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.l

REFRI

DATION

AIR CON ~N IONING

3rdEdition

Hipolito B. Sta. Maria

{(dimu;i

Book Store

QUAD ALPHA CENTRUM BLDG.

125 Pioneer s

Mandaluyong City

)

1

,

(

I

""-.

!'//!I!ishcd b»

r(dimtd

Book Store

PHILIPPINE COPYRIGHT, /I.)X9, 2001 bv

Hipolito B. si« Mario

Third Editioll, 2001

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be

reproduced in anvjorm or by

an\' meall.\', except brief quotations

{or II review. without permission in writing [rom the Author.

Printed II\' Kaluvaun /'/(\\ .'Ilktg. Ell!

1.)6 Kalavaan St.,

Q//I':OI/ ( '1/ v

l iilnnau

II/C.

ISBN 971-08-6/72-7

 

Contents

Preface

VB

Chapter

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle,

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems

Actual Vapor Compression Cycle

Multipressure Systems

Cascade Systems

Air-Cycle Refrigeration

Steam-Jet Refrigeration

Air Conditioning

,.

9

Cooling Tower

10 Drying

'" '"

11 Product Load

 

.

1

 

12

.

57

 

.

78

 

.

90

 

98

 

.

107

 

.

113

 

154

'"

'"

166

 

181

--

)

1

,

~

Preface

This book has a two-fold purpose: to serve primarily as a college text and as a reference material for the practicing engineer.

The author attempts to present refrigeration and air conditioning in the simplest possible way without sacrificing quality. Principles and concepts are discussed thoroughly using mostly basic thermodynamics, followed by illustrative problems arranged in the order of increasing difficulty. Additional exercises are also provided at the end of each chapter to further enhance the learning process. Answers are given to all the problems so that the student himself can check the accuracy of his solutions. For the student to get the most from this book, he should solve all the problems at the end of each chapter conscientiously. This is the best way to study and learn any technical subject.

The Author

---

)

1

l

Chapter 1

Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle

SI units

SI or the International System of Units is the purest form and an extension and refinement of the traditional metric system.

Unit of Force

The unit of force in the SI system is the newton, denoted by the symbol N.

1

kg f

= 9.8066 N

1 lb f

= 4.4484 N

1 lb,

= 0.4536 kgf

Unit of Pressure

The SI unit of pressure is the pascal and is denoted by the symbol Pa.

1 Pa

1

1

1 atm =.101.325 kPa

1 Nzm" = 100 kPa = 6895 Pa

=

bar

psi

= 1.033 kg/em"

= 14.696 lb zin"

2 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

Unit of Energy and Work

The SI unit of work is the newton meter denoted by Nm or joule denoted by J.

1

Nm

= 1 J

1

cal

=4.187 J

1

Btu

= 252 cal

 

=

1055 J

Unit of Power

The SI uni t of power is the watt, denoted by the symbol W. It is defined as tho rate of doing 1 Nm of work per second.

= 1 ,Us = 0.746 kW

= 4~.4 Btu/min

1

W

1 hp

Unit of Refrigerating Capacity

The standard unit of refrigeration is ton of refrigeration or simply ton denoted by the symbol TR.

One ton of refrigeration is the rate of cooling required to freeze one ton of water at 32°F into ice at 32°F in one day.

In English units

1

TR =

(2000 lb) (144 Btu/lb)

 

24

h

1

TR = 12,000 Btu/h = 200 Btu/min

In Metric units

 

1 TR = (12,000 Btulh) (252 callBtu)

1 TR = 3024 kcallh =. 50.4 kcallmin

In Sl units

~

1 Tl{ = (200 Btu/rnin.) (1055 J/Btu)

I

TH

= ~11 k.L'min = 3.52 kW

Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle 3

Heat Engine and Refrigerating Machine

A system operating in a cycle and producing a net quantity of work from a supply of heat is called a heat engine and is represented as shown in Fig. 1-1.

a heat engine and is represented as shown in Fig. 1-1. ~ @-+W Hot reservoir (source

~

@-+W

Hot reservoir (source of heat)

where

~

1~

Fig. 1-1.

W

=.

e =

Cold reservoir (receiver of heat)

Representation of a heat engine

Q

A

-

W

Q A

Q

_

R

Q

A

-

Q R

Q A

Q A =the

heat supplied

Q R

W

e

= the

=the net work = the thermal efficiency

heat rejected

A refrigerating machine will either cool or maintain a body at a temperature below that of its surroundings. A refrigerating machine may be represented by the diagram shown in Fig. 1-2.

at

temperature T 1 and rejects heat Q to the surroundings at temperature T 2 and, during the process, requires work W to be done on the system.

The machine R absorbs heat Q A from the cold body

R

)

1 ,

4 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

T 2

) 1 , 4 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning T 2 ~ surroundings cold body Fig. 1-2.

~

) 1 , 4 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning T 2 ~ surroundings cold body Fig. 1-2.

surroundings

cold

body

Fig. 1-2.

\{l"prl"~entationof a refrigerating machine

where

W

==

Qi( -- Q\

Q\

cOP = ----w- =

Q A

Q,,

Q

1\

!\

Q

A

Q

W

= the heat absorbed from the cold body or refrigeration produced

= the heat rojected to the surroundings
R = the work done or mechanical energy

consumed

COP = the coefficient of performance

The performance of a heat engine is expressed by its thermal efficiency. The performance of a refrigerating m ach in e is expressed by the ratio of useful result to work, called energy ratio or coefficient of performance (COPl.

