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Chapter 4:Transmission Line Parameters

Dr. Habib-ur Rehman


School of Electrical Engineering & Computer
Science (SEECS)
NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan
11:33

Chapter # 4
Transmission Parameters
Week # 4,
4 Lecture 12

Primary Methods for Power Transfer


The most common methods for transfer of electric
power are
1)

Overhead AC

2)

Underground AC
Overhead DC
Underground DC

3)
4)

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Transmission lines and cables

Extra-high-voltage lines

Voltage: 46 kV, 69 kV
Voltage: 2.4 kV to 46 kV, with 15 kV being the most
commonly used

High-voltage DC lines

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115 kV, 230 kV

Distribution lines

Voltage:

Sub-transmission lines

345 kV, 500 kV, 765 kV

High-voltage lines

Voltage:

Voltage: 120 kV to 600 kV

Transmission Cables
PVC h t
PVC-sheet
Copper screen

Fill
Filler

I l ti
Insulation
Insulation shield

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Transmission Cables

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C d t shield
Conductor
hi ld
Conductor

Transmission lines Parameters

Transmission line has four basic parameters:


1. Series Resistance.
2. Series Inductance.
3. Shunt Capacitance.
4. Shunt Conductance.
We also investigate transmission line electric and magnetic field.
Although the ideas developed in this chapter can be applied to
underground transmission and distribution,
distribution the primary focus here is on
overhead lines.
Underground transmission is very less and is found mostly in large cities
or under waterway. There is, however, a large application for underground
cable in distribution systems.

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Transmission lines Parameters

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Series resistance accounts for ohmic (I2R) line losses.


Series impedance including resistance and reactance, gives
rise to series voltage drop along the line.
Shunt capacitance gives rise to line charging currents.
Shunt conductance accounts for V2G line losses due to
leakage currents between conductors or between conductors
and ground.
Shunt conductance of over head lines is usually neglected.

4.1: Transmission Lines Design Considerations

Three-phase conductors,
which
hi h carry the
th electric
l ti
current.
Insulators, which support
and electrically isolate the
conductors.
Tower, which holds the
insulators and conductors.
Foundation and grounding.
Shield conductors, which
protect against lightning.

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4.1: Transmission Lines Design Considerations

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4.1: Transmission Lines Design Considerations

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4.1: Transmission Lines Design Considerations

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4.1: Transmission Lines Design Considerations


Shield conductor

Shield
conductor
Insulator

Composite
insulator

Phase
conductor

Steel tower

Tower

69kV
Li
Line

Two
conductor
bundle

Crossarm

Composite
Insulator

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4.1: Transmission Lines Design Considerations


Shield
conductor
Double circuit
69 kV line
Distribution line
12.47kV

Wooden tower

Distribution Line
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4.1: Transmission Lines Design Considerations

Distribution line

Insulator

Surge arrester

Fuse cutout

Transformer

Transformers

240V/120V
insulated line

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4.1: Transmission Lines Design Considerations

Span
Tension Tower

Supporting
Tower
Insulator

Sag

Definition of Parameters

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Tension Tower

4.1:Transmission lines Conductors

Aluminum
Al
min m Conductor
Cond ctor
Steel Reinforced
(ACSR);
All Aluminum
Conductor (AAC); and
All Aluminum
Al i
Alloy
All
Conductor (AAAC).

ACSR Conductor
Aluminum outer strands
2 layers, 30 conductors

Steel core strands,


7 conductors

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4.1: Transmission lines Conductors

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Aluminum has replaced copper as the most common


conductor metal for overhead transmission. Although larger
aluminum cross-sectional area is required to obtain the same
loss in a copper conductor, aluminum has a lower cost a
lighter weight.
Also, the supply of aluminum is abundant, whereas that of
copper is limited.
One of the most common conductor type is aluminum
Aluminum outer strands
conductor, steel-reinforced (ACSR).
2 layers, 30 conductors
ACSR consists of layers of
aluminum strands surrounding a
Steel core strands,
7 conductors
central core of steel strands.

4.1: Transmission lines Conductors

Stranded conductors are easier to manufacture, since larger


conductor size can be obtained by simply adding successive
layers of strands.
Stranded conductors are easier to handle and more flexible
than solid conductors, especially in larger size.
The use of steel strands gives ACSR conductors a high
strength-to-weight
g
g ratio.
For the purpose of heat dissipation, overhead transmission line
conductors are bare.

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4.1:Transmission lines Conductors

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10

EHV lines often have more than one conductor per phase;
these conductors are called bundle.
The 765 KV line could have four bundle conductors per
phase, 500 KV line may have three while 345 may have two
bundle conductors per phase.
Bundle conductors have lower electric field strength at the
conductor surfaces, therebyy reducingg corona.
They also have a smaller series reactance.

