C"?
'E
^{}^{} _{1}_{&}_{1}
:e;
^{c}^{:}^{:} ^{o}
.l
REFRI
DATION
AIR CON ~N IONING
3rdEdition
Hipolito B. Sta. Maria
{(dimu;i
Book Store
QUAD ALPHA CENTRUM BLDG.
125 Pioneer s
Mandaluyong City
)
1
,
(
_{I}
"".
!'//!I!ishcd b»
r(dimtd
Book Store
PHILIPPINE COPYRIGHT, /I.)X9, 2001 bv
Hipolito B. si« Mario
Third Editioll, 2001
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be
reproduced in anvjorm or by
an\' meall.\', except brief quotations
{or II review. without permission in writing [rom the Author.
Printed II\' Kaluvaun /'/(\\ .'Ilktg. Ell!
1.)6 Kalavaan St.,
Q//I':OI/ ( '1/ v
l iilnnau
II/C.
ISBN 971086/727
Contents 

Preface 
VB 
Chapter 
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle,
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems
Actual Vapor Compression Cycle
Multipressure Systems
Cascade Systems
^{A}^{i}^{r}^{}^{C}^{y}^{c}^{l}^{e} ^{R}^{e}^{f}^{r}^{i}^{g}^{e}^{r}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}
SteamJet Refrigeration
Air Conditioning
,.
9
Cooling Tower
10 Drying
'" '"
11 Product Load
. 
_{1} 

_{1}_{2} 

. 
_{5}_{7} 

. 
_{7}_{8} 

. 
_{9}_{0} 

_{9}_{8} 

. 
_{1}_{0}_{7} 

. 
_{1}_{1}_{3} 

154 

'" 
'" 
166 

181 

)
1
,
~
Preface
This book has a twofold purpose: to serve primarily as a college text and as a reference material for the practicing engineer.
The author attempts to present refrigeration and air conditioning in the simplest possible way without sacrificing quality. Principles and concepts are discussed thoroughly using mostly basic thermodynamics, followed by illustrative problems arranged in the order of increasing difficulty. Additional exercises are also provided at the end of each chapter to further enhance the learning process. Answers are given to all the problems so that the student himself can check the accuracy of his solutions. For the student to get the most from this book, he should solve all the problems at the end of each chapter conscientiously. This is the best way to study and learn any technical subject.
The Author

)
1
l
Chapter 1
Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle
SI units
SI or the International System of Units is the purest form and an extension and refinement of the traditional metric system.
Unit of Force
The unit of force in the SI system is the newton, denoted by the symbol N.
1
kg _{f}
= 9.8066 N
1 lb _{f} 
= 4.4484 N 
1 lb, 
= 0.4536 kgf 
Unit of Pressure
The SI unit of pressure is the pascal and is denoted by the symbol Pa.
1 Pa
1
1
1 atm =.101.325 kPa
1 Nzm" = 100 kPa = 6895 Pa
=
bar
psi
= 1.033 kg/em"
= 14.696 lb zin"
2 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Unit of Energy and Work
The SI unit of work is the newton meter denoted by Nm or joule denoted by J.
1 
Nm 
= 1 J 

1 
cal 
=4.187 J 

1 
Btu 
= 252 cal 

= 
1055 J 
Unit of Power
The SI uni t of power is the watt, denoted by the symbol W. It is defined as tho rate of doing 1 Nm of work per second.
= 1 ,Us = 0.746 kW
= 4~.4 Btu/min
1
W
1 hp
Unit of Refrigerating Capacity
The standard unit of refrigeration is ton of refrigeration or simply ton denoted by the symbol TR.
One ton of refrigeration is the rate of cooling required to freeze one ton of water at 32°F into ice at 32°F in one day.
In English units 

1 
TR = (2000 lb) (144 Btu/lb) 

24 
h 

1 
TR = 12,000 Btu/h = 200 Btu/min 
In Metric units 

1 TR = (12,000 Btulh) (252 callBtu) 

1 TR = 3024 kcallh =. 50.4 kcallmin 

In Sl units 
~
1 Tl{ = (200 Btu/rnin.) (1055 J/Btu)
I
TH
= ~11 k.L'min = 3.52 kW
Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle 3
Heat Engine and Refrigerating Machine
A system operating in a cycle and producing a net quantity of work from a supply of heat is called a heat engine and is represented as shown in Fig. 11.
~
@+W
Hot reservoir (source of heat)
where
~
1~
Fig. 11.
W
=.
e =
Cold reservoir (receiver of heat)
Representation of a heat engine
Q
A

W
^{Q} A
Q
_
R
^{Q}
A
^{}
^{Q} R
^{Q} _{A}
Q _{A} =the
heat supplied
Q _{R}
W
e
= the
=the net work = the thermal efficiency
heat rejected
A refrigerating machine will either cool or maintain a body at a temperature below that of its surroundings. A refrigerating machine may be represented by the diagram shown in Fig. 12.
at
temperature T 1 and rejects heat Q to the surroundings at temperature T _{2} and, during the process, requires work W to be done on the system.
The machine R absorbs heat Q _{A} from the cold body
R
^{)}
1 _{,}
4 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
^{T} 2
~
surroundings
cold
body
Fig. 12.
\{l"prl"~entationof a refrigerating machine
where
W
==
Qi(  Q\
Q\
cOP = w =
Q _{A}
Q,,
Q
1\
!\
Q
^{A}
Q
W
= the heat absorbed from the cold body or refrigeration produced
= the heat rojected to the surroundings
R = the work done or mechanical energy
consumed
COP = the coefficient of performance
The performance of a heat engine is expressed by its thermal efficiency. The performance of a refrigerating m ach in e is expressed by the ratio of useful result to work, called energy ratio or coefficient of performance (COPl.
The Carnot Cycle
p'
a
c
y
l'li~ I·:l
_{T}
'CJ~
d
s
('arnot Cyril'
Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle
;)
The Carnot power cycle consists of the following reversible processes:
process ab: isothermal expansion, 1'" = T
process be:
process cd: isothermal compression, T = T = T,
b = 1']
ri
isentropic expansion, SI> = S,
c
process da: isentropic compression, Sri = S,
^{w}^{h}^{e}^{r}^{e}
Q _{A} Q _{R} =
=: 1'1 .s,  S)
1'2 (S,S)
= 1'" .s,  Sa)
W
e
^{e}
= Q
A

