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Research purposal

A study on code switching used by students during conversation on



Warda hashmi

A study on code switching used by students during conversation on

Chapter # 1
Code switching is not an unfamiliar phenomena in Pakistan. Code switching means a speaker
who speak at least two languages with some proficiency. Pakistan is a multi-lingual country.
People communicate with more than one language for interaction in society. It is a world wide
phenomena it can be seen in different multilingual communities.
The occurrence of code switiching is not only found in verbal communication but also in non
verbal communication. Various non verbal communication devices are appearing due to rapid
development of technology and increasing of computer mediated exchanges, e.g E-mail, skype,
and social networks.
The worlds largest social network or website that people use to connect with people all over the
world is facebook. It is a one of such electronic media where code switching often happens. It is
become the most important communicative tool of eclectronic devices.

1.1 Statement of the problem

Due to bilingual education system of Pakistan, speakers are bound to know more than one
language other than acquring of their mother tongue through informal setting. Students have to
learn second language in oder to coummunicate or to become a successful among speakers of
different social background. The area of code switching in computer-mediated communication
especially in social networking website become so popular and fashionable.This research will
attempt to focus on the role of code switching in their conversation.

1.2 Objectives of the study

1: To find out the function of code switching on social network.
2: To examine the reasons of code switching on facebook
3: To detemine the phenomena of code switching in electronic devices by students
4: To examine the significance of code switching in Pakistan
5: To analyse the merits and demerits of using code switching

1.3 Significance of the study

This study will help to give information on how and why code switching occurs and its
occurrence not only in spoken but also in written form. It will help to be aware of the code
switching that occurs during online communication through social network.

1.4 Research questions

1: What is the significance of code switching in Pakistan?
2: What are the functions of code switching can be observed among students while
3: What are the reasons of code switching among atudents on social network?
4: How facebook become a popular medium of communication on internet?
5: What is the phenomena of code switching in computer mediated communication?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

1: Code switching become a fashion on social media
2: People switch languages unconsciouslly
3: Facebook become a popular medium of interaction
4: Codeswitching help people to convey their feelings and emotions
5: Code switching has bad impact on the others.

Chapter # 2
Literature review
Code switching is a common pehnomena which is a part of bilingualism. Bloomfield (1993)
carried the earliest studies about bilingualism. He broadly defined this term as the Native like
control of two languages, but this definiation does not describe what exactly is needed or a
speaker to be a bilingual. Both Weinreich (1953) and Mackey (1957) provides similar definition
where bilingualism is said to be alternate use of two languages or more by the same speaker.
Often bilinguals are found using switching or mixing langauges that they are familiar in their
dialy interaction.
According to Bullock, Toribio (2009) in lingustics code switching is when many bilinguals will
utilize their ability to shift from one language to another to communicate with other is an
unchanged setting and usually within the same utterances.
Many resrachers shows that code switching is used to gain particular interaction in conversation
with other speakers. Code switching occurs in conversation either it is verbal or non verbal
communication for a purpose. As McConvell (1994), Myers- Scotton (2006) and Heller (1988),
identified code switching as having connection to the identity, ethenicity, and solidarity
associated with each language and its functions similar throughout the world. Crystal (2006)
used the term Internet linguistics refer to the study of the new styles and formats and the
development of language that emerged from the new electronic media. Thurlow, Lengel and
Tomic (2004), CMC ( Computer mediated communictaion) fundamentally refers to any human
communication achieved through, or with the help of computer technology. The most famous
social network is Facebook. It is a website that provides an extensive number of features for its
users to socialize and share information about them. As of January 2011, the network was
estimated to have more than 600 million monthly active users worldwide (Carlson, 2010) One of
the main features is the News Feed where users can publish status updates and share them with
users in their network. Thus, the study begs a question how Pakistani young students response to
hegemony of English in the mediated-communication. It is unarguably assumed that use of
English is so pervasive cutting across discursive boundaries, that it may be considered to have
infiltrated all domains of Urdu. Urdu seems to be showing no resistance to English when in
contact on the Internet

Chapter # 3
Research Methdology
Research design
Mixed method research will be used to analyse data. Data will be collected through convenient
sampling method. Qualitative data will be in the form of oneline written text which will be
drawn from social network facebook. Quantitative data will be collected through the tool of
questionnaire which will contain twenty close item questions.

3.1 Population
Researcher will target the population of students of intermediate level and their faceboo profile
pages will also be examine

3.2 Sampling
Sixty students will be taken as sample from private colleges of Bahawalpur and 30 online written
text will be considered for the analyses of data.

3.3 Data Collection Tool

The data will be collected through questionnaire and observation.Questionnaire contain twenty
close item question with five linket scale. And observation will be made in naural setting

3.4 Delimitation
Code switching of Urdu- English on facebook is the delimitation of the study

3.5 Data Analysis

Results will be drawn after analysis of data