4.1:Transmission lines Insulator


Insulators for transmission lines above 69 KV are suspension
type insulators, which consists of a string of discs, typically
porcelain.
The number of disc insulators increase with the line voltage.

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4.1: Transmission lines Insulator


Insulators
Locking Key
Insulator's Head
Expansion Layer

Iron Cap
Ball Socket
Compression
Loading
Cement

Imbedded Sand

Insulating Glass
or Porcelain

Ski
Skirt
Petticoats
Corrosion Sleeve
for DC Insulators

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11

Steel Pin
Ball

4.1: Transmission lines Insulator


Insulator Chain
Line Voltage

Number of Insulators
per String

69 kV

46

115 kV

79

138 kV

810

230 kV

12

345 kV

18

500 kV

24

765 kV

3035

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4.1:Transmission lines Insulator


Composite insulator:
1) Sheds of alternating diameters prevent bridging by ice,
ice snow and
cascading rain.
2) Fiberglass reinforced resin rod.
3) Injection molded rubber (EPDM or Silicone) weather sheds and rod
covering.
4) Forged steel end fitting, galvanized and joined to rod by swaging
process.
1

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12

4.1: Transmission lines Insulator


1) iis th
the clevis
l i ball,
b ll
2) is the socket for the
clevis,
3) is the yoke plate, and
4) is the suspension
clamp.
p ((Source:
Sediver)
Line post-composite insulator with
yoke holding two conductors.
11:33

11:33

13

4.3: Conductance

Conductance accounts for real ppower loss:


1. Between conductor.
2. Between conductors and ground.
For overhead lines, this power loss is due to leakage at
insulators and to corona.
Insulator leakage current depends on the amount of dirt, salt,
andd other
th contaminants
t i t that
th t have
h
accumulated
l t d on insulator,
i l t as
well as meteorological factors, particularly the presence of
moisture.

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4.3: Conductance

CORONA occurs when a high


g value of electric field strength
g
at a conductor surface causes the air to become electrically
ionized and to conduct.
The real power loss due to corona, called corona loss,
depends on metrological conditions particularly rain, and on
conductor surface irregularities.
Losses due to insulator leakage and corona are usually small
compared to conductor I2R losses.
Conductance is usually neglected in power system studies
because it is very small component of shunt admittance.
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14

Chapter # 4
Transmission Parameters
Week # 5,
5 Lecture 13+Quiz

4.2: Resistance

The DC resistance of a solid round conductor at a


specific
ifi temperature
t
t
is
i given
i
by:
b

Where:
T = Conductor resistivity at temperature T
l = Conductor length
A = Conductor cross sectional area
The conductor resistance is affected by three factors:
1)
Spiraling
2)
Temperature
3)
Frequency: skin effect

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15

RDC ,T

T l
A

4.2: Resistance
1)

SPIRALING: For stranded conductors, alternate


l
layers
off strands
t d are spiraled
i l d in
i opposite
it direction
di ti to
t
hold the strands together. Spiraling makes the
strands 1 or 2 % longer than the actual conductor
length. As a result the DC resistance of a stranded
conductor is 1 or 2 % larger than that calculated
from the dc resistance equation for a specific
conductor length.
2) TEMPERATURE: Resistivity of conductor metal
varies linearly over normal operating temperature
according to Eq:
T is the temperature constant that depends upon the
conductor material. T2 and T1 are resistivities at
temperature T2 and T1 respectively.

T2 T

T
1

T 2 T 1

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4.2: Resistance
3)

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16

FREQUENCY (SKIN EFFECT): The ac resistance or effective


P
Rac loss

resistance of a conductor is:


I2
Where Ploss is the conductor real power loss in watts and I is rms
conductor current.
For dc, the current distribution is uniform throughout the conductor
cross section. However, for ac current distribution is nonuniform. As
frequency increases, the current in solid conductor tends to crowd
towards the conductor surface, with smaller current density at the center.
This phenomenon is call SKIN EFFECT.
EFFECT
A conductor with large radius can have even oscillatory current density
versus the radial distance from the conductor center. With the increasing
frequency, conductor loss increases, which increases the ac resistance.
At power frequencies ac resistance is at least a few percent higher than
the dc resistance. Conductors manufacturers normally provide dc
resistance based on test data.