Q
R
= 1'\ (S" 
= (1'
1
T
S) 
) (S
:!'!,
=
W
(1'1 
_{Q} r
_ 1'] ~ T.

T
]

1
1'2 (SI> 
S )
,"I
S)
1',,) ISh 
(S S )
'b
a
S)
Q _{A}
=
the heat added by the hot body
Q _{R} 
= the heat rejected to the cold body 
W 
= the work done 
e 
= the thermal efficiency 
1'] 
= the temperature of the Source of heat 
T 2 
= the temperature of the sink or receiver of heat 
6 Refngeration and Air Conditioning
The Reversed Carnot Cycle
p
c
a
v
T
d
T=:~r
s
_{F}_{'}_{i}_{~}_{.} _{I} _{·}_{1}_{.}
/{"v('r'sed Carnot Cycle
The reversed Carnot cvcl« follows the same processes as in the power producing Carnot cycle, but the cycle operates in the counterclockwise or reverse direction. The reversed Carnot cycle consists of the followi ng pn)('('ss('s:
process ab: isentropic compression, Sa == Sh
process be: isothermal heat rejection, T _{h} _{:}_{:}_{:} T, ::: T _{2}
process cd: isentropic expansion, Se = Sa
process da: isothermal heat absorption, T _{d} == T, == T,

Q =Tj(Sa S)
A
Q _{R}
== T _{2} rs,  S)
==T _{2} (Sa  S a)
W
=
Q _{R} 
Q _{A}
= T _{2}_{(}_{S}_{a} 
Sri) 
T[
($a 
= (T _{2} 
Til (Sa 
Sdl
So)
COP =
Q _{A}
W
:::
TI(SaSa)
T I) (Sa
(T 2 
Sa)
^{C}^{O}^{P}
T)
^{=} T~ 
T[
Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle 7
where
Q _{A}
Q _{R}
=the heat absorbed from the cold body
::: the heat rejected to the hot body
W = work done
COP= the coefficient of performance
T[
= the refrigeration temperature
= the temperature of heat rejection surroundings
T _{2}
to
the
A refrigerating system operates on the reversed Carnot
cycle. The higher temperature of the refrigerant in the system
is 120°F and the lower is lOoF. The capacity is 20 tons. Neglect losses. Determine:
(11)
(a) 
Coefficient of performance. 
(b) 
Heat rejected from the system in Btu/min. 
(c) 
Net work in Btu/min. 
(d) 
Horsepower, 
SOLUTION
T
^{e} ~R
dJ
470 ^{0} R
^{b}
,.
B
T'. = 10 + 460 = 470 ^{0}^{R}
T,
QA::: 20 TR
= 120 + 460 ::: 580 ^{0}^{R}
~
1;,1'11"'1;1111111
.u u]
.\11' (1III1iJll.lllIllg
_{(} _{:}_{I}
_{I}
CO!' "
T
T! 
I
T
_{=}
470
::i80  470
(b) COP=~
W
W
=
Q,\
COP
(:20) (200)
=
4,273
(c)
_{(}_{d}_{)}
Q
R
_{W}
_{W}
= W
+ Q\ = 9:l6
+ 4000 ==
= 936 Btu/rn in.
=
936
42.4
= :2:208 hp
= 4.273
= 936 Btu/min.
4936 Btu/min,
the reversed
Carnot cycle. The minimum and maximum temperatures are minus 25 ^{c}^{C} and plus 72 C. respectively. If the heat rejected at the condenser is 6000 k.l/rn in , draw the TS diagram and find,
(12)
A refrigNation system operates on
(a) 
power input required. nnd 
(b) 
tons of refrigeration developed. 
SOLUTION
T
:Cjb
a
s
T]
= 25
+ 273 = 248 K
T,~ =
72 + 273
=
345 K
Q
R
= 6000 kJ/min
.1)
, hi
Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle
COP
COP
(~~
W
{\
~A
^{T} j
248
T _{2}

T.
345 
248
= 2.557
A
Q
= W
Q
~Q

R

^{_}

^{(}^{C}^{O}^{P}^{)} ^{(}^{Q}^{R}^{)} 1 + COP
A
(2.557) (6000) 1 + 2.557
= 4313kJ/min.
=
Q _{R} 
Q _{A} = 6000  4313 = 1684 kJ/min.
4313
= 
211
= 20 . 44 TR
9
10 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
(13) The power requirement of a Carnot refrigerator in maintaining a low temperature region at 238.9 K is 1.1 kW per ton. Find (a) COP, (b) Te;' and (c) the heat rejected.
~
'.
'1\
II
!
SOLUTION
T
CQb
·238.9K
d a
s
(a)
Q
A
~
1
T
R
or 3.52 kW
W =1.1kW
QA 
3.52 kW 
=3.2 

