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MICROWAVES

BY
Prof.Dr. FLZ GNE

YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY


ELECTRIC AND ELECTRONIC FACULTY
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS
ENGINEERING,BEKTA-STANBUL
14th July 2003,Summer School

REFERENCES
1. David K. CHENG , Field And Wave Electromagnetics , Addison
- Wesley Publishing
2. Umran S. INAN - Aziz S.INAN , Electromagnetics Engineering ,
Addison - Wesley Publishing
3. David M. POZAR , Microwave Engineering , Addison - Wesley
Publishing
4. Robert E. COLLN , Foundations For Microwave Engineering ,
McGraw - Hill Inc.,1992
5. Peter A.RIZZI , Passive Microwawe Engineering , Prentice - Hall
International

SUBJECTS
Part 1 : Transmission Line Theory
Part 2 : Impedance Transformation And Matching
Part 3 : Rectangular And Circular Waveguides

LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC CIRCUITS


AND TRANSMISSION LINES
Transmission lines differ from the low-frequency
electric circuits in the following features :

Maximum physical dimension of a low-frequency electric


circuit is very much smaller than the operation wavelength , so the
propagation time for an electric signal is so short that it does not need
to be taken into account;

Transmission lines are usually a considerable multiples of


wavelength and may even be many wavelengths long , so
PROPAGATION TIME for the electric signal along the line has to be
taken into account;

The elements in a low- frequency electric circuit can be


described by lumped parameters so that currents flowing in lumped
circuit elements do not vary specially along the elements,and no
standing waves exist LUMPED-PARAMETER CIRCUIT;

A transmission line,on the other hand can be considered as


a DISTRIBUTED-PARAMETER CIRCUIT which can be described
by the circuit parameters distributed throughout its length.Except
matched conditions,STANDING WAVES exist in a transmission
line.In otherwords, voltages and currents can vary in magnitude and
phase over the length of the transmission line DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER CIRCUIT;

VOLTAGE AND CURRENT ON A TRANSMISSION-LINE

Equivalent circuits of differential length dz s of the twoconductor lossy and lossless transmission lines can be given by the
circuits in the Fig-2 and 3,respectively.

A transmission line, in a differential length dz , can be described


by the following four parameters;
R , resistance per unit length in /m
L , inductance per unit length in H/m
G ,conductance per unit length in S/m
C ,capacitance per unit length in F/m

where R and L are the series elements, G and C are the shunt
elements.R and G equals to zero in an ideal (lossless) transmission
line as shown in Fig. 3.
If the quantities V(z,t) and V(z+dz,t) denote the instantenous
voltages at z and z+dz positions of the line respectively ; the relation
betweeen these instantenous voltages can be given as follows:

V ( z + dz , t ) = V ( z , t ) +

V
dz
z

(1)

Similary , if the quantities I(z,t) and I(z+dz,t) denote the instantenous


currents at z and z+dz respectively ; the relation betweeen these
instantenous currents can be expressed as follows:

I ( z + dz ) = I ( z , t ) +

I
dz
z

(2)

Applying the Kirschhoffs voltage law to the equivalent circuit of the


ideal (lossless) transmission line in Fig.3, we obtain ;

V ( z , t ) + Ldz

I ( z , t )
+ V ( z + dz , t ) = 0
t

(3)

which leads to;

V(z + dz, t) V(z, t)


I(z, t)
=L
dz
t

in the limit z

0,

(4)

equation(4) becomes

V (z, t)
I(z, t)
= L
t
z

(5)

Similarly, applying theKirschhoffs current law to the ideal


transmission line in Figure-3,we have:

I(z, t ) + Cdz

V(z + dz, t )
+ I(z + dz, t ) = 0
t

(6)

Dividing dz and letting dz approach zero,equation (6) becomes,

I(z, t )
V (z, t )
=C
z
t

(7)

So equations ( 6) and ( 7) give the relations between voltage and


current at the instant t and on location z of an ideal transmision line.
VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WAVES ON
AN IDEAL TRANSMISSION LINES
If the partial derivatives of the equations (5) and (7) with respect to
the time and space are taken respectively and then combined together
, one obtains ONE DIMENSIONAL CURRENT WAVE EQUATION:

2
V (z, t)
zt

2
I(z, t)
= L
2
t

I(z, t)

= C
2
z

V (z, t)
t z

2 I( z, t ) 2 I( z, t )
2 I( z, t )
2 I( z, t )
LC
=

LC
=0
2
2
2
2
t
z
z
t

(8)

(9)

(10)

Since similiar process can be repeated for the voltage on the


transmission line, so one can define ONE DIMENSIONAL WAVE
OPERATOR:

V(z,t)
2
2
LC
=0

2
2
z
z I(z,t)

where v =

1
LC

One dimensional wave equation

m/s is the phase velocity.

(11)
(12)

If the u(z,t) denotes the solution of the one dimensional wave


equation in (11) which can be either the voltage or current wave , so
general expression of the u(z,t) can be given as follows:
(13)

So the voltage waves can be expressed as follows:

z
z
V(z,t)= V+f +(t ) + Vf (t + )
v
v

(14)

In equation (14) , V + and V - denote amplitudes of the voltage waves


propagating with the phase velocity v in +z and z directions,
respectively.
Substituting (14) in the relations given by (5) and (7) , one can write
the following expressions for the current waves:

z
z
I(z,t)= I+f +(t ) If (t + )
v
v

(15)

I + = v.C.V +
I - = v.C.V -

(16)

By using equations given by (16) , we have

Z C =

ZC

V+
V=
=
I+
I-

(v C )

=
C
LC

-1
=

L
C

(17)

is called the characteristic impedance of the line.

Using the equation (17) , we can express current waves in terms of


the voltage waves:

V+ +
z
I(z,t) =
f (t )
Z
v
c

z
V- f (t + )
v
Zc

(18)

VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WAVES ON A SEMI-INFINITE


LOSSLESS TRANSMISSION LINE

If there is no reflection wave,such as in the case of the semi-infinite


transmission line ,so the voltage and current waves have only single
component propagating in +z direction :

z
V + f + (t )
v
V+ +
z
I(z,t) =
f (t )
Zc
v

V(z,t) =

(19)

If we apply the Kirschhoff s voltage law at the location of the z=0 ,


we have
(20)

Vg (t) = V(0, t) + I(0, t) R g

Using

f + ( t ) = f + (0, t )

(21)

Then the expression (20) becomes


Vg ( t ) = V + f + ( t ) +

So

V + f + (t)

V +f + (t ) =

V+
R g f + (t)
Z
C

(22 )

is obtained from the equation (22) as

Z
C V (t )
Z + Rg g
C

(23)

So the voltage and current expressions at the t instant and on the z


location of the transmission line can be given as

V (z, t) =

ZC
ZC + R

Vg (t

z
)
v

(24)

I(z, t) =

v=

where

1
+ R

1
LC

V
g

and

(t

ZC =

z
)
v

(25)

L
.
C

Using the equation (23), the equivalent circuit of a semi-infinite


transmision line at the z=0 location can be given as shown in
Figure 4.

Figure-4

The input impedance of a semi-infinite transmission line at the z=0


position , is equal to the characteristic impedance of the line :

in

= Z

(26)

TERMINATED LINE : RESISTIVE TERMINATION

RL

10

Boundary conditions at the z=0 location are as follows:


V

, t)= VL = ILR

I( , t ) = I L

(27)

(28)

+
(1) If RL = Zc , V ( , t ) = V L = I ( , t )Z C is satisfied by only V ( , t)
and I + ( , t ) waves The energy carried by the incident wave is
completely absorbed by the load . V ( , t ) = 0

( 2 ) R L Z C in order that the boundary conditions given by (27) and


(28) to be satisfied the reflected wave components have to exist. Now
the generation of the reflected wave will be formulated in terms of the
source voltage waveform. Firstly the voltage wave incident across the
load can be expressed in terms of the the source voltage waveform as
i ( , t ) =

ZC

g t = V + g t
ZC + R g

( 29 )

and the current through the load is given by


Ii ( , t) =

1
i ( , t)
ZC

( 30 )

Since there exists the only single wave component until the waves
come to the load , so we can express the reflected voltage wave
component as

r (z, t ) = V g t



(31)
z 2

r (z , t ) = V g t +

11

The reflected voltage and current waves of the load can be given as

r ( , t ) = V g t I r ( , t ) = V g t

ZC

(32)
The boundary condition is L = ( , t ) = I ( , t )R L and substituting
the incident and reflected wave expressions into the boundary
condition, we have

L (z, t ) =

(V + V )g t R L
ZC

L (z , t ) = ( V + + V ) g t

(33)

So using (33) , the reflection coefficient can be defined as

V
=
V

R
R

L
L

Z
+ Z

(34)

Properties :
g 1

(Termination by the Characteristic imp. )


RL=ZC V+=0
+
RL=0 L = 1 V= -V
(Short-circuit Termination)
+
RL L = 1 V =V
(Open-circuit Termination)
(z,t) , i(z,t) at the location of z=0 should satisfy the boundary
condition

12

Figure 6

If we make g(t) = 0 , at z = 0 and applying the Kirschhoff


Voltage and Current Laws, we obtain

g =

ZC

+ ZC

. So , for Rg

ZC ,there is a reflected wave travelling towards the load too.

MULTIPLE - REFLECTION THEORY

According to this theory , (z, t ) can be expressed as the convergent


series of the incident wave and its resulted reflected wave
components:

z 2
z
(z, t ) = V + g t + L 2V + g t + U(t ) +



2
z 2
g L V + g t U(t ) +


3
z 4
g L 2V + g t + U(t ) +


4
z 4
g 2L 2V + g t U(t ) + ....


where

z
U( t )

(35)

is the Unit Step function which can be expressed

as
13

z
1 t >

U( t ) =


0 otherwise

(36)

Figure 7

L=0.5

g= - 0.5

Figure 8

Capacitive Termination

Definition equations of the termination can be written as:


Qc(t)=C.Vc(t)

or

Ic ( t ) = C

dVc ( t )
dt

(37)

14

REFLECTION DIAGRAMS

The preceding step-by-step construction and calculation


procedure of the voltage and current at a particular time and
location on a transmission line with an arbitrary resistive
termination tends to be tedious and difficult to visualize since one
has to consider so many reflected waves. In such cases the
graphical construction of a reflection diagram will be very helpful.
Firstly let us construct a voltage reflection diagram. A reflection
diagram plots the time elapsed after a change in circuit conditions
versus the distance z from the source end.
The voltage reflection diagram of the circuit in the Fig.1 is
given in the Fig.2.