Chapter # 4
Transmission Parameters
Week # 5,
5 Lecture 14

4.4: Inductance: Solid Cylindrical


Conductor

The inductance of a magnetic


g
circuit has a constant ppermeability
y
that can be obtained by determining the following:
1) Magnetic field intensity H, from Amperes law,
2) Magnetic flux density B (B = H),
3) Flux linkage ,
4) Inductance from flux linkage per ampere (L= /I)

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17

4.4: Internal Inductance of Solid


Cylindrical Conductor

To determine the magnetic field


i t it inside
intensity
i id the
th contour,
t
select
l t
a circle of radius x<r as a closed
contour for Amperes law.
The integral of Hx around the
selected contour is given by Eq.
(1).
Where Ix is portion of total
current around the contour.
contour
Assuming a uniform current
distribution within the conductor
Ix can be given by Eq. (2):

H dl I

enclosed
l d

H x (2x) I x forx r ..(1)


Hx

Ix
2x
2

xI
x
I x I ( 2) H x
2r 2
r

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4.4: Internal Inductance of Solid


Cylindrical Conductor

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18

Assuming
nonmagnetic
conductor,
d t
th magnetic
the
ti flux
fl
density Bx is given by Eq (3):
The differential flux d per unit
length of conductor in the crosssectional rectangle of width dx
shown in figure is given by (4).
The differential flux linkage d
in the rectangle is tricky.
tricky Since
only fraction (x/r)2 of total
current I is linked by the flux.
Thus the flux linkage is give by
Eq. (5)

o xI
...... .(3)
2r 2
xI
d Bx dx o 2 dx ....(4)
2r
Bx o H

x3 I
x
d d ....(5) 0 4 dx
2r
r

4.4: Internal Inductance of Solid


Cylindrical Conductor

Integrating d from
x=00 to
t x=r determines
d t
i
the total flux linkage
int
inside
the
conductor given by Eq.
(6).
The internal inductance
Lint due per unit length
of conductor due to
this flux inside the
conductor
can
be
calculated by Eq. (7)

0 x 3 I
dx
2r 4
r
0 I r 3
I
int d
x dx
d o ........((6)
4
2r 0
8
0
d

Lint

int
I

o 1
10 7 H / m....(7)
8 2

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4.4: External Inductance of Solid


Cylindrical Conductor

To determine the magnetic field H x (2x) I H x I


for x r
2x
i t it outside
intensity
t id the
th conductor,
d t
I
select a dashed circle of radius x>r
Bx 0 H x 4 10 7
as a closed contour for Amperes
2x
law.
I
2 10 7
Noting that the contour encloses
x
the entire current I, integration
I
d Bx dx 2 10 7 dx
yields,
x
Since the entire current I is linked
D2
D1
by the flux outside the contour,

d d 2 10 7
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19

I
dx
x

4.4: External Inductance of Solid Cylindrical


Conductor
Integrating between two external points at a distance D1 and D2 from the
conductor center gives the external flux linkage 12 between D1 and D2
given by Eq. (8), The external inductance per unit length can be then
calculated by Eq (9)

D2

12 d 2 10 7 I
D1

dx
x
D1

D2
2 10 7 I ln
........(8)
D1
L12

D2

D1

D2

12

D2
2 10 7 ln
.....(9)
I
D1

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4.4: Total Inductance of Solid Cylindrical


Conductor

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20

The total flux linkage


g pp
linking the conductor out to
external point P at distance p
D is the sum of the internal
and external flux linkages.
For a single conductor the
total flux linkage at any
point D external to the
conductor can be calculated
by setting D1=r and D2=D.
Thus, the total inductance
LP due to both internal and
external flux linkages out to
distance D is give by (10)

1
1
1
D
10- 7 I 2 10- 7 I ln but 2 ln e 4
2
2
r

D
D

2 10- 7 I ln e1 / 4 ln 2 10- 7 I ln 1 / 4
r

e r
D
2 10- 7 I ln ' where : r ' e 1 / 4 r
r

Lp

D
2 10 7 ln ' H / m....(10)
I
r

Total Inductance at any external point due to


array of M solid cylindrical conductors

Finally, consider the array of M solid cylindrical conductors shown.


Assume that each conductor m carries current Im referenced out of the
page. Also assume that the sum of conductors currents is zero.
M

The flux linkage kpk, which


links conductor k out to
point p due to current Ik is
ggiven by:
y

kpk 2 10- 7 I k ln

I1 I1 ....... I M I m
m 1

DPk
...(1)
rk'

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Total Inductance at Any external Point due to


array of M solid cylindrical conductors

DPk
Note that kpk includes both internal and
-7
kpk
...(1)
k k 2 10 I k ln
external
t
l flux
fl linkages
li k
d to
due
t currentt Ik.
r' k
The flux linkage kpm, which links
D
conductor k out to p due to Im is give by
kpm 2 10 - 7 I m ln Pm ....(2)
Eq. (2).
Dkm
Using superposition, the total flux
linkage kp, which links conductor k out
to p due to all currents is
kp kp1 kp 2 kp 3 .....kpM
M

D pm

m 1

Dkm

2 10 7 I mln
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21

........(3)

