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School of Electrical Engineering & Computer

Science (SEECS)

NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan

11:33

Chapter # 4

Transmission Parameters

Week # 4,

4 Lecture 12

The most common methods for transfer of electric

power are

1)

Overhead AC

2)

Underground AC

Overhead DC

Underground DC

3)

4)

11:33

Extra-high-voltage lines

Voltage: 46 kV, 69 kV

Voltage: 2.4 kV to 46 kV, with 15 kV being the most

commonly used

High-voltage DC lines

11:33

Distribution lines

Voltage:

Sub-transmission lines

High-voltage lines

Voltage:

Transmission Cables

PVC h t

PVC-sheet

Copper screen

Fill

Filler

I l ti

Insulation

Insulation shield

11:33

Transmission Cables

11:33

C d t shield

Conductor

hi ld

Conductor

1. Series Resistance.

2. Series Inductance.

3. Shunt Capacitance.

4. Shunt Conductance.

We also investigate transmission line electric and magnetic field.

Although the ideas developed in this chapter can be applied to

underground transmission and distribution,

distribution the primary focus here is on

overhead lines.

Underground transmission is very less and is found mostly in large cities

or under waterway. There is, however, a large application for underground

cable in distribution systems.

11:33

11:33

Series impedance including resistance and reactance, gives

rise to series voltage drop along the line.

Shunt capacitance gives rise to line charging currents.

Shunt conductance accounts for V2G line losses due to

leakage currents between conductors or between conductors

and ground.

Shunt conductance of over head lines is usually neglected.

Three-phase conductors,

which

hi h carry the

th electric

l ti

current.

Insulators, which support

and electrically isolate the

conductors.

Tower, which holds the

insulators and conductors.

Foundation and grounding.

Shield conductors, which

protect against lightning.

11:33

11:33

11:33

11:33

Shield conductor

Shield

conductor

Insulator

Composite

insulator

Phase

conductor

Steel tower

Tower

69kV

Li

Line

Two

conductor

bundle

Crossarm

Composite

Insulator

11:33

Shield

conductor

Double circuit

69 kV line

Distribution line

12.47kV

Wooden tower

Distribution Line

11:33

Distribution line

Insulator

Surge arrester

Fuse cutout

Transformer

Transformers

240V/120V

insulated line

11:33

Span

Tension Tower

Supporting

Tower

Insulator

Sag

Definition of Parameters

11:33

Tension Tower

Aluminum

Al

min m Conductor

Cond ctor

Steel Reinforced

(ACSR);

All Aluminum

Conductor (AAC); and

All Aluminum

Al i

Alloy

All

Conductor (AAAC).

ACSR Conductor

Aluminum outer strands

2 layers, 30 conductors

7 conductors

11:33

11:33

conductor metal for overhead transmission. Although larger

aluminum cross-sectional area is required to obtain the same

loss in a copper conductor, aluminum has a lower cost a

lighter weight.

Also, the supply of aluminum is abundant, whereas that of

copper is limited.

One of the most common conductor type is aluminum

Aluminum outer strands

conductor, steel-reinforced (ACSR).

2 layers, 30 conductors

ACSR consists of layers of

aluminum strands surrounding a

Steel core strands,

7 conductors

central core of steel strands.

conductor size can be obtained by simply adding successive

layers of strands.

Stranded conductors are easier to handle and more flexible

than solid conductors, especially in larger size.

The use of steel strands gives ACSR conductors a high

strength-to-weight

g

g ratio.

For the purpose of heat dissipation, overhead transmission line

conductors are bare.

11:33

11:33

10

EHV lines often have more than one conductor per phase;

these conductors are called bundle.

The 765 KV line could have four bundle conductors per

phase, 500 KV line may have three while 345 may have two

bundle conductors per phase.

Bundle conductors have lower electric field strength at the

conductor surfaces, therebyy reducingg corona.

They also have a smaller series reactance.

Insulators for transmission lines above 69 KV are suspension

type insulators, which consists of a string of discs, typically

porcelain.

The number of disc insulators increase with the line voltage.