The Carnot Cycle

p'

a

a c

c

y

l'li~ I·:l

T

'CJ~

d

s

('arnot Cyril'

Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle

;)

The Carnot power cycle consists of the following reversible processes:

process a-b: isothermal expansion, 1'" = T

process b-e:

process c-d: isothermal compression, T = T = T,

b = 1']

ri

isentropic expansion, SI> = S,

c

process d-a: isentropic compression, Sri = S,

where

Q A Q R =

=: 1'1 .s, - S)

1'2 (S,--S)

= 1'" .s, - Sa)

W

e

e

= Q

A

-

Q

R

= 1'\ (S" -

= (1'

1

T

S) -

) (S

:!'!,

=

W

(1'1 -

Q r

_ 1'] ~ T.

-

T

]

-

1

1'2 (SI> -

S )

,"I

S)

1',,) ISh -

(S- S )

'b

a

S)

Q A

=

the heat added by the hot body

Q R

= the heat rejected to the cold body

W

= the work done

e

= the thermal efficiency

1']

= the temperature of the Source of heat

T 2

= the temperature of the sink or receiver of heat

6 Refngeration and Air Conditioning

The Reversed Carnot Cycle

p

c

c a

a

v

T

d

T=:~r

s

F'i~. I ·1.

/{"v('r'sed Carnot Cycle

The reversed Carnot cvcl« follows the same processes as in the power producing Carnot cycle, but the cycle operates in the counterclockwise or reverse direction. The reversed Carnot cycle consists of the followi ng pn)('('ss('s:

process a-b: isentropic compression, Sa == Sh

process b-e: isothermal heat rejection, T h ::: T, ::: T 2

process c-d: isentropic expansion, Se = Sa

process d-a: isothermal heat absorption, T d == T, == T,

--

Q =Tj(Sa- S)
A

Q R

== T 2 rs, - S)

==T 2 (Sa - S a)

W

=

Q R -

Q A

= T 2(Sa -

Sri) -

T[

($a -

= (T 2 -

Til (Sa -

Sdl

So)

COP =

Q A

W

:::

TI(Sa-Sa)

T I) (Sa-

(T 2 -

Sa)

COP

T)

= T~ -

T[

Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle 7

where

Q A

Q R

=the heat absorbed from the cold body

::: the heat rejected to the hot body

W = work done

COP= the coefficient of performance

T[

= the refrigeration temperature

= the temperature of heat rejection surroundings

T 2

to

the

A refrigerating system operates on the reversed Carnot

cycle. The higher temperature of the refrigerant in the system

is 120°F and the lower is lOoF. The capacity is 20 tons. Neglect losses. Determine:

(1-1)

(a)

Coefficient of performance.

(b)

Heat rejected from the system in Btu/min.

(c)

Net work in Btu/min.

(d)

Horsepower,

SOLUTION

T

e ~R

dJ

470 0 R

b

,.

B

T'. = 10 + 460 = 470 0R

T,

QA::: 20 TR

= 120 + 460 ::: 580 0R

~ 1;,1'11"'1;1111111 .u u] .\11' (1III1iJll.lllIllg ( : I I CO!' " T T! -

~

1;,1'11"'1;1111111

.u u]

.\11' (1III1iJll.lllIllg

( :I

I

CO!' "

T

T! -

I

T

=

470

::i80 - 470

(b) COP=~

W

W

=

Q,\

COP

(:20) (200)

=

4,273

(c)

(d)

Q

R

W

W

= W

+ Q\ = 9:l6

+ 4000 ==

= 936 Btu/rn in.

=

936

42.4

= :2:208 hp

= 4.273

= 936 Btu/min.

4936 Btu/min,

the reversed

Carnot cycle. The minimum and maximum temperatures are minus 25 cC and plus 72 C. respectively. If the heat rejected at the condenser is 6000 k.l/rn in , draw the TS diagram and find,

(1-2)

A refrigNation system operates on

(a)

power input required. nnd

(b)

tons of refrigeration developed.

SOLUTION

T

:Cjb

a

s

T]

= -25

+ 273 = 248 K

T,~ =

72 + 273

=

345 K

Q

R

= 6000 kJ/min

.1)

, hi

Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle

COP

COP

(~~

W

{\

~A

T j

248

T 2

-

T.

345 -

248

= 2.557

A

Q

= W

Q

-~Q

-

R

-

_

-

(COP) (QR) 1 + COP

A

(2.557) (6000) 1 + 2.557

= 4313kJ/min.

=

Q R -

Q A = 6000 - 4313 = 1684 kJ/min.

4313

= --

211

= 20 . 44 TR

9

10 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning (1-3) The power requirement of a Carnot refrigerator in maintaining

10 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

(1-3) The power requirement of a Carnot refrigerator in maintaining a low temperature region at 238.9 K is 1.1 kW per ton. Find (a) COP, (b) Te;' and (c) the heat rejected.

~

'.

'1\

II

!

SOLUTION

T

CQb

·238.9K

d a

s

(a)

Q

A

~

1

T

R

or 3.52 kW

W =1.1kW

 

QA

3.52 kW

=3.2

COP

=

W

=

1.1 kW

(b)

(c)

Q

COP =

T[

T

-

T

2

j

3.2

T 2

-

238.9

T l-238.9

= 313.6K

n

= W + Q

A

= 1.1 + 3.52 :=

T[ = 238.9 K

W = 1.1 kW/TR

4.62 kJ/s

Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle

PROBLEMS

11

(1) A reversed Carnot cycle is used for refrigeration and

rejects 1,000 kW of heat at 340 K while receiving heat at 250 K.