Total Inductance at Any external Point due to


array of M solid cylindrical conductors
1

Where we define Dkk rk' e 4 rk


M
D ppm
kp 2 10 7 I mln
....((3)
when m=k in the above summation.
m 1
Dkm
Equation (3) can be separated into two
summations as:

kp 2 10 7 I mln
m 1

M
1
2 10 7 I mln D pm
m 1
Dkm

Removing the last term from second


summation

1
M

I mln

Dkm
7 m 1
kp 2 10

M 1

m1 I mln D pm I M ln D pM
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Total Inductance at Any external Point due to


array of M solid cylindrical conductors
M 1
M

1
I mln D pm I M ln D pM
kp 2 10 7 I mln
m 1
m

1
Dkm

M 1

I M I1 I 2 I 3 ........ I M 1 I m
m 1

M 1

1
I mln D pm I mln D pM
kp 2 10 7 I mln
m 1
Dkm m 1
m 1

M 1
M
D pm
1
2 10 7 I mln
I mln
..........(4)
Dkm m 1
D pM
m 1
M

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22

M 1

Total Inductance at any external point due to


array of M solid cylindrical conductors

11:33

Now let k equal the total flux linking conductor


k
kp
k outt to
t infinity.
i fi it That
Th t is,
i
p
As p all distances Dpm become equal. The
ratio Dpm/DPM becomes unity and ln(Dpm/DPM)
0.
M
1
7
Therefore, the second summation in Eq. (4) k 2 10 I mln
m 1
Dkm
becomes zero as p , and.
The Eq. (5) gives the total flux linking conductor .......................( A)
k in
i an array off M conductors
d
carrying
i
I1,
I2,IM whose sum is zero.
This equation is valid for DC or AC currents, k
is dc flux linkage when the currents are dc and
k is a phasor flux linkage when currents are
phasor representation of sinusoid.

lim

4.5: Inductance of single-phase, two-wire line

A single phase two wire line is


shown
h
i figure.
in
fi
C d t x with
Conductor
ith
radius rx carries phasor current Ix=I
referenced out the page. Conductor y
with the radius ry carries return
current Iy= -I. The sum of the two
currents is zero using equation
derived for multiple conductors
earlier the total flux linkingg
conductor x is.

k 2 10 7 I mln
m 1

1
Dkm

1
1

I y ln
x 2 10- 7 I x ln
D

D
xx
xy

1
1

x 2 10- 7 I ln ' I ln
r x
D

D
x 2 10- 7 I ln '
r x
D
y 2 10- 7 I ln '
r y

where : r ' x e 1/ 4 rx
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23

4.5: Inductance of single-phase, two-wire line

The
inductance
of

D
Lx x 2 10 7 ln ' H / m per conductor...(1)
conductor x is then given
Ix
r x
by Eq. (1).
y
D
7
Similarly the inductance & Ly 2 10 ln '
Iy
r y
of conductor y can be
D
D
given by Eq. (2) and the
L Lx Ly 2 10 7 ln ' ln '
ry
total inductance can then
rx
calculated.
D
D2

2 10 7 ln ' ' 4 10 7 ln
r 'xr ' y
r xr y

D
If r ' x r ' y r ' L 4 10 7 ln '
r
11:33

4.5: Inductance of three-phase, three-wire


line with equal phase spacing

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24

Figure shows a three phase


th
three-wire
i line
li consisting
i ti off
three cylindrical conductors
a, b, c, each with the radius r
and with equal phase
spacing D between any two
conductors.
Assuming balanced positive
sequence
currents
that
satisfy Ia+Ib+Ic=0.
Thus the inductance of
phase can given by (1)
La

a
Ia

D
2 10- 7 ln '
r

1
1
1
a 2 10- 7 I a ln ' I b ln I c ln
r
D
D

1
1
a 2 10- 7 I a ln ' (I b I c ) ln
r
D

1
1
a 2 10- 7 I a ln ' I a ln
D
r

D

a 2 10- 7 I a ln '
r

4.5: Inductance of three-phase, three-wire


with equal phase spacing
Due to symmetry, the same results are obtained for Lb=b/Ib and for Lc=
c/Ic. However,
H
only
l one phase
h
needs
d to
t be
b considered
id d for
f balanced
b l
d three
th
phase operation of this line, since the flux linkage of each phase have equal
magnitudes and 120o displacement.

D
D
D
La 2 10- 7 ln ' , Lb 2 10- 7 ln ' , Lc 2 10 - 7 ln '
r
r
r

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Chapter # 4
Transmission Parameters
Week # 5,
5 Lecture 15

25

4.6: Inductance of composite/stranded


conductors

11:33

The results for single phase two


wire and three phase three wire
lines will be now extended to
composite/stranded conductor.
Figure shows single phase twoconductor line consisting of two
composite conductors x and y.
Conductor x has n identical
conductors, each with radius rx and
with current (I/N) referenced out of
the page.
Similarly conductor y consists of M
identical subconductors, each with
radius ry and with return current (I/M).

