature increases are expected to be higher in polar areas than around the equator.
Land temperatures might be higher than those over oceans. Rainfall might be heavier in some areas
and lower in others.
A major climatic change would greatly affect local weather through the frequency and intensity of
storms. Some scientists fear the succession of Atlantic hurricanes in 2004 may be just the beginning
of severe climate changes.
Ranching, farming of crops, number of pests and diseases, ocean levels, and the populations of native
plants and animals would all be impacted.

Climate Change
Climate change includes temperature increases (global warming), rise in sealevels, rainfall pattern
changes, and increased incidence of ext reme weather events. Scientific data discussed at the 2002
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World Summit on Sustainable Development and the 2004 United Nations Convention on Biological
Diversity suggests that global warming is causing shifts in species habitat and migrations that
average 6.1 km per decade towards the poles. This shift, predicted by climate change models, notes
that spring arrives 2.3 days earlier per decade, on average.

Potential Rates of Global Climate Change


The global average temperature since 1900 has risen by about 0.8 C (1.5F).31 Global surface
temperature has risen about 0.2 C (0.36 F) per decade in the past 30 years. The warmest year
since direct surface air temperature has been measured was 2005 (but 2005 will likely be
surpassed by 2010 when all data is in). Virtually tied for second were 2002, 2003, 2006, 2007
and 2009. The decade 2001 2010 will be the warmest on record.
According to current GCMs, if the concentrations of all greenhouse gases and aerosols had
been kept constant at year 2000 levels, warming of about 0.1o C per decade would be
expected.30, 31 Based on current and expected rates of CO2 release by human activities, it is
estimated that by 2030 the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will be double the
preIndustrial Revolution level. If so, the GCMs forecast that the average global temperature will
rise approximately 12C (2o4oF), with greater increases toward the poles.

Potential Environmental, Ecological, and Human


Effects of Global Warming
Changes in River Flow
With a continuation of global warming, melting of glacial ice and reductions in snow cover are
anticipated to accelerate throughout the twenty-first century. This is also projected to reduce
water availability and hydropower potential, and change the seasonality of flows in regions
supplied by meltwater from major mountain ranges (e.g., Hindu-Kush, Himalaya, Andes), where
more than one sixth of the world population currently lives.
California, which depends on snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada for water to irrigate one of the
richest agriculture regions in the world, will have problems storing water in reservoirs if these
forecasts became true. Rainfall will likely increase, but there will be less snowpack with
warming. Runoff, will be more rapid than if snow slowly melts. As a result, reservoirs will fill
sooner and more water will escape to the Pacific Ocean. Lower runoff is projected for much of
Mexico, South America, southern Europe, India, southern Africa, and Australia.

Rise in Sea Level


The sea level reached a minimum during the most recent glacial maximum. Since then, the sea
level has risen slowly. Sea level rises from two causes: (1) Liquid water expands as it warms;
and (2) ice sheets on land that melt increase the amount of water in the oceans. Since the end
of the last ice age, the sea level has risen approximately 23 cm (about 1 foot) per century.
Climatologists forecast that global warming could about double that rate. Various models predict
that the sea level may rise anywhere from 20 cm to approximately 2 m (880 in) in the next
century; the most likely rise is probably 2040 cm (816 in).
About half the people on Earth live in a coastal zone, and about 50 million people each year
experience flooding due to storm surges. As the sea level rises and the population increases,
more and more people become vulnerable to coastal flooding.
Groundwater supplies for coastal communities could also be threatened by saltwater intrusion.

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Glaciers and Sea Ice


The amount of ice on the Earths surface changes in complicated ways. A major concern is
whether global warming will lead to a great decline in the volume of water stored as ice,
especially because melting of glacial ice raises the mean sea level and because mountain
glaciers are often significant sources of water for lower-elevation ecosystems.
At present, many more glaciers in North America, Europe, and other areas are retreating, than
are advancing. In the Cascades of the Pacific Northwest and the Alps in Switzerland and Italy,
retreats are accelerating.
For example, on Mt. Baker in the Northern Cascades of Washington, all eight glaciers on the
mountain were advancing in 1976. Today all eight are retreating.32 If present trends continue, all
glaciers in Glacier National Park in Montana could be gone by 2030 and most glaciers in the
European Alps could be gone by the end of the century.
Extreme Weather Events

In addition, most of the ill effects of climate change are linked to extreme weather events, such
as hot or cold spells of temperature, or wet or dry spells of rainfall, or cyclones and floods.
Predictions of the nature and distributions of such events in a changed climate are even more
uncertain- to the extent that vi rtually no authoritative predictions exist at all. While there are
costs as well as benefits associated with climate change, the scientific consensus is clearly that
the overall effects are likely to pose a significant burden on the global community. Unlike many
other envi ronmental issues, such as local air or water pollution, or even stratospheric ozone
depletion caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), global warming poses special challenges due to
the spatial and temporal extent of the problem covering the globe and with decades to centuries
time scales.
Analysis and assessment of just what steps needed to be taken to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
This process resulted in the negotiation of a protocol, the final details of which were completed
at the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention held
December 1-12, 1997, in Kyoto, Japan. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change commits industrialized nations to specific, legally binding
emission reduction targets for six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide,
hydro fluorocarbons, per-fluorinated compounds and sulphur hex fluoride. First, although India
does not currently have any obligations under the Convention to reduce its greenhouse gas
emissions. It is important for us to develop a clear understanding of our emission inventory. We
also need to document and analyze our efforts in areas such as renewable energy, wasteland
development and a forestation - all of which contribute towards either reducing CO2 emissions
or increasing CO2 removal from the atmosphere. Considering that these efforts may often be
undertaken for a variety of reasons not directly related to global warming, but yet has benefits as
far as climate change is concerned, we may be able to leverage such efforts in the international
context. The Research community
could contribute substantially in this regard. We need to significantly improve our ability to plan
and adapt to extreme events such as floods, droughts, cyclones and other meteorological hazards.
Any robustness that we build into the system in this regard will always stand us in good stead no
matter what climate change actually transpires.

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Environmental Science: Pollution and its Factors


INTRODUCTION
Pollution may be defined as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air,
water and land that may be harmful to human life and other animals, living conditions, industrial processes and
cultural assets. Pollution can be natural or manmade. The agents that pollute are called pollutants.

Pollutants
Pollutants are by-products of man s action. The important pollutants are summarised
below:
Deposited matter Soot, smoke, tar or dust and domestic wastes.
GasesCO, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, halogens (chlorine, bromine and iodine).
M etalsLead, zinc, iron and chromium.
I ndustr ial pollutantsBenzene, ether, acetic acid etc., and cyanide compounds.
Agr icultur e pollutantsPesticides, herbicides, fungicides and fertilizers.
Photochemical pollutantsOzone, oxides of nitrogen, aldehydes, ethylene,
photochemical smog and proxy acetyl nitrate.
Radiation pollutantsRadioactive substances and radioactive fall-outs of the
nuclear test.