COP 
= 
W 
= 
1.1 kW 
^{(}^{b}^{)}
(c)
Q
COP =
T[
T

T
2
j
3.2
T _{2}
^{}
238.9
^{T} l238.9
= 313.6K
n
= W + Q
A
= 1.1 + 3.52 :=
T[ = 238.9 K
W = 1.1 kW/TR
4.62 kJ/s
Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle
PROBLEMS
11
(1) A reversed Carnot cycle is used for refrigeration and
rejects 1,000 kW of heat at 340 K while receiving heat at 250 K.
Determine
refrigerating effect.
the
(a)
COP,
(b) the
power required,
and (c)
Ans. (a) 2.778,
(b) 264.7 kW
(c) 735.3 kW
,/ (2) A reversed Carnot cycle has a refrigerating COP of 4. (a) What is the ratio Tmax/Tmin? (b) If the work input is 6 kW, what will be the maximum refrigerating effect, kJ/min and tons.
Ans. (a) 1.25,
(b) 6.82 TR
'(3) A reversed Carnot engine removes 40,000 kW from a heat sink. The temperature of the heat sink is 260 K and the temperature of the heat reservoir is 320 K. Determine the power required of the engine.
Ans. 9230.7 kW
I
,
}
l
J
III
Chapter 2
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems
Refrigeration is that branch of science which deals with the process of reducing and maintaining the temperature of a space or material below the temperature of the surroundings. Refrigerant is the working substance in a refrigeration
system.
Fig. 21. Vapor compression refrigeration system
ell
~
oj
::s
'"
'"
~I
2 

1:1 

.S 

'" 

; 

Q, 
6'J$' 

l< 

r.:l 
Evaporation 
Enthalpy, kJlkg
/
:.::
^{e}
::s
e
8
8
~I
Entropy, kJtq
K
Fig
22.
The ph and Ts diagrams of standard vapor _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{c}_{y}_{c}_{l}_{e}
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System
/
13
The pressureenthalpy (ph) diagram and the temperature entropy (T's) diagram are the diagrams frequently used in refrigeration cycle analysis. Of the two, the ph diagram is the one most commonly used.
The process which comprise the standard vaporcompression cycle are:
12, 
reversible and adiabatic compression from saturated 
23, 
vapor to the condenser pressure reversible rejection of heat at constant pressure 
34, 
de superheating and condensation irreversible expansion at constant enthalpy from 
41, 
saturated liquid to the evaporator pressure reversible addition of heat at constant pressure in evaporation to saturated vapor 
Analysis of the Vapor Compression Cycle
1.
Compressor
·.~w1Jw~
w
=h2h _{i}
W =m(h2  hI)
VI = mVI
w ::: work of compression, kJ/kg
h, ::: enthalpy entering the compressor, kJlkg h, ::: enthalpy leaving the compressor, kJlkg
m ::: mass flow rate, kg/s W ::: theoretical compressor power, kJ/s or kW
v l
:::
specific volume of vapor, m 3/kg or Llkg volume flow rate, m 3/s or Lis
VI:::
:2.
CondeI1i\er
CIc
".{:
/' L ~n, _{r}_{l}
/Q
_{}_{}_{=}
c
q,
q, =h _{2} _{}
h,
=. he at r'ejrct.ed , k.Jlkg
Q ::: mrh h)
c
2
3
_{~}_{m}
,
I
J
II
11
14 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
h,
h,
^{Q} c
= enthalpy entering the condenser, kJlkg
=enthalpy leaving the condenser, kJlkg
= total heat rejected, kJ/s
3. Expansion valve
hI
~
hg::14
4.
h,
h,
= enthalpy enuring the expansion valve, kJlkg
= enthalpy leaving the expansion valve, kJlkg
Evaporator
/~
1kI~ 7'
m~
7
/,Q.
r.
^{q} e
^{q} e
=h
= h
I
I


h
h
4
3
~hl
^{Q}
^{Q}
e
e
=mth,  h)
=
m
(h
I

h)
3
qe 
= refrigerating effect, kJlkg 
h, 
= enthalpy entering the evaporator, kJlkg 
hi 
= enthalpy leaving the evaporator, kJlkg 
^{Q} e 
= refrigerating capacity, k,J/s 
:).
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System
15
Coefficient of Performance (COP)
The coefficient of performance is the ratio of the refrigerating «ffect to the work of compression.
COp= 
h. 
 