Determine

refrigerating effect.

the

(a)

COP,

(b) the

power required,

and (c)

Ans. (a) 2.778,

(b) 264.7 kW

(c) 735.3 kW

,/ (2) A reversed Carnot cycle has a refrigerating COP of 4. (a) What is the ratio Tmax/Tmin? (b) If the work input is 6 kW, what will be the maximum refrigerating effect, kJ/min and tons.

Ans. (a) 1.25,

(b) 6.82 TR

'(3) A reversed Carnot engine removes 40,000 kW from a heat sink. The temperature of the heat sink is 260 K and the temperature of the heat reservoir is 320 K. Determine the power required of the engine.

Ans. 9230.7 kW

I

,

}

l

J

III

Chapter 2

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems

Refrigeration is that branch of science which deals with the process of reducing and maintaining the temperature of a space or material below the temperature of the surroundings. Refrigerant is the working substance in a refrigeration

system.

: 2 :=L ICondenser ~ • Expansion valve
:
2
:=L
ICondenser ~
Expansion
valve

Fig. 2-1. Vapor compression refrigeration system

ell

~

oj

::s

'"

'"

~I

refrigeration system ell ~ oj ::s '" '" ~I     2 1:1   .S '"
refrigeration system ell ~ oj ::s '" '" ~I     2 1:1   .S '"
   

2

1:1

 

.S

'"

;

Q,

6'J$'

 

l<

r.:l

Evaporation

6'J$'   l< r.:l Evaporation Enthalpy, kJlkg / :.:: e ::s e 8­ 8 ~I 4

Enthalpy, kJlkg

/

:.::

e

::s

e

8

~I

4
4

Entropy, kJtq

K

Fig

2-2.

The p-h and T-s diagrams of standard vapor compression cycle

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System

/

13

The pressure-enthalpy (ph) diagram and the temperature entropy (T's) diagram are the diagrams frequently used in refrigeration cycle analysis. Of the two, the ph diagram is the one most commonly used.

The process which comprise the standard vapor-compression cycle are:

1-2,

reversible and adiabatic compression from saturated

2-3,

vapor to the condenser pressure reversible rejection of heat at constant pressure

3-4,

de superheating and condensation irreversible expansion at constant enthalpy from

4-1,

saturated liquid to the evaporator pressure reversible addition of heat at constant pressure in evaporation to saturated vapor

Analysis of the Vapor Compression Cycle

1.

Compressor

·.~w-1Jw-~

w

=h2-h i

W =m(h2 - hI)

VI = mVI

w ::: work of compression, kJ/kg

h, ::: enthalpy entering the compressor, kJlkg h, ::: enthalpy leaving the compressor, kJlkg

m ::: mass flow rate, kg/s W ::: theoretical compressor power, kJ/s or kW

v l

:::

specific volume of vapor, m 3/kg or Llkg volume flow rate, m 3/s or Lis

VI:::

:2.

CondeI1i\er

CIc

".-{:

/' L ~n, rl

/Q

--=

c

q,

q, =h 2 -

h,

=. he at r'ejr-ct.ed , k.Jlkg

Q ::: mrh -h)

c

2

3

~m

, I J II 11 14 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning h, h, Q c =

,

I

J

II

11

14 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

h,

h,

Q c

= enthalpy entering the condenser, kJlkg

=enthalpy leaving the condenser, kJlkg

= total heat rejected, kJ/s

3. Expansion valve

hI

kJlkg = total heat rejected, kJ/s 3. Expansion valve hI ~ hg::14 4. h, h, =

~

hg::14

4.

h,

h,

= enthalpy enu-ring the expansion valve, kJlkg

= enthalpy leaving the expansion valve, kJlkg

Evaporator

/~

1kI~ 7'

m~

7

/,Q.

r--.

q e

q e

=h

= h

I

I

-

-

h

h

4

3

~hl

Q

Q

e

e

=mth, - h)

=

m

(h

I

-

h)

3

qe

= refrigerating effect, kJlkg

h,

= enthalpy entering the evaporator, kJlkg

hi

= enthalpy leaving the evaporator, kJlkg

Q e

= refrigerating capacity, k,J/s

:).

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System

15

Coefficient of Performance (COP)

The coefficient of performance is the ratio of the refrigerating «ffect to the work of compression.

COp=

h.

-

h,

= -o-h"":;'l_-

"h"':';':l

h, -

h.

h, -

h.

The power per kW of refrigeration is the inverse of the coefficient of performance, and an efficient refrigeration system has a low value of power per kW of refrigeration but a high coefficient of performance.

(.;.

Efficiency

,

Y

11

=

~

4

= D2LN

Y D

D = diameter of cylinder (bore)

L = length of stroke

N = number of cycles completed per unit time

N

= displacement rate of compressor

= (n ) (1) (number of cylinders) for single-acting .

double-acting

compressor

N = (n ) (2) (number of cylinders) for compressor

n = compressor speed

A single-acting compressor makes one complete cycle in one

rr-voluti on.

A double-acting compressor makes two complete cycles in

ll!l(' revolution. The actual volumetric efficiency

n,"" is defined as

n va

volume flow rate entering compressor displacement rate of compressor

n

VA.

Y

I

=-Y­

D

Ihsplacement rate is the volume swept through by the pistons

III t li.-i r suction strokes per unit time .