Figure-1

15

t
P5
t5

gL2V1+

4T

t4

g2L2V1+

P4

Figure-2

3T
+

P3
t3

gLV1

LV1+

2T

t2
T

P1
t1
0

z1

V1+
l

It starts with a wave V1+ at t=0 travelling from the source end
(z=0) in the +z direction with a velocity u . This wave is
represented by the directed straight line marked V1+ from the
origin. This line has a positive slope equal to 1/u. When the V1+
wave reaches the load at z=l, a reflected wave V1-= LV1+ is created
if RL R0. The V1- wave travels in the z direction and is
represented by the directed line marked LV1+ with a negative
slope equal to 1/u.
The V1- wave returns to the source end at instant t=2T and
gives rise to another reflected wave V2+ = gV1- = gLV1+,
which is represented by a second directed line with a positive
slope. This process continues back and forth infinitely. The
voltage reflection diagram can be used conveniently to determine
the voltage distribution along the transmission line at a given
time as well as the variation of the voltage as a function of time at
an arbitrary point on the line.

16

The voltage distribution along the line at t=t4 (3T<t4<4T).


1. Mark t4 on the vertical t-axis of the voltage reflection
diagram.
2. Draw a horizontal line from t4, intersecting the directed line
marked gL2V1+ at P4.(All directed lines above P4 are
irrelevant to our problem because they pertain to t>t4.)
3. Draw a vertical line through P4, intersecting the horizontal
z-axis at z1. In the range of 0<z<z1 , the voltage has a value
equal to V1=V1+(1+L+gL); and in the range of z1<z<l
the voltage is equal to V1++V1-+V2++V2=V1+(1+L+gL+gL2). So there is a voltage discontinuity
equal to gL2V1+ at z=z1 position.
4. The voltage distribution along the line at t=t4, V(z,t4), is then as
shown in that diagram plotted for RL=3R0 L=1/2 and Rg=2R0
g=1/3.

V(z,t4)
V1+(1+L+gL+gL2)
V1+( gL2)

V1+(1+L+gL)
V1+(1+L)
V1+

z1

Figure-3

finding the variation of the voltage as the function of time at the point
z=z1.
17

1. Draw a vertical line at z1, intersecting the directed lines at points


P1,P2,P3,P4,P5, and so on.(There would be an infinite number of
such intersection points if RLR0 and RgR0,as there would be
an infinite number of directed lines if L0 and g0)
2. From these intersection points, draw horizontal lines intersecting
vertical t-axis at t1,t2,t3,t4,t5 and so on. These are the instants at
which a new voltage wave arrives and abruptly changes the
voltage at z=z1.
3. The graph of V(z1,t) is plotted in this diagram for L=1/2 and
g=1/3. When t goes to the infinity , the voltage at z1 (and at all
other points along the lossless line) will assume the value 3V0/5,
as given in equation:

V=V1++V1-+V2++V2-+V3++V 3-+
=V1+(1+L+gL+gL2+g2L2+g2L3+..)
=V1+[(1+gL+g2L2+.)+L(1+gL+g2L2+..)]

+
=V1 1 g L

1 + L

=V1+ 1 g L

g
+
1
g L

Similar to the voltage reflection diagram in figure-2 a current


reflection diagram for the transmission line circuit of figure-1 can be
constructed. This is shown in figure-4.

18

4T
t4

P4

-gL2I1+
3T

t3

P3

2T
t2

P2

gLI1+
-LI1+

Figure-4

T
P1
t1

z1

I1+

Here we draw directed lines representing current waves . The essential


difference between the voltage and current reflection diagrams is in
the negative sign associated with the current waves traveling in the z
direction on account of this equation:

V0
I0

+
+

V0
I0

= Z0

The current reflection diagram can be used to determine the current


distribution along the transmission line at a given time as well as the
variation of the current as a function of time at a particular point on
the line, following the same procedures outline previously for voltage.
For example we can determine the current at z=z1 by drawing a
vertical line z1 in figure-4,intersecting the directed lines at points
P1,P2,P3,P4 and so on, and by finding the corresponding times t1,t2,t3,t4
, and so on, as before. Figure-5 as a plot of I(z1,t)versus t, which
accompanies the V(z1,t) graph in figure-6.
19

I(z1,t)
gLI1+

V0/3R0

gL2I1+

g2L2I1+

LI1+

V0/5R0
I1+

0 t1

t2 2T t3

3T

t4

4T

t5

Figure-5

V(z1,t)
3V0/5

V0/3

LV1+

gLV1+

gL2V1+

g2L2V1+

V1+

Figure-6

We see that they are quite dissimilar. The current along the line
oscillates around the steady-state value of V0/5R0 as seen at equation:

1 L V1+

IL =
1 R
g L
0

20

3 V
I L = 1
5 R0

V0
=
5R
0

with successively smaller discontinuous jumps at t1,t2,t3,t4,etc. There


are two special cases.
1. When RL=R0 (matched load, L=0), the voltage and current
reflection diagrams will each have only a single directed line,
existing in the interval 0<t<T, irrespective of what Rg is.
2. When Rg=R0 (matched source g=0) and RLR0, the voltage
and current reflection diagrams will each have only two
directed lines, existing in the intervals 0<t<T and T<t<2T.
In both cases the determination of the transient behavior on the
transmission line is much simplified.

LOSSY TRANSMISSION LINES

Relations between V(z,t) ,V(z+dz,t) and I(z,t), I(z+dz,t) can be


written as follows:

i
dz,
z

(z + z; t) = (z, t) + dz
z

i(z + z; t) = i(z, t) +

(38)

21

The Kirschhoffs voltage law can be applied to the equivalent circuit


of the Lossy transmission line :
i(z, t )
(z + z, t ) = 0
t
By dividing with z , we have
( z , t ) R zi ( z , t ) L z

i(z, t )
(z + z, t ) (z, t )
= R zi ( z , t ) + L
t
z

When z o we obtain the derivatives of the voltage and currnent


functions,

(z; t)
i(z; t)
= Ri(z; t) + L
t
z

(39)

In similiar manner , from the application of the Kirschhoff curent law ,


we have;

i(z; t ) Gz(z + z; t ) Cz

(z + z; t )
i(z + z; t ) = 0
t

If we divide by z , when z 0 the limit is

i( z; t )
( z; t )
= G ( z; t ) + C
z
t

(40)

(39) and (40) are the general transmission line equations


Telegraphers Equations .

22

CONTINUOUS SINUSOIDAL CASE

For the harmonic time variation , the partial differential equations in


(39) and (40) become the ordinary differential equations:

(z; t) =

i(z; t) =

Re
V ( z ) e j t
Im

(41)

[I ( z ) e

(42)

Re
Im

j t

If we substitute (41) and (42) into (39) and (40)


dV ( z )
= ( R + j L ) I( z )
dz

(43)
(44)

dI ( z )
= (G + j C ) V ( z )
dz

From (43) and (44) , we have one - dimensional wave equation for
both the voltage and current:

d2
2
2

dz

V(z)
I(z)

=0

(45)

one - dimensional waveoperator

Here

= + j = (R + jL)(G + jC)

(46)

Analogous to the attenuation constant within the free lossy


dielectric:( , c )

= j c = j ( j

23

c = j

where

= Im{}rad / m

attenuation
phase

constant

constant

(47)
(48)

The solutions of (45) give the phasors of V(z) and I(z):


V(z)=V0+e- z + V0-e z

(49.1)

V(z)=V+(z) + V-(z)

(49.2)

V0 = V + ( 0 ) e j 0
+

V ( z ) = V (0) e

+
z j( 0 z )

(49.3)

+ V (0) e

z j( 0 + z )

(49.4)

I(z) has the same properties as V(z)


I(z)=I+(z) I-(z)

(50)

The relation between V(z),I(z) waves can be found by substituting


(49) and (50) in (43) and (44);

V (z) R + jL R + jL

Z0 = +
=

=+
=
G + jC

I (z)
I (z)
V+ (z)

Z0 =

R + j L

G + j C

(51)

24

IMPORTANT
(1)

SPECIAL CASES

LOSSLESS LINE

(R=0 , G=0)

(a) PROPAGATION CONSTANT:

=+J= J LC =0 zero attenuation and

is the lineer function of the ;


= J LC

(52)

1
=
= CONST. (all the frequency combinations of a

LC
signal packet will have the same up speed along the line);

(b) Up =

(c) CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE :


Z 0 = R 0 + jX 0 =

(2)

L
L
, R 0 =

C
C

(53)

(R<<L , G<<C)

LOW LOSS LINE

(a ) PROPAGATION CONSTANT :
R

=+J= J LC 1 +
J L

1/ 2

1 +

J C

1/ 2

From the binomial series expansion using for


G
R
<< 1 ,
<< 1
L
C
1 L
L
or
= R
+G
2 C
C

1 R

GZ
+
0 Np/m ( all the
= 2 Z

frequency combinations of a signal packet will have the same


amount of attenuation along the line);
= LC rad/m is the lineer function of the ;

(54)
25

(b) U p =

) (all the frequency combinations of a signal

LC

packet will have the same up speed along the line);


R
L 1 +

(c) Z0=R0+JX0=
J L
C

1/2

1/2

1 +

J C

G
R
<< 1 ,
<< 1 ;
From the binomial series expansion using for
L
C

R0 =

(3)

L 1 R G
L
, X0 =
0
C
C 2 L C

(55)

DISTORTIONLESS LINES

R
G
=
L
C

(a) PROPAGATION CONSTANT:

=+j= (R + jL )

1/ 2

= R

C
L

RC

JC +

1/ 2

C
(R + jL)
L

independent of , = LC lineer function

of ;
(b) U p =

(56)

1
LC

independent of

(c) CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE:

R + JL
L
L
=
; R0 =
; X0 = 0
z0=r0+jx0= RC
C
C
+ JC
L

(57)

26

HOMEWORK

Z0=50 ; DISTORTIONLESS LINE ; =0.01 dB/m ; C=0.1 pF/m


are .given
(a) The other line distributed parameters and phase velocity are
required ;( Result :R(/m) 0.057 /m ; L(H/m) 0.25 H/m ;
G(S/m) 2.28 S/m and Up= 2x 108 m/sn )
(b) At the distances of l1=1 km , l2= 5 km ; find out attenuations as
the ratio ?
Hint :