h, 
= oh"":;'l_ 
"h"':';':l 
h,  
h. 
h,  
h. 
The power per kW of refrigeration is the inverse of the coefficient of performance, and an efficient refrigeration system has a low value of power per kW of refrigeration but a high coefficient of performance.
(.;.
Efficiency
,
Y
11
=
~
4
= D2LN
Y D
D = diameter of cylinder (bore)
L = length of stroke
N = number of cycles completed per unit time
N
= displacement rate of compressor
= (n ) (1) (number of cylinders) for singleacting .
doubleacting
compressor
N = (n ) (2) (number of cylinders) for compressor
n = compressor speed
A singleacting compressor makes one complete cycle in one
rrvoluti on.
A doubleacting compressor makes two complete cycles in
ll!l(' revolution. The actual volumetric efficiency
n,"" is defined as
^{n} ^{v}^{a}
volume flow rate entering compressor displacement rate of compressor
n
VA.
Y
I
=Y
D
Ihsplacement rate is the volume swept through by the pistons
III t li.i r suction strokes per unit time .
IIi j{efrir.;l'ration and Air Conditioning
The clearance volumetric efficiency n _{v}_{e} is given by
n _{v}_{e} = 1 + cc
_{[} ~
Pz ]
^{U}^{k}
= 1 + cc
[V2]
~
c = per cent clearance
[V2
=1c ~1
]
V c =specific volume of vapor after isentropic compression to P,
k = 1304 for ammonia
50
"
t'
l:I
.~
<I
t::
^{Q}^{I}
<I
'1:
_{~}
QI
S .tQ
='
:J)
Z)
10
0
2
3
5
6
1
Diachargetosuction pressure ratio
Fig. 23 Clearance and actual volumetric efficiency of a Refrigerant 22 highspeed compressor.
The adiabatic compression efficiency or simply compression efficiency nc is defined as:
isentropic work of compression
n
=
^{c} actual work of compression
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System
The mechanical efficiency n
is given by
m
n
m
indicated work
brake work
_{_}

_{W}_{I}
W
n
_{_}

_{n}_{I}_{P}
BHP
where
JHP
= indicated horsepower of the compressor
17
BHP == brake horsepower of the compressor
(21) A simple saturated refrigeration cycle for R12 system operates at an evaporating temperature of 5°C and a condensing temperature of 40°C. Determine i a) the refrigerating effect per kg, (b) the work per kg, (c) the heat rejected at the condenser per kg, (d) the COP. For a refrigerating capacity of 1 kW, determine (e) the total heat rejected at the condenser, (f) the work, and (g) the volume flow rate.
SOLUTION
as
_{~}
~
::l
tn
'"
III
Po.
~
961kPo
~17,'
/
40°C
~lkPa
(;11
. h (
h,
Enthalpy, kJlkg
= h, at 40°C = 238.5 kJlkg
h. == h , at 5°C = 349.3 kJ/kg
^{v} ]
h ,
= v
= h
g at 5°C == 0.06496 m'/kg
at 961 kPa and S2 equal to s] == 372 kJlkg
j{t'f'rigerating effect == h
Wurk = h,~ hi = :~72 . 349.:3 = 22.7 k.J/kg
 h, = 349.3  238.5 = 110.8 k.Jlkg
1('(
l l.n t rrjrrt cd = he'  h, == :372  238.5 = 1:~;~.5 k,Jlkg
~~.
II
i/
18 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
(d) COP =
hi h
2
hi

h
I
=~
'2'2.7
= 4.88
For a refr igcr at ing capacity of 1 kW
(e)
III
_{Q}_{e}
h _{I} h _{,}
1 kJ/s
110.8 kJ/kg
= 0.00903 kg/s
_{Q}_{,} = (rn) (h
 h) = (0.00903 kg/s) (372  238.5) kJ/kg
_{(}_{f}_{)}
_{W}
(g) _{V}_{I}
= 1.206 k.I/»
= (m i t h.
= 0.20!i k.J/s
= (m ) (VI) = (0.00903 kg/s) (0.06496 mVkg)
= 0.000!i866 mVs

hi) = (0.00903
kg/s) (372  349.3) kJ/kg
(22) An air conditioning system of a high rise building has a capacity of :3!iO kW of refrigeration, uses R12. The evaporating and condensing temperatures are O°C and 35°C, respectively. Determine the following: (a) Mass of flash gas per kg of refrigerant circulated, (b) Mass of R12 circulated per
second, (c) Volumetric rate of flow under suction (d) Work of compression in kW, and (e) COP.
condition,
SOLUTION
III
^{~}
t
~
~
P<
Enthalpy, kJlkg
It I = hi at 35""C = '233.5 kJ/kg
h,
= h,
at
() C = :1!i 1.48 kJ /kg
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigerat 11111 :
;1)
x
4
=
VI
= v _{g} at O°C = 0.05539 mVkg
= h
h,
h _{f}_{4}
h _{g}_{4} = h _{g} at O°C = 351.48 kJ/kg
at 847.7 kPa and S2 equal to Sl = 368 k./lk:'
=
h _{f} at O°C = 200 kJ/kg
h

4 h
h.,
_{l}_{g}_{4}
_{h}
h
_{h}
_{}
4 f4

g4
h.,
2~33.5  200
351.48  200
= 0.2212
Mass of flash gas = 0.2212 kg/kg
350 kJ/s (351.48  233.5) kJ/kg
,(') VI = (m ) ('11) = (2.97 kg/s) (0.05539 mVkg ) = 0.1645 m"/:\
'r/l W= (rn ) (h.,  h.) = (2.97 kg/s) (368  351.48) kJ/kg = 49.06 kW
. il)
m=
Q.,
h. 
=
=
2.97 k
/s
g
h,
'I'!
COP hh
_
1
'j
h, _{•} 
h _{1}
351.48  233,5 368  351.48
= 7.14
(23) A refrigeration system using refrigerant 22 is to hav«
,I refrigerating capacity of 60 kW. The evaporating temperature
I"; ~10°C and the condensing
';11 the volume flow rate of refrigerant at inlet to the compressor.
. 1>1 the power required by the compressor, and (c) the fraction of \ .ipor in the mixture at entrance to the evaporator expressed 11I11h on a mass basis and a volume basis.
temperature is 42°C. Determine.
<;()LUTION
Enthalpy, k.J1kg
h. = h, at 4'2"(' = '2!i'2.4 k.J/kg

