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02.12.

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M61VulcanWikipedia

M61Vulcan
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheM61Vulcanisahydraulically
orpneumatically
driven,six
barrel,aircooled,electricallyfired
Gatlingstyle
rotarycannon
whichfires20mmroundsatanextremelyhighrate(typically
6,000roundsperminute).TheM61anditsderivativeshave
beentheprincipalcannonarmamentof
UnitedStatesmilitary
[1]
fixedwingaircraft
forfiftyyears.

M61Vulcan

TheM61wasoriginallyproducedby
GeneralElectric
.After
severalmergersandacquisitions,itiscurrentlyproducedby
GeneralDynamics
.[1]

Contents
AnunmountedM61Vulcan.

1 Development
2 Description
2.1 Ammunition
3 Applicationsandfirstcombatuse
4 Seealso
5 References
6 Bibliography
7 Externallinks

Type

Rotarycannon

Placeoforigin

UnitedStates

Servicehistory
Inservice

1959present

Usedby

UnitedStates,some NATO
members,SouthKorea,Saudi
Arabia,andothers

Wars

VietnamWar
GulfWar
WarinAfghanistan
IraqWar

Development

AttheendofWorldWarII,theUnitedStatesArmy
beganto
Productionhistory
considernewdirectionsforfuture
militaryaircraft
guns.The
1946
Designed
higherspeedsofjetpoweredfighteraircraft
meantthat
achievinganef
fectivenumberofhitswouldbeextremelydif
ficult Manufacturer
GeneralElectric
withoutamuchhighervolumeoffire.WhilecapturedGerman
Seebelow
Variants
designs(principallythe
MauserMG213C)showedthepotential
Specifications
ofthesinglebarrel
revolvercannon,thepracticalrateoffireof
suchadesignwasstilllimitedbyammunitionfeedandbarrel Weight
M61A1:248pounds(112kg)
wearconcerns.TheArmywantedsomethingbetter
,combining
withoutfeedsystem
extremelyhighrateoffirewithexceptionalreliability
.In1947,
M61A2:202pounds(92kg)
theAirForcebecameaseparatebranchofthemilitary
.Thenew
withoutfeedsystem
AirForcemadearequestforanewaircraftgun.Alessonof
71.93in(1.827m)
WorldWarIIaircombatwasthatGerman,ItalianandJapanese Length
fighterscouldattackAmericanaircraftfromlongrangewiththeir
cannonmainarmament.Americanfighterswith.50calmain Cartridge
20102mm
armament,suchastheP51andP47,hadtobeclosetothe
20mm(0.787in)
Caliber
enemyinordertohitanddamageenemyaircraft.The
20mm
6barrel(progressiveRH
HispanocarriedbytheP38,whileformidableagainstpropeller Barrels
parabolictwist,9grooves)
drivenplanes,wasdeemedarelativelylowvelocityweaponin
theageofjets,whileothercannonswerenotoriouslyunreliable.Action
Hydraulicallyoperated,
electricallyfired,rotarycannon
Rateoffir e
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M61_V
ulcan

M61A1:6,000roundsperminute
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M61A2:6,600roundsperminute
Inresponsetothisrequirement,theArmamentDivisionof
GeneralElectricresurrectedanoldidea:themultibarrelGatlingMuzzlevelocity 3,450feetpersecond
gun.TheoriginalGatlinggunhadfallenoutoffavorbecauseof
(1,050m/s)withPGU28/B
theneedforanexternalpowersourcetorotatethebarrel
round
assembly,butthenewgenerationofturbojetpoweredfighters
Beltorlinklessfeedsystem
offeredsufficientelectricpowertooperatethegun,andelectric Feedsystem
operationwasmorereliablethan
gasoperatedreloading.[2]
Withmultiplebarrels,therateoffireperbarrelcouldbelowerthanasinglebarrelrevolvercannonwhileprovidinga
greateroverallrateoffire.TheideaofpoweringaGatlinggunfromanexternalelectricpowersourcewasnotanovel
ideaattheendoftheW
orldWarII,asRichardJordanGatling
himselfhaddonejustthatwithapatenthefiledin1893
[2]
.