IIi j{efrir.;l'ration and Air Conditioning

The clearance volumetric efficiency n ve is given by

n ve = 1 + c-c

[ ~

Pz ]

Uk

= 1 + c-c

[V2]

~

c = per cent clearance

[V2

=1-c ~-1

]

V c =specific volume of vapor after isentropic compression to P,

k = 1304 for ammonia

~. ~
~.
~

50

compression to P, k = 1304 for ammonia ~. ~ 50 " t' l:I .~ <I
compression to P, k = 1304 for ammonia ~. ~ 50 " t' l:I .~ <I
compression to P, k = 1304 for ammonia ~. ~ 50 " t' l:I .~ <I

"

t'

l:I

.~

<I

t::

QI

<I

'1:

~

QI

S .tQ

='

:J)

Z)

10

0

2

3

5

6

1

Diacharge-to-suction pressure ratio

Fig. 2-3 Clearance and actual volumetric efficiency of a Refrigerant 22 high-speed compressor.

The adiabatic compression efficiency or simply compression efficiency nc is defined as:

isentropic work of compression

n

=

c actual work of compression

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System

The mechanical efficiency n

is given by
m

n

m

indicated work

brake work

_

-

WI

W

n

_

-

nIP

BHP

where

JHP

= indicated horsepower of the compressor

17

BHP == brake horsepower of the compressor

(2-1) A simple saturated refrigeration cycle for R-12 system operates at an evaporating temperature of -5°C and a condensing temperature of 40°C. Determine i a) the refrigerating effect per kg, (b) the work per kg, (c) the heat rejected at the condenser per kg, (d) the COP. For a refrigerating capacity of 1 kW, determine (e) the total heat rejected at the condenser, (f) the work, and (g) the volume flow rate.

SOLUTION

as

~

~

::l

tn

'"

III

Po.

~

961kPo

-~--17,'

/

40°C

!j
!j

~lkPa

(;11

. h (

h,

Enthalpy, kJlkg

= h, at 40°C = 238.5 kJlkg

h. == h , at -5°C = 349.3 kJ/kg

v ]

h ,

= v

= h

g at --5°C == 0.06496 m'/kg

at 961 kPa and S2 equal to s] == 372 kJlkg

j{t'f'rigerating effect == h

Wurk = h,~ hi = :~72 .- 349.:3 = 22.7 k.J/kg

- h, = 349.3 -- 238.5 = 110.8 k.Jlkg

~~.

II

i/

18 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

(d) COP =

hi h

2

hi

-

-h

I

=~

'2'2.7

= 4.88

For a refr igcr at ing capacity of 1 kW

(e)

III

Qe

h I -h ,

1 kJ/s

110.8 kJ/kg

= 0.00903 kg/s

Q, = (rn) (h

- h) = (0.00903 kg/s) (372 - 238.5) kJ/kg

(f)

W

(g) VI

= 1.206 k.I/»

= (m i t h.

= 0.20!i k.J/s

= (m ) (VI) = (0.00903 kg/s) (0.06496 mVkg)

= 0.000!i866 mVs

-

hi) = (0.00903

kg/s) (372 - 349.3) kJ/kg

(2-2) An air conditioning system of a high rise building has a capacity of :3!iO kW of refrigeration, uses R-12. The evaporating and condensing temperatures are O°C and 35°C, respectively. Determine the following: (a) Mass of flash gas per kg of refrigerant circulated, (b) Mass of R-12 circulated per

second, (c) Volumetric rate of flow under suction (d) Work of compression in kW, and (e) COP.

condition,

SOLUTION

III

~

t

~

~

P<

'f ­ k 7 2
'f
­ k
7
2

Enthalpy, kJlkg

It I = hi at 35""C = '233.5 kJ/kg

h,

= h,

at

() C = :1!i 1.48 kJ /kg

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigerat 11111 :

;1)

x

4

=

VI

= v g at O°C = 0.05539 mVkg

= h

h,

h f4

h g4 = h g at O°C = 351.48 kJ/kg

at 847.7 kPa and S2 equal to Sl = 368 k./lk:'

=

h f at O°C = 200 kJ/kg

h

-

4 h

h.,

lg4

h

h

h

-

4 f4

-

g4

h.,

2~33.5 - 200

351.48 - 200

= 0.2212

Mass of flash gas = 0.2212 kg/kg

350 kJ/s (351.48 - 233.5) kJ/kg

,(') VI = (m ) ('11) = (2.97 kg/s) (0.05539 mVkg ) = 0.1645 m"/:-\

'r/l W= (rn ) (h., - h.) = (2.97 kg/s) (368 - 351.48) kJ/kg = 49.06 kW

. il)

m=

Q.,

h. -

=

=

2.97 k

/s

g

h,

'I'!

COP- h-h

_

1

'j

h, -

h 1

351.48 - 233,5 368 - 351.48

= 7.14

(2-3) A refrigeration system using refrigerant 22 is to hav«

,I refrigerating capacity of 60 kW. The evaporating temperature

I"; ~-10°C and the condensing

';11 the volume flow rate of refrigerant at inlet to the compressor.

. 1>1 the power required by the compressor, and (c) the fraction of \ .ipor in the mixture at entrance to the evaporator expressed 11I11h on a mass basis and a volume basis.

temperature is 42°C. Determine.

<-;()LUTION

l6l0kPn ~ , , 1 42"C 354 kPa 4 1 L ' , \ --lOGC
l6l0kPn
~
,
,
1
42"C
354 kPa
4 1
L
'
,
\
--lOGC

Enthalpy, k.J1kg

h. = h, at 4'2"(' = '2!i'2.4 k.J/kg

--

zo

(a)

I{efrigeration and Air Conditioning

m==

h

I

Q e

_ h

h.