zo
(a)
I{efrigeration and Air Conditioning
m==
h
I
Q _{e}
_ h
h.
VI
h,
3
=h _{g} at 10 ^{o}^{e} =401.6 kJlkg
= v _{g} at lOoe = 65.34 Llkg
=h at 1610 Pa and 8 _{2} equal to SI = 440 kJlkg
_
60kJ/s
 (401.6 _ 252.4) kJlkg
= 0.4021 kg/s
VI
= (rn ) (VI) == (0.4021 kg/s) (65.34 L/Kg) = 26.27 Lis
(b) W== (rn) (h ,  h.) == (0.4021 kg/s) (440  401.6) k.Jzkg
II
:/
(c)
== 15.44 kW
h,  h., 
h l 
 
h 
f4 

x 4 == h 
== 
h 
 
h 

f4 

V 
4 == V f4 + X 4V fg4 
== V l4 
+ 
Xl 
252.4 ' 188.4 == 0.3002

401.6  188.4
^{(}^{V} _{g}_{4}
^{}
^{V} f4)
== 0.7588 + (0.3002) (6!"d4 
0.7588) == 20.146 Llkg
For 1 kg of refrigerant entering the evaporator, point 4, the volume of vapor is, (0.3002 kg/kg) (6534 Lzkg) == 19.615 Llkg
_{F} raction 0
.
f vanor.volume vapor, vo ume basi
_{a}_{S}_{I}_{S} _{=}_{=} _{}_{}_{}
20.146
19.615
0.9736 or 97.36%
(24) A simple vaporcompression cycle develops 13 tons of refrigeration. Using ammonia as refrigerant and operating at a condensing temperature of 24°e and evaporating temperature of 18 ^{c} e and assuming that the compression are isentropic and that the gas leaving the condenser is saturated, find the following:
(a) Draw the ph diagram, (b) refrigerating effect in kJ/kg,
(c) circulation rate of refrigerant in kg/min, (d) power requirement,
(e) volume flow in cubic meter/(min) (ton), in coefficient of
performance, and (g) power per ton.
~.
f
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System :21
;()LUTION
',J
I
all
~
~'I
~.
Enthalpy, kJ/kg
h, = h.at 24°e == 312.87 kJlkg
I'i
h. ==
v
h, = hat 974 kPa and S2 equal to 8 _{1} = 1657 kJlkg
I
h _{g}
= v
g
at 18°e = 1439.94 kJlkg
at 18°e = 0.5729 m ^{3}^{l}^{k}^{g}
•
Rcfrigerat.ing effect == h _{j} _{}
h, == 1439.94  312.87
== 1127.1 k,Jlkg
"I 
(~, == 03 
tons) (211 kJ/min. ton) = 2743 kJ/min 

^{I}^{I}^{I} 
h , 
^{Q} e  
h 
l 
2743 kJ/min 0439.94312.87) kJlkg 
== 2.43 kg/min 

,II 
\\' 
= 
(rn ) (h ,  h.) == (2.43 kg/min) (1657  1439.94) kJlkg 

= 
527.5 kJ/min or 8.79 kW 
,
.
I
II
"I
\
.
1
==
(m ) (VI)
13
==
(2.43 kg/min) (0.5729 m
:
::"::
13 tons
3lkg)
"'
= 0.1071 m: ^{3} _{/} (min) (ton)
('01' _
_
h j

h
h, h
,
1
4
1439.94  312.87 1657  14:39.94
== 5.19
\\'
H 79
kW
1:1 t on s
= O.G7() k W/ton
22 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
(25) A refrigeration system is to be used to cool 45,000 kg of water from 29°C to 18°C in 5 hours. The refrigerant is ammonia and the operation conditions are 616 kPa evaporating pressure and 1737 kPa liquefaction pressure. Determine (a) the coefficient of performance, (b) the quantity of cooling water in the condenser for an increase in temperature of 7°C, (c) the compressor power, anel (d) the volume of flow rate entering the compressor. The specific heat of water is 4.187 kI/kg e Co.
SOLUTION
as
~".
'" ^{~}
'"
Enthalpy, kJ/kg
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System
23
Let m
V'
=
mass flow rate of cooling water circulated in the condenser
Heat to water = Heat from refrigerant
(m) (c) (~t) = (m ) (h , 
mV'=
h
3
)
(0.1085 kg/s) (1620  410.4) kJ/kg
(4.187 kJ/kg. CO) (7 CO)
(c)
= 4.48 kg/s
W = (rn ) (h
2
_{}
hi) = (0.1085 kg/s) (1620  1471.6) kJ/kg
= 16.10 kW
lei) V _{j} = (m ) (VI) = (0.1085 kg/s) (205.2 L/kg) = 22.3 L/s
(26) An ammonia simple saturation cycle operates between evaporator and condenser temperatures of 20°C and :j5°C, respectively. The system is to be used in producing 5000 kg of ice at 12°C from water at 29°C in 20 hours. Assuming losses to be 20 per cent of the heat to be absorbed from the water, determine (a) the mass flow rate, (b) the heat rejected at the condenser, and (c) the power required by the compressor. The specific heat of ice is 2.094 k.Izkg s C'' and the heat of fusion is :335 kJ/kg.
h, = h, at 1737 kPa = 410.4 kJ/kg
g at 616 kPa = 1471.6 kIzkg
hi
VI = ", at 616 kPa = 205.2 L/kg
h,
= h
= h
at 1737 kPa and S2 equal to Sl =
1620 kJ/kg
~OLUTION
( 
\ 
COP = 
hi  h 2 
= 1471.6  410.4 
= 7 It:: 

a) 
h 
 
hi 
1620  1471.6 
o 

2 
. 