= Re{} = Re (R + JL)(G + JC) (Np/m

FORMULA USING THE POWER RELATIONS ON A


REFLECTIONLESS LINE
For infinite length line ,or finite line terminated by z0 , the voltage
,current and power waves can be expressed as;

v(z) = v0e-(+j)z
I( z ) =

V0 ( + J ) z
e
Z0

(58)

V0
1
P ( z ) = Re V ( z ) I ( z * ) =
2
2 Z0

2
2

R 0e 2z

(59)

From the law of energy conservation,one can write


-

P (z )
= PL = 2 P ( z )
z

PL ( z )
Np / m
2P (z)

(60)

27

Calculating Pl(z) by using the lossy equivalent circuit,we have

1
2
2
I(z ) R + V (z ) G
2
V0 2
2 2z
PL (z) =
(
R
+
G
Z
)e
0
2
2 Z0
PL ( z ) =

]
(61)

Substituting (58),(59),(60) ,one obtains;

1
2
R + G Z0
2R 0

For low loss line , using


=

) np/m

Z0=R0=

L
C

1
C
L
1 R

+ GR 0 = R
+G
L
C
2 R0
2

Distortionless line Z0=R0=

L
C

(62)

( 63)

R G
=
using
L C

1
C GL
1
C R
= R 1 +
=
= R
2
L RC
2
L R0

(64)

GENERAL CASE : A TRANSMISSION LINE TERMINATED


BY AN ARBITRARY IMPEDANCE

28

V(z)= V+(z) +V-(z)=V0+e-z+ V0-e+ z


+
+ z j( z 0 )

V ( z ) = V0 e

I(z) = I (z) I (z) =

V0+
Z0

(65)

z j( z + 0 )

+ V0 e

j(z0+ +Z0 )

V0
Z0

(66)

z j(z+0 Z0 )

e e

(67)
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT

FUNCTION

(z) = The reflected component of voltage (current)


The coming component of voltage (current) using this definition , let
us find out (z) for (z= ) :

L = ( ) =

V0e

V0 e

V0e2
V0+

(68)

and (z) function can be written as

(z) =

V0

V0+

e 2 z

(69)

so (z) can be expressed in terms of l using (68) :

(z) = Le2(

z)

(d) = Le2d

(70 )

( d ) = L e 2 d L 2 d

29

If a l is given, we can find out (d) for lossless line as shown:

Im{}

|L|

|L|1
L

Re{}

2d
(d)

(1)

Take =0 (lossless line)

(d) = L e2d L 2d

(71)

ZL(L)

(d)

V (d )
(d ) = +
V (d )

(72)

|(d)| = |L| CIRCLE

(73)

r (d ) = L 2 d

(74)
30

(2)

0 , |(d)|= |L|e-2d (SPIRAL)

r (d) = L 2d

(75)

So if you go towards the source from the load ,all the (d) take place
on the spital starting from the l ending to the ( ).
Lets find V(z) and I(z) using (z):

V(z) = V0+ez (1+ (z)) = V0+ez (1+ Le2( z) )

(76)

V0 + e z
V0 + e z
I( z ) =
(1 ( z )) =
(1 L e 2 (
Z0
Z0

(77)

Let us write the boundary condition for z

VL = V( ) = V0 + e (1 + L )
V0 + e
= I( ) =
(1 L )
Z0

IL

VL
VL = Z
IL

.I L

z)

=
(78)
(79)

(80)
31

Substitute (78) and (79) at (80);

L =

ZL Z0
ZL + Z0

(81)

For ZL=Z0 ,L=0(Z) V-(Z)=I-(Z)=0

|L|1
ZL=0L= -1 V ( ) = V + ( )
ZL ,L1 V ( ) = V + ( ) (RL>R0)
IF ZL=RL L =

ZL=JXL

L =

R
R

L
L

JX
JX

R
+ R

L
L

0
0

R
+ R

arctg
0
0

=
arctg

X L
R 0
X L
R 0

jXL{ZL}

L=arctgXL
Ro

ZL

32

1 =

; 2 = 2 ; c1 = 1 1 j 1 ; c2 = 2 1 j 2

1
2

(82)

E r (0) 2 1
=
E i (0) 2 + 1

Standing waves pattern |v(z)| - z


=0 lossless line using v(z)=v0+e-jz(1+(z))

V(z)
V0

= 1+ (z) = 1+ LeJ2d = ( L cos(2d + L ) + J( L sin(2d + L )


(83)

Finding the maximums and minimums of


V(d)
V0

V (z)
V0

= (1 + L cos(2d + L ))2 + L sin2 (2d + L )

(84)

33

V (d )
V0

(1 + 2 L cos( 2 d + L ) + L

V0

d max = n

(85)

n=0,1, 2,..............

-2dmax+l= n2

V (d max )

max = 1 + L

L
+

2 4

(86)

V ( z ) max = V0 (1 + L )

(87)

n=0,1, 2,..............

-2dmin+l= (2n+1)


d min = (2n + 1) + L
2 4

(88)

Between two maxima or minima :/2 ;


Two maxima and minima : /4

V (d )

min

= V0

(1 L )

(89)

I(d

max

VSWR

) =

V0
Z 0
V
V

(1 L )

max
min

1 +
1

(90)

L
L

(91)

34

ZL Z0 zL 1
ZL

=
=
z
=
L
Here
ZL + Z0 zL +1 ; L
Z0

(92)

GRAPHICAL APPROACH

=0 lossless line

V (z)
V0

= 1 + ( z ) = 1 + L e j2 (

z)

( z ) = 2( z ) + L

(93)

(94)

max ( z ) = n 2 ....n = 0, + 1, + 2..

V (z)
V0

= 1 + (z)

(95)

-Dzlemi

1+(z)

(z)

Re{}

35

max (z) =(2n + 1), n = 0, + 1, + 2..

V (z)
V0

(96)

= 1 (z)

(97)

min

HOMEWORK:
Find the maximum and minimum positions and values of |I(z)| - z

(z) = L + 2d

L =

ZL Z0
= L [ L
ZL + Z0

(98)

For Special Terminations standing waves pattern and VSWR:

(1)Open-circuited termination: ZL L = 1 = 10

(d) max= +2d = n2, dmax =

n
, dmax1 = 0, dmax2 = , dmax3 =
2
2

(d) min = +2dmin = (2n +1), dmin =

(2n +1)
3
, dmin1 = , dmin2 =
2
4
4

(99)
(100)

36

VSWR =

V (z)
V0

1 + L
L 1 ;FOR OPEN CIRCUIT TERMINATED
1 L

2 + 2 cos 2 d

HOMEWORKS:

Find the standing waves pattern and VSWR for the above terminations

1. |v(z)|=|v+|
zl=z0
2. Zl0(short crcut)
3. Zl=Rl+jXl
4. Zl0 l=0;VSWR=1;|V(z)|max=|v(z)min
5. Zl=Rl
6. Zl=jXl

VSWR =

V(z) max
V(z) min

1 + L
VSWR 1
L =
1 L
VSWR + 1

(5) Zl=Rl
Terminating line with pure
rezistance
L =

R L Z0
R L + Z0
37

1)Rl>Z0 l =|l| 00
2) Rl<Z0 l =|l|

( d ) = L + 2 d

1) (d) = 2d

|Vmax|=?, |Vmin|=?, VSWR=?

2) Rl<Z0 , (d) = 2d = 2 d min , d min = 0


Vmin|=? ,VSWR=?
POWER FLOW ALONG THE TERMINATED LINE

The net power P(z) at a z-position of the line

P(z)=Re{V(z)I*(z)}

(101)

V + (z)
(1 ( z ))
where V(z)=V (z)(1+(z)) and I ( z ) = Z
0
+

V(z)=V+(z)e-z

(102)

+
V + (z)
*
P ( z ) = Re V (z )(1 + ( z ))
(
1
(
z
))

(for low loss line)


*
Z0

38


V + (z) 2
2

*
P(z) = Re
(1 (z) ) (z) + (z) + Ji + + Ji

Z 0
V + (z) 2

(1 ( z ) )
P ( z ) = Re
Z
0

P + (z) = Re V + (z) I + (z)

P (z) =

V (z)
Z0

) }=
*

V + (z)

(103.1)
2

Z0

(103.2)

2
2

= (z) P + (z)

(103.3)

P( z) = P + (z ) + P (z)
2

P(z) = P+ (z)(1 (z) )

The net power at the input of the line is


+

Pin = P in 1 in

(104)

where
+

P in =

V (0)
Z0

V0

+ 2

Z0

(105)

39

is the power of the wave that comes to the input of the line. The net
power that goes into the load is
+

PL = PL 1 L

(106)

where

PL =

VL

+ 2

Z0

V0 e

Z0

V0

+ 2

e - 2
(107)

Z0

is the power of the wave that comes to the load and may also be
written as
+

PL = Pin e -2

(108)

We can generalize Eq.(108)


+

P+ (z) = Pin e-2z

(109)

+
ZG

I in

Vin
VG

ZL

40

From Kirschhoffs voltage law

VG = Vin + I in Z G

(110)

V0+
VG = V (1 + in ) +
Z G (1 in )
Z0

(111)

+
0

(112)

in = L e 2
+

V0 is the sum of all the voltage wave components traveling in the +z


direction at the z=0 location
+

V0 = V+ (0)

(113)

For the reflected wave we consider the reflection coefficient at the


source end

G =

ZG Z 0
ZG + Z 0

(114)

Solving for ZG , Eq. (114) becomes

1 + G

ZG = Z0
1

(115)

At the time t = 0+
ZG

Z0

V 0+ =

VG Z 0
ZG + Z0

(116)

VG

41

+
Second V 0 wave

ZG

VG

V0+ = L G e 2

VG Z 0
ZG + Z0

(117)

+
Third V 0 wave

V0+ = (L G e2 ) 2

VG Z0
ZG + Z0

(118)

If we go on like that, we have

V0+ = V+ (0) =

VG Z0
1 + G Le2 + (G L e2 ) 2 + ............... (119)
Z0 + ZG

1 the series in Eq. (119) converges.


