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INTRODUCTION

This circuit automatically turns on a night lamp when bedroom


fight is switched off. The lamp remains 'on' until the light sensor
senses daylight in the morning. An LED is used as the night lamp. It
gives bright and cool light in the room. When the sensor detects the
day light in the morning, a melodious morning alarm sounds.
The circuit utilizes light-dependant resistors (LDRs) for sensing
darkness and light in the room. The circuit is designed around the
popular timer IC NE555, which is configured as a monostable.
NE555 is activated by a low pulse applied to its trigger pin 2. Once
triggered, output pin 3 of NE555 goes high and remains in that
position until timer is triggered again at its pin 2. The musical tone
of the alarm is generated by UM66 IC. The circuit can be easily
assembled on a general purpose PCB. Enclose it in a good quality
plastic case with provisions for LDR and LED. Use a reflective
holder for CEIL to get a spotlight effect for reading. Place LDRs
away from the LED, preferably on the backside of the case, to
avoid unnecessary illumination. The speaker should be small so as
to make the gadget compact.

Each of the blocks is described in clean below.


Transformer: - Steps clown high voltage AC mains to low voltage
AC.
Rectifier:- Converts AC to DC, but the DC output is no perfect it is
pulsating type.
Filter: - Filtering the DC from varying greatly to a small voltage.
Regulator: - Eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed
voltage. Power supplies made from these blocks are described
below with a circuit diagram and a graph of their output.

9V BATTERY BACKUP
A 9V battery is connected across the circuit. When the AC is not
available then the required voltage is supplied by the battery to the
circuit.

NIGHT LAMP
This circuit automatically turns on a night lamp when bedroom
light is switched OFF. The lamp remains ON until sensor senses
daylight in the morning. A super bright white LED is used as the
night lamp. It gives bright and cool light in the room.

MORNING ALARM
An alarm gives a warning signal to let people know that something
has happened. When the sensor detects the daylight in the morning,
a melodious morning alarm sounds.

OPERATION:
A light dependent resistor or photo resistor is a resistor whose
resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensify. It can
also be referenced as a photoconductor. A photo resistor is made of
a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of
high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor
give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction
band. The resulting free electrons conduct electricity, thereby
lowering resistance.

Photo resistors come in many different types inexpensive cadmium


sulfide cells can be found in many consumer items such as camera
light meters, streetlights, and clock radios, alarms, and outdoor
clocks.
LDR or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in
light/dark sensor circuits. Normally the resistance of an LDR is
very high, sometimes as high as1000000 ohms, but when they are
illuminated with light resistance drops dramatically.
The animation opposite shows that when the torch is turned on, the
resistance of the OR fails, allowing current to pass through it. When
the light level is low, the resistance of the OR is high. This prevents
current from flowing to the base of the transistors
Consequently the LED does not fight. However, when light shines
onto the OR its resistance falls and current flows into the base of
the first transistor and then the second transistor. The LED lights.
The preset resistor can be turned up or down to increase or decrease
resistance, in this way it can make the circuit more obese sensitive.
A photo resistor or light dependent resistor or cadmium sulfide
(CdS) ceils a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing
incident light intensity. It can also be referred to as a
photoconductor. A photo resistor is made of a high resistance
semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough

frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound


electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band.
The resulting free electron (and its whole partner) conduct
electricity, thereby lowering resistance. A photoelectric device can
be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its
own charge carriers end is not an efficient semiconductor, e.g.
silicon.
In intrinsic devices, the only available electrons are in the valence
band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the
electron across the entire band gap.
Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, and added
whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since
the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (i.e.
longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger
the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by
phosphorus atoms (impurities), the ewe be extra electrons available
for conduction. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor.

APPLICATION:
Photo resistors come in many different types. Inexpensive cadmium
sulfide ceils can be found in many consumer items such as camera
light meters, streetlights, clock radios, alarms, and outdoor clocks.
They are also used in some dynamic compressors together with a
small incandescent lamp or light emitting diode to control gain
reduction.
Lead sulfide (PbS) and infirm antimonite (InSb) LDRs (light
deponent resistor) are used for the mid infrared spectral region. Ge:
Cu photoconductors are among the best far-infrared detectors
available, and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared
spectroscopy.

WORKING:
This circuit is powered from a standard 0-9v transformer. Diodes
D1 through D4 rectify the AC voltage and the resulting DC voltage
is smoothed by C1. Regulator IC 7806 gives regulated 6v DC to the
circuit. A battery backup is provided to power the circuit when
mains fail. When main supply is available, the 9v rechargeable
battery charges via diode D5 and resistor R1 with a reasonable
constant current. In the event of mains failure, the battery
automatically takes up the load without any delay. Diode
D5prevents the battery from discharging backwards following the
mains failure and diode D6 provides current path from the battery.
The circuit utilizes light-dependant resistors (LDRs) for sensing
darkness and light in the room. The resistance of LDR is very high
in darkness, which reduces to minimum when LDR is fully
illuminated. LDR1 detects darkness, while LDR2 detects light in
the morning.
The circuit is designed around the popular timer IC NE 555(1C2),
which his configured as a monostable. IC2 is activated by a low
pulse applied to its trigger pin2. Once triggered, output pin3 of IC2
goes high and remains in that position until IC2 is triggered again at
its pin2.
When LDR1 is illuminated with ambient light in the room, its
resistance remains low, which keeps trigger pin2 of IC2 at a
positive potential. As a result, output pin3 of IC2 goes low and the