Classification of Pollutants
On the basis of natural disposal, pollutants are of two types:
(i) Non-degradable pollutants
These are the pollutants, which degrade at a very slow pace by the natural biological processes. These are inorganic
compounds such as salts (chlorides), metallic oxides waste producing materials and materials like, aluminium cans,
mercuric salts and even DDT. These continue to accumulate in the environment.
(ii) Biodegradable pollutants
These include domestic sewage that easily decomposes under natural processes and can be rapidly decomposed by
natural/ artificial methods. These cause serious problems when accumulated in large amounts as the pace of
deposition exceeds the pace of decomposition of disposal.
On the basis of the form in which they persist after their release into the environment, pollutants can be categorized
under two types:
(i ) Pr imar y pollutants : These include those substances, which are emitted directly from some identifiable sources.
This include(a) Sulphur compounds: SO2, SO3, H2S produced by the oxidation of fuel.
(b) Carbon compounds: Oxides of carbon (CO+CO2) and hydrocarbons.
(c) Nitrogen compounds: NO2 and NH3.
(d) Halogen compounds: Hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrochloric acid (HCl).
(e) Particles of different size and substances: These are found suspended in air.
The fine particles below the diameter of 100u are more abundant and include
particles of metals, carbon, tar, pollen, fungi, bacteria, silicates and others.
(ii ) Secondar y pollutants. The secondary pollutants are produced by the combination of primary emitted pollutants.
in the atmosphere. In bright sunlight, a photochemical reaction occurs between nitrogen oxides; oxygen and waste
hydrocarbons from gasoline that forms peroxyacetyle nitrate (PAN) and ozone (O3), Both of them are toxic
components of smog and cause smarting eyes and lung damage.
(iii ) Smog. The fog deposited with smoke and chemical fumes forms a dark and thick covering, the smog. Smog is
very common in almost all the industrial areas as the smog is trapped for many days by the stagnant air. It is harmful
both for animals and plants.

AIR POLLUTION
The WHO defines air pollution as the presence of materials in the air in such concentration which are harmful to
man and his environment. A number of ingredients find their way in the air and these are mostly gases, which
rapidly spread over wide areas.

SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION


Various sources of air pollution are fossil fuels, industries, agricultural activities, wars, natural causes arid emissions
from vehicles.

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(i) Burning Fossil Fuels


Burning of wood, charcoal and other fossil fuels causes air pollution by the release of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon
sulphur dioxide etc. Petroleum consists mainly of hydrocarbons, sulphur and nitrogen.

(ii) Emissions from Automobiles


Vehicles are mainly responsible for more than 80% of total air pollution. The major pollutants released from
automobiles, locomotives, aircraft etc., include CO, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide.

(iii) Industries
Paper and pulpfactories, petroleum refineries, fertilizer plants, and steel industries, thermal power plants are the
main sources of air pollution. They add various harmful gases like CO, SO3, NO, Hydrocarbons etc., to the
atmosphere. Textile factories release cotton dust into the air. The pesticide and insecticide industries are posing
serious threat to the environment. Food processing industries and tanneries emit offensive odors. Release of
poisonous gases from accidents also poses serious threats. e.g. Bhopal Gas Tragedy in which methyl isocynate
(MIC) gas leakage killed several people. In Tokyo, about 34 tones of carbon particles mixed with other suspended
particles settle per square kilometer every day.

(iv) Agricultural Activities


Spraying of insecticides and weedicides also cause air pollution. These, when inhaled create severe problems to both
animals and man.

(v) Wars
Various forms of explosives used in war pollute the air by releasing poisonous gases. This greatly disturbs the
ecology of the area. Nuclear explosions pollute air by radioactive rays. The effects of nuclear explosions on
Hiroshima and Nagasaki are well-known examples.

(vi) Natural Causes


Gas emissions from active volcanoes, marsh gas, spores of fungi and pollens are the natural causes of air pollution.

COMMON AIR POLLUTANTS


Air pollutants are of two main types ~gaseous and particulate. Oxides of carbon. Nitrogen and sulphur are gaseous
pollutants. Particulate pollutants may be solid or liquid particles, larger particles settle down quickly viz., sand and
water droplets whereas small dust particles remain suspended in air for a long time. These are added into the
atmosphere by the processes of blasting, drilling, crushing, grinding and mixing.

(i) Carbon Dioxide


CO2 content of air has increased by 20% during the last century. CO2 causes nausea and headache. It s increase in
the air may cause green house effect, rise in the atmospheric temperature. This may melt the polar ice resulting in
rise in level of oceans and flooding of coastal regions.

(ii) Carbon Monoxide


It is a very poisonous gas and is produced by incomplete combustion of fuel. If inhaled. it combines with
hemoglobin and reduces its oxygen-carrying capacity. This leads to laziness, reduced vision and death.

(iii) Oxides of Nitrogen


These include NO and NO2, which are released by automobiles and chemical industries as waste gases and also by
burning of materials. These are harmful and lower the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

(iv) Oxides of Sulphur


SO2 and SO3 are produced by burning of coal and petroleum and are harmful to buildings, clothing, plants and
animals. High concentration of SO2 causes chlorosis (yellowing of leaves), plasmolysis, damage to mucous
membrane and metabolic inhibition. SO2 and SO3 react with water to form Sulphuric and sulphurous acids. These
may precipitate as rain or snow producing acid rain or acid precipitation.

(v) Photochemical Oxidants


Formed by the photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, viz. oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons.
Nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight react with unburnt hydrocarbons to form peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN),
Ozone, aldehydes and some other complex organic compounds in the air.

(vi) Hydrocarbons
These are unburnt discharges from incomplete combustion of fuel in automobiles. These form PAN with nitrogen
oxides, which is highly toxic.

(vii) Particulate Matter


Industries and automobiles release fine solid and liquid particles into the air. Fly ash and soot from burning of coal,
metal dust containing lead, chromium, nickel, cadmium, zinc and mercury from metallurgical processes; cotton dust

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from textile mills; and pesticides sprayed on crops are examples of particulate pollutants in the air. These are
injurious to respiratory tract.

(viii) Aerosols
Aerosols are chemicals released in the air in vapour form. These include fluorocarbon (carbon compound having
fluorine) present in emissions from the Jet aeroplanes. Aerosols deplete the ozone layer. Thinning of ozone layer
results in more harmful ultraviolet rays reaching the earth, which are harmful to skin, and can lead to skin cancer
also.

(ix) Radioactive Substances


These are released by nuclear explosions and explosives. These are extremely harmful for health.

(x) Fluorides
Rocks, soils and. minerals containing fluorides release an extremely toxic gas called hydrogen fluoride on heating.
This gas is highly injurious to livestock and cattle.