For G L e

VG Z0
VG Z0
1
2 j
V (0) =
(

e
)
=
G L
Z0 + ZG j=0
Z0 + ZG 1 L Ge2 (120)
+

where

42

Z0 + ZG = Z0 + Z0

1+ G
2
= Z0
1 G
1 G

(121)

So we obtain

V+ (0) =

P+ (z)=

(1 G )VG
2(1 L G e )

(122)

1 G
2z
e
4Z0 1 GLe

VG

(123)

P + (z) is the total power of waves traveling in the + z direction. P A


is the maximum power of load and defined as

PA =

VG

(124)

4R G

VG is the rms value and RG = e{ZG }


ZG
VG

Pin+ = PA

1 G

ZL

ZL = ZG

1 G in

(125)

For a lossy line;

43

Pm = Pin+ 1 in

)= P

PL = Pin+ e 2z 1 L

(1 )(1 )
2

(1 G in )

)= P

in

(126)

(1 )(1 )
2

1 G Le

L
2 z 2

The net power at the z location,

P(z) = P + (z) 1 (z)

Pin PL gives lossy factor.

For a lossless line;

=0

(1 )(1 )
2

Pin = PL = PA

(127)

1 G L e j22

SPECIAL CASES

Line is driven by a matched source

ZG = Z0
so

G = 0
Eq. (126) becomes
44

Pm+ = PA

VG
=
4Z 0

Pin = PA 1 in

PL = PA e 2 1 L

(128)

G = 0, L = 0 and = 0

If

PL = Pin = PA

(129)

REFLECTION LOSS

P+
LR = 10 log
P

2

P = P+

LR =10 log 2

= L e -2 d

dB

is equation of reflection loss.

thus ;

dB
is unity of

is obtained.

d is Neper.

In this case between line of input and load reflection loss is derived
that

45


1
L R = 10 log 10
2 e -4 d
L

1
4 d
= 10 log
+
10

log
e
10
10
2

II

I : LR load loss due to the load reflection


II : loss term due to the attenuation of line

LRin = LRload + 2 8,686


EXAMPLE : A 500 MHz generator with VG =20 Vrms and internal

resistance ZG =100 is connected to a Z0 =100 transmission line


that is =4 m long and terminated in a ZL =150 load. Find Pin
a) For =0 dB/m and delivered power to load PL
b) Repeat a) for =0,5 dB/m
SOLUTION :
Source :

PA =
PA= 1 W

VG

4R G

202
2

4 10

=1W

f = 500 MHz since ZG = Z0 =100 so G =0 source is

matched to the transmission line.


Load

L 0 150 100

=
: L + = 250 = 0,2
L
0

46

P in = P in+ 1 in

) where

P in+ = P A and in = L e - 2 = L so that

P in = 1 1 0 , 2 2 = 0 ,96 W is obtained.
(a) For the lossless line =0 is given before , so that

PL =Pin=1 W
(b) For the lossy line =0,5 dB/m

0,5
= 0,23 Np/m and 2 = 0,46 Np
8,69

Pin = Pin+ 1 in

) where ;

Pin+ = PA and in = L e -2 = 0,2 e -0,46 = 0,126

Pin = 1 1 0,22 = 0,984 W is found.

PL = PL+e-2 1 L

)=1.e (1 0,2 ) = 0,605 W


-0,46

Ploss = Pin PL = 0,984 0,605 = 0,379 W


Reflection loss LR = LRLoad + 8,696

47

UTILIZATION OF A TRANSMISSION LINE


AS A CIRCUIT COMPONENT
INPUT IMPEDANCE OF A TRANSMISSION LINE ( Z in )

Z0 , ,

V(0)

ZL

Zin
Definition :

V (0 )

Z in = in =
I in
I (0 )

Z in

Zin

if

V + (1 + in )
+

I (1 in )

Z0 ( 1 +

= 0

in

1 in

= Zo(

1 + in
1 in

, Z0 = R0 and substituting

L =

ZL Z0
ZL + Z0

we can write ;

48

j2
1
+

e
L
Zin = Z0 (
1 L e j2

Z
Z
Z
1
Z

1 +
= Z0

Zin ( , Z L ) = Z 0

L
L
L
L

Z
Z
Z
Z

j2

j2

0
0
0

Z L + jZ 0 tg ( )
Z 0 + jZ L tg ( )

(130)

Zin ( , Z L ) has the period of either = + n

n
= + n .In the other words Z in is repaeted by
2
2

or

intervals.

Line impedances at the maxima and minima:

Z inMAX = Z 0

1 + in
(
)
1 in

=Z

VSWR
(resistive)

Z inMiN

Z (
= 0

1 + in
)
1 in

Z0
VSWR

49

IMPORTANT TERMINATIONS

1- OPEN CIRCUIT TERMINATION


Substituting

Zin (

ZL

)=

Z0

Z L )

in equation (1), then we have

Z L + jZ 0 tg ( )
Z 0 + jZ L tg ( )
1+ j

=Z

( L =1 ,

tg ( )
ZL

Z0
+ jtg ( )
ZL

Z in = jX in = j Z 0 cot( )

(131)

Z0 ,

ZL

Zin

50

in =

j Z 0 cot( )

Zin

/4

/2

3/4

In case of open circuit termination Z in is purely reactive,

Z in may be capacitive or inductive depending on


0<

4 <
=

< 4

+n

<

2 +n 2

Z in

capacitive

Z in SERIES resonance

Z in

inductive

Z in PARALEL resonance

51

Z in

If

= j Z 0 cot( ) varies with respect to the frequency


because of .

Z in

jXin = j

Zin = j

<<1 then

tg ( )

Z0

j
=

L
C
LC

and

Z in

= j

becomes

1
CL

1
CL

At microwave frequencies it is not possible to obtain

ZL because of the coupling

to the nearby objects and

radiation.

2- SHORT CIRCUIT TERMINATION ( L = -1 , Z L = 0 )

Z L + j Z 0 tg ( )
(
)
Zin( ) = Z0
Z 0 + j Z L tg ( )
=

+ j Z 0 tg ( )

Z in = jX in = j Z 0 tg ( )

52

Xin = Z0 tg

/4

=0
0<

<

/2

<

<

3/4

Z in

short circuit

Z in

inductive

Z in

PARALEL resonance

Z in

capacitive

Z in

SERIES resonance

53

3-QUARTER WAVE LINE TRANSFORMATOR

Substituting

= (2n-1)

,n = 1, 2,.....=>

tg ( )

= (2n-1) .

in equation (130), Z

2
in

Z 02
=
Z L

in

becomes

(132)

Quarter wave line transformator can be used as an impedance


invertor.

Z0 ,

ZL

Zin

= (2n-1)

ZL

Z in = 0

ZL 0

Z in

ZL =J

ZL =

L
1

j C

Z02
j L

Z02
- j
L

Z in =

Z in = - j C Z 0 2

54

Impedance matching in case of

Z02
Z in =
=Z 0
Z L

ZL = R L

=>

Z 0 = Z 0 .R L

4-HALF WAVE LINE TRANSFORMATOR

Zin=

=n

ZL

n = 0, 1, 2,.....

2
=n
2=

repeated by n intervals.

(133)

EXAMPLE : QUARTER WAVE TRANSFORMATOR IN


IMPEDANCE MATCHING
/4

Z0 ,

Zin

Z0,

RL

55

The equivalent of the circuit is:


+

Z 0 '2
Z in =
RL

Z0,
-

Z 0 '2
Z0
RL

Z 0 '2
+ Z0
RL

If L = 0, then all the power of the incident wave is transferred to the


load, so we can write
L = 0 ; L = 0

To obtain

L P +

L = 0 we must have

where R L and

Z0

= 0 (no reflected power)

Z0 '2
Z Z 0 ' = Z0.RL
RL = 0

are given.

General Block Diagram of The Impedance Matching


MAIN LINE
Empedance
matching
circuit

Z0

RL

RL
56

WORKED EXAMPLES :
EXAMPLE 1: For an matched load in any position ; find :
(a) V(z,t) , I(z,t)

(b) VL(t) , IL(t)

(c) P+(z) , P- (z) , P (z)

(d) L , Standing Wave Pattern ,VSWR

Zg

4m
Z 0 = 50
=0

u p = 2,5.10 8 m / sn
+

ZL

Z=0

Z=

Solution: As we have a matched load we must have a ZL equal to


Zo;

ZL Z0
= 0,
ZL + Z0

ZL= Zo

L =

VSWR =

1 + L
=1
1 L
+

+
V(z) = V (z) + V (z) = V (z) (1+

(z))= V + (z)
57

VG
V (z) =
Z0 + ZG

Z0

= 0,3

j z 50
= 0 , 294
51

e j

2 10 8
= 0,8
2,5 10 8

w
=
u p

V + ( z ) = 0,294

e j(0,8 )z

V + (z)
(1- (z) )
I (z) =
Z0

V + (z)
as we have (z) = 0 then I+(z) =
Z0
0,294
I(z) = I (z) =
50
+

VL (t)

= 0,294

I L (z) =

e j (0,8 ) z =

5,88. 10

e j (0,8 ) z

cos(2 108 3,2 )

V L (z)
= 5 ,88 10 3
Zo

e j 3, 2

VL(t) = 5,88 10 3 cos( 2 10 8 3,2 )


V (z)
c) V + =
0
as we have

1+

+ 2 cos( 2 d )

= 0 then
58

V (z)
V 0+

=1

V (z ) = V 0+

* If the source is matched to the line ZG = Z0 ; G =0


the wave carries all the available power of the source;

59

EXAMPLE 2: Vg=100V , Zg=50 , f = 10 8 , R0=50

ZL=25 +j 25 ve l = 3,6 m are given. Find;


a) V(z) b) V c)V L d)VSWR e) PL=?
Solution: As we have Zo = ZG so the source is matched to the line in
this case we have G = 0 .

