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CHAPTER TWO:

Nutrition
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

Classes of Food
The Importance of Balanced Diet
Human Digestive System
Absorption of Digested Food
Reabsorption of Water and Defecation
Healthy Eating Habits

Mandy Voon
Science PT3
2015/2016

CHAPTER TWO

2.1

Nutrition

Classes of Food

- Living things need food to survive.


-Food provide our body with
energy to carry out all living process and functions
energy to do work
for growth of new tissues and repair damaged tissues
maintenance of good health and fight diseases
- Food can divided into seven classes as follows:
carbohydrates
proteins
fats
vitamins
minerals
fibre
water
2.1.1 Functions of each class of food
Carbohydrate
- Carbohydrate is organic compound that made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
- There are three types of carbohydrate, starch, sugar and cellulose.
- Carbohydrate are found in foods, such as:
Starch, which is stored in plants.(bread, potatoes)
Sugars, which are sweet and soluble in water.
Cellulose, which is found in plant cell walls and cannot be digested.(vegetable and fruits)
Glycogen, which is found in liver and muscles.
- Food rich in carbohydrate include rice; potato, sugar, bread, and banana.
- Excess carbohydrates are stored as fats in our body.
- Carbohydrate is our main source of energy. Carbohydrate supplies us with energy to carry out
daily activities such as walking, breathing, and working.
Protein
- Protein consist of long chains of acid amino which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and
nitrogen.
- Some protein can also contain phosphorus and sulphur.
- Food rich in protein includes fish, milk, meat, egg white (animal), pea, beans and nuts.(plant)
- Proteins are required for building new cells for growth, replace damaged tissue and formation of
enzymes, hormones haemoglobin and antibodies
- Growing children require a lot of protein.
- Becomes source of energy during extreme starvation.
- Lack of protein will cause a disease know as kwashiorkor (stunted growth).

CHAPTER TWO

Nutrition

Fat
- Fat is made up for carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but the ratio is different from that of
carbohydrate.
- Food rich in fats includes animal fat, butter,cheese and egg yolk (animals),palm oil,vegetable oil
and nuts ( plants)
- Fat produces twice the amount of energy compared with carbohydrate of the same weight.
- The function of fat include:
a. important source of energy,
b. as and insulator of heat to reduce heat loss from the body,
c. protecting the internal organs such as the kidneys and the heart,
d. to dissolve some vitamins in the body like vitamin A, D, E and K.
Vitamins
-

Vitamins are required in small quantities only.


Vitamins are classified into two groups
fat soluble vitamins - vitamin A, D, E and K.
water soluble vitamins - vitamin B and C ,
Vitamins protect the body from various types of diseases and maintains the health of the
body.

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Nutrition

Minerals
-

minerals are inorganic substamces needed in small amounts by our body.(chemical reaction)
The minerals are needed for proper growth and development.
minerals are needed for good health.
Excess mineral remove through sweat and urine.

Fibre
- Fibre is made up of cellulose which cannot be digested by the body.
- Importance of dietary fibre:
a. Provide bulk to the instestinal contents
b. Stimulate peristalsis that helps food move along the digestive tract
- Lack of fibre in our daily diet can cause constipation and may cause piles and bowel cancer.
- Vegetables, fruit, beans, lentils and brown bread are examples of food rich in fibre.

Water
- approximately 65% to 70% of a persons body weight is made up of water.
- The body obtains water from drinking water (6-8 glasses) and fruits and vegetables that we
consumed.
- Water is needed by the body for:
a. helping in the digestion of food
b. transporting digested food substances
c. transporting excretory products such as urea.
d. maintaining the concentration of blood.
e. maintaining the body temperature
f. all metabolic processes, solvent of chemical reaction in body

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Nutrition

2.1.2 Food test

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Nutrition

2.2 The Importance of Balanced Diet


-

Diet refers to the food and drinks that we consume daily.