Effects of Air Pollution


Effect on Plants
(i ) SO2 causes chlorosis and also results in the death of cells and tissues.
(ii ) Fluorides and PAN damage leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach.
(iii ) Oxides of nitrogen and fluorides reduce crop yield.
(iv) Smog bleaches and blaze foliage of important leafy plants.
(v) Hydrocarbons cause premature yellowing, fall of leave and flower buds, discoloration and curling of sepals and
petals.
(vi ) Smoke and dust cover the leaf surface and reduce photosynthetic capacity of plants.
(vii ) Ozone damages cereals, fruits, and cotton crop.
Effect on Man
The effect of pollutants on animals and man are as follows(i ) Ozone causes dryness of mucous membranes, changes eye vision, causes headache, pulmonary congestion and
oedema.
(ii ) Ozone has been reported to produce chromosomal aberrations.
(iii ) SO2 causes drying of mouth, scratchy throat, smarting eyes and disorders of respiratory tract.
(iv) SO3, CO and NO2 diffuse into blood stream and reduce oxygen transport. CO damages cardiovascular system.
Hydrocarbons and other pollutants act, as carcinogens and lead to different cancers.
(v) Cotton dust leads to respiratory disorders e.g. bronchitis and asthma.
(vi ) Smoking of tobacco causes cancerous growth in lungs.
Aesthetic Loss
Dust and smoke spoils the beauty of nature. Especially the mountain environments, which serve as a great attraction
for tourists. Foul odours emitted by industries, automobiles, dirty drains and garbage heaps in cities are a great
nuisance.

Control of Air Pollution


Following measures have been suggested to control air pollution(i ) Some gases, which are more soluble in a particular liquid than air, for example,
ammonia in water, can be separated by dissolving in it
(ii ) Particles larger than 50 mm are separated in gravity settling tanks. Using cyclone
collectors or electrostatic precipitators separates fine particles.
(iii ) The height of chimneys should .be increased to the highest possible level to reduce
pollution at the ground level.
(iv) SO2 pollution can be controlled by extracting sulphur from the fuel before use.
(v) Pollution control laws should be enforced strictly.
(vi ) Trees should be planted on the roadside, riverbanks, parks and open places as they
keep the environment fresh.
(vii ) Population growth, which is the main cause of pollution should be checked.
(viii ) Nuclear explosions should be restricted.

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Water Pollution
Water is extremely essential for life, this common fact is known to all. It is required to
meet our basic needs in day to day life viz., cooking, drinking, bathing, disposal of sewage,
irrigation, generating electricity in power plants, cooling and manufacturing different products
in industries and the disposal of industrial wastes. During all these processes the undesirable
substances are added to the water resources to a great extent. This alters the basic chemistry
of water in rivers and streams.

Sources of Water Pollution


(i) Domestic sewage
This includes household s wastes like food wastes, synthetic detergents used for washing clothes and cleaning
bathrooms and latrines and water based paints.
(ii) Industrial effluents
The industrial wastes are discharged in the adjoining rivers and streams through flush lines of factories. The textiles,
sugar and fertilizers factories, oil refineries, drugs manufacture, rubber, and rayon fibers, the paper industries and the
chemical factories all produce Chemical pollution.
(iii) Agricultural source
Increased use of fertilizers has become essential for high yielding crop plants. Excess of nitrates used as fertilizers
seep into ground water is carried into lakes and pond. On entering the drinking water supply system these create
several health problems.
(iv) Pesticides
These include insecticides, fungicides, nematicides, rodenticides, herbicides and soil fumigants. These contain
chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, metallic salts, carbonates, acetic acid derivatives etc. many pesticides
are non-degradable. They pass through the food chains and accumulate in fatty tissues thus causing several health
hazards.
(v) Thermal pollution
Power plants and nuclear power stations are the main sources of thermal pollution of water where water is used for
cooling and becomes hot. The hot water on entering the main water body raises its temperature, which kills fishes
and other aquatic animals and increases the rate of respiration in aquatic plants.
(vi) Pathogenic organisms
Sewage and domestic waste from houses introduces pathogenic organisms viz., protozoa, worms-eggs and bacteria
into water. This contaminated water if consumed causes jaundice, typhoid, dysentery, cholera, tuberculosis etc.
(vii) Mineral oils
Oil from oil spills and washings of automobiles finds way into river water through sewers.
(viii) Underground water pollution
Underground water particularly in cities and industrial areas is no more pure and safe. The sources of underground
water pollution are sewage, seepage, pits, industrial effluents, septic tanks, fertilizers and pesticides, garbage etc.
(ix) Marine water pollution
River and stream network sources of water ultimately end up ocean and seas. Thus, these acts as the sink of all
natural and man-made water based pollutants. The main sources of oceanic pollution are discharges of oil, greases,
petroleum products, detergents, sewage and garbage including radioactive wastes.

Effect of Water Pollutants


The main effects of water pollutants are:
1. Compounds of mercury, arsenic and lead are poisonous and chemically harmful as they even affect water
treatment plants e.g. organic sulphur compounds interfere with nitrification.
2. Mercury when dissolved in water is absorbed by aquatic plants and enters the food chain. Lead impairs
metabolism and brings about congenital deformities, anaemia etc.
3. Cadmium damages kidneys and liver.
4. Inorganic nitrates and phosphates promote growth of oxygen-consuming algae, which result in the death of fishes
and other aquatic animals.
5. Presence of dyes and compounds in the discharged water changes the colour of water.
6. Soap, detergents and, alkalis result in foam formation.
7. Industrial effluents containing iron, free chlorine, phenol, manganese, oils, hydrocarbons, ammonia, algae and
microorganisms impair the taste and odours of water.
8. The nitrates and phosphates dissolved in water accelerate the growth of microorganisms, which consume much of
the dissolved oxygen depriving fish and other aquatic life (Eutrophication).
9. Biomagnifications is the increase of toxic materials at each tropic level of a food chain.

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For example, DDT after reaching a water system is absorbed by the microorganisms on which smaller fishes feed.
From them, DDT reaches the carnivorous animals. Since bigger fishes consume more food, large amounts of DDT
accumulates in their body.

CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION


(i ) Separate ponds and tanks to be used for cattle and animals.
(ii ) Use of pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers should be done judiciously. Rapid biodegradable substitutes for
pesticides should be employed.
(iii ) In towns where sewage facilities are not available, septic tanks should be made in the houses.
(iv) Rivers and lakes should not be used for bathing or washing as it contaminates water. .
(v) Domestic sewage and industrial wastes should be treated before discharging them into drains.

