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OCSNM1/RMCSM1 Data Communication &

Network Principles, Section A 7


Modulation for data transmission

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) modulation


Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) modulation
Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulation
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
Discrete Multi-tone (DMT)

Relevant sections in text books:


Stallings (7th Ed.): 5.2
Halsall (4th Ed.): 2.5.1
Forouzan: 5.1, 9.1 (3rd Ed.), 5.3, (2nd Ed.)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 1

Principle of Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)


ASK, also known as On-Off Keying (OOK)
Carrier is 100% modulated with binary data.
In the case of a voice band modem, an
audio frequency carrier is used

Voice band and DSL modem principles


Why is binary data modulated onto a carrier for
transmission via the PSTN rather than being sent
as an NRZ signal?
Voice band modems (apart from 56k) treat the
PSTN as an analogue end-to-end link with a
certain bandwidth and a certain S/N ratio.
DSL modems normally use multi-carrier
modulation techniques
Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 2

ASK waveforms
(Halsall Fig 2.18b). See also Stallings Fig 5.7

(Halsall Fig 2.18a)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 3

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 4

ASK Frequency Spectrum

Frequency shift keying (FSK) waveforms

What is the maximum bit rate that can be


transmitted via the PSTN using ASK?

(Halsall Fig 2.18c)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 5

(Halsall Fig 2.19a)


See also Stallings Fig 5.7

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

FSK Frequency Spectrum


What is the maximum bit rate that can be
transmitted via the PSTN using simplex or
half duplex FSK?

(Halsall Fig 2.19b)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 6

FSK full duplex modem

(Halsall Fig 2.20a)


(See also Stallings
Fig. 5.8)

(Halsall Fig 2.20b)

Section A 7, Page 7

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 8

Phase Shift keying (PSK) waveforms

PSK frequency spectrum and phase diagram

(Halsall Fig 2.21b)

(Halsall Fig 2.21c)


(Halsall Fig 2.21a)
See also Stallings, Fig 5.10

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 9

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Quadrature phase shift keying


(QPSK or 4-PSK)

Section A 7, Page 10

QPSK Modulator

QPSK
waveform
(Halsall Fig 2.22a)

QPSK phase diagram.


What are the I & Q
axes?
(Halsall Fig 2.22b)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 11

(Stallings Fig. 5.11)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 12

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

(Halsall Fig 2.22c)

Phase diagram of
constellation for 16QAM as used in ITU-T
V.29 standard modems.
If the baud rate is
2400, what is the bit
rate?
What is a quadbit?

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 13

QAM and voice band modems


For a baud rate of 2400, how many bits per
symbol are required to transmit 14.4 kbit/sec
(V.32bis) and 28.8 kbit/sec (V.34) assuming no
redundancy?

A QAM Modulator

-/2

(Stallings Fig. 5.14)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 14

QAM in Discrete Multi-tone (DMT)


Modulation for DSL
(Stallings Fig 8.19)

How many points are required in the constellation


if QAM is used at 14.4 kbit/sec and 28.8 kbit/sec?
What is the limiting factor to further increases in
bit rate?
Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 15

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 16

DMT implementation

DMT 'Training Sequence'

Two types of line transmission can be used for xDSL


(ADSL & VDSL). These are single carrier (CAP/QAM)
and multi-carrier (DMT).
DMT is used for most implementations of xDSL
DMT is a variant of Carrier Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing (COFDM) which is used for digital
terrestrial TV and Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB).
A DMT receiver does not contain 256 separate QAM
modulators or demodulators. Instead, DSP and Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT) techniques are used to modulate
and demodulate the data to/from the sub-carriers.

After switch-on, a DMT system goes through a 'training


sequence' and sends test signals on each sub carrier
frequency in turn.
Data rates are then assigned to each sub-carrier depending
on the signal to noise ratio.
Frequencies with a good signal-to-noise ratio are assigned
the highest data rate. Frequencies with a poorer signal-tonoise ratio are assigned lower data rates. Some sub-carrier
frequencies may not be assigned any data due to:

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 7, Page 17

high attenuation at certain frequencies


radio frequency interference at certain frequencies from sources
such as broadcast transmissions.

Section A 7, Page 18