11:33

Insulators

Locking Key

Insulator's Head

Expansion Layer

Iron Cap

Ball Socket

Compression

Loading

Cement

Imbedded Sand

Insulating Glass

or Porcelain

Ski

Skirt

Petticoats

Corrosion Sleeve

for DC Insulators

11:33

11

Steel Pin

Ball

Insulator Chain

Line Voltage

Number of Insulators

per String

69 kV

46

115 kV

79

138 kV

810

230 kV

12

345 kV

18

500 kV

24

765 kV

3035

11:33

Composite insulator:

1) Sheds of alternating diameters prevent bridging by ice,

ice snow and

cascading rain.

2) Fiberglass reinforced resin rod.

3) Injection molded rubber (EPDM or Silicone) weather sheds and rod

covering.

4) Forged steel end fitting, galvanized and joined to rod by swaging

process.

1

11:33

12

1) iis th

the clevis

l i ball,

b ll

2) is the socket for the

clevis,

3) is the yoke plate, and

4) is the suspension

clamp.

p ((Source:

Sediver)

Line post-composite insulator with

yoke holding two conductors.

11:33

11:33

13

4.3: Conductance

1. Between conductor.

2. Between conductors and ground.

For overhead lines, this power loss is due to leakage at

insulators and to corona.

Insulator leakage current depends on the amount of dirt, salt,

andd other

th contaminants

t i t that

th t have

h

accumulated

l t d on insulator,

i l t as

well as meteorological factors, particularly the presence of

moisture.

11:33

4.3: Conductance

g value of electric field strength

g

at a conductor surface causes the air to become electrically

ionized and to conduct.

The real power loss due to corona, called corona loss,

depends on metrological conditions particularly rain, and on

conductor surface irregularities.

Losses due to insulator leakage and corona are usually small

compared to conductor I2R losses.

Conductance is usually neglected in power system studies

because it is very small component of shunt admittance.

11:33

14

Chapter # 4

Transmission Parameters

Week # 5,

5 Lecture 13+Quiz

4.2: Resistance

specific

ifi temperature

t

t

is

i given

i

by:

b

Where:

T = Conductor resistivity at temperature T

l = Conductor length

A = Conductor cross sectional area

The conductor resistance is affected by three factors:

1)

Spiraling

2)

Temperature

3)

Frequency: skin effect

11:33

15

RDC ,T

T l

A

4.2: Resistance

1)

l

layers

off strands

t d are spiraled

i l d in

i opposite

it direction

di ti to

t

hold the strands together. Spiraling makes the

strands 1 or 2 % longer than the actual conductor

length. As a result the DC resistance of a stranded

conductor is 1 or 2 % larger than that calculated

from the dc resistance equation for a specific

conductor length.

2) TEMPERATURE: Resistivity of conductor metal

varies linearly over normal operating temperature

according to Eq:

T is the temperature constant that depends upon the

conductor material. T2 and T1 are resistivities at

temperature T2 and T1 respectively.

T2 T

T

1

T 2 T 1

11:33

4.2: Resistance

3)

11:33

16

P

Rac loss

I2

Where Ploss is the conductor real power loss in watts and I is rms

conductor current.

For dc, the current distribution is uniform throughout the conductor

cross section. However, for ac current distribution is nonuniform. As

frequency increases, the current in solid conductor tends to crowd

towards the conductor surface, with smaller current density at the center.

This phenomenon is call SKIN EFFECT.

EFFECT

A conductor with large radius can have even oscillatory current density

versus the radial distance from the conductor center. With the increasing

frequency, conductor loss increases, which increases the ac resistance.

At power frequencies ac resistance is at least a few percent higher than

the dc resistance. Conductors manufacturers normally provide dc

resistance based on test data.

Chapter # 4

Transmission Parameters

Week # 5,

5 Lecture 14

Conductor

g

circuit has a constant ppermeability

y

that can be obtained by determining the following:

1) Magnetic field intensity H, from Amperes law,

2) Magnetic flux density B (B = H),

3) Flux linkage ,

4) Inductance from flux linkage per ampere (L= /I)

11:33

17

Cylindrical Conductor

i t it inside

intensity

i id the

th contour,

t

select

l t

a circle of radius x<r as a closed

contour for Amperes law.

The integral of Hx around the

selected contour is given by Eq.