(b) 
Q 
= (45,000 kg) (4.187 kJ/kgeCO) (29  18) Co 
::: 115.1 kJ/s 

c 
(5 h) (3600 s/h) 

Q 
115.1 kJ/s = 0.1085 kg/s 

hh 
(1471.6  410.4) kJ/kg 

, 
., 
35°C
III
,
Enthalpy, kJlkg
.'
! I
(a)
l{ef'rjgf~ratjoil and Ai r Conditioning
h, = h. at 3f)'C = 366.1 kJlkg
hI
h, = hat 1352 kPa and
=
h _{g} at 20'C = 1437.2 kJlkg
S2 equal to 51 = 1735 kJlkg
Theoretical heat to be absorbed per kg of water
= (l kg) (4.187 kJ/kg CO) 129 0) Co I ( 1 kg) (335 kJlkg)
I (1 kg) (2.094 kJ/kgCO) [0  (12)] Co = 481.6 kJ
Actual heat to be absorbed = (1.20) (481.6) = 577.9 kJ/kg
(500 kg) (5779 k.Jlkg)
Q ^{e} =
(20h)(3600s!h)
= 40.13 kJ/s
Q e
m h. 
h,
=
40.13 kJ/s (14:37.2  :i66.1l kJlkg
= 0.03747 kg/s
(b)
(c)
Qc = (rn) (h
2

h _{)} = (0.0:i747 kg/s) (1735  366.1) kJlkg
3
= 51.29 k.J/5
W = (rn ) (h,  h) = (0.03747 kg/s) (1735  1437.2) kJlkg
= 11.16 kW
An ammonia refrigerating cycle operates at 247 kPa
suction pressure and 1200 kPa condenser pressure. Other data
are the following:
(27)
refrigerating capacity compressor clearance compression efficiency mechanical efficiency actu al vol u metri c efficiency
28 kW
5%
so«
75%
74'lr
Determine (a) the clearance volumetric efficiency, (b) the ideal and actual COP, (c) the mass flow rate of ammonia, and (d ) the brake work.

Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System
,')()LUTION
Enthalphy, kJlkg
72
25
hi 
= h, at 1200 kPa = 346.1 kJ/kg 
h. 
= h, at 247 kPa = 1445.2 kJlkg 
h, 
= h at 1200 kPa and S2 equal to 5[ = 1675 kJlkg 
la)
n
^{v}^{c}
=11cc _{[}  P ^{2}
^{P} _{J}
]k 1
= 0.882 or 88.2o/r
I
= 1 I 0.05  (0.05) [1200];;;;;
247
I bl
Actual work = isentropic work
n _{c}
= 287.3 kJlkg
h _{2}

^{n} c
h[
_{1}_{6}_{7}_{5} _{} _{1}_{4}_{4}_{5}_{.}_{2}
0.80
^{I}^{d}^{e}^{a}^{l} ^{C}^{O}^{P}
h 2
h, 

hi
h]
= 1445.2  346.1 = 4.78 1675  1445.2
Actual COP
1[") 
m= 
h 
Q e _ h. 

[ 
_{,}_{J} 
h[

hI
actual work
28 kJ/s
1445.2  346.1 = 3.83
_{2}_{8}_{7}_{.}_{3}
(1445.2  346.1) kJlkg = 0.02547 kg/5
lei)
Indicated work = (0.02547 kg/s) (287.3 kJlkg) = 7.:i18 kW
26 Refrigeration and All' Condit.iuning
Brake work
indicated work
_{n}
m
7.318 = 9.76 kW
_{0}_{.}_{7}_{5}
(28) An ammonia simple saturation cycle operates at 247.1 kPa suction pressure and 1169 kPa condenser pressure. For a load of 161111 k.l/min, determine (a) the mVh of cooling water in the condenser if the water temperature is increased by 6 Co, (b) the compressor work, and (c) the piston displacement if clearance is 5'!r .
~
SOLUTION
al'
:?;l
rJ
;:l
'"
Ul
£
::: ^{~}^{}^{}
Enthalpy, kJlkg
h(
h ,
VI
h,
= h , at 30 ^{G}^{C} =341.77 kJlkg
= h
at 14 ^{G}^{C}
at 14°C = 0.4878 mJlkg
= 1445.2 kJlkg
=
=
v
h
g
g
at 1169 kPa and S2 equal to Sl =
1677 kJlkg
V = V at 1169 kPa
z
and S2 equal to
S1 = 0.15 m'lkg
^{(}^{a}^{l} ^{m}^{=}
^{Q} e
h , 
h ,
1688 kJ/min (1445.2  341.77) kJlkg
= 1.53 kg/min
(m)(hzh,)
=
(1.53 kg/min) (1677  341.77) kJlkg
^{m} (C) (L1t
w
_{)} (4.187 kJlkg
CO) (6 CO)
'" K 1.:r2
kg/min
III
,(.)
V
^{w}
W
n
_{v}_{c}
n _{v}_{c}
^{m} w
~
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System
27
(81.32 kg/min) (60 min/h) = 4.879 m:J/h
1000 k g/m"
=(m) (h,  h.) = (1.52 kg/min) (1677  1445.2) kJlkg
= 352.3 kJ/min or 5.87 kW
= 1 + c 
c _{[} 
P2 ]
Pj
=0.8854
= 1 
c
[2 1]
v
2
[
k = 1 + 0.05 
(0.05)
[
[
. 1169] 1 304
247.1
= 1 
0.05 [0.4878
0.15
1] = 0.8874
0.8854 is the more accurate value, since 0.15 m:Jlkg is just :111 approximation from the Mol lier diagram.
Assume n = n
V =
V
1
^{D} n
va
vc
v a
(m) (V _{1} _{)}
n _{v}_{a}
=
(1.53
kg/min) (0.4878 m1lkg)
0.8854
= 0.843 mvmin
(29) A sixcylinder, 6.70 x 5.70cm, refrigerant 22 «ompreasor operating at 30 rls indicate a refrigerating capacity "f96.4 kW and a power requirement of19.4 kW at an evaporating t «mperature of 5°C and a condensing temperature of 35°C. ('ornpute (a) the clearance volumetric efficiency if the clearance volurne is 5 per cent, (b) the actual volumetric efficiency, and (c) t lu compression efficiency.
:;( )LUTION
~
J
Enthalpy, kJlkg
,
1
I
~.
28 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
hi
h ,
VI
h,
v
2
= h
= h
= v _{g} at 5'C = 40.36 Llkg
= h at 13!)5 kPa and 8 _{2} equal to SI = 428 kJlkg
= V at 1355
at 35"C = 243.1 kJlkg
at seC = 407.1 k.Izkg
g
kPa and S2 equal to SI = 20 Llkg
(a) n., = 1 C[2 1]
v _{2}
=1 (0.05)[4?36]_1
20
(b )
m
=
hi
Q,