VI

h,

3

=h g at -10 oe =401.6 kJlkg

= v g at -lOoe = 65.34 Llkg

=h at 1610 Pa and 8 2 equal to SI = 440 kJlkg

_

60kJ/s

- (401.6 _ 252.4) kJlkg

= 0.4021 kg/s

VI

= (rn ) (VI) == (0.4021 kg/s) (65.34 L/Kg) = 26.27 Lis

(b) W== (rn) (h , - h.) == (0.4021 kg/s) (440 - 401.6) k.Jzkg

II

:/

(c)

== 15.44 kW

 

h, -- h.,

h l

-

h

f4

x 4 == -h--

==

h

-

h

 

f4

V

4

== V

f4

+

X

4V fg4

== V

l4

 

+

Xl

252.4 -' 188.4 == 0.3002

-

401.6 - 188.4

(V g4

-

V f4)

== 0.7588 + (0.3002) (6!"d4 -

0.7588) == 20.146 Llkg

For 1 kg of refrigerant entering the evaporator, point 4, the volume of vapor is, (0.3002 kg/kg) (6534 Lzkg) == 19.615 Llkg

F raction 0

.

f vanor.volume vapor, vo ume basi

aSIS == ---

20.146

19.615

0.9736 or 97.36%

(2-4) A simple vapor-compression cycle develops 13 tons of refrigeration. Using ammonia as refrigerant and operating at a condensing temperature of 24°e and evaporating temperature of -18 c e and assuming that the compression are isentropic and that the gas leaving the condenser is saturated, find the following:

(a) Draw the ph diagram, (b) refrigerating effect in kJ/kg,

(c) circulation rate of refrigerant in kg/min, (d) power requirement,

(e) volume flow in cubic meter/(min) (ton), in coefficient of

performance, and (g) power per ton.

~.

f

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System :21

;()LUTION

',J

I

974kPa - L .2 -~ /1 II ~oc . 208 kPa 4 1
974kPa
-
L
.2
-~
/1
II ~oc
.
208 kPa
4 1

all

~

~'I

~.

Enthalpy, kJ/kg

h, = h.at 24°e == 312.87 kJlkg

I'i

h. ==

v

h, = hat 974 kPa and S2 equal to 8 1 = 1657 kJlkg

I

h g

= v

g

at -18°e = 1439.94 kJlkg

at -18°e = 0.5729 m 3lkg

Rcfrigerat.ing effect == h j -

h, == 1439.94 - 312.87

== 1127.1 k,Jlkg

"I

(~, == 03

tons) (211 kJ/min. ton) = 2743 kJ/min

III

h ,

Q e

-

h

l

2743 kJ/min

0439.94-312.87) kJlkg

== 2.43 kg/min

,II

\\'

=

(rn ) (h , - h.) == (2.43 kg/min) (1657 - 1439.94) kJlkg

 

=

527.5 kJ/min or 8.79 kW

 

,

.

I

II

"I

\

.

1

==

(m ) (VI)

13

==

(2.43 kg/min) (0.5729 m

:

----::"------::-

13 tons

3lkg)

-"'­

= 0.1071 m: 3 / (min) (ton)

('01' _

_

h j

-

h

h,- h

,

1

4

1439.94 - 312.87 1657 -- 14:39.94

== 5.19

\\'

H 79

kW

1:1 t on s

= O.G7() k W/ton

­

22 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

(2-5) A refrigeration system is to be used to cool 45,000 kg of water from 29°C to 18°C in 5 hours. The refrigerant is ammonia and the operation conditions are 616 kPa evaporating pressure and 1737 kPa liquefaction pressure. Determine (a) the coefficient of performance, (b) the quantity of cooling water in the condenser for an increase in temperature of 7°C, (c) the compressor power, anel (d) the volume of flow rate entering the compressor. The specific heat of water is 4.187 k-I/kg e Co.

SOLUTION

~ I ~ 1 1
~
I
~
1
1

as

~".

'" ~

'"

.> 1737 kPa .l_616kP'
.>
1737 kPa
.l_616kP'

Enthalpy, kJ/kg

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System

23

Let m

V'

=

mass flow rate of cooling water circulated in the condenser

Heat to water = Heat from refrigerant

(m) (c) (~t) = (m ) (h , -

mV'=

h

3

)

(0.1085 kg/s) (1620 - 410.4) kJ/kg

(4.187 kJ/kg. CO) (7 CO)

(c)

= 4.48 kg/s

W = (rn ) (h

2

-

hi) = (0.1085 kg/s) (1620 - 1471.6) kJ/kg

= 16.10 kW

lei) V j = (m ) (VI) = (0.1085 kg/s) (205.2 L/kg) = 22.3 L/s

(2-6) An ammonia simple saturation cycle operates between evaporator and condenser temperatures of -20°C and :j5°C, respectively. The system is to be used in producing 5000 kg of ice at -12°C from water at 29°C in 20 hours. Assuming losses to be 20 per cent of the heat to be absorbed from the water, determine (a) the mass flow rate, (b) the heat rejected at the condenser, and (c) the power required by the compressor. The specific heat of ice is 2.094 k.Izkg s C'' and the heat of fusion is :335 kJ/kg.

h, = h, at 1737 kPa = 410.4 kJ/kg

g at 616 kPa = 1471.6 k-Izkg

hi

VI = ", at 616 kPa = 205.2 L/kg

h,

= h

= h

at 1737 kPa and S2 equal to Sl =

1620 kJ/kg

~OLUTION

(

\

COP =

 

hi -

h 2

= 1471.6 - 410.4

= 7 It::

a)

 

h

-

hi

1620 - 1471.6

 

o

   

2

.

