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Ly t slide ca c Susan

Cognitive development
Pinter 2006
Jerome bruner
Time on task

Stokic and Djigunovic (2000) reported excellent results in terms of

pronunciation, intonation and relatively high levels of proficiency

Curtain (2000) found children with more frequent lessons did better in
proficiency tests of Spanish . Better to have 30 mins per day than two hours
during whole week


The worst scenario of all will be that an expansion of TEYL leads to more
pupils who are disenchanted with learning (Cameron, 2003)

The Council of Europe, clearly perceives a danger in the hegemonic position

of English (Neuner, 2002:10).

Writing as neglected skill (Moon 2007)

Bachman and Palmers (1996) framework of test characteristics
TESOL Association has produced materials for teachers to help them assess using
TESOL standards (Smallwood, 2001)
Hasselgren (2000) describes innovative approach testing YLs with child-friendly
Carpenter, Fujii, and Kataoka (1995) in-depth study of developing assessment
procedures for YLs
Teaching principles (Burmeister,2006:204)
1. Scaffolding making use of holistic language structures, visual materials or
signs and symbols for actitivities

2. Contextualisation Teachers L2 utterances are initially accompanied by

physical actions
3. Multisensory learning appeal to all senses e.g. growing beans in a science
4. Negotiation of meaning vitally important for students to engage in
communication and to interact with both the teacher and their fellow
students. Negotiation of meaning is believed to foster language acquisition.
Organisational aspects (Kersten and Rohde, 2015)
Scaffolding: Gibbons (2009) stresses the need for both high challenge and high
Ranter & Lyster (2007) have created the awareness-practice-feedback
sequence to apply skill learning to language acquisition

Based on their studies of immersion education in Canada they argue that

comprehensible input alone is not enough

DeKeyser (1998, 2007) argues practice is vital for language acquisition

Need to practice meaningful language speaking and writing

Approaches (de Botton, 2010): 2 approaches teacher-led, education

focussed, related to school readiness skills

Child-directed social, pedagogic approach

Nordic countries known for child-directed approach and US for it educationfocused approach

English is being taught in pre-primary

Often as a result of parental pressure

parentocracy Enever, 2007

Emery, 2012

More experienced teachers are teaching older learners and inexperienced

teachers are teaching younger learners

Swain (2005) comprehensible output hypothesis

Writing and speaking as a process in language acquisition

In trying to produce language, learners discover what they do not know, and
this discovery pushes their development forward.

The relationship between communicative language teaching and

comprehensible output:

negotiation of meaning, learner production, and repair work