V(z) =

Vo+ e

j z

VG
V (z) =
Z0 + ZG

(1+

(z))

ZG . e

j z

(z) = L
( 1 + L

j 2 d

j 2 d

where

VG
+
V0 =
Z
Z0 + ZG G

25 + j 25

25 + j 25 50
Z Z0
=
=
L = L
75 + j 25
25 + j 25 + 50
ZL + Z0
35 e j 135
=
79 e j 18 , 43

= 0,44 e

j 116 , 57

60

Vo+ = 100 (

V(z) = 50 e

50
) = 50
100

2
z
3

(1 + 0,44

b) Vi = V ( 0 ) = 50 (1 + 0,44

2
3

j(

4
z 0,128 )
3

e j ( 0 ,128 ) )

c) VL=VL(3,6)

1 + 1 + 0 , 44 e
d) VSWR =
=
1 1 0 , 44 e

1
e) P =
2

VL
ZL

j 11 , 57
j 11 , 57

P = 0,119 W

61

SMITH CHART
Transmission-line calculations such as the determination of input
impedance, reflection coefficient and load impedance often involve
tedious manipulations of complex numbers. This tedium can be
alleviated by using a graphical methot of solution. The best known
and most widely used graphical chart is the Smith chart devised
by P.H. Smith in 1939. Smith chart is a graphical plot of normalized
resistance and reactance functions in the reflection -coefficient plane.
In order to understand how the Smith chart for a lossless transmission
line is constructed, let us examine the voltage reflection coefficient of
the load impedance.

ZL R 0
= e jQr
ZL R 0

(133)

Let the load impedance be normalized with respect to the


characteristic impedance of the line.

zL =

ZL RL
X
=
+ j L = r + jx
R0 R0
R0

(134)

where and are the normalized resistance and normalized reactance


respectively. Equation (133) can be rewritten as

= r + ji =

zL 1
zL +1

(135)

where ,and are the real and imaginary parts of the voltage reflection
coefficient respectively. The inverse relation of Equation (135) is
jQr
1+ 1+ e
zL =
=
1 1 e jQr

(136)

or
62

r + jx =

(1+r ) + ji
(1r ) ji

(137)

Multiplying both the numerator and the denumerator of Equation


(137) by the complex conjugate of the denumerator, and separating
the real and imaginary parts, we obtain

r=

1 r 2 i2

(138)

(1 r )2 + i2

and
x=

2i 2

(139)

(1 r )2 + i2

If equation (138) is plotted in the plane for a given value of, the
resulting graph is the locus for this. The locus can be recognized when
the equation is rearranged as
r

1+ r

i2

1
=

1+ r

(140)

It is the equation for a circle having a radius of 1/(1+r) and centered at


(r/(1+r) ,0). Different values of r yield circles of different positions
in the reflection coefficient plane. A family of these circles are
shown in figure 1. Since only that part of graph lying within the unit
circle on the plane is meaningful; everything the outside can be
disregarded.

63

1.0
x=1

x=0.5

x=2

0.5

r=0

r=0.5

r=1

p
r=2

-0.5
x=-1

x=-0.5

x=-2

-1.0

Fig:1 Smith chart with the rectangular coordinates


Several salient properties of the r-circles are noted as follows:
1. The centers of all r-circles lie on the r axis.
2. The r = 0 circle, having a unity radius and centered at the origin,
is the largest.
3. The r-circles become progressively smaller as r increases from 0
toward ,
ending at the ( r = 1, i = 0) point.
4. All r-circles pass through the ( r = 1, i = 0) point.

Similarly , (139) may be rearranged as


( r 1 ) 2 + ( i 1/x )2 = ( 1/x )2

(141)

64

This is the equation for a circles having radius 1/|x| and centered at
r = 1 and i = 1/x .
Different values of x yield circles of different radii with centers at
different position on the r = 1 line. A family of the portions
f x-circles lying inside the || = 1 boundary are shown in dashed lines
in Fig 1. The following is a list of several salient properties of the xcircles.
1. The centers of all x-circles lie on the r = 1 line: those for x > 0
( inductive reactance ) lie above the r axis and those for x< 0
( capacitive reactance ) lie below the r axis.
2. The x = o circle becomes the r axis.
3. The x-circles become progressively smaller as |x| increases from
0 toward , ending at the ( r = 1, i = 0) point.
4. All x-circles pass though the ( r = 1, i = 0) point.

A smith chart is a chart of r- and x-circles in the r i plane


for || 1. It can be proved that the r- and x- circles are everywhere
orthogonal to one another. The intersection of an r- and an x-circles
defines a point that represents a normalized load impedance
zL = r + jx. The actual load impedance is ZL = R0 ( r + jx ). Since a
Smith chart plots the normalized impedance, it can be used for
calculations concerning a lossless transmission line with an arbitrary
characteristic impedance.
As an illustration, point P in Fig. 1. is the intersection of the
r = 1.7 circle and the x = 0.6 circle. Hence it represents
zL = 1.7 + j0.6. the point Psc at ( r = -1, i = 0) corresponds to
r =0 and x = 0 and, therefore, represent a short-circuit. The point Poc
at ( r = 1, i = 0) corresponds to an infinite impedance and represent
an open-circuit.
The Smith chart in Fig.1 marked with r and i rectangular
coordinates. The Smith chart can be marked with polar coordinates,
65

such that every point in the - plane is specified by a magnitude ||


and a phase angle . This is illustrated in Fig 2, where several
||-circles are shown in dotted lines and some -angles are marked
around the || = 1 circle. The ||-circles are normally not shown on
commercially available Smith charts: but once the point representing a
certain zL = r +jx is located, it is a simple matter to draw a circle
centered at the origin thorough the point. The fractional distance from
the center to the point ( compared with the unity radius to the edge of
the chart) is equal to the magnitude || of the load reflection
coefficient; and the line to the point makes with the real axis is .

RL =

RO
S

(142)

Each ||-circle intersects the real axis at two points. In Fig. 2 we


designate the point on positive-real axis (OPoc) as PM and the point on
the negative-real axis (OPsc) as Pm . Since x =0 along the real axis, PM
and Pm both represent situations with a purely resistive load, ZL = RL
. obviously RL> R0 at PM, where r > 1 : and RL< R0 at Pm, where
r < 1. We found that S = RL/R0 = r for RL> R0 . This relation
enables us to say immediately, without using Eq.(142) that the value
of the r-circle passing through the point PM is numerically equal to the
standing-wave ratio. Similarly, we conclude from Eq.(142) that the
value of the r-circle passing through the point Pm on the negative-real
axis is numerically equal to 1/S. For the zL = 1.7+ j0.6 point, marked
P in Fig. 2, we find || =1/3 and = 28o. at PM, r =S = 2.0 these
results can be verified analytically.

66

900
1200

r=0

600
x=1
x=0,5

r=0,5

x=2

150

1800

x=0

pm

300

00
PM

2100

3300

2400

3000

270

Figure 2
In summary, we note the following:.
1. All ||-circles are centered at the origin, and their radius vary
uniformly from 0 to 1.
2. The angle, measured from the positive real axis, of the line
drawn from the origin through the representing zL equals .
3. The value of the r-circle passing through the intersection of the
||-circle and the positive-real axis equals the standing-wave
ratio S.

So far we have based the construction of the Smith chart on the


definition of the voltage reflection coefficient of the load
impedance. The input impedance looking toward the load at a
distance z from the load is the ratio of V(z) and I(z). We have,
by writing j for for a lossless line.

67

1 + j 2 z '
V ( z' )
Z i ( z' ) = I ( z' ) = Z 0 1 e j 2 z '
e

(143)

The normalized input impedance is

Z
Z

i
0

1+

e
=
1 e

1+ e
1 e

j 2 z '
j 2 z '

(144)

j
j

(145)

where
= 2z

(146)

We note that Eq.(144) relating zi and e-j2z = || ej is of exactly the

same form relating zL and = || e . In fact, the latter is a special


case of the former for z =0 ( = ) . The magnitude, || , of the
reflection coefficient and, therefore, the standing-wave ratio S, are not
changed by the additional line length z. thus just as we can use the
Smith chart to find || and for a given zL at the load, e can keep
|| constant and subtract (rotate in the clockwise direction) from
an angle equal to 2z = 4z/.

, which determines zi . Two


This will locate the point for
additional scales in z/ are usually provided along the perimeter of
the || = 1 circle for easy reading of the phase change 2(z) due to
a change in line length z : the outer scale is marked wavelength
towards generator in the clockwise direction (increasing z ) ; and
the inner scale is marked wavelength towards load in the
counterclockwise direction (decreasing z ). Figure 1.03 is a typical
68

Smith chart, which is commercially available. It has a complicated


appearance, but actually it consists merely of constant-r and constantx circles. We note that a change of half-a-wavelength in line length
(z = /2 ) corresponds to a 2(z ) = 2 change in . A
complete revolution around a ||-circle returns to the same point and
results in no change in impedance.
In the following we shall illustrate the use of the Smith chart for
solving some typical transmission-line problems by several examples.

SMITH CHART

APPLICATION

a) A , B , C , in = ?
b)Find VSWR, maximum and minimum voltage positions for both
lines.
SOLUTION :
Solution is obtained by the Analytical and Graphical methods.
1)Analytical method
L L =

L 0 zL 1
=
L + 0 zL + 1

z L = 2 + 1 j1.5 L =

( zL =

L
0 )

2 + j1.5 1 1 + j1.5
=
= 0.46 + j 0.26
2 + j1.5 + 1 3 + j1.5
69

L = 2.3 + j1.3
j

j l

0.12

VA
1 + A 1 + L e
1 + L e
1 + L e j 0.48
= 0
= 0
= 0
=
j l
4
j 0.48
A=
j 0.12
1

1
e
1

A
A
L
L
1 L e

B = A + j 30

B =

1
B

C = B +

1
j 200

C =

1
C

0.06

zC 1
1 + C e
1 + C e j 0.24
C =
in = 0
= 0
4
j
0.06
zC + 1
1 C e j 0.24

1 C e

2)Graphical Method

A : A = 1 j1.3
B = 1 j1.3 + j

30
= 1 j 0 .7
50

70

B : B = 1 j 0.7 = 1 ,

j=0.7

B After taking symmetry of according to the origin


B

could

be found on the graph

B' : B = 0.67 + j 0.47


C = B +

j
.50 = 0.67 + j 0.72
200

C After taking symmetry of

according to the origin ,

is

found which corresponds to the impedance:

C : C = 0.7 j 0.74

Zin = z 0 .zin = 50(0.45 j0.38)


Zin=22.5-j19 real input impedance
Example 2

l1
5cm
=
= 0.25 1.Line
20

l2
12,8cm
=
= 0.64
20

2.Line

71

zL =

Z L 20
=
= 0,4
Z 01 50

VSWR =

1
= 2.5
zL

Rm =

z0
Rs

r =

50
= 2,5
20

second line
125
= 1.39
90
0.64 = 0.5 + 0,14
ZA =

Pin = 0,9 j 0,3

Z in = z 02 .z in Z in = 81 j 27
in = 0,165. 100

in =

Z in Z 0
Z in + Z 0

Using Smith Chart on Lossy Lines

72

j
2d j 2 d
Z in 1 + in 1 + L e L e e
=
=
Z in =
Z 0 1 in 1 L e j L e 2d e j 2 d

Position of the L on the lossy lines


(Lowering of the modules because of
lossness of the line)

Formula of the normalized


input impedance on lossy line

1 + L e 2d e j ( L 2 d )
Zin =
1 L e 2d e j ( L 2 d )
Z line =

Vline
I line

Numerical Application

ZL1=0 , l=2m , Z0=75 , Zin=45+j225


a) , =?
b)ZL2=67,5-j45 Zin=?