In1946,theArmyissuedGeneralElectricacontractfor"ProjectV
ulcan",asixbarrelweaponcapableoffiring7,200
[3]
roundsperminute(rpm). AlthoughEuropeandesignersweremovingtowardsheavier30mmweaponsforbetter
hittingpower
,theU.S.initiallyconcentratedonapowerful0.60inch(15mm)cartridgedesignedforaprewaranti
tankrifle,expectingthatthecartridge'shigh
muzzlevelocity
wouldbebeneficialforimprovinghitratiosonhighspeed
targets.

ThefirstGEprototypesofthe0.60inch(15mm)caliberT45weregroundfiredin1949itachieved2,500rpm,which
wasincreasedto4,000rpmby1950.Bytheearly1950s,theUSAFdecidedthathighvelocityalonemightnotbe
sufficienttoensuretar
getdestructionandtested20mmand27mmalternativesbasedonthe0.60inch(15mm)caliber
cartridge.ThesevariantsoftheT45wereknownastheT171andT150respectively
,andwerefirsttestedin1952.
Eventually
,the20102mmcartridgewasdeterminedtohavethedesiredbalanceofprojectileandexplosiveweight
andmuzzlevelocity
.
Thedevelopmentofthe
LockheedF104StarfighterrevealedthattheT171V
ulcan(laterredesignated
M61)suffered
problemswithits
linkedammunition
,beingpronetomisfeedandpresentinga
foreignobjectdamage
(FOD)hazard
withdiscardedlinks.Alinklessammunitionfeedsystemwasdevelopedfortheupgraded
M61A1,whichsubsequently
becamethestandardcannonarmamentofU.S.fighters.
In1993,GeneralElectricsolditsaerospacedivision,includingGEArmamentSystemsalongwiththedesignand
productiontoolingfortheM61andGE'sotherrotarycannon,to
MartinMarietta.AfterMartin'smer
gerwith
Lockheed,therotarycannonbecametheresponsibilityofLockheedMartinArmamentSystems.LockheedMartin
[1]
ArmamentSystemswaslateracquiredbyGeneralDynamics,whocurrentlyproducetheM61anditsvariants.

Description
Eachofthecannon'ssixbarrelsfiresonceinturnduringeachrevolutionof
thebarrelcluster
.Themultiplebarrelsprovidebothaveryhighrateoffire
around100roundspersecondandcontributetoprolongedweaponlifeby
minimizingbarrelerosionandheatgeneration.Meantimebetweenjamsor
failuresisinexcessof10,000rounds,makingitanextremelyreliable
weapon.ThesuccessoftheV
ulcanProjectanditssubsequentprogeny
,the
veryhighspeedGatlinggun,hasledtogunsofthesameconfigurationbeing
referredtoas"Vulcancannon"
,whichcansometimesconfusenomenclature
onthesubject.
AnM61Vulcanandthefeedsystem
foranF18,onastand.

MostaircraftversionsoftheM61arehydraulicallydrivenandelectrically
primed.Thegunrotor
,barrelassemblyandammunitionfeedsystemare
rotatedbyahydraulicdrivemotorthroughasystemofflexibledriveshafts.Theroundisfiredbyanelectricpriming
systemwhereanelectriccurrentfromafiringleadpassesthroughthefiringpintotheprimeraseachroundisrotated
[4]
intothefiringposition.

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Theselfpoweredversion,the
GAU4(calledM130inArmyservice),is
gasoperated,tappinggungasfromthreeof
thesixbarrelstooperatethegungasdrivenmechanism.TheselfpoweredV
ulcanweighsabout10pounds(4.5kg)
morethanitselectriccounterpart,butrequiresnoexternalpowersourcetooperate,exceptforanelectric,inertia
[4]
startertoinitiategunrotation,allowingthefirstroundstobechamberedandfired.
Theinitial
M61usedlinked,beltedammunition,buttheejectionofspentlinkscreatedconsiderable(andultimately
insuperable)problems.Theoriginalweaponwassoonreplacedbythe
M61A1,withalinklessfeedsystem.Depending
ontheapplication,thefeedsystemcanbeeithersingleended(ejectingspentcasesandunfiredrounds)ordouble
ended(returningcasingsbacktothemagazine).AdisadvantageoftheM61isthatthebulkoftheweapon,itsfeed
system,andammunitiondrummakesitdif
ficulttofititintoadenselypackedairframe.
Thefeedsystemmustbecustomdesignedforeachapplication,adding300400lb(140180kg)tothecomplete
weapon.Mostaircraftinstallationsaredoubleended,becausetheejectionofemptycartridgescancauseaforeign
objectdamage(FOD)hazardforjetenginesandbecausetheretentionofspentcasesassistsinmaintainingthecenter
ofgravityoftheaircraft.ThefirstaircrafttocarrytheM61A1wastheCmodelofthe
F104,startingin1959.