A balanced diet is which contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, water
and fibre in the right amount to meet daily requirement of body
A balanced diet is necessary for:
supplying the required energy
for body growth and repair damage tissues
maintaining the health of the body and functions
preventing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and rickets.
A balanced diet varies according to ones
Age
Size
Sex
Physical activity
Climate
State of health

2.2.2 Calorific value of food


- Energy in food measured in joules (J) or calories (cal).
1 calorie (cal) = 4.2 joules (J)
1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4.2 kilojoules (kJ)
- The calorific value of food is the amount of heat energy released when one gram of food
- The calorific value of food is measured in kilojoules per gram (kJ/g) or kilocalories per
gram (kcal/g)
- The calorific value differs for different types of food. Table below shows the calorific
value of some of the food that we eat daily.

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Nutrition

2.3 Human Digestive System


- Digestion is the process of breaking down large and complex food substances into smaller,
simpler molecules. These molecules are soluble and can be absorbed by body cells.
- The digestive process occurs in a system which is called the digestive system.
2.3.1 Digestion enzymes
i.
ii.
iii.

Enzymes are special proteins produced by the body to speed up chemical reactions in the body.
Enzymes that help in the digestion of food are called digestion enzymes
3 main digestion enzymes:
Amylases-enzyme help in digestion of carbohydrates
Proteases-enzyme help in digestion of proteins
Lipases-enzyme help in digestion of fats
- Enzymes that help digestion in the mouth work well in neutral medium.
- Enzymes that help digestion in the stomach work well in acidic medium; while those in intestine
and pancreas work well in alkaline medium.
- Enzymes work well at body temperature 37 0C
2.3.2 The process of digestion in alimentary canal
- Digestion involves two process:
i) physical digestion- break down large pieces of foods into smaller paticles using teeth and
churning movements of alimentary canal
ii) chemical digestion-involves action of various enzymes in breaking down complex food
molecules
-Digestion systems is an 8 meters long tube called alimentary canal start from mouth till ends in
the anus.

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Nutrition

Figure below shows the human digestive system

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Nutrition

2.3.3 The end products of digestion

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Nutrition

2.4 Absorption of Digested Food


- Absorption is the process when the end products of digestion enters the bloodstream through the
small intestinal walls.
- The inner surface of the small intestine (6 metres long) covered with millions of small projections
about 1mm long. These projections are called villi @ villus.
- Food that has been digested into its most simple form is absorbed by the villi @ villus on the
small intestinal walls into the bloodstream.
- Once inside the bloodstream, the absorbed nutrients are transported to liver and to heart and
pump to whole body
- The efficiency of absorption of digested food at the small intestine can be increased by:
a. more villus to increase surface area
b. villus with very thin walls
- Each villus has a network of a blood capillaries and a lacteal.

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Nutrition

- Glucose, amino acids, minerals and water-solube vitamins are absorbed into the blood
capillaries.
- Fatty acids, glycerol and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) are absorbed into the
lacteal.

2.5 Reabsorption of Water and Defecation


- The main function of big intestine is to reabsorb water.
- The substances that enter the big intestine consist of water and undigested food substances like
cellulose from the fibre of vegetable and fruits (roughage)
- Water is reabsorbed from these undigested food substances.
- Undigested food materials together with water is passed to the colon (first part of the large
intestine)rectum is the last portion of the large intestine
- Undigested food in the big intestine is expelled as faeces through the process of defecation.
- When the rectum is full of faeces, the rectum undergoes peristalsis and assisted by abdominal
contraction, will push the faeces through the anus to be expelled.
- If an individual has problems passing motion, he or she is said to be constipated.
- Constipation takes place because of the lack of water in the diet.

2.6

Healthy Eating Habits

- Healthy eating habits will help maintain a healthy body.


- Unhealthy eating habits cause various health problems.
excessive nutrient

health problems

Sugar

tooth decay,obesity,diabetes

Salt

high blood pressure, heart problems, kidney damage

fat/oil

heart problems, high blood pressure

lack of nutrient

health problems

Protein

kwashiorkor

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Nutrition

Roughage/ fibre

Constipation

Vitamins

lower immunity to diseases