73

a)

L1 =

Z L1 Z 0
= 1 L = 1e j
Z L1 Z 0
L = rad

z in =

Z in 45 + j225
=
= 0,6 + j3
Z0
75

1+ in 1+ Le2(lz)e2dej2d
d = l z, forz= 0
zin =
=
2
(
l
z
)
2
d
j
2
d

1 in 1 Le
e e
1+ eje2le j2l 1+ e22ej(22)
= 0,6 + j3
zin =
=
j 2l j2l
22 j(22)
1 e e e
1+ e e
If the line is lossless input impedance is purely reactive.Also it could
be inductive or capacitive.This condition changes by the lenght of
line.

74

Graphical Solution

and are found by using the formulas below

OPin
= e 2l

OPin

=2l

OPin
ln 0.89
= e 2l = 0,89
= 0,028 Np / m = =0,25 dB

2
l
OPin

(1Np=8.69 dB),

Z i1 = 45 + j 225
=0,029 ,
=0,2
Zo=75

75

b)

=?
=?
ZL=67,5-j45

Zin

0,2

zL =

ZL
= 0,9 j 0,6
z0

0.2 towards generator

0,365 + 0,2 = 0,565 0,065

76

Zin=z0.zin=54,75+j20,25
IMPEDANCE MATCHING

Impedance matching is one of the most important subjects of


transmission lines. If the characteristic impedance Zo of the line is
equal to the load impedance ZL, the reflection coefficient L=0, and
the standing wave ratio is unity. When this situation exists, the
characteristic impedance of the line and the load impedance are said to
be matched, that is, they are equal. In most transmission line
applications, it is desirable to match the load impedance to the
characteristic impedance of the line in order to reduce reflections
standing waves that jeopardize the power-handling capabilities of the
line and also distort the information transmitted. Impedance matching
is also desirable in order to drive a given load most efficiently (i.e. to
deliver maximum load ), although maximum efficiency also requires
matching the generator to the line at the source end. In the presence of
sensitive components (low-noise amplifiers), impedance matching
improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the system in other cases
generally reduces amplitude and phase errors.
The equivalent circuit is shown below:

77

P(z)= P+ ( 1- |(z)|2 )
1) g=0
2) L=0

the power formula

Zg=Zo P+=Pmax
ZL=Zo PL=P+

(maximum power tranfer)

There are different methods of achieving impedance matching:


1-Matching using series or parallel lumped reactive elements
2-Single stub matching ( series or shunt )
3-Double stub matching
4-Triple stub matching
SINGLE STUB SERIES IMPEDANCE MATCHING:
At microwave frequencies, it is often impractical or inconvenient to
use lumped elements for impedance matching. Instead, we use a
common matching technique that uses single open or short-circuited
stubs connected either in series or in parallel. In practice, the shortcircuited stub is more commonly used for coaxial and wave-guide
applications because a short-circuited line is less-sensitive to external
influences (such as capacitive coupling and pick-up) and radiates less
than an open-circuited line segment. However, for microstrips and
striplines, open-circuited stubs are more common in practice because
they are easier to fabricate.
The principle of matching with stubs is similar to matching using
lumped reactive elements. The only difference is that the matching
impedance (Zs) is intruduced by using open or short-citcuited line
segments at appropriate length ( ).

78

In the figure above we can see a short-circuited single stub series


empedance matching circuit. Here, we will find out appropriate and
d lengths that the input empedance of the matching circuit becomes
Zo (Zin=Zo).
As we study at normalized dimensions, following equations can be
found:
zin= Zin = Zin/Zo and zL=ZL
zin= (zL + j.tand) / (1+ j.zL.tand)= 1+ jXin
This is the input empedance that is observed from right side of the
stub!
Re{zin}=1 Im{zin}=Xin

The equivalence of the matching circuit is like this:


jX
Zin
Zin

79

zin= zin + jx = 1 = 1+ j0
zin= 1+jXin + jx = 1 +j0
Xin + X = 0
X= - Xin
So, chosen and d lengths must supply these equations.
Lets think about pure resistive load empedance (ZL=R , zL=R=r)
If tand=t, then

zin= 1+ jXin= (r+j.t) / (1+j.r.t)


(1+ jXin). (1+j.r.t) = (r+j.t)
Imaginary and real parts of both sides will be equal:
1 Xin.r.t = r
j.(Xin + r.t ) = j.t

Xin = (1 r).t

t= ( 1 r ) / (1 r).r.t t2 = tan2d= 1/r


tan2d = (1 cos2d) / cos2d = 1/r
By this equation, d can be found like this:
d = (/4) . arccos [(r 1) / (r +1)]
And can be found as below:
jXin = j cot

= (/2). Arctan (r /1 r)
80

If the load empedance is not pure resistive ( zL = rL + xL ) :

Then we look at the max. points of the wave:


rmax = VSWR = (1 |L| ) / (1 + |L| ) =R
So, new formulas of d and are:
d = (/4) . arccos [(VSWR 1) / (VSWR +1)] d = d + dmax
= (/2). Arctan (VSWR /1 VSWR)

GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS:

Impedance matching problems can be solved easily using the Smith


Chart. Lets look at an antenna matching example:
To consider stub matching it helps to have a practical example.
Here, we study a load
formed by an antenna which is being used away from its design
frequency. The method is not restricted to antenna loads.

For a 1 metre long dipole antenna at 120 MHz, the load impedance is
44.8 ohms - j 107 ohms. The normalised empedance is 0.597 - j 1.43
with respect to the 75 ohm coaxial line. We shall determine the
position and length of a series stub which will match this antenna to
the transmission line.
If we look at the SMITH Chart we find a circle of constant real
normalised impedance r=1 which goes through the open circuit point
and the centre of the chart. In our example in the next picture, this
circle is drawn in red. If you plot any arbitrary normalised impedance
on the SMITH chart, and follow round clockwise at constant radius,
81

from the centre of the SMITH chart, towards the generator (along the
green line in the example), you must cross the r=1 circle somewhere.
This transformation at constant radius represents motion along the
transmission line towards the generator. (One complete circuit of the
SMITH chart represents a travel of one half wavelength towards the
generator.) At this intersection point the generalised arbitrary load
impedance r + jx has transformed to (1+jx'), so, at least the real part
of the impedance equals the characteristic impedance of the line.
Matching has not yet been achieved because of the residual reactance
x' which must be tuned out with the stub. Note that x' is different from
x in general. For each transformation around the SMITH chart,
representing travel one half wavelength towards the transmitter, there
are two intersections with the r=1 circle. Stubs may be placed at either
of these points.
At the transformed (see figure 1 ) intersection point (red and green
circles) the line is cut and a pure reactance -jx' is added. This is done
by creating this reactance -jx' using a series-connected lossless stub.
Now, the total impedance looking into the sum of the line impedance
(which is 1+jx') and -jx' is therefore (1+jx') -jx' = 1 and the line is
matched.
Again, one looks at the SMITH chart and finds the outer circle where
the modulus of the reflection coefficient is unity. On this circle are the
SHORT and OPEN points, and all values of positive (top half of the
SMITH chart) and negative (bottom half of the SMITH chart)
reactance. The resistance is zero everywhere. It has to be zero, as a
lossless transmission line with load infinity ohms (open) or zero ohms
(short) has no mechanism for absorbing power. To generate a
specified reactance, start at a short circuit (or maybe an open circuit)
and follow the rim of the SMITH chart clockwise around towards the
generator until the desired reactance is obtained. Cut the stub this
number of wavelengths long.

82

FIG 1

In our example, the SMITH chart construction to find the stub length
is shown in the next picture.
From the blue arc in the previous picture we see that the reactance at
the r=1 intersection point is +j1.86, so to cancel this out we must add a
series stub having reactance -j1.86. In the next figure we plot the blue
arc -j1.86 and, starting from the short circuit (r = x = 0) we follow the
green line around a distance of 0.328 wavelengths clockwise towards
the generator, to generate this value of reactance. If we had started
from an open circuit we would only travel a distance (0.328 - 0.250) =

83

0.078 wavelengths to generate this reactance. This open circuit stub is


represented by the red arc.
The practical details of the series stub match are shown in third figure,
where we display the physical lengths in centimetres, assuming a
wave velocity on the coax (which we need to know to do this
calculation) of 2x10^8 metres per second. This data is supplied by the
cable manufacturer. The wave velocity and the frequency (120 MHz)
allows us to calculate the wavelength in metres, and thus we can
translate the "electrical lengths" from the SMITH chart into physical
lengths of line.

= 0.174 and the stub position from load will be d = 0.47.