Treatment of waste Water


Domestic sewage and industrial wastes should be properly treated before these are drained in the mainstream water.
Treatment involves the following two steps:
(i) Sewage treatment
It involves following steps:
Primary treatment. It involves physical processing of sedimentation, flotation and filtration where sewage water is
passed through screens to remove larger particles and then through grinding mechanism to reduce the larger
particles to smaller size. The sewage is finally passed through settling tanks to remove suspended impurities.
Secondary treatment. Sewage obtained after primary treatment is sent to aeration tank where it is mixed with air and
sludge laden with bacteria and algae. The algae provide oxygen to the bacteria and decompose organic matter into
simple compounds. Chlorination is finally done to remove bacteria.
Tertiary treatment. In the third and last step water is passed through ion exchangers to remove dissolved salts.
(ii) Treatment of industrial effluents
Treatment of industrial effluents involves neutralization of acids and bases, removal of toxic compounds,
coagulation of colloidal impurities, precipitation of metallic compounds and reducing the temperature of effluents to
decrease thermal pollution.
Water Conser vation
We could save as much as half of the water we now use for domestic purposes without great sacrifice or serious
changes in our lifestyles. Simple steps, such as taking shorter showers, stopping leaks, and washing cars, dishes, and
clothes as efficiently as possible, can go a long way toward forestalling the water shortages that many authorities
predict. Isn t it better to adapt to more conservative uses now when we have a choice than to be forced
to do it by scarcity in the future?
Rain Water Har vesting
Water is commonly taken for granted as nature s gift. Often it is used wastefully in agriculture, but industry and
people pollute and poison available water supplies at an alarming rate. Water problems arise from increasing
demands generated by rapid population growth; urbanization, industrialization and irrigation for additional food
production. In many areas excessive pumping of groundwater not only brings down water quality, but also depletes
it this affects sustainability. The capacity of irrigation tanks numbering about five lakh in the country is shrinking
due to situation and encroachment. Scarcity is noticed even in high rainfall areas like Cherrapunji (Assam), Western
Ghats and Kerala. This is due to improper management and poor conservation of rainwater.
To meet the relentless increase in demand for water for various purposes and to achieve the goal of optimal use and
to get the maximum benefits, it is necessary to make water resource development holistic through a comprehensive
integrated river basin planning and management. This can be done only if a wide range of disciplines are involved.
Wastage of water due to leakage in pipes and unattended repairs results in about 30-40 per cent water resource lost.
The landscape watershed units can be effectively subdivided into discrete hydrological units. Since the watersheds
are spatially laid from ridge to valley, they most efficiently conserve land and water resources and help secure water
availability throughout the growing season. The land area of the watershed drains into a common point. Hence, the
drainage water can be easily stored in above -ground storage structures for recycling during droughts
or for growing an additional crop. Rain fed agriculture research and development has been dominated by the concept
of high yields for decades. It arose from the scientific principles developed for the green revolution high input,
high-output technologies. Fatigue and cracks are now developing in the green revolution areas. For rain fed
agriculture, an area-based development through watershed management provides an excellent framework for
sustaining semi-arid tropical ecologies. Also the landscape watershed units focus on the maintenance
of managed biodiversity through diversified cropping systems. It is significant to note that a broad range of baseline
information on watershed-based soil and water conservation technologies already exists. A study commissioned by

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the National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, Hyderabad, showed that if the watershed technology
is to succeed it must be specific to natural endowments of the location; it must be built on indigenous knowledge; it
should be based on people s participation; it must be equitable in sharing of costs and benefits, and village-based
institutions must be put-in-place right from inception of the project.

Watershed Management
It was suggested that, rather than allowing residential, commercial, or industrial development on flood plains, these
areas should be reserved for water storage, aquifer recharge, wildlife habitat, and agriculture. Sound farming and
forestry practices can reduce runoff. Retaining crop residue on fields reduces flooding, and minimizing. Ploughing
and forest cutting on steep slopes protects watersheds. Wetlands conservation preserves natural water storage
capacity and aquifer recharge zones. A river fed by marshes and wet meadows tend to run consistently clear and
steady rather than in violent floods.
A series of small dams on tributary streams can hold backwater before it becomes a great flood. Ponds formed by
these dams provide useful wildlife habitat and stock-watering facilities. They also catch soil where it could be
returned to the fields. Small dams can be built with simple equipment and local labour; eliminating the need for
massive construction projects and huge dams. Watershed-based frame for rain fed agriculture provides uncommon
opportunities for achieving sustainable food and nutritional security. It is time that the watershed development
agenda is considered a programme for-the masses.

Radiation
The radiations from the atomic blasts cause several health hazards. The radiations carry high energy and remove
electrons from atoms and attach them to other atoms producing positive and negative ion pairs. Hence, they are
known as ionizing radiations. The ionization property of these radiations proves to be highly injurious to the
protoplasm. The ionizing radiations of ecological concern are classified as follows:

Corpuscular Radiations
These consist of streams of atomic or subatomic particles, which transfer their energy to the matter they strike.
(i) Alpha particles
These particles are large and travel few centimeters in the air. These cause large amount of local ionization.
(ii) Beta particles
These are small particles characterized by having high velocities. They can travel a few meters in space. These are
capable of entering into the tissues for few centimeters. Since alpha and beta particles have low penetration power
they can produce harmful effects only when absorbed, ingested or deposited in or near living tissues.
(iii) Electromagnetic radiations
Electromagnetic radiations include waves of shorter wavelengths. These are capable of traveling long distances and
can readily penetrate the living tissue. These include gamma rays. These can penetrate and produce effect even
without being taken inside.

Other Types of Radiations


Besides radioactive radiations, some other radiations are also present in the atmosphere.
(i) Neutrons
These are large uncharged particles, which do not cause radiation by themselves, but
they produce radioactivity in non-radioactive materials through which they pass.
(ii) X-rays
These are electromagnetic waves very similar to gamma rays, but originate from the
outer electron shell of radioactive substances, which are not dispersed in nature.
(iii) Cosmic rays
These are radiations from the outer space, which contain alpha and beta particles
together with gamma rays.

Sources of Radiations
The radiations are produced from the radioactive elements, which are known as radionuclides or radioactive
isotopes, e.g. Uranium. Radium, Thorium, and Carbon-14. These contribute to background radiation. But isotopes of
certain metabolically important elements like Carbon-14, Cobalt-60, Calcium 45, Iodine-131, Phosphorus-32, etc.
are not ecologically harmful but are used as tracers. The third category of radionuclides comprises of fission
products of uranium and certain other elements. These are cesium, strontium, and plutonium etc.

Biological Effects of Radiation


The effects of radiation have revealed that acute doses are found to be deleterious and may kill the organisms,
whereas the increase in radiation in biological environment leads to different kinds of mutations. The effects of

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Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137 gamma radiations have now been studied on communities and on ecosystems at different
places. The research concludes that Irradiations eliminate varieties in species. The sensitivity of cells, tissues and
organisms to radiation varies. The cells with larger chromosomes are more sensitive. Herbaceous communities and
early stages of succession are resistant than the mature forest.

Nuclear Fall Outs or Radioactive Fall Outs


The atomic blasts not only produce the local ionizing radiations at that time but the radioisotopes produced as a
result of explosion enter the atmosphere and continue to fallout gradually over broad geographic areas for a very
long time. These are known as nuclear fallout or radioactive fallout. These are dangerous for life as they also
produce ionizing radiations.