(1).

Where Ix is portion of total

current around the contour.

contour

Assuming a uniform current

distribution within the conductor

Ix can be given by Eq. (2):

H dl I

enclosed

l d

Hx

Ix

2x

2

xI

x

I x I ( 2) H x

2r 2

r

11:33

Cylindrical Conductor

11:33

18

Assuming

nonmagnetic

conductor,

d t

th magnetic

the

ti flux

fl

density Bx is given by Eq (3):

The differential flux d per unit

length of conductor in the crosssectional rectangle of width dx

shown in figure is given by (4).

The differential flux linkage d

in the rectangle is tricky.

tricky Since

only fraction (x/r)2 of total

current I is linked by the flux.

Thus the flux linkage is give by

Eq. (5)

o xI

...... .(3)

2r 2

xI

d Bx dx o 2 dx ....(4)

2r

Bx o H

x3 I

x

d d ....(5) 0 4 dx

2r

r

Cylindrical Conductor

Integrating d from

x=00 to

t x=r determines

d t

i

the total flux linkage

int

inside

the

conductor given by Eq.

(6).

The internal inductance

Lint due per unit length

of conductor due to

this flux inside the

conductor

can

be

calculated by Eq. (7)

0 x 3 I

dx

2r 4

r

0 I r 3

I

int d

x dx

d o ........((6)

4

2r 0

8

0

d

Lint

int

I

o 1

10 7 H / m....(7)

8 2

11:33

Cylindrical Conductor

for x r

2x

i t it outside

intensity

t id the

th conductor,

d t

I

select a dashed circle of radius x>r

Bx 0 H x 4 10 7

as a closed contour for Amperes

2x

law.

I

2 10 7

Noting that the contour encloses

x

the entire current I, integration

I

d Bx dx 2 10 7 dx

yields,

x

Since the entire current I is linked

D2

D1

by the flux outside the contour,

d d 2 10 7

11:33

19

I

dx

x

Conductor

Integrating between two external points at a distance D1 and D2 from the

conductor center gives the external flux linkage 12 between D1 and D2

given by Eq. (8), The external inductance per unit length can be then

calculated by Eq (9)

D2

12 d 2 10 7 I

D1

dx

x

D1

D2

2 10 7 I ln

........(8)

D1

L12

D2

D1

D2

12

D2

2 10 7 ln

.....(9)

I

D1

11:33

Conductor

11:33

20

g pp

linking the conductor out to

external point P at distance p

D is the sum of the internal

and external flux linkages.

For a single conductor the

total flux linkage at any

point D external to the

conductor can be calculated

by setting D1=r and D2=D.

Thus, the total inductance

LP due to both internal and

external flux linkages out to

distance D is give by (10)

1

1

1

D

10- 7 I 2 10- 7 I ln but 2 ln e 4

2

2

r

D

D

2 10- 7 I ln e1 / 4 ln 2 10- 7 I ln 1 / 4

r

e r

D

2 10- 7 I ln ' where : r ' e 1 / 4 r

r

Lp

D

2 10 7 ln ' H / m....(10)

I

r

array of M solid cylindrical conductors

Assume that each conductor m carries current Im referenced out of the

page. Also assume that the sum of conductors currents is zero.

M

links conductor k out to

point p due to current Ik is

ggiven by:

y

kpk 2 10- 7 I k ln

I1 I1 ....... I M I m

m 1

DPk

...(1)

rk'

11:33

array of M solid cylindrical conductors

DPk

Note that kpk includes both internal and

-7

kpk

...(1)

k k 2 10 I k ln

external

t

l flux

fl linkages

li k

d to

due

t currentt Ik.

r' k

The flux linkage kpm, which links

D

conductor k out to p due to Im is give by

kpm 2 10 - 7 I m ln Pm ....(2)

Eq. (2).