(b)

Q

= (45,000 kg) (4.187 kJ/kgeCO) (29 - 18) Co

::: 115.1 kJ/s

 

c

(5 h) (3600 s/h)

 

Q

115.1 kJ/s

= 0.1085 kg/s

 

h-h

 

(1471.6 - 410.4) kJ/kg

 

,

.,

1352kPa , , 191 kPa 4' l -20°C
1352kPa
,
,
191 kPa
4'
l
-20°C

35°C

III

,

Enthalpy, kJlkg

.'

-! I

(a)

l{ef'rjgf~ratjoil and Ai r Conditioning

h, = h. at 3f)'C = 366.1 kJlkg

hI

h, = hat 1352 kPa and

=

h g at -20'C = 1437.2 kJlkg

S2 equal to 51 = 1735 kJlkg

Theoretical heat to be absorbed per kg of water

= (l kg) (4.187 kJ/kg -CO) 129- 0) Co -I- ( 1 kg) (335 kJlkg)

-I- (1 kg) (2.094 kJ/kg-CO) [0 - (-12)] Co = 481.6 kJ

Actual heat to be absorbed = (1.20) (481.6) = 577.9 kJ/kg

(500 kg) (5779 k.Jlkg)

Q e =

(20h)(3600s!h)

= 40.13 kJ/s

Q e

m h. -

h,

=

40.13 kJ/s (14:37.2 - :i66.1l kJlkg

= 0.03747 kg/s

(b)

(c)

Qc = (rn) (h

2

-

h ) = (0.0:i747 kg/s) (1735 - 366.1) kJlkg

3

= 51.29 k.J/5

W = (rn ) (h, - h) = (0.03747 kg/s) (1735 - 1437.2) kJlkg

= 11.16 kW

An ammonia refrigerating cycle operates at 247 kPa

suction pressure and 1200 kPa condenser pressure. Other data

are the following:

(2-7)

refrigerating capacity compressor clearance compression efficiency mechanical efficiency actu al vol u metri c efficiency

28 kW

5%

so«

75%

74'lr

Determine (a) the clearance volumetric efficiency, (b) the ideal and actual COP, (c) the mass flow rate of ammonia, and (d ) the brake work.

----

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System

,'-)()LUTION

·Cll I ~ ~. ~ J:
·Cll
I
~
~.
~
J:

Enthalphy, kJlkg

72

25

hi

= h, at 1200 kPa =- 346.1 kJ/kg

h.

= h, at 247 kPa = 1445.2 kJlkg

h,

= h at 1200 kPa and S2 equal to 5[ = 1675 kJlkg

la)

n

vc

=1-1-c-c [ - P 2

P J

]k 1

= 0.882 or 88.2o/r

I

= 1 -I- 0.05 - (0.05) [1200]-;-;;;;­

247

I bl

Actual work = isentropic work

n c

= 287.3 kJlkg

h 2

-

n c

h[

1675 - 1445.2

0.80

Ideal COP

h 2

h, -

-

hi

h]

= 1445.2 - 346.1 = 4.78 1675 - 1445.2

Actual COP

1[")

m=

h

Q e

_ h.

 

[

,J

h[

-

hI

actual work

28 kJ/s

1445.2 - 346.1 = 3.83

287.3

(1445.2 - 346.1) kJlkg = 0.02547 kg/5

lei)

Indicated work = (0.02547 kg/s) (287.3 kJlkg) = 7.:i18 kW

26 Refrigeration and All' Co ndit.iuning Brake work indicated work n m 7.318 = 9.76

26 Refrigeration and All' Condit.iuning

Brake work

indicated work

n

m

7.318 = 9.76 kW

0.75

(2-8) An ammonia simple saturation cycle operates at 247.1 kPa suction pressure and 1169 kPa condenser pressure. For a load of 161111 k.l/min, determine (a) the mVh of cooling water in the condenser if the water temperature is increased by 6 Co, (b) the compressor work, and (c) the piston displacement if clearance is 5'!r .

~

SOLUTION

al'

:?;l

rJ

;:l

'"

Ul

£

1169kPa l ,2 •• I 247.1 kPa
1169kPa
l
,2
••
I
247.1 kPa

------------:-::---- ~--

Enthalpy, kJlkg

h(

h ,

VI

h,

= h , at 30 GC =341.77 kJlkg

= h

at -14 GC

at -14°C = 0.4878 mJlkg

= 1445.2 kJlkg

=

=

v

h

g

g

at 1169 kPa and S2 equal to Sl =

1677 kJlkg

V = V at 1169 kPa

z

and S2 equal to

S1 = 0.15 m'lkg

(al m=

Q e

h , -

h ,

1688 kJ/min (1445.2 - 341.77) kJlkg

= 1.53 kg/min

(m)(hz-h,)

=

(1.53 kg/min) (1677 - 341.77) kJlkg

m (C) (L1t

w

) (4.187 kJlkg

CO) (6 CO)

'" K 1.:r2

kg/min

III

,(.)

V

w

W

n

vc

n vc

m w

-~

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System

27

(81.32 kg/min) (60 min/h) = 4.879 m:J/h

1000 k g/m"

=(m) (h, - h.) = (1.52 kg/min) (1677 - 1445.2) kJlkg

= 352.3 kJ/min or 5.87 kW

= 1 + c -

c [ -

P2 ]

Pj

=0.8854

= 1 -

c

[2 -1]

v

2

[

k = 1 + 0.05 -

(0.05)

[

[

-.-- 1169] 1 304

247.1

= 1 -

0.05 [0.4878

0.15

-1] = 0.8874

0.8854 is the more accurate value, since 0.15 m:Jlkg is just :111 approximation from the Mol lier diagram.