Biological Effects of Fall outs


The fallout of radionuclides combines with various metals and dust and from colloidal suspension combines with
organic compounds to form complexes. The smaller particles of radionuclides adhere tightly to the leaves of plants
and produce radiation damage to leaf tissue besides entering the tissues also. Through grazing animals these enter
the food chain directly at the primary consumers level. Radionuclides, which combine with organic substances, enter
the food chain through producer tropic level. Therefore, the radionuclides fall out manages to enter the body of all
living organisms. Radioactive Strontium-90 poses a health hazard in human beings and other higher vertebrates. It
continues to deposit in the bones and causes bone cancer and leukemia. Radioactive Cesium-137 is known to cause
irreversible genetic changes in different organisms. The fallout radiations do cause changes in the genetic
constitution of organisms, resulting in gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. Their considerable, doses may
kill, cripple and alter the animals and plants in the areas.

Control of Radiation Pollution


Following measures can help in controlling the radioactive pollution:
(i ) Workers in nuclear plants should be provided with nuclear gadgets and safety measures against accidents.
(ii ) Leakage of radioactive elements from nuclear reactors, laboratories, transport, careless handling and use of
radioactive fuels should be checked.
(iii ) Level of radiation pollution should be monitored regularly in risk areas.
(iv) Disposal of radioactive wastes deserves special attention.

Case studies
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Episode
The tale of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is a painful experience. It is for the first time that an atomic bomb has been
exploded over human population. The incident took place on August 6,1945 at 8:15 a.m. The bomb with an
approximate temperature of around 100 million 0C was exploded on a fine morning in Hiroshima (Japan). The
temperature of the city hiked like anything, almost like an oven. After three days, Nagasaki too suffered the ravages
of a nuclear attack. More than 1,00,000 people were reported to die just after the event took place. Since radiations
from nuclear elements remain active even after, the generations to follow up also suffered from various diseases.
Even the babies in the mother s womb were affected and a few perished. Blindness, deafness, skin diseases and
cancers, distortion of bones and other parts became the fortune of human civilization.

Chernobyl Accident
This incident took place in Ukraine on April 26, 1986. There was a Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine after
which the event has been named. Approximately four million people had been reported to suffer from the accident.
The accident contaminated neighboring environment up to several kilometers. The sites were evacuated and
resettlement was done for the affected people. The radiations released affected ground water and surface waters,
affecting large areas of Europe. 131 Iodine and 137 Cesium are the most dangerous amongst the 20-odd radioactive
elements released during Chernobyl disaster. As per the Soviet Health Ministry, 31-persons died shortly after the
disaster. Of the 276,614 people who worked for rehabilitation and cleaning operations, a total of 1065 died by the
end of 1990.

Solid and Hazardous Wastes


Hazardous Waste
Solid, gaseous, or liquid waste, singly or combined, can create serious problems for humans and the
environment if they are not treated, stored, transported, and managed safely. Whether singly or
mixed, hazardous and toxic chemicals are generated by industry, agriculture, homes, and the
environment. What ki nds of modern waste are considered hazardous? There are three major classes
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of hazardous waste: biological, chemical, and radioactive. These types of waste are generated by
many different industries and services. We will take a closer look at a few of these and their potential
dangers.
Hazar dous waste is highly flammable, corrosive reactive (explosive or unstable), or toxi c.

BIOLOGICAL AND BIOHAZARDOUS WASTES


Biological waste is often called organic waste because it is composed of organic molecules
containing carbon, hydrogen, and water. This can include everything from ki tchen scraps
(fruit/vegetable peels and rinds) to animal (bedding and carcasses) and human waste (leftover food,
patient care waste, etc.).
Biological waste is defined as infectious waste, pathological waste, chemotherapy waste, or the
containers and supplies created during its handling and/or storage.
It is further described as waste that because of its quantity, type, or makeup requires special handling.
Noninfectious waste can be handled as nonhazardous and can be disposed of through standard
methods of trash disposal. Biohazardous materials include certain types of recombinant DNA;
organisms infectious to humans, animals, or plants (parasites, viruses, bacteria, fungi, prions,
rickettsia); and biologically active agents (toxi ns, allergens, venoms) that cause disease in other
living organisms or significantly impact the environment. The risk can be direct (through infection)
or indirect (through environmental damage.)
In a hospital or laboratory, biological waste is handled separately from chemical waste. Infectious
agents are treated first, followed by chemical or radioactive contamination handling and disposal
storage.
Biological + Radiation = Radiation Waste
Biological + Hazardous Chemical = Chemical Waste
A hazardous waste program that manages biological waste in a research, teaching, clinical
laboratory, or clinical area is designed to 1) protect the people who handle, transport and dispose of
waste; 2) protect the environment; and 3) minimize regulatory liability. Any attempt to ignore the
special handling of biological waste puts people, and institutions at risk.
Infectious waste, classified by OSHA s Bloodborne Pathogen Standards List, is divided into seven
major waste categories:
1. Cultures and stocks: agents infectious to humans, waste from biological production, live and dead
vaccines, and anything used to contain, mix, or transfer agents. This includes, but is not limited to,
petri dishes, pipettes, pipette tips, microtiter plates, disposable loops, vials, and toothpicks;
2. Human blood, blood products, and infectious body fluids: blood (not in a disposable container),
serum, plasma, and other blood products or nonglass containers filled with discarded fluids. It also
includes any substance or fluid that contains visible blood, semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal
fluid, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, amniotic fluid, and/or saliva.
Glass containers filled with such discarded fluids shall be considered sharps;
3. Sharps: needles, scalpel blades, hypodermic needles, syringes (with or without attached needles)
and needles with attached tubing regardless of contact with infectious agents are considered by the
EPA to be regulated medical waste. Other sharps: pasteur pipettes, disposable pipettes, razor
blades, blood vials, test tubes, pipette tips, broken plastic culture dishes, glass culture dishes, and
other types of broken and unbroken glass waste (including microscope slides and cover slips) in
contact with infectious material. Items that can puncture or tear autoclave bags;
4. Research animal waste: contaminated carcasses, body parts, and bedding of animals exposed to
infectious agents during research or testing. Animal carcasses and body parts not exposed to
infectious agents during research or testing are disposed of as nonhazardous waste;
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5. Isolation waste: biological waste and discarded material contaminated with human or animal body
fluids and isolated because they are known to be infected with a highly communicable disease;
6. Spills: any material collected during or resulting from the cleanup of a spill of infectious or
chemotherapy waste; and
7. Mixed waste: any waste mixed with infectious waste not considered to bechemical hazardous
waste or radioactive waste.
These various categories are used by every major hospital, company, and university to protect
anyone handling potentially hazardous biological wastes.