4.6: Inductance of composite/stranded


conductors
Since the sum of all
currents is zero, Eq. (A)
is valid and total flux
linking subconductor k
of conductor x is given
by Eq. (1)
N
I M
1
1
7 I

2
10
ln
ln

..(1)

Since only a fraction I/N


N
D
M
D
m 1'
km
km
m 1
of the total current I is
li k d by
linked
b this
hi flux,
fl
the
h
1 N
1
1 M
1

k k 2 10 7 I 2 ln
1' ln D
flux linkage k of (the
N
N
D
NM
m

1
m
km
km

current in) subconductor


k is,
N
N
N
M

The total flux linkage of x k 2 10 7 I 12 ln 1 1 ln 1 ....(2


N
D
NM
D
k 1
K 1
m 1
m 1'
km
km
conductor x is:
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26

4.6: Inductance of composite/stranded


conductors

ln A ln A
Using
and
ln Ak ln Ak
i.e, (sum of ln s=ln of
products), Eq. (2) for flux
linkage can be modified
as:
And the inductance of
conductor x, Lx can be
given Eq. (3)

N
N
1
x k 2 10 7 I 2
k 1
K 1 N

ln D
m 1

km

1 M
1
ln ....((2)
NM m 1' Dkm
1 /NM

x 2 10 7 I ln

Dkm
m 1'

1 /N 2

Dkm
m 1

xy
Lx x 2 10 7 ln
...((3)
I
Dxx
k 1

D xy MN Dkm GMD....(4)
k 1 m 1'
N

D xx N 2 Dkm GMR

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k 1 m 1

4.6: Inductance of composite/stranded


conductors

Dxy, given by Eq. (4) is the MNth root of the product of MN distances from
th sub-conductors
the
b
d t off conductors
d t x to
t the
th sub-conductors
b
d t off conductor
d t y.
Associated with each sub-conductor k of conductor x are the M distances
Dk1/, ,Dk2/, ..DkM to the sub-conductors of conductor y.
For N sub-conductors in conductor x, there are therefore MN of these
distances.
Dxy is called the Geometric Mean Distance or GMD between the conductors
x and y.
1 /N
/NM

x 2 10 7 I ln

27

1 /N 2

Dkm
m 1

D
x
xy
Lx
2 10 7 ln
...(3)
I
Dxx
k 1

11:33

Dkm

m 1'
N

D xy MN Dkm GMD...(4)
k 1 m 1'
N

D xx N 2 Dkm GMR....(5)
k 1 m 1

4.6: Inductance of composite/stranded


conductors

Dxx, given by Eq. (5) is the N2 root of the product of N2 distances between
the subconductors of conductors x.
Associated with each subconductor k of conductor x are the N distances
Dk1, Dk2, ..Dkk =r /, ..,DkN.
For N subconductors in conductor x, there are therefore N2 of these
distances.
Dxx is called the Geometric Mean Radius or GMR of conductors x.
1 /NM

x 2 10 7 I ln

1 /N 2

Dkm
m 1

Dxy
x
7
Lx
2 10 ln
...(3)
I
Dxx
k 1

11:33

Dkm

m 1'
N

D xy MN Dkm GMD...(4)
k 1 m 1'
N

D xx N 2 Dkm GMR....(5)
k 1 m 1

4.6: Inductance of composite/stranded


conductors

11:33

28

Similarly inductance of conductor


y can be
b given
i
b
by:
Dyy is the GMR of conductor y, is
the M2 root of the product of the
M2
distances
between
subconducotors of conductor y.

Ly

y
I

2 10 7 ln
M

Dxy
D yy

H/m

D yy M 2 Dkm GMR
k 1' m 1'

The total inductance L of the single phase circuit is L=Lx+Ly.


It is seldom necessary to calculate the GMR and GMD for stranded lines.
lines
The GMR of stranded conductors is provided by conductor manufacturers
and can be found in various handbooks (see Appendix Tables A.3 and A.4).
Also if the distance between conductors are large compared to distances
between subconductors of each conductor, then the GMD between
conductors is approximately equal to distance between conductors centers.

Example 1
One circuit of a single phase distribution line is composed of
th solid
three
lid 0.25
0 25 cm radius
di wires.
i
The
Th return
t
circuit
i it is
i composedd
of two 0.5 cm radius wires. Find the inductance due to the
current in each side of the line and the complete inductance in
H/m.