AlighterversionoftheV
ulcandevelopedforuseonthe
F22Raptor,theM61A2,ismechanicallythesameasthe
M61A1,butwiththinnerbarrelstoreduceoverallweightto202pounds(92kg).Therotorandhousinghavealsobeen
modifiedtoremoveanypieceofmetalnotabsolutelyneededforoperationandreplacessomemetalcomponentswith
[5]
lighterweightmaterials.The
F/A18E/FSuperHornetalsousesthisversion.
TheVulcan'srateoffireistypically6,000roundsperminute,althoughsomeversions(suchasthatofthe
AMXandthe
F106DeltaDart)arelimitedtoalowerrate,andothers(
A7Corsair)haveaselectablerateoffireofeither4,000or
6,000roundsperminute.TheM61A2'slighterbarrelsallowasomewhathigherrateoffire,upto6,600roundsper
minute.

AnM61VulcanattheMiramar
Airshow.

AnM61ammunitionbelt.

M61ondisplay.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M61_V
ulcan

M61VulcanondisplayatAvalon
2013.

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M61Vulcanondisplayat
Fightertown.

PGU27ABtrainingrounds,Bruxelles
2015.

Ammunition
Practicallynopoweredrotarycannonissuppliedwithsuf
ficientammunitionforafullminuteoffiring,duetoitsweight.
Inordertoavoidusingthefewhundredroundscarriedallatonce,aburstcontrollerisgenerallyusedtolimitthe
numberofroundsfiredateachtriggerpull.Burstsoffromtwoorthreeupto40or50canbeselected.
Thesizeofthe
airframeandavailableinternalspacelimitsthesizeoftheammunitiondrumandthuslimitstheammunitioncapacity
.

Untilthelate1980s,theM61primarilyusedtheM50seriesofammunitioninvarioustypes,typicallyfiringa3.5ounc
(99g)projectileatamuzzlevelocity
ofabout3,380feetpersecond(1,030m/s).AvarietyofArmor
Piercing
Incendiary(API),HighExplosiveIncendiary(HEI),andtrainingroundsareavailable.TheM246HEIT
SD(High
ExplosiveIncendiary
,Tracer,SelfDestroying)istheprimaryroundforuseagainstaerialtar
gets.[6]

ThenewPGU28/Broundwasdevelopedinthemid1980s.Itisa
semiarmorpiercinghighexplosiveincendiary
[7]
(SAPHEI)round,providingimprovementsinrange,accuracy
,andpowerovertheprecedingM56A3HEIround.
PGU28/Bisa"lowdrag"rounddesignedtoreduceinflightdraganddeceleration,andhasaslightlyincreasedmuzz
velocityof3,450feetpersecond(1,050m/s).
However,thePGU28/Bhasnotbeenwithoutproblems.A2000
USAFsafetyreportnoted24prematuredetonationmishaps(causingseriousdamageinmanycases)in12yearswith
theSAPHEIround,comparedtoonlytwosuchmishapsintheentirerecordedhistoryoftheM56round.Thereport
[8]Dueto
estimatedthatthecurrentPGU28/Bhadapotentialfailurerate80timeshigherthanUSAFstandardspermit.
[9]
safetyissues,itwaslimitedtoemer
gencywartimeusein2000.

Themaintypesofcombatroundsandtheirmaincharacteristicsarelistedinthetablebelow
.

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ulcan

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Designation

Type

Projectile
weight

M53

API

M56A3/A4

HEI

PGU28A/B SAPHEI

Bursting
charge[g]

Muzzle
Velocity
[m/s]

4.2g
incendiary[10]

1030

6.3mmRHApenetrationat0degreeimpactangle
and1000mrange.[10]

1030

Nosefuzedround,notracer
.2meffectiveradius
[10]
toproducecasualtiestoexposedpersonnel.
[11]12.5mm
Fragmentationhazardoutto20m.
RHApenetrationat0degreeobliquityat100m
range.[10]

1050

Multipurposefuzelessroundwithanincendiary
chargeinthenosesettingof
ftheHEbehinditwith
aslightdelaytomaximizelethalityagainstaircraft.
Notracerorselfdestruct.Azirconiumpelletatthe
bottomoftheHEcavityprovidesadditional
incendiaryef
fect.