CHEMICAL WASTES
Scientists began to examine human impact on the planet as the world s population grew towards 6
billion. Chemists have become environmental sleuths. They have the huge task of understanding
complex elemental interactions found in wastewater and smokestack gases. It s no surprise that cities
have higher metal and acid levels in their wastes and air than rural areas. Scientists are worki ng to
piece together the total environmental interrelationship picture. The interconnectedness of all life
forms also affects the complexi ty of environmental waste and hazardous pollution.
Many elements today were discovered using cutting edge technology and equipment. Since the
1960s, many elements added to the Periodic Table (chart of all the known elements) have been
manufactured and not found in nature. These atoms have unheard-of uses that many research and
applications scientists are just beginning to understand.
Chemists working in the plastics industry came under heavy criticism when landfills got overloaded
with disposable plastic containers and a softer compound called styrofoam. Environmentalists
sounded the alarm for consumers to think before they bought products, especially fast food, that
came in these containers.
In order to meet the new concern, chemists doubled their interest in the biodegradability of plastic
products. They found that by adding large complex carbohydrates (C6H10O5)n to plastics
microorganisms were able to break plastics down.
Chemical wastes are usually inorganic (without carbon). They include metals like mercury and lead,
found to be extremely toxi c in high levels to living systems. These refined materials are added to
metals, paints, and other products.
However, there are also naturally occurring inorganic hazardous compounds like mercury or uranium
that are mined and released in large amounts. There are several sources of hazardous chemical waste.
They include batteries, ki ln dust, construction debris, crude oil, natural gas, fossil fuel combustion,
industry waste, pesticides, fertilizers, medical facilities, and used oil from vehicles and machinery.

RADIOACTIVE WASTES
Land, water, and air can be affected by radioactive contamination. Depending on the wind or water
flow, radioactive levels remain in place or are spread over a wide region. Radioactive wastes from
uranium mining, production of energy (land-based power plants and nuclear submarines), or
weapons development (missiles) are hot environmental issues. Public concern wants responsible
longterm storage of radioactive wastes until they are safe.
Radioactive elements eventually decay or break down to form harmless materials, but these elements
have very different decay rates. A few radioactive elements decay in a matter of hours or days, but
there are some elements that take thousands of years to decay.
Radioactive decay is referred to in half-life periods; the time it takes for onehalf of an element s
original mass to decay and become harmless.

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While elements are decaying, they give off radioactive energy. This is where the problem of
radioactive waste comes in. Strontium (Sr90) and Cesium (Cs137) have half-lives of about 30 years (12
the radioactivity of a given amount of Sr90 will decay in 30 years). Plutonium (Pl 239) has a half-life of
24,000 yearsnot easy to handle or store!
The storage of nuclear wastes during the time they take to decompose to safe
materials is an area of high concern and study for governments; they are trying
to figure out how to dispose of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and
atomic weapons.
Radioactive waste also comes from reactors and other nuclear facilities being
decommissioned or permanently shut down. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission
divides wastes into two categories: high-level or low-level waste.

HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE


High-level radioactive waste (e.g. uranium) used in a nuclear power reactor eventually becomes
spent fuel and no longer efficient in generating power for electricity. Spent fuel, thermally hot as well
as highly radioactive, requires remote handling and shielding.
A nuclear power reactor contains Uranium (U235) fuel, in the form of ceramic pellets inside metal
rods. Before these fuel rods are used, they are only slightly radioactive and may be handled without
special shielding. During the nuclear reaction, the fuel undergoes fission, where the nucleus of an
atom of uranium splits, releasing two or three neutrons and a small amount of heat. The released
neutrons then smack into and split other atoms and a domino effect takes place.
This releases huge amounts of heat that is used to generate electricity at nuclear
power plants.
The splitting of heavy uranium atoms during reactor operation creates radioactive isotopes of several
lighter elements, such as Cesium (Ce137) and Strontium (Sr90), called fission products. These daughter
products cause the heat and penetrating radiation in high-level waste.
Some uranium atoms also capture neutrons from surrounding uranium atoms to form heavier
elements like plutonium. These heavier-than-uranium, or transuranic, elements produce less heat and
penetrating radiation than fission products, but they take a lot longer to decay. Transuranic wastes
(TRU) are responsible for the majority of radioactive hazard still present in high-level
wastes after a thousand years.
High-level wastes are extremely dangerous to humans and other life because their high radiation
levels produce fatal doses during short periods of direct exposure. For example, 10 years after being
taken out of a reactor, the surface dose rate given off by a typical spent fuel assembly is greater than
10,000 rem/hour (radiation unit of measure). Afatal whole-body dose for humans is around 500 rem
in a singe exposure. Reprocessing of high-level waste divides leftover uranium and unreacted
plutonium from the fission products. Uranium and plutonium can be reused as reactor fuel. Most
high-level waste (other than spent fuel) in the past 35 years has come from fuel reprocessing from
government-owned plutonium reactors, as well as naval, research, and test reactors. However, no
commercial waste fuel reprocessing is taki ng place in the United States currently. Most existing
commercial high-level waste comes from spent fuel.

Nonhazardous Waste
Municipal solid waste is the garbage generated by homes, businesses, and institutions. Other kinds of
solid wastes include sludge from wastewater treatment plants, water treatment plants, and air
pollution control facilities. Additional discarded materials includes solid, liquid, semisolid, or
containerized gaseous materials from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and
community activities.
Although an unknown quantity of solid waste is managed by individuals and organizations, a recent
Environmental Research and Education Foundation (EREF) study listed the amount of solid waste
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managed off-site in the United States at 544.7 million tons (reported by waste facilities). Of these
544.7 million tons of solid wastes, 63% was in municipal solid waste landfills, 21% in material
recycling facilities, 6% in incinerators, 5% in construction and demolition landfills, and 5% in
compost facilities. Private companies own 5% of the off-site facilities that manage solid waste and
the public sector owns 47%. Fig. 12-1 shows a few of the nonhazardous wastes treated at waste
disposal facilities.

Responsible waste processing facilities handle nonhazardous waste as carefully as hazardous waste.
Nonhazardous waste arrives at facilities in a variety of containers including fiber and plastic drums,
original packaging, bags, and shrink-wrapped or steel-strapped pallets, along with steel drums, cubicyard boxes, railcars, tank trucks, roll-off boxes, and dump trailers.
Disposal methods depend on the waste type, but commonly include incineration, sludge-dewatering,
wastewater treatment, waste-to-energy, secure landfill, and others.