11:33

Example 1
One circuit of a single phase distribution line is composed of three solid 0.25
cm radius
di wires.
i
The
Th return circuit
i i is
i composedd off two 0.5
0 5 cm radius
di wires.
i
Find the inductance due to the current in each side of the line and the
complete inductance in H/m.

GMD 6 Dad Dae Dbd Dbe Dcd Dce 10.74m


GMR ( for conductor X)
9

Daa Dab Dac Dba Dbb Dbc Dca Dcb Dcc 0.481m
GMR (for conductor Y)
4

Ddd Dde Dee Ded 0.153m

10.74
6.212 10 7 H/m
0.48
10.74
LY 2 10 7 ln
8.503 10 7 H/m
0.153
LX 2 10 7 ln

11:33

29

Area (for single strand) = r2 = (0.1749/2)2 = 0.024 in2


Area for 26 strands = 26*0.024 = 0.6243 in2 , A=/4 d2
11:33

So area in cmil = 2.498/0.0000007854 = 795 000 cmil

4.6: Inductance of unequal phase spacing

The problem with the line analysis


we have done so far is we have
assumed a symmetrical tower
configuration.
Such a tower
configuration is seldom practical.
Practically the distances between
conductors are not the same i.e.,
Dab Dac Dbc .
Unless something was done this
would result in unbalanced phases..

765 Kv Transmission Line


11:33

30

4.6: Inductance of unequal phase spacing

11:33

4.6: Inductance of unequal phase


spacing/Transposition
To calculate inductance for three-phase lines with stranded conductors and

D
equall phase
h
spacing
i r/ is
i replaced
l d by
b conductor
d t GMR in
i Eq.
E L I 2 10 lnl r
If the spacing between phases are unequal, the balanced positive flux
linkages are not obtained for balanced positive sequence currents. Instead
unbalanced flux linkages occur, and phase inductances are unequal.
However balance can be restored by exchanging the conductor positions
along the line, a technique called SUPERPOSITION.

Figure shows a completely


transposed three-phase line.
The line is transposed at two
locations such that each phase
occupies each position for one
third of the line length.
11:33

31

-7

'

4.6: Inductance of unequal phase spacing,


TRANSPOSITION

Conductors are identical


each with GMR denoted by
Ds.
To calculate the inductance
of this line, assume balanced
positive sequence currents Ia,
Ib, Ic for which Ia,+Ib+Ic =0.
Again Eq. (A) is valid and
the total flux linking the
phase conductor while it is in
position 1, 2 and 3 can be
given by Eq. (1) and the
average of flux linkage by
(2):

a1 2 10 7 I a ln

1
1
1
I b ln
I c ln

DS
D12
D31

1
1
1
a 2 2 10 7 I a ln
I b ln
I c ln
....(1)
D
D
D
S
23
12

a 3 2 10 7 I a ln

11:33

1
1
1
I b ln
I c ln

DS
D31
D23

l
3

l
3
l

l
3 ......(2)

a1 a 2 a 3

4.6: Inductance of unequal phase spacing,


TRANSPOSITION

Thus the average


g of the
flux linkage is given by
Eq. (2).
The same result is
obtained for phase b and
c.
However, only one phase
needs to be considered for
balanced
three-phase
operation of a completely
transposed
three-phase
line.
11:33

32

Lb

b
Ib

& Lc

c
Ic

l
3

l
3
l

l
3 a1 a 2 a 3 ...(2)
3

a1 a 2 a 3

1
1
1
2 10 7
I b ln
I c ln
3I a ln

DS
D12 D23 D31
D12 D23 D31
3
I a I b I c

La

2 10 7
3

1
1
I a ln
3I a ln

DS
D12 D23 D31

2 10 7 3 D12 D23 D31


ln
H / m per phase
3
DS

a
Ia

2 10 7 3 D12 D23 D31


ln
3
DS

2 10 7 ln

Deq
DS

...( 2 ) while Deq 3 D12 D23 D31

4.6: Inductance of unequal phase spacing,


TRANSPOSITION
Deq is the cube root of the pproduct of the three pphase spacing,
p
g, is the
geometric mean distance between phases.
Also, DS is conductor GMR for stranded conductor, or r/ for cylindrical
conductor