Assume n = n

V =

V

1

D n

va

vc

v a

(m) (V 1 )

n va

=

(1.53

kg/min) (0.4878 m1lkg)

0.8854

= 0.843 mvmin

(2-9) A six-cylinder, 6.70 x 5.70-cm, refrigerant 22 «ompreasor operating at 30 rls indicate a refrigerating capacity "f96.4 kW and a power requirement of19.4 kW at an evaporating t «mperature of 5°C and a condensing temperature of 35°C. ('ornpute (a) the clearance volumetric efficiency if the clearance volurne is 5 per cent, (b) the actual volumetric efficiency, and (c) t lu- compression efficiency.

:-;( )LUTION

1.: >2 # -----
1.:
>2
# -----

~

J

Enthalpy, kJlkg

,

1

I

~.

28 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

hi

h ,

VI

h,

v

2

= h

= h

= v g at 5'C = 40.36 Llkg

= h at 13!)5 kPa and 8 2 equal to SI = 428 kJlkg

= V at 1355

at 35"C = 243.1 kJlkg

at seC = 407.1 k.Izkg
g

kPa and S2 equal to SI = 20 Llkg

(a) n., = 1- C[2 --1]

v 2

=1- (0.05)[4?36]_1

20

(b )

m

=

hi

Q,

-

hi

=

= 0.9491 or 94.91 (Jc

96.4kJ/s

= 0.5878 kg/s 1407.1 - 243.1) kJlkg

VI = (m) (VI) = \0.5878 kg/s) (40.36 Llkg) = 23.72 Lis

V

=.2:

J)

4

D2 LN =

(IT) \6.70 cm)2 (5.70 cm) (30 x 6 cycles/s)

(4) (1000 cm3/Li

nva = +

[,

V

= :36.17 Lis

'13"'2

=_~

I-

36.17

= 0.6558 or 65.5800

(c) Actual work of compression =

1_9.4 kJ/s

0.rJ878 kg/s

= 33.00 kJlkg

Isentropic work of compression =

h 2 -

hI

= 428 -

= 20.9 kJlkg

407.1

Compression e

.

ffi

iciency, n

c

20.9

= -- 33.00

= 0.63.339'c or 63.330;'

(2-10) A 100 x 200-mm ammonia compressor with a compression efficiency of 80 per cent operates with a suction pressure of 291.6 kPa and a condenser pressure of 1204 kPa at 23 r/s. The refrigerant cools 102 kg/min of brine by 8 degrees in the brine cooler. The specific heat of the brine is 3.14 kJlkgeC". Electric input to the motor driving the compressor is 14.33 kW. Motor efficiency at this load is 92 per cent. Assuming 5 per cent of the useful refrigerating effect is lost by brine cooler from the room, determine the mechanical and volumetric efficiencies of thl' roru pressor.

SOLUTION

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System

29

- -- I >2 ~ ~ e =' l
-
--
I
>2
~
~ e
='
l

(ll'

111

\\.

l nd

=

Enthalpy, kJlkg

h 3

=

h, 1204 kPa = 346.6 kJlkg

h. = h, at 291.6 kPa = 1450.2 kJlkg

VI

h 2 = hat 1204 kPa and S2 equal to SI = 1653 kJlkg

= v g at 291.6

kPa = 417.5 Lis

(1.05) (rn.) (c.) (~tl) = (1.05) (102) (3.14) or 44.83 kW

(8) = 2690 kJ/min

 

=

44.83 k.]/s

= 0.0406 k

/s

h, -

h,

(1450.2 -

346.6) kJlkg

 

g

= (rn)

(h 2 -

h) = (0.0406) (1653

-

1450.2) = 8.23 kW

.

irn te

d

war

k

= -- 8.23

= -- 8.23

= 10.29 kW

 
 

n,

0.80

HI';"'I' work = output of motor = (14.33) (0.92) = 13.18 kW

\1, ' 1,.lllIcal efficiency = i~:~~ = 0.781 or 78.1%

11111 (VI) = (0.0406) (417.5) = 16.96 Lis

 

D

LN =

TC (10cm)2 (20 cm) (23 cycles/s)

= 21

68 L/s

I

!

(4) (1000 crnVl.)

.

30

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System 31

,

I

I

n va

=

VI

V D

16.95

= 0.7818 or 78.18%

21.68

(2-11) A four-cylinder refrigerant 12 compressor operates between evaporator and condenser temperatures of 4°C and 43°C. It is to carry a load of 20 tons ofrefrigeration at 1200 rpm. If the average piston speed is 213 m/min and the actual volumetric efficiency is 80 per cent, what should be the bore and stroke of the compressor.

SOLUTION

'/ ---- - k 2 7 ~ ~ ~ £
'/
----
-
k
2
7
~
~
~
£

Enthalpy, kJlkg

h,

= h, at 43°C = 241.6 kJ/kg

h.