Dkm

Using superposition, the total flux

linkage kp, which links conductor k out

to p due to all currents is

kp kp1 kp 2 kp 3 .....kpM

M

D pm

m 1

Dkm

2 10 7 I mln

11:33

21

........(3)

array of M solid cylindrical conductors

1

M

D ppm

kp 2 10 7 I mln

....((3)

when m=k in the above summation.

m 1

Dkm

Equation (3) can be separated into two

summations as:

kp 2 10 7 I mln

m 1

M

1

2 10 7 I mln D pm

m 1

Dkm

summation

1

M

I mln

Dkm

7 m 1

kp 2 10

M 1

m1 I mln D pm I M ln D pM

11:33

array of M solid cylindrical conductors

M 1

M

1

I mln D pm I M ln D pM

kp 2 10 7 I mln

m 1

m

1

Dkm

M 1

I M I1 I 2 I 3 ........ I M 1 I m

m 1

M 1

1

I mln D pm I mln D pM

kp 2 10 7 I mln

m 1

Dkm m 1

m 1

M 1

M

D pm

1

2 10 7 I mln

I mln

..........(4)

Dkm m 1

D pM

m 1

M

11:33

22

M 1

array of M solid cylindrical conductors

11:33

k

kp

k outt to

t infinity.

i fi it That

Th t is,

i

p

As p all distances Dpm become equal. The

ratio Dpm/DPM becomes unity and ln(Dpm/DPM)

0.

M

1

7

Therefore, the second summation in Eq. (4) k 2 10 I mln

m 1

Dkm

becomes zero as p , and.

The Eq. (5) gives the total flux linking conductor .......................( A)

k in

i an array off M conductors

d

carrying

i

I1,

I2,IM whose sum is zero.

This equation is valid for DC or AC currents, k

is dc flux linkage when the currents are dc and

k is a phasor flux linkage when currents are

phasor representation of sinusoid.

lim

shown

h

i figure.

in

fi

C d t x with

Conductor

ith

radius rx carries phasor current Ix=I

referenced out the page. Conductor y

with the radius ry carries return

current Iy= -I. The sum of the two

currents is zero using equation

derived for multiple conductors

earlier the total flux linkingg

conductor x is.

k 2 10 7 I mln

m 1

1

Dkm

1

1

I y ln

x 2 10- 7 I x ln

D

D

xx

xy

1

1

x 2 10- 7 I ln ' I ln

r x

D

D

x 2 10- 7 I ln '

r x

D

y 2 10- 7 I ln '

r y

where : r ' x e 1/ 4 rx

11:33

23

The

inductance

of

D

Lx x 2 10 7 ln ' H / m per conductor...(1)

conductor x is then given

Ix

r x

by Eq. (1).

y

D

7

Similarly the inductance & Ly 2 10 ln '

Iy

r y

of conductor y can be

D

D

given by Eq. (2) and the

L Lx Ly 2 10 7 ln ' ln '

ry

total inductance can then

rx

calculated.

D

D2

2 10 7 ln ' ' 4 10 7 ln

r 'xr ' y

r xr y

D

If r ' x r ' y r ' L 4 10 7 ln '

r

11:33

line with equal phase spacing

11:33

24

th

three-wire

i line

li consisting

i ti off

three cylindrical conductors

a, b, c, each with the radius r

and with equal phase

spacing D between any two

conductors.

Assuming balanced positive

sequence

currents

that

satisfy Ia+Ib+Ic=0.

Thus the inductance of

phase can given by (1)

La

a

Ia

D

2 10- 7 ln '

r

1

1

1

a 2 10- 7 I a ln ' I b ln I c ln

r

D

D

1

1

a 2 10- 7 I a ln ' (I b I c ) ln

r

D

1

1

a 2 10- 7 I a ln ' I a ln

D

r

D

a 2 10- 7 I a ln '

r

with equal phase spacing

Due to symmetry, the same results are obtained for Lb=b/Ib and for Lc=

c/Ic. However,

H

only

l one phase

h

needs

d to

t be

b considered

id d for

f balanced

b l

d three

th

phase operation of this line, since the flux linkage of each phase have equal

magnitudes and 120o displacement.

D

D

D

La 2 10- 7 ln ' , Lb 2 10- 7 ln ' , Lc 2 10 - 7 ln '

r

r

r

11:33

Chapter # 4

Transmission Parameters

Week # 5,

5 Lecture 15

25

conductors

11:33

wire and three phase three wire

lines will be now extended to

composite/stranded conductor.