hi
=
= 0.9491 or 94.91 (Jc
96.4kJ/s
= 0.5878 kg/s 1407.1  243.1) kJlkg
VI = (m) (VI) = \0.5878 kg/s) (40.36 Llkg) = 23.72 Lis
V
=.2:
J)
4
D2 LN =
(IT) \6.70 cm)2 (5.70 cm) (30 x 6 cycles/s)
(4) (1000 cm3/Li
nva = +
[,
V
= :36.17 Lis
'13"'2
=_~
I
36.17
= 0.6558 or 65.5800
(c) Actual work of compression =
1_9.4 kJ/s
0.rJ878 kg/s
= 33.00 kJlkg
Isentropic work of compression =
h _{2} 
hI
= 428 
= 20.9 kJlkg
407.1
_{C}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} e
.
ffi
iciency, n
c
20.9
=  33.00
= 0.63.339'c or 63.330;'
(210) A 100 x 200mm ammonia compressor with a compression efficiency of 80 per cent operates with a suction pressure of 291.6 kPa and a condenser pressure of 1204 kPa at 23 r/s. The refrigerant cools 102 kg/min of brine by 8 degrees in the brine cooler. The specific heat of the brine is 3.14 kJlkgeC". Electric input to the motor driving the compressor is 14.33 kW. Motor efficiency at this load is 92 per cent. Assuming 5 per cent of the useful refrigerating effect is lost by brine cooler from the room, determine the mechanical and volumetric efficiencies of thl' roru pressor.
SOLUTION
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System
29
(ll'
111
\\.
l nd
=
Enthalpy, kJlkg
h _{3}
=
h, 1204 kPa = 346.6 kJlkg
h. = h, at 291.6 kPa = 1450.2 kJlkg
VI
h _{2} = hat 1204 kPa and S2 equal to SI = 1653 kJlkg
= v _{g} at 291.6
kPa = 417.5 Lis
(1.05) (rn.) (c.) (~tl) = (1.05) (102) (3.14) or 44.83 kW
(8) = 2690 kJ/min
= 
44.83 k.]/s 
= 0.0406 k 
/s 

h,  
h, 
(1450.2  346.6) kJlkg 
g 

= (rn) 
(h _{2}  
h) = (0.0406) (1653 
 1450.2) = 8.23 kW 

. irn te 
d 
war 
k 
=  8.23 
=  8.23 = 10.29 kW 

n, 
0.80 
HI';"'I' work = output of motor = (14.33) (0.92) = 13.18 kW
\1, ' 1,.lllIcal efficiency = i~:~~ = 0.781 or 78.1%
11111 (VI) = (0.0406) (417.5) = 16.96 Lis
D 
LN = 
TC (10cm)2 (20 cm) (23 cycles/s) 
= 21 
68 L/s 

I 
! 
(4) (1000 crnVl.) 
. 
30
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System _{3}_{1}
,
I
I
^{n} va
^{=}
VI
_{V} _{D}
16.95 
= 0.7818 or 78.18% 
21.68 
(211) A fourcylinder refrigerant 12 compressor operates between evaporator and condenser temperatures of 4°C and 43°C. It is to carry a load of 20 tons ofrefrigeration at 1200 rpm. If the average piston speed is 213 m/min and the actual volumetric efficiency is 80 per cent, what should be the bore and stroke of the compressor.
SOLUTION
Enthalpy, kJlkg
h, 
= h, at 43°C = 241.6 kJ/kg 

h. 
= h 
at 4°C 
= 353.18 kJ/kg 

VI 
= v 
g g 
at 4°C = 0.04895 m Vkg 
h,
= h at 1034 kPa and S2 equal to SI = 372 kJ/kg
Q e
^{m} _{h}_{,} _{}
_{h} _{4}
(20 tons) (211 kJ/min • ton) = 37.82 kg/min
(353.18  241.6) kJ/kg
VI = (rn) (VI) = (37.82 kg/min) (0.04895 m
3/kg)
= 1.851 m
3/min
V D = ~lva = 10~8501= 2.314 m
3/min
or 2.314 x 10 ^{6} em
3/min
I'iston speed = 2L (rpm)
L =
V _{D} =
(213 m/min) (100 em/m)
(2) (1200) rev/min
D2LN
~
= 8.875 em
2.314
X
10 ^{6}
4
=
~ CD ern)" (8.875 em) (1200 x 4 cycles/min)
D = 8:315 em
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration Syst"111 
Ti 