9gHE
102g
(RDX/wax/Al)
and1.5g
(3.6oz)[11]
incendiary[10][11]

102.4g
(3.61oz)[12]

10g[11]

Description

Applicationsandfirstcombatuse
TheVulcanfirstenteredaerialcombaton4April1965whenfourNorth
VietnameseAirForceMiG17s(
J5s)[13]attackedaforceof10escorting
NorthAmericanF100SuperSabres(2ofwhichwereassignedweather
reconnaissanceduties)and48V
ulcanarmedand"bombladen"
F105
Thunderchiefs
,shootingdowntwoofthelatter
.TheMiGLeader,Capt.Tran
Hanh,andtheonlysurvivorfromthefourMiGsreportedthatU.S.jetshad
pursuedthemandthatF105shadshotdownthreeofhisaircraft,killing
LieutenantsPhamGiay,LeMinhHuan,andT
ranNguyenNam.Capt.
DonaldKilguspilotinganF100receivedanof
ficialprobablekillwithhis
fourM3920mmcannonsduringtheengagementhowevernootherUSpilot GuninstallationonWestGerman
reporteddestroyinganyMiGsduringthebattle,leavingopentheplausibility NavyF104
thatatleasttwooftheMiG17smayhavebeendownedbytheirown
anti
aircraftfire.[14][15][16]
ThefirstconfirmedV
ulcangunkilloccurredon29June1966when
MajorFredTracy,flyinghisF105Thunderchief
withthe421stTFS,fired200roundsof20mmintoaMiG17thathadjustfireda23mmshellthroughonesideofhis
cockpitandwhichexitedouttheotherside.WhentheNV
AFMiGflewinfrontofhimaftermakinghispass,Maj.
[17][18]
Tracyopenedfireonhim.

ThegunwasinstalledintheAirForce'sA7Dversionofthe
LTVA7CorsairIIwhereitreplacedtheearlier
United
[19]Itwasintegrated
StatesNavyA7'sColtMk12cannonandwasadoptedbytheNavyontheA7CandA7E.
intothenewerF4EPhantomIIvariants.TheF4wasoriginallydesignedwithoutacannonasitwasbelievedthat
missileshadmadegunsobsolete.CombatexperienceinV
ietnamshowedthataguncouldbemoreef
fectivethan
guidedmissiles
inmanycombatsituations,andthatanexternallycarriedgunpodwaslessef
fectivethananinternalgun
thefirstgenerationofgunpodssuchastheSUU16werenotorientedwiththesightsofthefighter
.Theimprovedpods
wereselfpoweredandproperlysynchronizedtothefighterssights.
Thenextgeneration
offightersbuiltpostV
ietnam
incorporatedtheM61guninternally
.

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ulcan

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Date/Year
29June
1966

M61VulcanWikipedia

CombatkillsusingM61VulcanintheVietnamWar196672[20]
M61
Firing
Aircraft
Vulcan
USAFUnit/comments
aircraft
downed
variant
F105D
M61A1
Thunderchief

MiG17

[21]
421stTacticalFighterSquadron

18August
F105D
1966

M61A1

MiG17

34thTFS

21
September F105D
1966

M61A1

MiG17

333rdTFS

21
September F105D
1966

M61A1

MiG17

431stTFS

4
December F105D
1966

M61A1

MiG17

469thTFS

1967

F105D/F
105F

M61A1

(5)MiG
333rdTFS
17s

1967

F105D

M61A1

(8)MiG
354thTFS
17s

1967

F105D/F
105F

M61A1

(4)MiG
357thTFS
17s

1967

F4C
SUU16
PhantomII gunpod

(2)MiG
480thTFS
17s

13May
1967

F105D

M61A1

MiG17

44thTFS

3June
1967

F105D

M61A1

MiG17

[22]
13thTFS:CaptainRalphKuster

23August
F105D
1967

M61A1

MiG17

34thTFS

24October
F4D
1967

SUU23
gunpod

MiG21

433rdTFS

1967

F4D

SUU23

(3)MiG
435thTFS
17s

3January
1968

F4D

SUU23

MiG17

433rdTFSPilot,MajorBJBogoslofski,
WSO,Captain
[23]
RichardLHuskey

14
February
1968

F4D

SUU23

MiG17

555thTFS

1972

F4E

M61A1

(3)MiG 35thTFSTheF4EwasthefirstPhantomIItoenterthewar
21s
withaninternalV
ulcangun.[24]