Figure shows single phase twoconductor line consisting of two

composite conductors x and y.

Conductor x has n identical

conductors, each with radius rx and

with current (I/N) referenced out of

the page.

Similarly conductor y consists of M

identical subconductors, each with

radius ry and with return current (I/M).

conductors

Since the sum of all

currents is zero, Eq. (A)

is valid and total flux

linking subconductor k

of conductor x is given

by Eq. (1)

N

I M

1

1

7 I

2

10

ln

ln

..(1)

N

D

M

D

m 1'

km

km

m 1

of the total current I is

li k d by

linked

b this

hi flux,

fl

the

h

1 N

1

1 M

1

k k 2 10 7 I 2 ln

1' ln D

flux linkage k of (the

N

N

D

NM

m

1

m

km

km

k is,

N

N

N

M

N

D

NM

D

k 1

K 1

m 1

m 1'

km

km

conductor x is:

11:33

26

conductors

ln A ln A

Using

and

ln Ak ln Ak

i.e, (sum of ln s=ln of

products), Eq. (2) for flux

linkage can be modified

as:

And the inductance of

conductor x, Lx can be

given Eq. (3)

N

N

1

x k 2 10 7 I 2

k 1

K 1 N

ln D

m 1

km

1 M

1

ln ....((2)

NM m 1' Dkm

1 /NM

x 2 10 7 I ln

Dkm

m 1'

1 /N 2

Dkm

m 1

xy

Lx x 2 10 7 ln

...((3)

I

Dxx

k 1

D xy MN Dkm GMD....(4)

k 1 m 1'

N

D xx N 2 Dkm GMR

11:33

k 1 m 1

conductors

Dxy, given by Eq. (4) is the MNth root of the product of MN distances from

th sub-conductors

the

b

d t off conductors

d t x to

t the

th sub-conductors

b

d t off conductor

d t y.

Associated with each sub-conductor k of conductor x are the M distances

Dk1/, ,Dk2/, ..DkM to the sub-conductors of conductor y.

For N sub-conductors in conductor x, there are therefore MN of these

distances.

Dxy is called the Geometric Mean Distance or GMD between the conductors

x and y.

1 /N

/NM

x 2 10 7 I ln

27

1 /N 2

Dkm

m 1

D

x

xy

Lx

2 10 7 ln

...(3)

I

Dxx

k 1

11:33

Dkm

m 1'

N

D xy MN Dkm GMD...(4)

k 1 m 1'

N

D xx N 2 Dkm GMR....(5)

k 1 m 1

conductors

Dxx, given by Eq. (5) is the N2 root of the product of N2 distances between

the subconductors of conductors x.

Associated with each subconductor k of conductor x are the N distances

Dk1, Dk2, ..Dkk =r /, ..,DkN.

For N subconductors in conductor x, there are therefore N2 of these

distances.

Dxx is called the Geometric Mean Radius or GMR of conductors x.

1 /NM

x 2 10 7 I ln

1 /N 2

Dkm

m 1

Dxy

x

7

Lx

2 10 ln

...(3)

I

Dxx

k 1

11:33

Dkm

m 1'

N

D xy MN Dkm GMD...(4)

k 1 m 1'

N

D xx N 2 Dkm GMR....(5)

k 1 m 1

conductors

11:33

28

y can be

b given

i

b

by:

Dyy is the GMR of conductor y, is

the M2 root of the product of the

M2

distances

between

subconducotors of conductor y.

Ly

y

I

2 10 7 ln

M

Dxy

D yy

H/m

D yy M 2 Dkm GMR

k 1' m 1'

It is seldom necessary to calculate the GMR and GMD for stranded lines.

lines

The GMR of stranded conductors is provided by conductor manufacturers

and can be found in various handbooks (see Appendix Tables A.3 and A.4).

Also if the distance between conductors are large compared to distances

between subconductors of each conductor, then the GMD between

conductors is approximately equal to distance between conductors centers.

Example 1

One circuit of a single phase distribution line is composed of

th solid

three

lid 0.25

0 25 cm radius

di wires.

i

The

Th return

t

circuit

i it is

i composedd

of two 0.5 cm radius wires. Find the inductance due to the

current in each side of the line and the complete inductance in

H/m.