84

THE ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL CYLINDRICAL


TRANSMISSION LINES
We consider a cylindrical waveguide of arbitrary cross-sectional
shape. The long axis of the waveguide is along the z-direction. The
walls of the waveguide are perfect conductors, and the material within
the waveguide is characterized by , .
E = jw H

(Faraday)

H = ( + jw ) E + Ju (Ampere)

(Gauss)

H = 0

(Gauss)

E =

E ( x, y , z )
H ( x, y , z )
{ 2 + k 2 }

D ( x, y , z ) = 0

Helmholtz Equation

B ( x, y , z )
{Ju=0,=0}
The Helmholtz equation is
equation. So ;

a seperatable linear differential

85

E X ( x, y , z )
{ 2 + k 2 } EY ( x, y, z ) = 0
E Z ( x, y , z )

General Cylindrical Transmission System :

The equation of a wave propogating along the z- axis :


E ( x, y, z ) = Et ( x, y, z ) + E Z ( x, y, z ) = e( x, y )e jz + ez ( x, y)e jz

H ( x, y, z ) = H t ( x, y, z ) + H Z ( x, y, z ) = h( x, y)e jz + hz ( x, y)e jz

As all the EM wave components have to prove the Maxwell


Equations, we can analyse these equations for the general cylindrical
transmission lines.
Defining the transverse gradient ,

t =

ax + a y
x
x

We have ;

E = ( t +

a z ) E = ( t j a z ) (e + e z )e jz
x
j z
(h + hz )e j z
=-jw0 (h + hz )e

t e j az e +
longitudinally
component

breadthways
component

t e z
t az ez = az t ez

j az ez = j0 (h + hz )e j z
0

Faradays Law :

t e = j0 h z

(1)
86

az t e z j az e = j0 h

(2)

Amperes Law :

t h = j e z

a z t h z + j a z h = j e
To analyze the general cylindrical transmission lines, first we
have to obtain e and h as the parameter of ez and hz .

e = g (ez , hz )
h = f (ez , hz )
Second we have to solve the Helmholtz equation in V domain to
obtain ez(x,y) and hz(x,y) and finally assign all the EM components in
V domain.
If we multiply Eq-2 by j a z vectorally, we obtain;

j [a z (a z t e z ) j a z (a z e)] = j ( j )a z

j (a z t e z )(a z ) + j (a z (a z ))t e z
(k 2 2 )e = j0 a z t h z j (t e z )
(k )h = j a z t e z j (t h z )
2

k = 0

87

According to these equations, we can seperate EM waves


propagating along z-direction in cylindrical transmission lines into
four groups:
1) TE (transverse electric) Waves : Ez = 0, Hz 0
2) TM (transverse magnetic) Waves : Hz = 0, Ez 0
3) TEM (transverse electromagnetic) Waves : Hz = 0, Ez
0In this condition =k
4) Hybrid Ez 0, Hz 0

Bt =

j .ez t Ez jk t Bz
k0 2 k 2

{ t 2 + ( 2 k 2 }

Ez
Bz

=0

(3)
(4)

TE waves are sometimes called H-waves and TM waves are


sometimes called E-waves, where the E-wave and H-wave notation
refers to the field that has a z-component. It is important to realize that
TE and TM modes are independent solutions, i.e., they independently
satisfy Eq (4) and the boundary conditions at the walls. (A solution
where both Ez 0 and Bz 0 would not be an additional independent
solution, but rather, if it existed it could be constructed from a
superposition of degenerate TE and TM modes.However as we shall
now see, the fields for TE and TM modes satisfy different boundary
conditions. Consequently, they will not be degenerate.)
For TM waves, the boundary condition that the tangential
component of E vanishes at the walls means that Ez vanishes at the
walls. This single BC uniquelydetermines the solution of Eq (4) for
TM waves. Therefore, it is unnecessary in the case of TM waves to
impose the other boundary condition at the walls, namely, that the
88

normal component of the magnetic field ( en Bt in this case) vanishes


there. The lattercondition must be automatically contained in Eq (3)
for Bt when it is applied to TM waves by setting Bz = 0 in the RHS of
that equation. To see this, note that the only component of t Ez that is
relevant for finding the normal component of Bt from Eq (3) is the
gradient of Ez with respect to the coordinate along the boundary, and
this vanishes since Ez is constant there (actually, Ez = 0 at the walls).
For TE waves there is no Ez , so to solve Eq (4) we use the BC
that the normal component of B vanishes at the walls. The latter BC
turns out to be equivalent to the condition that the normal derivative of
Bz vanishes at the walls. To see this, calculate en Bt using Eq (3) for Bt
. Noting that Ez = 0 for TE waves, we find that en Bt is proportional to
n t Bz , which is identical to the normal derivative Bz/ n. Thus Bz/
n vanishes at the walls for a TE wave. No other boundary condition
is needed to obtain a unique solution of Eq (4) for TE waves.
Therefore, the other boundary condition, namely that the tangential
component of Et vanishes at the walls, must be 6 automatically
satisfied by this solution for TE waves. (This is easily shown by an
argument analogous to that given in the previous paragraph for the
case of TM waves.)
Maxwell Equations in Divergiance Form

B = H = 0

H = 0

(t j az )(h + hz )e j z = 0
t h j hz = 0

t h = j hz

D = 0

t e = j ez

Obtaining Ez(x,y) ve Hz(x,y) :

89

+ k 2}

=0

{ 2 + k 2 }

Ez

=0

Hz

(5)

2 = . = (t j az )(t j az )

2 =t 2 2 (6)
2
2
t = t .t = 2 + 2
x y

t = az + a y
x
y

(6) (5) we obtain;

+k

E z ( x, y , z )
H z ( x, y , z )

=0

2
2
e + 2 ez + (k 2 2 ) ez = 0 ;
2 z
x
y
2
2 2

h =k -

The solution of this differential equation at Ez=0, gives Ez(x,y).

h 2 = k 2 2 Characteristic value


k2 =
U

U =

0 0

h is the function of the problems geometry and takes discrete


values. We can obtain h from the solution of the Helmholtz equation
for geometry of the problem. So we obtain;

= k 2 h2

{R and k2 > h2 }

90

For propogation of EM waves must be a member R .Using

= k 2 h2

equation we can analyze the propogation for


different conditions of .

C
k
=
C
1) For =0 k=kcutoff =h ,
U = h

c=h U

fC =

2 0

h.c
2 r

If the EM wave frequency is equal to cutoff frequency , then =


0 . So no propogation is available.
2) For k > h

fC
k
=

1
2 2

k -h > 0
f

f < fc

h kC C U C
= =
=
=
k k U

3) For k < h

k > kc

f < fc

k2
= k h = h (1 2 )
h
2

is imaginer , and causes attenuation.


Summary : General cylindrical wave guides have
characteristic.

cut off

91

If f = fc cut off
If f > fc propogation
If f < fc attenuation
For > c :
2


C
2

U
U

For < c :
2


C
2

+ =

U
U

RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES
The solution of the EM waves propagating in the z direction in the
section

in the systems with only one conductor, the TEM mode

cannot exist.

92

First we must find ez and hz


TE WAVES z=0 hz 0
{t2+RC2 } hz=0

kc2=k2-2=h2

2
2
hz + 2 hz + kc 2 hz = 0
2
X
y

(1)

hz(x,y)= f(x) . g(y)

(2)

If we put (2) into (1) and divide with f.g


1 d2 f 1 d2 f
+
+ kc 2 = 0
2
2
f dx
g dy

(3)

Only the function of x only the function of y


-kx2 ky2 + kc2 = 0
1 d2 f
d2 f
2
+ kx
+ kx 2 f = 0
2
2
f dx
dx

(4.1)

93

1 d 2g
d 2g
2
= ky
+ ky 2 g = 0
2
2
g dy
dy

(4.2)

kx2 + ky2 = kc2

(4.3)

From (4.1) f(x,y)= A1cos kx.x + A2sinkx.x

(5.1)

From (4.2) g(x,y)= B1cos ky.y + B2 sin ky.y

(5.1)

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
y
y=b

X=Q

y=0
a

y=0
z

hz
n
h
x

boudary

X =0
X =a

=0

=0

h
y

Y =0
Y =b

=0

f
= KxA1 sin kx.x + kxA2 cos A2 . cos kx.x
x

(16)

]xx==0a

=0

94

for x=0

A2=0

(7.1)

for x=a

-kxA1sinkx a=0
kx.a=m m= 0,1 ...
kx= m m= 0,1 .....

(7.2)

hz
y

Y =0
Y =b

=0

g
= --B1 ky.sin ky.y +B2ky cos k.y = 0
x
For

B2 =0

y=0

(7.3)
For

y= b

- B1ky sin ky.b=0


ky.b= n
ky= n n= 0,1...
b

(7.4)

Thus,
h(x,y) = f(x) . g(y)
hz(x,y)= Hmn . cos

mx
ny
. cos
a
b
2

m n
kc = kx +ky = kmn =
+

b
2

Hmn A1B1
=

(8.1)

(8.2)
95

Wc= wmn = kc U
2
2
U m n
fc=fmn=

+

2 a b

1/ 2

There is TE modes and all of them have different cut off frequency.
There is not EM power of the waves propagating in the z direction
which belong to
f
f= fmn

Temn mode status mn=0

(9.1)
f>fmn

w 2 wmn 2
2 2
1/2
mn = jmn = j (k -k mn) = j


U

1/ 2

1/ 2

2 2 m 2 n 2
m = 0,1..,



mn = j a b
n = 0,1...

f < fmn mn= mn = (kmn2-k2)1/2

(9.3)

For TMmn hz=0, ez 0 (t2 + kc2) ez=0 are propagation parameters


TMnn = ez (x,y) = Emn sin mx .sin n y
a

96

TMnn = hz (x,y) = Hmn cos mx . cos n y


a

U m n
fmn =
+ m = 0,1...
2 a b
n = 0,1.., a > b

Thre is x number of TEmn and TMmn modes

U
TE10 = f 10 =
2a

f10 < f < f 20


U
U
< f<
2a
a

One mode frequance band


In practice the circular waveguides are mostly used in dominant mode.
In this way one mode propagation is provided.
T 01 TM11
T20 TM11
The Lowest Cut Off Frequancy is Te10

TE10 f10=

U
The Lowest Cut Off Frequency
2a

U
U
Allowable Operating Frequency Range
< f<
2a
a
97

TE10 mode is the dominant mode for rectangular waveguides. (a>b)


f10 =

U
TE10 The lowest cut off frequency (a>b)
2a

f20 TE20 second lowest cut off frequency


*In commercial waveguides (a=2b)
*In TM mode m= 0 n = 0 is not possible
The design of rectangular waveguides for a given frequency.