2June
1972

F4E

M61A1

MiG19

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M61_V
ulcan

58thTFSFirstkillat
supersonicspeed(Mach1.2)MajorPhil
Handley/WSO1LTJ.J.Smallwood[25]
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9
September F4E
1972

M61A1

MiG21

555thTFS

15October
F4E
1972

M61A1

MiG21

307thTFS

Total
32
MiG17s:
Total
1
MiG19s:
Total
6
MiG21s:
Total:

39

TheVulcanwaslaterfittedintotheweaponsbayofsome
ConvairF106DeltaDartandGeneralDynamicsF1
11
Aardvarkmodels.Itwasalsoadoptedasstandardinthe"teen"seriesairsuperiorityfighters,the
GrummanF14
Tomcat,theMcDonnellDouglasF15Eagle
,GeneralDynamicsF16FightingFalcon
andMcDonnellDouglasF/A18
Hornet.Otheraircraftincludethe
Italian/BrazilianAMXInternationalAMX
(onItalianaircraftonly),andthe
F22
Raptor.Itwasfittedinasidefiringinstallationonthe
FairchildAC119,somemarksoftheLockheedAC130
gunships,andwasusedinthetailturretsofboththe
ConvairB58HustlerandBoeingB52HStratofortress
bombers.
[19]
Japan'sMitsubishiF1carriedoneinternallymountedJM61A1V
ulcanwith750rounds.

Twogunpodversions,theSUU16/A(alsodesignatedM12bytheUSArmy)andimproved
SUU23/A(USArmy
M25),weredevelopedinthe1960s,oftenusedongunlessversionsoftheF4.TheSUU16/Ausestheelectric
M61A1witharamairturbinetopowerthemotor.Thisprovedtocauseserious
aerodynamicdragathigherspeeds,
whilespeedsunder400milesperhour(640km/h)didnotprovideenoughairflowforthemaximumrateoffire.
ThesubsequentSUU23/Ausesthe
GAU4/AselfpoweredVulcan,withanelectricinertiastartertobringitupto
speed.Bothpodsejectedemptycasesandunfiredroundsratherthanretainingthem.Bothpodscontained1,200
roundsofammunition,withaloadedweightof1,615and1,720pounds(733and780kg)respectively
.Duringservice
intheVietnamWar,thepodsprovedtoberelativelyinaccurate:thepylonmountingwasnotrigidenoughtoprevent
deflectionwhenfiring,andrepeatedusewouldmisalignthepodonitspylon,makingmattersworse.
Avariantwithmuchshorterbarrels,designatedthe
M195,wasalsodevelopedforuseonthe
M35Armament
SubsystemforuseontheAH1GCobrahelicopter.Thisvariantfedfromammunitionboxesfittedtothelandingskid
andwasdevelopedtoprovidetheAH1helicopterwithalonger
rangesuppressivefiresystembeforetheadoptionof
theM97UniversalTurretmountingthe
M197cannon.
TheM61isalsothebasisofthe
USNavyMk15PhalanxCloseinweapon
systemandtheM163VADSVulcanAirDefenseSystem,usingthe
M168
variant.

Seealso
M167VADSairdefensesystemusingtheM61V
ulcan
M163VADSselfpropelledversionoftheM167onan
M113
armoredpersonnelcarrier
M197Gatlinggun
3barreldevelopmentofM61forlightaircraft
XM301cancelledlightweight20mmcannon
M134Minigun7.62mmgun
GAU8AvengerGeneralElectric,30mmcaliber
GAU12EqualizerGeneralElectric,25mmcaliber
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M61_V
ulcan

TheM61mountedonaUSArmy
M163armoredvehicle.