= h

at 4°C

= 353.18 kJ/kg

VI

= v

g

g

at

4°C = 0.04895 m Vkg

h,

= h at 1034 kPa and S2 equal to SI = 372 kJ/kg

Q e

m h, -

h 4

(20 tons) (211 kJ/min • ton) = 37.82 kg/min

(353.18 - 241.6) kJ/kg

VI = (rn) (VI) = (37.82 kg/min) (0.04895 m

3/kg)

= 1.851 m

3/min

V D = ~lva = 10~8501= 2.314 m

3/min

or 2.314 x 10 6 em

3/min

I'iston speed = 2L (rpm)

L =

V D =

(213 m/min) (100 em/m)

(2) (1200) rev/min

D2LN

~

= 8.875 em

2.314

X

10 6

4

=

~ CD ern)" (8.875 em) (1200 x 4 cycles/min)

D = 8:315 em

  Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration Syst"111 Ti :1) Refrigerating effect     For
 

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration Syst"111

Ti

:1) Refrigerating effect

 
 

For

the

--10 oe evaporating cycle, the refrigerating effect

 
 

=hI - h 4 = 347.1 - 238.5 =

108.6 kJlkg

 

For the 5°C evaporating cycle, the refrigerating effect

 

=h

- h 4 , =353.6 - 238.5 =115.1 kJlkg

I,) Effect on mass flow rate per ton

 
 

For the

-10 ce evaporating cycle, the mass

flow rate,

 

m e

211

 

211

 

h I -h 4

 

347.1

_ 238.5

= 1.943 kg/(min) (ton)

 
 

For the 5°C evaporating cycle, the mass flow rate,

 

211

 

211

 

m'=

h., -

h

4'

353.6

_ 238.5

1.833 kg/(min) (ton)

 

I

Effect on compressor volume capacity

 

For the -10 oe evaporating cycle, the volume flow rate,

 
 

VI =(rn) (v 1) =(1.943) (0.07665) =0.1489 m 3/(min) (ton)

 

For the 5°e evaporating cycle, the volume flow rate,

 
 

VI' =(rn') (vIJ = 0.833) (0.04749) = 0.087 m 3/(min) (ton)

,I, Effect on cor

 

F"r the -10 oe evaporating cycle,

 
 

eop

hI

-

h 4

_

347.1 - 238.5

-'----- =: 4.19

 

h

 

h,

­

373 - 347.1

 

2

-

Ftlr the 5°e evaporating cycle,

 

eop

hI'

-

h 4 ·

=

= 6.61

 

h ,

-

h

353.6 - 238.5 371 - 353.6

32 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

Effects of Operating Conditions

Effects of Increasing the Vaporizing Temperature

(2 -12) A R-12 simple saturated refrigerating cycle operates

at an evaporating temperature of -10 oe

temperature of 40'e. Show the effects of increasing the vaporizing temperature to 5':e.

and a condensing

SOLUTION

 

III

 
k 772
k 772
 
 
 

t

l

J

 

Enthalpy, kJfkg

 

h, =h. = h 4 = h. at 40 ce =

238.5 kJlkg

 

For

the -10 ce evaporating cycle (cycle

1-2-3-4-1)

 

VI

=

v

at -lOGe = 0.07665 m 3/kg

 
 

g

 

h.

= h

g

at -lOGe =347.1 kJ/kg

 

h,

= h

at 961 kPa and S2 equal to Sl

= 373 kJ/kg

 

For the 5°e evaporating cycle (cycle I.' -2' -3'-4'-1')

 

"r

= vg at 5°e = 0.04749 ms/kg

 

h.

= hg at 5°e = 353.6 kJ/kg

h ,

= h at 961 kPa and S2 equal to SI = 371 kJlkg

 

34

(e)

I

r

,

(f)

I

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

Effect on work per ton of refrigeration

For the -10°C evaporating cycle, the work,

W

= (m) (h 2-h l ) = (1.943) (373-347.1)

= 50.32 kJ/(min) (ton) or 0.839 kW/ton

For the

5°C evaporating cycle, the work,

W' = (rn) (h 2 ,-

h.) = (1.833) (371 - 353.6)

= 31.89 kJ/(min) (ton) or 0.532 kW/ton

Effect on condenser performance

For the -10°C evaporating cycle, the heat rejected at the condenser,

Qc = (rn) (h, - h) = (1.943) (373 - 238.5)

= 261.3 kJ/(min) (ton) or 4.355 kW/ton

For the 5°C evaporating cycle, the heat rejected at the condenser,

Q'c == (m') (h

2

,

-

h) = (1.833) (371- 238.5)

= 242.9 kJ/(min) (ton) or 4.05 kW/ton

Effects of increasing the vaporizing temperature (1) The refrigerating effect per unit mass increases.

(2) The mass flow rate per ton decreases.

(3) The volume flow rate per ton decreases.

(4) The COP increases.

(5) The work per ton decreases.

(6) The heat rejected at the condenser per ton decreases.

~

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System :l5

Effects of Increasing the Condensing Temperature

(2-13)

A simple saturated refrigerating cycle using R-12

as the refrigerant, operates at a condensing temperature of 40 nC and an evaporating temperature of -lOOC. Show the effects of increasing the condensing temperature to 50°C.

SOLUTION

1219 kPa \. 2 961kPa . ,U 219 kPa "
1219 kPa
\.
2
961kPa
. ,U
219 kPa
"

~ e

::l

:l

tt.

Enthalpy, kJlkg

h,

=

h g at -lOoC =

347.1 kJlkg

VI

==

V g at -10°C == 0.07665 m vkg

For the 40°C condensing cycle (cycle 1-2-3-4-1)

h, = h 4 == he at 40°C

h,

= 238.5 kJlkg

==

h

at 961 kPa and S2 equal to SI = 373 kJlkg

For the 50°C condensing cycle (cycle 1-2'-3'-4'-1)

,)

h; == h 4 · = he at

h,

50°C = 248.9 kJlkg

==

h