La

a
Ia

2 10 7 3 D12 D23 D31


ln
3
DS

2 10 7 ln

Deq
DS

...( 2 ) while Deq 3 D12 D23 D31

11:33

Summary of Inductance Calculation

11:33

33

For a single solid conductor


I t
Internal,
l
E t
External
l
andd
t t l
total
inductance are given by (1), (2) and
(3).
The Eq. (A) gives the total flux
linking conductor k in an array of
M conductors carrying I1, I2,IM
whose sum is zero.
Inductance of single phase two wire
line is given by (4).
Inductance of three phase three wire
line with equal spacing is given by
Eq.(5)

int

1
10 7 H / m..((1)
2
12
D2
L12
2 10 7 ln
..(2)
I
D1

Lint

D
2 10 7 ln ' H / m..(3)
r
'
1 / 4
where : r e r

Lp

k 2 10 7 I mln
m 1

1
...( A)
Dkm

D
L 4 10 7 ln ' If r ' x r ' y r '
r
La

D
2 10 - 7 ln ' ...(5)
Ia
r

Summary of Inductance Calculation

For a single solid conductor


I t
Internal,
l
E t
External
l
andd
t t l
total
inductance are given by (1), (2) and
(3).
The Eq. (A) gives the total flux
linking conductor k in an array of
M conductors carrying I1, I2,IM
whose sum is zero.
Inductance of single phase two wire
line is given by (4)
Inductance of three phase three wire
line with equal spacing is given by
Eq.(5)

11:33

int

1
10 7 H / m..((1)
2
12
D2
7
L12
2 10 ln
......(2)
I
D1

Lint

D
2 10 7 ln ' H / m..(3)
r
where : r ' e 1/ 4 r

Lp

k 2 10 7 I mln
m 1

1
...( A)
Dkm

D
L 4 10 7 ln ' If r ' x r ' y r ' ...(4)
r

D
La a 2 10 - 7 ln ' ...(5)
Ia
r

Summary of Inductance Calculation


Inductance of Composit inductors is
given
i
b Eq.
by
E (6).
(6) Where
Wh
Dxy is
i
called
the
Geometric
Mean
Distance or GMD between the
conductors x and y and Dxx is called
the Geometric Mean Radius or
GMR of conductors x.

Inductance for
unequal phase
spacing with TRANSPOSITION is
given by (7) where Deq is the cube
root of the product of three phase
spacing, is the geometric mean
distance between phases, and Ds is
the conductor GMR for stranded
11:33conductors or r/ for solid conductor..

34

Lx

x
I

2 10 7 ln
N

Dxyy
Dxx

..((6)

D xy MN Dkm GMD
k 1 m 1'
N

D xx N 2 Dkm GMR
k 1 m 1

La

a
Ia

2 10 7 3 D12 D23 D31


ln
...(7)
3
DS

2 10 7 ln

Deq
DS

...( 2 ) while Deq 3 D12 D23 D31

Example 2
A completely transposed 60 Hz three phase line has flat
horizontal phase spacing with 10 m between adjacent
conductors. The conductors are 1,590,000 cmil ACSR with
54/3 stranding. Line length is 200 km. Determine the
inductance in H and the inductive reactance in .

11:33

11:33

35

Example 2, Solution
From the p
previous table:

1
0.0159m
3.28
Deq 3 10 *10 * 20 12.6m

GMR 0.052

12.6 H 1000m
La 2 10 7 ln
200km 0.267 H

km
0.0159 m

11:33

Chapter # 4
Transmission Parameters
Week # 6,
6 Lecture 16
Review of Midterm Exam

36

Chapter # 4
Transmission Parameters
Week # 6,
6 Lecture 17

Conductor Bundling

It is common practice for EHV lines to use more than one conductor per
phase called Conductor Bundling.
Bundling reduces the electric field strength at the conductor surface, which
in turn reduces or eliminates corona and it results: undesirable power loss,
communication interference, and audible noise.
Bundling also reduces the series
reactance of the line by
increasing the GMR of the
bundle.
L 2 10 7 ln

11:33

37

Deq
DS

Conductor Bundling

To calculate the inductance,, Ds is replaced


p
by
y GMR of the bundle.
If the conductors are stranded and bundle spacing d is larger compared to
the conductor outside radius, each stranded conductor is first replaced by
an equivalent solid cylindrical conductor with GMR=Ds.
Then the bundle is replaced by one equivalent conductor with GMR=DSL.
DSL for 2, 3, or 4 conductors is given by:
7

L 2 10 ln
l
L 2 10 7 ln

11:33

Deq
DS
Deq

DSL 4 DS d 2

DSL

DS d

Deq 3 D12 D23 D31

Inductance of bundled conductors


d
d
d

DSL 16 DS d d d 2

3 DS d 2

1.0914 DS d 3

11:33

38

DSL 9 DS d d

Example 3
Each of the 1,590,000 cmil conductors in example 2 is replaced
by two 795,000 cmil ACSR 26/2 conductors as shown in the
following figure. Calculate the inductive reactance of the line and
compare it with example 2

04m
0.4

11:33

11:33

39

10 m

Example 3
From the table, the GMR of the conductor is: D 0.0375 ft 1m 0.0
0114m
S
3.28 ft
For a bundle conductor, the GMR is:

DSL 0.0114 0.4 0.0676m

The Deq is the same like the previous example and it is 12.6 m

La 2 10 7 ln
04m
0.4

11:33

12.6
1000 200 0.209 H
0.0676

C l i The
Conclusion:
Th inductance
i d t
had
h d reduced
d d from
f
0 267
0.267
H to 0.209 H because of using the bundle conductors.