white LED remains OFF. As the illumination of DR1's sensitive


window reduces the resistance of the device increases.
In total darkness, the specified OR has a resistance in excess of 280
kilo ohms. When the resistance of LDR1 increases, a short pulse is
applied to trigger pin2 of IC2 via resistor R2 (150kilo-ohms). This
activates the monostable and its output goes high, causing the white
LED to glow.
Low-value capacitor C2 maintains the monostable for continuous
operation, eliminating the timer effect. By increasing the value of
C2, the ON time of the white LED can be adjusted to a
predetermined time.
LDR2 and associated components generate the morning alarm at
dawn. LDR2 detects the ambient light in the room at sunrise and its
resistance gradually falls and transistor T1 starts conducting (IC3)
gets supply voltage from the emitter of T1 and it starts producing
the melody. The musical tone generated by IC3 is amplified by
single-transistor amplified T2. Resistor R7 limits the current to IC3
and zener diode ZD limits the voltage to a safer level of 3.3 volts.
The circuit can be easily assembled on a general purpose PCB.
Enclose it in a good-quality plastic case with provisions for LDR
and LED. Use a reflective holder for white ED to get a spotlight
effect for reading. Place LDRs away from the white LED,
preferably on the backside of the case, to avoid unnecessary
illumination.

OVERVIEW OF COMPONENTS:

Resistors 1 k (2Pcs), 150k (2Pcs), 120k, 220k, 580k, 560k


Capacitors1000, 0.01 (2Pcs)
Diode 1N4007 (4Pcs), 1N4001 (2Pcs)
Zener Diode3.3v, 0.5w
Transistors BC548 (2Pcs)
LED White
LDR (2Pcs)
IC (78065 NE555, UM66)
Transformer (230v AC 50Hz)
Battery (9v)
Speaker (8, 4.5w)
PCB
Wire (1 Pkt)

RESULT MEASURED VALUE:


LIGHT CONDITION:
Night Lamp:
LDR value: 633k
IC NE555 (Pine) Vcc: 5.86v
IC NE555 (Pined Vcc: 5.85v
Morning Alarm:

LDR Value: 783k


LDR Vcc: 5.86v
T1 (Base) : 5.02v
R7: 4.44v
(IC UM66, Pin 2) Vcc: 3.28v
IC UM66 (Pin1): 0.95v

NIGHT CONDITION:
Morning alarm:
LDR Value: 220k
T1(Base): 2.92v
R7: 1.25vIC UM66 (Pin2) Vcc: 1.05v [Varying w.r.t. light] IC
UM66 (Pin1): 0.66v

CONCLUSION:
In our day-to-day life, we always want to satisfy our needs to makes
our fife comfortable and easy. As we know, every alarm needs to be
set first, to work on and the alarm will automatically OFF according
to how long the time that we set. This concept is very good because
it is very useful in our life especially for working person. However,
the common alarm also has their own disadvantages. First, it was
wasting our time because we need to set alarm every day. Besides,
we also got trouble. As we know, the function of alarm is a machine
that we can set to make a noise at a particular time to wakeup.
Hence the best alternative is to design an alarm that is automatically
set. This is what we have tried to achieve here. Our project is to
make a night lamp with morning alarm.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The 78xx series is designed to output one voltage level, as they
come in 5v, 6v, 7v, v, 9v, 10v, 12v, 15v, 20v and 24v fixed output
voltages an can output up to 1A of current as a positive volt age
regular or.
The 78xx series of voltage regular ors are designed for positive
input. The 'xx' indicates the output voltages of the device as
generally the series named e.g. 7805, 7806, 7607, 7809, 7810,
7612, 7815, 7820 and 7824 and depend on every manufacturer for
differing naming schemes.
But there is space to tweak the 78xx series such they can deliver
over 1A output current or need to obtain adjustable voltages and
currents even this device mainly as a fixed voltage regulators,
following each datasheet for this purpose. The series 7600
regulators provide eight voltage options, ranging from 5 to 24v, as
indicated in table.

555 TIMER IC:


The 555 timer IC was first introduced around 1971 by the Signetics
Corporation as the SE555/NE555, was called "The IC Time
Machine", and was the very first and only commercial timer IC
available. It provided circuit designers and hobby tinkerers with a
relatively cheap, table and user-friendly integrated circuit for both
monostable and a stable application. The 555 come in two
packages, either the round metal can called the 'T' package or the
more familiar 8 pin DIP 'V' package.
Abou120-years ago, the metal-can type was pretty much the
standard (SE/NE types). The 556 timer is a dual 555 version and
comes in a 14-pin DlP package, the 558 is a quad version with four
555's also in a 14-pin DIP case. Inside the 555 timer, are the
equivalent of over 20 transistors, 15 resistors, and 2 diodes,
depending of the manufacturer. The equivalent circuit, inblock
diagram, providing the functions of control, triggering, level
sensingor comparison, discharge, and power output. Some of the
more attractive features of the 555 timer are Supply voltage
between 4.5 and 18 volt, supply current 3 to 6 mA, and a Rise/Fall
time of 100 nSec. It can also withstand quite a bit of abuse. The
Threshold current determine the maximum value of Ra + Rb. For
15-volt operation, the maximum total resistance for R (Ra+Rb) is
20 Mega-ohm. The supply current. when the output is 'high', is
typically 1 milli-amp (mA) or less.

ANALYSIS:
The advantage of the project is low cost, reliable circuit and
applicability like bedrooms, hostels and hotels.

ADVANTAGES:

Highly sensitive
Works according to the light intensity
Fit and Forget system.
Low cost and reliable circuit
Complete elimination of man power
Can handle heavy loans up to 7A.
System can be switched into manual mode whenever
required.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
AUTOMATIC NIGHT LAMP WITH MORNING ALARM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
WITH EXPLANATION

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
OVERVIEW OF COMPONENTS
CIRCUIT WITH DESIGN GUIDELINES
RESULT AND ANALYSIS
CONCLUSION