11:33

Example 1

One circuit of a single phase distribution line is composed of three solid 0.25

cm radius

di wires.

i

The

Th return circuit

i i is

i composedd off two 0.5

0 5 cm radius

di wires.

i

Find the inductance due to the current in each side of the line and the

complete inductance in H/m.

GMR ( for conductor X)

9

Daa Dab Dac Dba Dbb Dbc Dca Dcb Dcc 0.481m

GMR (for conductor Y)

4

10.74

6.212 10 7 H/m

0.48

10.74

LY 2 10 7 ln

8.503 10 7 H/m

0.153

LX 2 10 7 ln

11:33

29

Area for 26 strands = 26*0.024 = 0.6243 in2 , A=/4 d2

11:33

we have done so far is we have

assumed a symmetrical tower

configuration.

Such a tower

configuration is seldom practical.

Practically the distances between

conductors are not the same i.e.,

Dab Dac Dbc .

Unless something was done this

would result in unbalanced phases..

11:33

30

11:33

spacing/Transposition

To calculate inductance for three-phase lines with stranded conductors and

D

equall phase

h

spacing

i r/ is

i replaced

l d by

b conductor

d t GMR in

i Eq.

E L I 2 10 lnl r

If the spacing between phases are unequal, the balanced positive flux

linkages are not obtained for balanced positive sequence currents. Instead

unbalanced flux linkages occur, and phase inductances are unequal.

However balance can be restored by exchanging the conductor positions

along the line, a technique called SUPERPOSITION.

transposed three-phase line.

The line is transposed at two

locations such that each phase

occupies each position for one

third of the line length.

11:33

31

-7

'

TRANSPOSITION

each with GMR denoted by

Ds.

To calculate the inductance

of this line, assume balanced

positive sequence currents Ia,

Ib, Ic for which Ia,+Ib+Ic =0.

Again Eq. (A) is valid and

the total flux linking the

phase conductor while it is in

position 1, 2 and 3 can be

given by Eq. (1) and the

average of flux linkage by

(2):

a1 2 10 7 I a ln

1

1

1

I b ln

I c ln

DS

D12

D31

1

1

1

a 2 2 10 7 I a ln

I b ln

I c ln

....(1)

D

D

D

S

23

12

a 3 2 10 7 I a ln

11:33

1

1

1

I b ln

I c ln

DS

D31

D23

l

3

l

3

l

l

3 ......(2)

a1 a 2 a 3

TRANSPOSITION

g of the

flux linkage is given by

Eq. (2).

The same result is

obtained for phase b and

c.

However, only one phase

needs to be considered for

balanced

three-phase

operation of a completely

transposed

three-phase

line.

11:33

32

Lb

b

Ib

& Lc

c

Ic

l

3

l

3

l

l

3 a1 a 2 a 3 ...(2)

3

a1 a 2 a 3

1

1

1

2 10 7

I b ln

I c ln

3I a ln

DS

D12 D23 D31

D12 D23 D31

3

I a I b I c

La

2 10 7

3

1

1

I a ln

3I a ln

DS

D12 D23 D31

ln

H / m per phase

3

DS

a

Ia

ln

3

DS

2 10 7 ln

Deq

DS

TRANSPOSITION

Deq is the cube root of the pproduct of the three pphase spacing,

p

g, is the

geometric mean distance between phases.

Also, DS is conductor GMR for stranded conductor, or r/ for cylindrical

conductor

La

a

Ia

ln

3

DS

2 10 7 ln

Deq

DS

11:33

11:33

33

I t

Internal,

l

E t

External

l

andd

t t l

total

inductance are given by (1), (2) and

(3).

The Eq. (A) gives the total flux

linking conductor k in an array of

M conductors carrying I1, I2,IM

whose sum is zero.

Inductance of single phase two wire

line is given by (4).

Inductance of three phase three wire

line with equal spacing is given by

Eq.(5)

int

1

10 7 H / m..((1)

2

12

D2

L12

2 10 7 ln

..(2)

I

D1

Lint

D

2 10 7 ln ' H / m..(3)

r

'

1 / 4

where : r e r

Lp

k 2 10 7 I mln

m 1

1

...( A)

Dkm

D

L 4 10 7 ln ' If r ' x r ' y r '

r

La

D

2 10 - 7 ln ' ...(5)

Ia

r

I t

Internal,

l

E t

External

l

andd

t t l

total

inductance are given by (1), (2) and

(3).