Making a Difference
Sometimes it seems like the buildup of hazardous waste is beyond our individual efforts. However,
by demanding responsible environmental processing, treatment, and storage, individuals can have a
positive impact.
There are plenty of things we can do about nonhazardous environmental problems. These fall into the
larger category of reuse and recycling.
As individuals, we can buy recycled paper products so that original wood fibers are used again and
again. The same thing can be done with recycled glass and plastics. And it s easy! Many cities have
recycling programs that allow people to recycle right at their door or driveway.
Ink cartridges from computer printers and electronics parts can be recycled.
Used oil from vehicles, paints, and other products can be taken to approved recycling and disposal
sites.
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In order to make garbage disposal costs fair, some municipal areas have adopted pay-as-you-throw
policies. Those people who don t want to recycle and produce high trash and waste have to pay more
than people who are lowering their waste output through recycling.
Waste can be reduced in terms of space. Trash compaction is another easy way of reducing landfill
volume and disposal costs. Although trash is highly compacted at landfill sites, the initial compacting
at home helps make landfill sites more productive, as well as lowering processing costs and pollution
from bull dozers and machinery used at landfill sites.
Composting by collecting organic waste (potato, banana and orange peels, watermelon rinds, etc.)
and reusing the degraded material as fertilizer and soil nutrients is another good way to recycle.
There is a popular slogan that helps focus environmental efforts: reduce, reuse, and recycle. It
reminds us that our global resources are not infinite as people once thought.
Reusing paper bags and plastic containers is easy and helps lower the resource hit of creating new
ones.
Cars and Air Pollution
The extent of the problem

Drive time, peak hour, freeway, take-away delivery, drive through....the introduction of the
automobile has had a huge impact on our lifestyle and environment.
Cars may get us from A to B (and sometimes even C and D) with a minimum of fuss, but they
also cause lots of pollution.
Yes, that's right. In major cities and large towns throughout the world, motor vehicles cause a
wide range of air pollution problems.
What's the largest contributor to air pollution in the world?
Cars!

Fossil fuel combustion, particularly as it occurs in motor vehicles, has been identified as the
LARGEST contributor to air pollution in the WORLD.
In Melbourne, motor vehicles cause most of the air pollution, except during cooler months when
wood fires contribute significantly.
The impact of petrol run vehicles

Not all pollution produced by cars is the same. In fact, there are two types of pollution
discharged by petrol vehicles.
1. Exhaust emissions: including dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen,
hydrocarbons and particulates.
2. Evaporative emissions: vapours of fuel which are released into the atmosphere, without being
burnt.

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Fuel vapour can be seen coming out of the car's petrol tank when you fill up at the service
station, and can be reduced if we avoid spilling petrol and overfilling our cars. Properly fitted
fuel caps can also stop further leakage of fuel vapours.

Smoky vehicles
What exactly is a smoky vehicle?

Under Victorian guidelines, a car is only considered smoky if it emits visible smoke from its
exhaust pipe for a continuous period of more than 10 seconds.
Your car is not classified as smoky if the exhaust emissions are caused by heat or the
condensation of water vapour, which can occur when the car has just been started, particularly on
cold days.
Smoky cars contribute far more to air pollution than well maintained cars. Anyone who has
driven behind or walked near a smoky car will know, smoky car exhausts are very offensive as
well as posing a risk to public health.
In certain circumstances, even well maintained vehicles can sometimes produce smoke from
their exhaust. This can occur during heavy acceleration, climbing steep hills and as engine turbos
and supercharges are building sufficient speed to provide enough air to burn fuel properly.
How is the smoke harmful?

Smoke is a by-product of incomplete combustion. Incomplete combustion can significantly


increase the quantity of certain toxic chemicals discharged by vehicles into the air.
These chemicals can cause mild to severe irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lungs. They can
also be absorbed into the body and cause deterioration in general health. The extent of these
detrimental effects on people's health is related to the length of time one is exposed to vehicle
emissions, the concentration of fumes breathed and various other factors such as age and health.
For example, an EPA study into the affects of air pollution found a link between high levels of
fine particles, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide and an increase in the number of
hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease (EPA Publication 789).
What causes a vehicle to be smoky?

There are many reasons why a vehicle might emit continuous smoke:

spark plugs need replacement or cleaning


ignition timing needs adjustment
worn piston rings, pistons or cylinder bores

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worn valve stem guides or seals


sump over-filled with engine oil
blocked air cleaner
faulty electronic or mechanical controls in parts such as the choke
poor, contaminated or incorrect density or grade of fuel
blocked or damaged fuel filter
incorrectly set or damaged fuel injectors or fuel pump
incorrectly set or damaged turbo or super charges.

Remember, this list is just a guide and might not be relevant to both diesel and petrol cars.
What does the future hold?

Car use is increasing every year, however, Victoria's air quality has actually been improving
because of tighter controls on car emissions.
Hybrid vehicles are now available which get their energy from batteries or petrol. These cars are
still uncommon, but they are pointing the way to a future with cars contributing less to air
pollution.
The battle isn't over! People will need to use their cars responsibly and keep them in tip top
condition so we can continue to improve matters and ensure we have nice clean air.

Human Population and Environment


Introduction
Human society is governed by interaction and cooperation with other human beings. Latest trends in technology and
medical knowledge are available to control human population growth and to improve the health. Still population
continues to increase and poverty become greater than ever before. Humans are social animals who have freedom of
choice. They largely take decision by heart rather than mind. It is evident from historical records, social
situations, ethical and religious considerations and personal desires. Today the greatest hindrance to controlling
human population is no more biological but falls into the province of philosophers, theologians, politicians,
sociologists, and others. The cause of the population problem is to be understood if we are to deal successfully with
the population problem.

Carrying Capacity
The carrying capacity of an area is the number of individuals of a species that can survive in that area over time. In
most populations, four broad categories of factors determine the carrying capacity for a population. These factors
are: (1) the availability of raw materials, (2) the availability of energy, (3) the accumulation of waste products and
their means of disposal and (4) interactions among organisms. The total of all of these forces acting together to limit
populations size is known as environmental resistance, and certain limiting factors have a primary role in limiting
the size of a population. In some cases, these limiting factors are easy to identify and may involve lack of food, lack
of oxygen, competition with other species, or disease.

Population Characteristics
A population can be defined as a group of individuals of the same species inhabiting an area. Some of the
characteristics or a population are nasality (birth rate), mortality (death rate), sex ratio, age distribution, growth rates,
and special distribution.
Population Density is population size in relation to some unit of space and time. It varies with food availability and
climatic conditions. It can be measured as:

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where D is population density, n = number of individuals, a = area and t = time.


Population Age Distr ibution refers to the individuals of different age groups in a population. The natality and
mortality is also different for respective ages. Bodenhelmer (1938) recognized three ecological ages as: (i ) Pre
reproductive, (ii ) Reproductive and (iii ) Post reproductive Fig. 1. Duration of these ages varies in different
organisms e.g. Insects have a very long pre-reproductive period, a very short reproductive period but no
post reproductive period at all. In man all the three stages are equal in length.

The Human Population Issue


Current population growth has led to famine in areas where food production cannot keep pace with population
growth; political unrest areas with great disparities in availability of resources (jobs: goods, food); environmental
degradation by poor agricultural practices (erosion, desertification); water pollution by human and industrial waste;
air pollution caused by the human need to use energy for personal use and for industrial applications; extinctions
caused by people converting natural ecosystems to managed agricultural ecosystems; and. Destructive effects of
exploitation of natural resources (strip, mining, oil spills, groundwater mining). In addition to population size, the
kind of demands a population places on its resources is also important. Highly industrialized populations require
much more energy and material resources to sustain their way of life than do the populations of the less-developed
world.