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SovietUnion/CIS
GryazevShipunovGSh623
23mm
GryazevShipunovGSh301
highratesinglebarrel30mmcaliber
GryazevShipunovGSh630
GryazevShipunovGSh302
Shipunov2A4230mmcaliber

References
1."M6120mmcannon".FederationofAmericanScientists.23April2000.Retrieved20090228.
2."EleckeyGatling"(JPEG)(image).US:Imageshack..
3.Wahl,PaulFToppel,DonaldR(5Oct2005)[ArcoPublishingCompany,NewYork,NY,1965]."TheGatlingGun".
AircraftArmament&SmallArmsProductSupportIntegrationDirectorate.Archivedfrom
theoriginalon20080921.
Retrieved20080928.
4.AirForceManual11W112432
5."F/A18E/FSuperHornetMaritimeStrikeAttackAircraft"
,Projects,"featuresnewlightweightgunsystemisthe
GeneralDynamicsM61A2,whichhasaswitchablefiringrateof4,000or6,000shotsperminuteandafullyintegrated
linklessammunitionfeedsystem"
6."AviationUnitMaintenanceManualfor20mmAutomaticGun".Headquarters,Department
oftheArmy,1986.Chapter
5,sections12.
7."PGU27A/BTP/PGU28A/BSAPHEI/GU30A/BTPT"
.GlobalSecurity.org.Retrieved20080928.
8."PGU28/BPrematureDetonationinBarrel/BarrelDamage".
AmmunitionActive(PDF)(Report).AirborneWeapons
CorrectiveActionProgram.30November2001.pp.16.14597.Archivedfromtheoriginal(PDF)on17October
2004.
9."Jane'sInternationalDefenseReview:IDR,V
olume36,Issues16".Jane'sInformationGroup,2003."In2000,the
newertechnologyPGU28/BammunitionfortheM61wasrestrictedtoemergencywartimeuseafteraseriesof
mishaps."
10."20Millimeter"
.Aircav.12January2008.
11."ORDATA:OrdnanceIdentificationTool".JMU.Archivedfromtheoriginalon28August2008.
12."PGU27A/BTP/PGU28A/BSAPHEI/PGU30A/BTPT"
.GlobalSecurity.July7,2011.Retrieved20100125.
13.Toperczer(MiG17/MiG19Units)p.65
14.Hobsonp.17
15.Andertonp.71
16.Toperczer(MiG17/MiG19Units)pp.30,31,88
17.McCarthyJr.p.38,photoof23mmcannonexitholeonMaj.Tracy'sF105
18.MichelIIIp.56
19.Chant,Christopher(1987).ACompendiumofArmamentsandMilitaryHardware.Routledge.pp.6570,106,11415,
34143,363,389,4045.ISBN9780710207203.
20.McCarthyJr.pp.14857.Excludescombinationairtoairmissile/gunkills.
21.McCarthyJr.p.38
22.Campbell&Hillp.43/photoofhisF105plate#213
23.Davies,Osprey#45,p.86
24.MichelIIIpp.181,267
25.Davies,Osprey#55,pp.3738

Bibliography
Anderton,DavidA.NorthAmericanF100SuperSabre.OspreyPublishing,1987.
ISBN978085045
6622.
Campbell,JohnM.andHill,Michael.
RollCall:ThudAPhotographicRecordoftheF105Thunderchief.
1996,SchifferPublishing.
ISBN0764300628.
Davies,PeterE.U.S.AirForceF4PhantomIIMiGKillers196568.OspreyCombatAircraft#45,2004,
OspreyPublishing,UK.
ISBN1841766569.
Davies,PeterE.USAFF4PhantomIIMiGKillers197273.OspreyCombatAircraft55(2005).
ISBN1
841766577.
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ulcan

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Hobson,Chris.VietnamAirLosses,UnitedStatesAirForce,NavyandMarineCorpsFixedWingAircraft
LossesinSoutheastAsia19611973.(2001)MidlandPublishing.
ISBN1857801156.
McCarthyJr.,DonaldJ.MiGKillers,AChronologyofU.S.AirVictoriesintheVietnamWar19651973.
SpecialtyPress2009ISBN9781580071369 .
MichelIII,MarshallL.
Clashes,AirCombatOverNorthVietnam19651972.NavalInstitutePress1997.
ISBN9781591145196.
Toperczer,Istvan.MiG17andMiG19UnitsoftheVietnamWar.OspreyCombatAircraft#25,20082nd
ed.ISBN9781841761626 .

Externallinks
"EvolutionoftheM61V
ulcanGatlingGun"
.Army..
"M61A1/M61A2".GeneralDynamicsOrdnanceandT
actical
Systems.
"M61A1Vulcan20mmGatlinggunsystem"
.F16..
"M61$"(databaseitem).FAS..

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