The Eq. (A) gives the total flux

linking conductor k in an array of

M conductors carrying I1, I2,IM

whose sum is zero.

Inductance of single phase two wire

line is given by (4)

Inductance of three phase three wire

line with equal spacing is given by

Eq.(5)

11:33

int

1

10 7 H / m..((1)

2

12

D2

7

L12

2 10 ln

......(2)

I

D1

Lint

D

2 10 7 ln ' H / m..(3)

r

where : r ' e 1/ 4 r

Lp

k 2 10 7 I mln

m 1

1

...( A)

Dkm

D

L 4 10 7 ln ' If r ' x r ' y r ' ...(4)

r

D

La a 2 10 - 7 ln ' ...(5)

Ia

r

Inductance of Composit inductors is

given

i

b Eq.

by

E (6).

(6) Where

Wh

Dxy is

i

called

the

Geometric

Mean

Distance or GMD between the

conductors x and y and Dxx is called

the Geometric Mean Radius or

GMR of conductors x.

Inductance for

unequal phase

spacing with TRANSPOSITION is

given by (7) where Deq is the cube

root of the product of three phase

spacing, is the geometric mean

distance between phases, and Ds is

the conductor GMR for stranded

11:33conductors or r/ for solid conductor..

34

Lx

x

I

2 10 7 ln

N

Dxyy

Dxx

..((6)

D xy MN Dkm GMD

k 1 m 1'

N

D xx N 2 Dkm GMR

k 1 m 1

La

a

Ia

ln

...(7)

3

DS

2 10 7 ln

Deq

DS

Example 2

A completely transposed 60 Hz three phase line has flat

horizontal phase spacing with 10 m between adjacent

conductors. The conductors are 1,590,000 cmil ACSR with

54/3 stranding. Line length is 200 km. Determine the

inductance in H and the inductive reactance in .

11:33

11:33

35

Example 2, Solution

From the p

previous table:

1

0.0159m

3.28

Deq 3 10 *10 * 20 12.6m

GMR 0.052

12.6 H 1000m

La 2 10 7 ln

200km 0.267 H

km

0.0159 m

11:33

Chapter # 4

Transmission Parameters

Week # 6,

6 Lecture 16

Review of Midterm Exam

36

Chapter # 4

Transmission Parameters

Week # 6,

6 Lecture 17

Conductor Bundling

It is common practice for EHV lines to use more than one conductor per

phase called Conductor Bundling.

Bundling reduces the electric field strength at the conductor surface, which

in turn reduces or eliminates corona and it results: undesirable power loss,

communication interference, and audible noise.

Bundling also reduces the series

reactance of the line by

increasing the GMR of the

bundle.

L 2 10 7 ln

11:33

37

Deq

DS

Conductor Bundling

p

by

y GMR of the bundle.

If the conductors are stranded and bundle spacing d is larger compared to

the conductor outside radius, each stranded conductor is first replaced by

an equivalent solid cylindrical conductor with GMR=Ds.

Then the bundle is replaced by one equivalent conductor with GMR=DSL.

DSL for 2, 3, or 4 conductors is given by:

7

L 2 10 ln

l

L 2 10 7 ln

11:33

Deq

DS

Deq

DSL 4 DS d 2

DSL

DS d

d

d

d

DSL 16 DS d d d 2

3 DS d 2

1.0914 DS d 3

11:33

38

DSL 9 DS d d

Example 3

Each of the 1,590,000 cmil conductors in example 2 is replaced

by two 795,000 cmil ACSR 26/2 conductors as shown in the

following figure. Calculate the inductive reactance of the line and

compare it with example 2

04m

0.4

11:33

11:33

39

10 m

Example 3

From the table, the GMR of the conductor is: D 0.0375 ft 1m 0.0

0114m

S

3.28 ft

For a bundle conductor, the GMR is:

The Deq is the same like the previous example and it is 12.6 m

La 2 10 7 ln

04m

0.4

11:33

12.6

1000 200 0.209 H

0.0676

C l i The

Conclusion:

Th inductance

i d t

had

h d reduced

d d from

f

0 267

0.267

H to 0.209 H because of using the bundle conductors.