Causes of Population Growth


There is an ultimate carrying capacity for the human population and limiting factors will come into play to cause
populations to stabilize. However, unlike populations of other kinds of organisms, human populations are also
influenced by a variety of social, political, economic, and ethical factors. Humans have accumulated knowledge that
allows for predictions about the future and can make conscious decisions based on the likely course of events and
adjust their lives accordingly. Part of that knowledge is the certainty that as populations continue to increase, death
rates and birth rates will become equal. This can be accomplished by allowing the death rate to rise or by choosing
to limit the birth rate. It would seem that controlling human population should be a simple process. Once everyone
understands that lowering the birth rate is more human than allowing the death rate to rise, most people
should make the correct decision; however, it is not quite that simple.

Biological Reasons for Population Growth


The study of human populations, their characteristics, and what happens to them is known as demography.
Demographers can predict the future growth of a population by looking at several different biological indicators.
When we look at birth rates and death rates in various countries of the world, in almost all cases the birth rate
exceeds the death rate. Therefore, the size of the population must increase. Some countries that have high
birth rates and high death rates, with birth rates greatly exceeding the death rates, will grow rapidly (Afghanistan
and Ethiopia). Such countries Usually have an extremely high mortality rate among children because of disease and
malnutrition. Some countries have high birth rates and low death rates and will grow extremely rapidly ~Guatemala
and Syria). Infant mortality rates are moderately high in these countries. Other countries have low birth rates and
death rates that closely match the birth rates and will grow slowly (Sweden and the United Kingdom). These and
other more, developed countries typically have very low infant mortality rates.

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Obviously, the most important determinant of the rate at which human populations grow is related to the number of
women in the population who are having children and the number each will have. The total fer tility r ate of a
population is the number of children born per woman per lifetime. A total fertility rate of 2.1 is known as
r eplacement fer tility, since in the long run, if the total fertility rate is 2.1, population growth will stabilize. When
population is not growing and the number of births equals the number of deaths, it is said to exhibit zer o population
gr owth. The age structure of a population also has a great deal to do with the rate of population growth. If a
population has a large number of young people who are in the process of raising families or who will be raising
families in the near future, the population will continue to increase even if the families limit themselves to two
children.

Factors Controlling Population Growth


Man is the only one who has regulated his population by developing new astonishing technologies for better and
secured future on one hand. And on other hand, created a problem of population explosion. Some factors are:
(i ) Famines in a country or state lead to destruction.
(ii ) Natural calamities like floods, droughts, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, hurricanes etc. lead to death of
thousands of people.
(iii ) Epidemic diseases, endemic diseases wipe a big number of populations.
(iv) Wars cause heavy casualties.
(v) Unnatural accidents caused during transportation, fires etc. Some factors that have helped the population growth
are:
(a) High production of food and better technologies for storage, processing and distribution.
(b) Better medical facilities provided during childbirth and under five years age by immunization.
The factors are many but they can be grouped into three as:
(i ) Geogr aphic factor : Like climate, soil, water, mineral resources, transportation etc.
(ii ) Demogr aphic factor : Like birth rates (natality), death rates (mortality), sex ratio etc.
(iii ) Socio-economic factor s: Like marriages, job availability, resources etc. In the developed countries, population
has started declining because of(i ) Better medical and family planning facilities.
(ii ) The low death and high birth rates. .
(iii ) The educated people who know about the abuses of over population have
small family.

Population and Standard of Living


Standard of living is a difficult concept to quantify since different cultures have different attitudes and feelings about
what is good and desirable. Here, we compare averages of several aspects of the cultures in three countries: (1) the
United States, which is an example of a highly developed if industrialized country; (2) Argentina, which is a
moderately developed country; and (3) Zimbabwe, which is less developed. Obviously, tremendous differences exist
in the standard of living among these three countries. What the average U.S. citizen would consider a poverty level
of existence would be considered a luxurious life for the average person in a poorly developed country. Standard of
living seems to be closely tied to energy consumption.

Consequences of population explosion:


(i ) It can lead to depletion of resources.
(ii ) Severe competition for food and space.
(iii ) Increase in psychological stress and strain.
(iv) Rapid pollution of environment.
(v) Large scale unemployment.
To meet the demands- of growing population, forests are cut, oceans are exploited and the entire natural equilibrium
gets disturbed. A growth human population first faces the problem of food, then shelter and thirdly other socioeconomic problems. Even if enough food is produced and the population growth does not show a steady slow
growth but explosions then many secondary problems will certainly arise which are more persisting and
problematic. Like in increase in competition for shelter, education, medical, rise in price index, ecological
crisis etc.

Consequences of Continued Population Growth


As the human population continues to increase, the pressure for the necessities of life will become greater.
Differences in standard of living between developed and less-developed countries will remain great because most
population increases will occur in less-developed countries. The supply of fuel and other resources is dwindling. The

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pressure for these resources will intensify as the industrialized countries seek to maintain their current standard of
living. People in less developed countries will continue to seek more land to raise the crops needed to feed
themselves unless major increases in food production per hectare occur. Developed countries may have to choose
between helping the less developed countries while maintaining their friendship, or isolating themselves from the
problems of the less developed nations.
Even if the industrialized countries continue to get a disproportionate share of the world s resources, the amount of
resource per person will decline as population rises. It seems that, as world population increases, the less developed
areas will maintain their low standard of living.

Environmental Implications of Food Production


The human population can increase only at the expense of the populations of other animals and plants. Each
ecosystem has a finite carrying capacity and, therefore, has a maximum biomass that can exist within that
ecosystem. There can be shifts within ecosystems to allow an increase in the population of one species, but this
always adversely affects certain other populations because they are competing for the same basic resources. When
the population of farmers increased in the prairie regions of North America, the population of buffalo declined.
When humans need food, they turn to agricultural practices and convert natural ecosystems to artificially maintained
agricultural ecosystems. Mismanaged agricultural resources are often irreversibly destroyed. In most cases, if the
plants were fed to animals, many people would starve to death. In contrast, in most of the developed world, meat
and other animal protein sources are important parts of the diet. Many suffer from over nutrition (they eat too
much); they are malnourished in a different sense. The ecological impact of one person eating at the carnivore
level is about ten times that of a person feeding at the herbivore level. If people in the developed world were to
reduce their animal protein intake, they would significantly reduce their demands on world resources.
The current situation with respect to world food production and hunger is very complicated. It involves the resources
needed to produce food, such as arable land, labour and machines, appropriate crop selection, and economic
incentives. It also involves the maldistribution of food within countries. This is often an economic problem, since
the poorest in most countries have difficulty finding the basic necessities of life, while the richer have an excess of
food and other resources. Improved plant varieties, irrigation and improved agricultural methods have dramatically
increased food production in some parts of the world. In recent years, India, China and much of southern Asia have
moved from being food importers to being self-sufficient, and in some cases food exporters.

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