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A flood is a general and temporary condition where two or more acres of normally dry land or
two or more properties are inundated by water or mudflow. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water
from water bodies, in which the water overtops, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual
boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an area. However
we can prevent a flood, through flood control. This report will discuss about Flood Control.
Causes of Floods
There are many causes of floods: Upslope factors, Downslope factors, and Coincidence

Upslope factors

The amount, location, and timing of water reaching a drainage channel from natural
precipitation and controlled or uncontrolled reservoir releases determines the flow at downstream
locations. Some precipitation evaporates, some slowly percolates through soil, and some may produce
rapid runoff from surfaces including rock, pavement, roofs, and saturated. The fraction of incident
precipitation promptly reaching a drainage channel has been observed from nil for light rain on dry.

Downslope factors

Water flowing downhill ultimately encounters downstream conditions slowing movement.

The final limitation is often the ocean or a natural or artificial lake. Elevation changes such as tidal
fluctuations are significant determinants of coastal and estuarine flooding. Less predictable events
like tsunamis and storm surges may also cause elevation changes in large bodies of water. Elevation
of flowing water is controlled by the geometry of the flow channel. Flow channel restrictions like
bridges and canyons tend to control water elevation above the restriction. The actual control point for
any given reach of the drainage may change with changing water elevation, so a closer point may
control for lower water levels until a more distant point controls at higher water levels.


Extreme flood events often result from coincidence such as unusually intense, warm rainfall
melting heavy snow pack, producing channel obstructions from floating ice, and releasing small
impoundments like beaver dams. Coincident events may cause extensive flooding to be more frequent
than anticipated from simplistic statistical prediction models considering only precipitation runoff
flowing within unobstructed drainage channels. Debris modification of channel geometry is common
when heavy flows move uprooted woody vegetation and flood-damaged structures and vehicles,
including boats and railway equipment.

Flood Control
Flood control is an act or technique of controlling water cause by river flows, and other causes of
flood. It also refers to all methods used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters.

Methods of Controlling Floods

There are many types of controlling flood through uses of: Dams, Water-Gate, Diversion canals,
Self-closing flood barrier, River defenses, Coastal defenses, Temporary perimeter barriers, and Property
level protection.


Many dams and their associated reservoirs are designed completely or partially to aid in flood
protection and control. Many large dams have flood-control reservations in which the level of a
reservoir must be kept below a certain elevation before the onset of the rainy/summer melt season to
allow a certain amount of space in which floodwaters can fill. The term dry dam refers to a dam that
serves purely for flood control without any conservation storage


The Water-Gate Flood barrier is a rapid response barrier which can be rolled out in a matter
of minutes. It is unique in the way that it self deploys using the weight of water to hold it back.

Diversion canals

Floods can be controlled by redirecting excess water to purpose-built canals or floodways,

which in turn divert the water to temporary holding ponds or other bodies of water where there is a
lower risk or impact to flooding.

Self-closing flood barrier

The self-closing flood barrier (SCFB) is a flood defense system designed to protect people
and property from inland waterway floods caused by heavy rainfall. The SCFB can be built to protect
residential properties and whole communities, as well as industrial or other strategic areas. The
barrier system is constantly ready to deploy in a flood situation, it can be installed in any length and
uses the rising flood water to deploy

River defenses

In many countries, rivers are prone to floods and are often carefully managed. Defenses such
as levees, bunds, reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent rivers from bursting their banks. When
these defenses fail, emergency measures such as sandbags, hydro sacks or portable inflatable tubes
are used.

Coastal defenses

Tide gates are used in conjunction with dykes and culverts. They can be placed at the mouth
of streams or small rivers, where an estuary begins or where tributary streams, or drainage ditches
connect to sloughs. Tide gates close during incoming tides to prevent tidal waters from moving
upland, and open during outgoing tides to allow waters to drain out via the culvert and into the
estuary side of the dike. The opening and closing of the gates is driven by a difference in water level
on either side of the gate.

Temporary perimeter barriers

In 1988, a method of using water to control was discovered. This was accomplished by containing 2
parallel tubes within a third outer tube. When filled, this structure formed a non-rolling