10 m

Chapter # 4
Transmission Parameters
Week # 6,
6 Lecture 18

40

4.8: Electric field and voltage: Solid


cylindrical conductor

The shunt capacitance of distribution lines can be ignored. But for certain
cases when the distribution line is long, shunt capacitance cant be ignored.
The capacitance between conductors in a medium with constant permittivity
can be obtained by finding the following:
1) Electric field E, from Gausss law.
2) Voltage between conductors.
3)) Capacitance
p
from charge
g pper unit volt ((C = q/V)
q )

Gauss law: the total electric flux leaving a closed surface equals the total charge
within the volume enclosed by the surface.

11:33

Electric field and voltage: Solid


cylindrical conductor
Ed
Eds

Qenclosed

E x (2x)( L)
D2

V12

D1

11:33

41

D2

Ex dx

D1

qL

2x

Ex

dx

q
2

q
2x
ln

D2
D1

Electric field and voltage: Solid


cylindrical conductor
Assume each conductor m has
a charge qm C/m, the voltage
Vkim between conductors k and i
due to the charge qm acting
alone is:

Vkim

qm
D
ln im
2 Dkm

Using superposition, the voltage Vki due to all charges is given by :


Vki

q
2
m 1

ln

Dim
Dkm

11:33

Capacitance for single phase two wire


line
Assume conductor x has a uniform charge q C/m
and
d conductor
d
yh
has q. Using
U i the
h previous
i
llast
equation with k = x, i = y and m = x, y

Vxy

D yx
Dyy
Dyx Dxy
1
q
q ln
ln
q ln

2
Dxx
Dxy 2 Dxx Dyy

And if rx ry r, then
Cxyy

Vxy

D
ln
r
X

11:33

42

Cxy

Capacitance for three phase with equal


phase spacing
Vab

1
Dba
D
D
qb ln bb qc ln bc
qa ln
2
Daa
Dab
Dac

Using D ab D ca D cb D, D aa D yy r , then
Vab

1
2

1
D
r
D
D
r

qa ln r qb ln D qc ln D 2 qa ln r qb ln D

similarly
Vac

1
D
r
qa ln qc ln

2
r
D

and with q b q c q a
D
1
qa ln
r
2
2
Can
ln( D / r )

Van

Vab Vac 3Van


1 1
D
r
Van
2qa ln (qb qc ) ln
3 2
r
D
11:33

Capacitance for stranded, unequal


phase spacing and bundled conductors
C

2
ln( Deq / Dsc )

Deq 3 Dab Dbc Dac


Dsc rd

for two - conductor bundle

Dsc rd 2
4

for three - conductor bundle

Dsc 1.091 rd 3
11:33

43

for four - conductor bundle

Example 4
A single circuit three phase line operated at 60 Hz is
arranged as shown in the figure. The conductors are ACSR
Drake. Find the capacitance and the capacitive reactance for
1 mile of line.

20

20

38
11:33

11:33

44

Example 4, Solution
1.108
0.0462 ft
2 12
Deq 24.8 ft

2 8.85 10 12
Cn
8.8466 10 12 F / m
ln(24.8 / 0.0462)

11:33

Example 5
For the transmission line configuration mentioned in example 3,
find the shunt capacitance to neutral in S.

04m
0.4

11:33

45

10 m

Example 5, Solution
From the table, the outside diameter
of the conductor is 1.108 inch

1.108
m
in 0.0254 0.0141m
2
in

DSC 0.0141 0.40 0.075m


Deq = 12.6 m from the previous example, so the capacitance is
Can

2 8.854 10 12
1000 200 2.17 10 6 F
12.6
ln

0.075

Yan jCan j8.19 10 4 S

0.4 m

11:33

10 m

Example 6

11:33

46

Calculate the inductance and capacitance to ground for a bundled 500-kV


three phase completely transposed overhead line having three ACSR
1113-kcmil conductors per bundle with 0.5 m between conductors in the
bundle. The horizontal phase spacing between bundle centers are 10, 10
and 20 meters.

Example 6, solution
Deq 3 10 *10 * 20 12.6m
From the table:

DS 0.0435 *

DSL 3 DS d 2 0.149m

1
0.0133m
3.28

And

12.6
7
L 2 10 7 ln
8.9 10 H / m
0.149

11:33

47

And

1.293
* 0.0254 0.01642m
2

DSC 3 rd 2 0.16m

And

2
1.275 10 11 F / m
12.6
ln

0.16