10 m

Chapter # 4

Transmission Parameters

Week # 6,

6 Lecture 18

40

cylindrical conductor

The shunt capacitance of distribution lines can be ignored. But for certain

cases when the distribution line is long, shunt capacitance cant be ignored.

The capacitance between conductors in a medium with constant permittivity

can be obtained by finding the following:

1) Electric field E, from Gausss law.

2) Voltage between conductors.

3)) Capacitance

p

from charge

g pper unit volt ((C = q/V)

q )

Gauss law: the total electric flux leaving a closed surface equals the total charge

within the volume enclosed by the surface.

11:33

cylindrical conductor

Ed

Eds

Qenclosed

E x (2x)( L)

D2

V12

D1

11:33

41

D2

Ex dx

D1

qL

2x

Ex

dx

q

2

q

2x

ln

D2

D1

cylindrical conductor

Assume each conductor m has

a charge qm C/m, the voltage

Vkim between conductors k and i

due to the charge qm acting

alone is:

Vkim

qm

D

ln im

2 Dkm

Vki

q

2

m 1

ln

Dim

Dkm

11:33

line

Assume conductor x has a uniform charge q C/m

and

d conductor

d

yh

has q. Using

U i the

h previous

i

llast

equation with k = x, i = y and m = x, y

Vxy

D yx

Dyy

Dyx Dxy

1

q

q ln

ln

q ln

2

Dxx

Dxy 2 Dxx Dyy

And if rx ry r, then

Cxyy

Vxy

D

ln

r

X

11:33

42

Cxy

phase spacing

Vab

1

Dba

D

D

qb ln bb qc ln bc

qa ln

2

Daa

Dab

Dac

Using D ab D ca D cb D, D aa D yy r , then

Vab

1

2

1

D

r

D

D

r

qa ln r qb ln D qc ln D 2 qa ln r qb ln D

similarly

Vac

1

D

r

qa ln qc ln

2

r

D

and with q b q c q a

D

1

qa ln

r

2

2

Can

ln( D / r )

Van

1 1

D

r

Van

2qa ln (qb qc ) ln

3 2

r

D

11:33

phase spacing and bundled conductors

C

2

ln( Deq / Dsc )

Dsc rd

Dsc rd 2

4

Dsc 1.091 rd 3

11:33

43

Example 4

A single circuit three phase line operated at 60 Hz is

arranged as shown in the figure. The conductors are ACSR

Drake. Find the capacitance and the capacitive reactance for

1 mile of line.

20

20

38

11:33

11:33

44

Example 4, Solution

1.108

0.0462 ft

2 12

Deq 24.8 ft

2 8.85 10 12

Cn

8.8466 10 12 F / m

ln(24.8 / 0.0462)

11:33

Example 5

For the transmission line configuration mentioned in example 3,

find the shunt capacitance to neutral in S.

04m

0.4

11:33

45

10 m

Example 5, Solution

From the table, the outside diameter

of the conductor is 1.108 inch

1.108

m

in 0.0254 0.0141m

2

in

Deq = 12.6 m from the previous example, so the capacitance is

Can

2 8.854 10 12

1000 200 2.17 10 6 F

12.6

ln

0.075

0.4 m

11:33

10 m

Example 6

11:33

46

three phase completely transposed overhead line having three ACSR

1113-kcmil conductors per bundle with 0.5 m between conductors in the

bundle. The horizontal phase spacing between bundle centers are 10, 10

and 20 meters.

Example 6, solution

Deq 3 10 *10 * 20 12.6m

From the table:

DS 0.0435 *

DSL 3 DS d 2 0.149m

1

0.0133m

3.28

And

12.6

7

L 2 10 7 ln

8.9 10 H / m

0.149

11:33

47

And

1.293

* 0.0254 0.01642m

2

DSC 3 rd 2 0.16m

And

2

1.275 10 11 F / m

12.6

ln

0.16

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