:1) Refrigerating effect 

For 
the 10 ^{o}^{e} evaporating cycle, the refrigerating effect 

=hI  h _{4} = 347.1  238.5 = 108.6 kJlkg 

For the 5°C evaporating cycle, the refrigerating effect 

=h 
 h _{4} , =353.6  238.5 =115.1 kJlkg 

I,) Effect on mass flow rate per ton 

For the 10 ^{c}^{e} evaporating cycle, the mass 
flow rate, 

m e 
211 
211 

h _{I} h _{4} 
347.1 _ 238.5 = 1.943 kg/(min) (ton) 

For the 5°C evaporating cycle, the mass flow rate, 

211 
211 

m'= 
h.,  
h 
4' 
353.6 _ 238.5 1.833 kg/(min) (ton) 

I 
Effect on compressor volume capacity 

For the 10 ^{o}^{e} evaporating cycle, the volume flow rate, 

VI =(rn) (v 1) =(1.943) (0.07665) =0.1489 m 3/(min) (ton) 

For the 5°e evaporating cycle, the volume flow rate, 

VI' =(rn') (vIJ = 0.833) (0.04749) = 0.087 m 3/(min) (ton) 

,I, Effect on cor 

F"r the 10 ^{o}^{e} evaporating cycle, 

eop 
hI 
 
h _{4} 
_ 
347.1  238.5 ' =: 4.19 

h 
h, 

373  347.1 

2 
 

Ftlr the 5°e evaporating cycle, 

eop 
hI' 
 
h 4 _{·} 
= 
= 6.61 

h , 
 
h 
353.6  238.5 371  353.6 
32 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Effects of Operating Conditions
Effects of Increasing the Vaporizing Temperature
(2 12) A R12 simple saturated refrigerating cycle operates
at an evaporating temperature of 10 ^{o}^{e}
temperature of 40'e. Show the effects of increasing the vaporizing temperature to 5':e.
and a condensing
SOLUTION
III 
k 772


t 

l 

J 

Enthalpy, kJfkg 

h, =h. = h _{4} = h. at 40 ^{c}^{e} = 
238.5 kJlkg 

For the 10 ^{c}^{e} evaporating cycle (cycle 
12341) 

VI 
= 
v 
at lOGe = 0.07665 m ^{3}^{/}^{k}^{g} 

g 

h. 
= h 
g 
at lOGe =347.1 kJ/kg 

h, 
= h 
at 961 kPa and S2 equal to Sl = 373 kJ/kg 

For the 5°e evaporating cycle (cycle I.' 2' 3'4'1') 

"r 
= vg at 5°e = 0.04749 ms/kg 

h. 
= hg at 5°e = 353.6 kJ/kg 

h , 
= h at 961 kPa and S2 equal to SI = 371 kJlkg 
34 

(e) 

I 

r 

, 
(f) 
I 
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Effect on work per ton of refrigeration
For the 10°C evaporating cycle, the work,
W
= (m) (h _{2}_{}_{h} _{l} _{)} = (1.943) (373347.1)
= 50.32 kJ/(min) (ton) or 0.839 kW/ton
For the
5°C evaporating cycle, the work,
W' = (rn) (h _{2} ,
h.) = (1.833) (371  353.6)
= 31.89 kJ/(min) (ton) or 0.532 kW/ton
Effect on condenser performance
For the 10°C evaporating cycle, the heat rejected at the condenser,
Qc = (rn) (h,  h) = (1.943) (373  238.5)
= 261.3 kJ/(min) (ton) or 4.355 kW/ton
For the 5°C evaporating cycle, the heat rejected at the condenser,
Q'c == (m') (h
2
,

h) = (1.833) (371 238.5)
= 242.9 kJ/(min) (ton) or 4.05 kW/ton
Effects of increasing the vaporizing temperature (1) The refrigerating effect per unit mass increases.
(2) The mass flow rate per ton decreases.
(3) The volume flow rate per ton decreases.
(4) The COP increases.
(5) The work per ton decreases.
(6) The heat rejected at the condenser per ton decreases.
~
Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System :l5
Effects of Increasing the Condensing Temperature
(213)
A simple saturated refrigerating cycle using R12
as the refrigerant, operates at a condensing temperature of 40 nC and an evaporating temperature of lOOC. Show the effects of increasing the condensing temperature to 50°C.
SOLUTION
•
^{~} e
::l
:l
tt.
Enthalpy, kJlkg
h, 
= 
h _{g} at lOoC = 
347.1 kJlkg 
VI 
== 
V _{g} at 10°C == 0.07665 m vkg 
For the 40°C condensing cycle (cycle 12341)
h, = h _{4} == he at 40°C
h,
= 238.5 kJlkg
==
h
at 961 kPa and S2 equal to SI = 373 kJlkg
For the 50°C condensing cycle (cycle 12'3'4'1)
,)
h; == h _{4} · = he at
h,
50°C = 248.9 kJlkg
==
h
Bien plus que des documents.
Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.
Annulez à tout moment.