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Stress Management Professional An International Journal

Vol.2, No.2, JULY - DECEMBER 2014

16

three phases. The first phase is the education

considerable in-session experience and discussion of

phase, which gives subjects an understanding

the various mindfulness-training techniques. Patients

of how stress occurs. In the second phase,

are educated about the psychophysiology of stress

the rehearsal stage, the therapist trains subjects

and emotions and provided with ways of approaching

to use coping skills appropriate to their particular

specific situations using the mindfulness skills. In

p ro b l e m . Th e t h i rd p h a s e, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n

addition, homework exercises involves practice of the

phase, gives an opportunity for subjects to practise

mindfulness techniques, both formally as a daily

their coping skills in low/moderate stress situations

meditation prac tice and also informally as

(Meichenbaum & Deffenbacher, 1988). CBT benefits

participants bring mindfulness to thoughts,

h e a r t p a t i e n t s a n d i m p rove s t h e i r c a rd i a c

emotions, and behaviors in their daily lives,

performance via decreasing total anxiety, improving

particularly during times of stress. The core of MBSR

thoughts and attitudes (reduction of hidden anxiety),

involves training in mindfulness meditation, a

increasing self-sufficiency, reducing hostility,

practice of self-regulating attention that lowers

improving interpersonal relations, reducing

reactivity to stress triggers (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). In

cardiovascular excitability, improving immunity, and

present study, MBSR program was based on Full

lowering the risk of death (Yusefi, Khayyam-Nekouei,

Catastrophe Living: Using the wisdom of your body

Sadeghi, et al., 2006). SIT is attempted to improve

and mind to face stress, pain, and illness by Kabat-

stress resistance by training a set of skills that make an

Zinn (1990) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive

individual inoculated against stress, i.e., capable of

Therapy for Depression: A new approach to

responding more favorably when confronted with

preventing relapse by Segal, Williams and Teasdale

stressors in real life. The treatment program used with

(2002), A detailed version of implemented MBSR

CBT groups was adopted from Meichenbaum &

program has previously been published in series of

Deffenbacher (1988); detailed version of

articles by the authors (Nehra, Sharma, Kumar, Nehra,

implemented MBSR program has previously been in

2012a, 2013).

published series of articles by the authors (Nehra,


Sharma, Kumar, Nehra, 2012a, Nehra & Sharma, 2013).

Data Analysis : Data was analyzed using SPSS-12.0.

Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction, a clinical

Descriptive analysis was done by calculating the

program developed over 25 years ago has gradually

frequency and percentage. Student's t test was used

gained recognition as an important means of

to obtain p value. To account for the tests performed,

teaching people as how to live their lives fully whether

p-values (<0.05) were considered to indicate

they are patients with chronic illness (Speca, Carlson,

significant statistical difference.

Goodey, Angen, et al., 2000). This psychological


intervention (Kabat-Zinn, Wheeler, Light et al. 1998) is
a structured 8 10 week program (Grossman,
Niemann, Schmidt, Walach, 2004) based on selfawareness notion. MBSR can be done in both
individual (Weiss, Nordlie, Siegel, 2005) as well as in
group sessions (Janusek, Albuquerque, Chroniak et
al., 2008). Bishop (2002) described the MBSR format as
largely skill-based and psycho-educational. There is