<a<

U
f

3.108 = 0,3m = 30cm


= 0,3m = 30cm
f= 1.6 Hz =
109

15 cm < a < 30 cm
THE WIDTHWISE EM COMPONENTS FOR TEmn AND TMmn
MODES

Ht =

hz
j
hz jz
az +
ay e
tHz = / kc
k
x
y

Ug= (d/dw)-1
Et= -j/kc2 t Ez
98

PROPAGATION SPECIALITIES
2

fmn
2f
=
1
= k 2 kmn 2 =
U
f

wt-z=k the speed of constant phase lane

Up =

U
fmn
1

>U

For general rectangular waveguide the speed of waves are bigger than
the speed in space
Fmn the cutoff frequency for TEmn or TMmn

Up/U
Up
U

Ug/U

f/fc
1

GROUP SPEED

99

Ug= 1/d/dw = U 1 ( fmn / f ) < U


2

Vg

Up

Ug.Up= U2

Up> Ug

POWER
1
Port = Re {ExH * }w / m2
2
PORT
Port = Wort U U =
= Ug
WORT

Guided wave lenght

100

g =

1 ( fmn / f )

>

2
= g. = 2
k

The guided waves wave lenght decreases.

WAVE IMPEDANCES ZTE , ZTM

ZTEMN=

2
fmn
1

> =

377
r

ZTM= 1 ( fmn / f ) <


2

az

Z T =
TM

Et
Ht

E
H
Ht
101

az:The direction of EM power propagation

CALCULATION OF Pmn (For TEmn and TMmn)

Port ds

Pmn =

The net power propagating in the z direction

widthwise

1
Pmn = Re
2

a
1
= Re
2
0

1
= Re
2

*
(Et x H t ).az dx.dy

x =0 y =0

[ExH
b

y Ey.H * x ]dx.dy

*
*
[Hy.H y + Hx.Hx ]dx.dy
a

Zwmn =

Exmn Eymn
=
Hymn Hxmn

1
2
2
Pmn = Re Zwmn
|
Hx
|
+
|
Hy
|
)dxdy

2
widthwise sec tion

By using Hx and Hy
102

1
Pmn = Re Zwmn
2

ab 2
4 n 0

ab n = 0
2

2
(sin
0

m
ny
x + cos 2
dxdy
a
b

m0
m0

Et
Et
Zwmn |Ht| = Zwmn
=
Zwn 2 Zwn
2

TOTAL EM POWER FOR TEmn or TMmn MODES


| Hmn |2 ab
Pmn =
2. on. om

Here om and on are NEUMAN FACTORS


1
om =
2

m=0

1
on =
2

n=0

m>0

n>0
2

10 = k k10
2

m n
k10 =
+

a b

103

FOR T10 MODE


2

1
a
P10= w10 ab | H10 |2
4

P10=

1 1
ab | E max |2
4 ZT 10

Emo x =

woa Ho

TE10 ET= Ey ay Total field is only in the y direction.


M=1 n=0

(DOMINANT MODE)

Emox < Edielectric distortion


From TE10 mode Ez=0

Hz0

Ex=0 can be find

E is only at y direction and at x= a/2 tthere is maximum Ey


The electrical fields is maximum at x=a/2. In other regions the change
is sin/.
b

y=b
x=0
X=Q
104
x

Ey= -jw 0
Hx= j

H10 sin

H 10 sin

Hz= H10 cos x e

xe jz

xe

j z

jz

P10 =

1 1
a.b . E max 2
4 ZTE10

Emax < Edielectric distortion happens


Emax Edielectrik distortion doesnot happens
If system is given then Emax can be find and maximum power occurs.
THE CONDUCTVTY LOSSES
P(z)
Po
e-z

105

P=

1
1
Zw
*
*
.
.
(azxEt )
Et
H
t
ds
=
Ht
Ht
d
s
Ht
2 Zw
2
Zw
Et
= Zw
Ht

p
= PL = 2 Poe 2z
z
=2P= 2(c+d)P

canductivity
lass

dielectric
loss

c =

PL
2P

PL =

Rs
Ht.Ht * dl

Rs =

1
because of peffective depth there is a Rs surface impedance
gs

106

c =

e Ht.Ht dl
Zw s Ht.Ht ds
Rs

(NP/M) conductivity loss constant

c It is the result of ideal material

DIELECTRIC LOSSES
Eef = -j

d
d: dielectric conductivity
w

REMEMBER
x H = ( d+jw) E J u = 0
x H = jv(- j d ) E
w

=d+j = j
=j

k 2 kc 2

w2 o ef kc 2
2

= d + j and wo d << < w o-kc / and also with the use of

binomial serials.

d =

d o
2

1/ 2

wc
1
w

Np / m w >> wc

107

The loosing factor in e-dz, d is real and positif.


The relationship bteween B/m and Np/m is

DB/m=
=

10
log10 e 2z = 8,686
z

10
[
log e 2Z ] = 20 x x Log10e
Z

w>> wc iin d=

d
2

o /

There are two losses. The c is because of material not being ideal.
The other loss becomes from cutoff frequency.

CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE

The Circular Cylindrical Waveguide

This figure illustrates a cylindrical wave guide with a circular cross


section of radius r. In view of the cylindrical geometry involved,
cylindrical coordinates are most appropriate for the analysis to be
108

carried out. Since the general properties of the modes that may exist
are similar to those for the rectangular guide.

2 + k = 0 Helmholtz Equation

1
r
r r r

2
1
2
+
k

=0
+ 2

2
r

(in the circular cylindrical coordinate)

e jz (r , , z ) = R(r ) ()e-jz

r d
R dr

1
dR
2 2

r
+ h r
=
dr

only function of r

d 2
d 2

only function of

The left-hand side is a function of r only, whereas the right-hand


side depend on only. Therefore this equation can hold for all
values of the variables only if both sides are equal to some constant
k2.
d 2
+ 2 = 0
2
d

For given r,

( ) = A cos + B sin C cos( + )

and 2n + represent same point.

For = n n=0,1,2,.And = 0 . w
( ) = C cos n

109

r2

d dR
2 2
2
r
+ (h r n ) R = 0
dr dr

(The Bessel Differential Equation)

DJ n (hr ) + EN n (hr ) = 0
Bessel Function Neumann Function
In order to the function goes to infinite ,it should be E=0

(r , , z ) = DJ n ( hr ) cos n e jz

z
n

2 = k 2 h 2

(TE) H z

equation of

boundary

Ez=0 ; Jn(hb)=0 pnm

z
r

r =b

=0

qnm

TE11 , TM01 , TE21 , TE01/TM11


TE:

110

J ' n(hb)=0

fTE nm

qnmU
= 2b

Jn(hb)=0

J ' n(qnm)=0

qnm=hb

q nm C
=
h=
U
b

Jn(pnm)=0

pnm=hb

p nmU
fTM nm =
2b
TE and TM cutoff frequencies are different from each other.
Order of the modes w.r.t the cutoff frequencies (from low to high)
( nm=0)
TE11 , TM01 , TE21 , TE01/TM11..TE31
EXAMPLE:
(a) f=6 GHz , 500 kW continuous wave power l=30 feet, choose a
traditional(commercial available) circular wave guide,
(b) Order the lowest five cutoff frequencies,
(c) Find out the operation bandwidth for the TE11 mode,
(d) Find out the loss,
(e) Find out the maximum wave for electrical field strength And
compare it with break down value for the dry air,
(f) If you insert a Teflon disk in the wave guide , in order to have
it as invisible what should its thickness be?
SOLUTION:
(a)f=6 GHz ;

q11U
fc TE11 =
2b

The operation frequency has to be higher than fc TE11 for the safety
margin let us choose.
111

f=1.25x fc TE11

fc TE11 < f < fc TE2

f
fc TE11 =
1.25
1.25x fc TE
11

0.9xfc TE2

Taking
fc TE11 =5 GHz

1,841xc
fc TE11 =
2b

2b=3,5cm=1,39

WC 150

We choose standard WC 150 from the table of standard circular wave


guides.
2b=1,5

WC 150
Wave guide Circular
for this value(2b=1,5) we obtain:

fc TE11 =4,614 GHz

EAI
Designation
WC 992
WC 847
WC 724
WC 618

Inside Dimensions(Inches)
Diameter
Tolerance
Roundness
+ or Tolerance
9,915
0,01
0,01
8,47
0,008
0,008
7,235
0,007
0,007
6,181
0,006
0,006

Recommended
Frequency Range
TE11 Mode GHz
0,803-1,10
0,939-1,29
1,10-1,51
1,29-1,76

WC 528
WC 451
WC 385
WC 329

5,28
4,511
3,853
3,292

0,005
0,005
0,004
0,003

0,005
0,005
0,005
0,003

1,51-2,07
1,76-2,42
2,07-2,83
2,42-3,31

WC 281
WC 240
WC 205
WC 175

2,812
2,403
2,047
1,75

0,003
0,0025
0,002
0,0015

0,003
0,002
0,002
0,0015

2,83-3,88
3,31-4,54
3,89-5,33
4,54-6,23

WC 150
WC 128
WC 109
WC 94

1,5
1,281
1,094
0,938

0,0015
0,0013
0,001
0,0009

0,0015
0,0013
0,0011
0,0009

5,30-7,27
6,21-8,51
7,27-9,97
8,49-11,6

112

WC 80
WC 69
WC 59
WC 50

0,797
0,688
0,594
0,5

0,0008
0,0007
0,0006
0,0005

0,0008
0,0007
0,0006
0,0005

9,97-13,7
11,6-15,9
13,4-18,4
15,9-21,8

WC 44
WC 38
WC 33
WC 28

0,438
0,375
0,328
0,281

0,00045
0,00038
0,00033
0,00028

0,0004
0,0004
0,0003
0,0001

18,2-24,9
21,2-29,1
24,3-33,2
28,3-38,8

WC 25
WC 22
WC 19
WC 17

0,25
0,219
0,188
0,172

0,00025
0,00025
0,00025
0,00025

0,0001
0,0001
0,00007
0,00007

31,8-43,6
36,4-49,8
42,4-58,1
46,3-63,5

WC 14
WC 132
WC 11
WC 9

0,141
0,125
0,109
0,094

0,00025
0,00025
0,00025
0,00025

0,00005
0,00005
0,00005
0,00005

56,6-77,5
63,5-87,2
72,7-99,7
84,8-116

( b) The lowest five cutoff frequencies the WC 150


Mode:
fc(GHz):

TE11

TM01

TE21

TE01/TM11

4.614

6.028

7.654

9.604

(c) The operation bandwidth,


1.15xfc TE

11

0.95xfc TE

21

TM01:
E_ lines
---- H_ lines

113

TM01 is not generally used for the second order mode,


since this configuration does occur rarely in practice.

TE11:

E_ lines

TE21:

E_ lines

(d) c TEnm
n: the order of the Bessel function ,

m: the order of the zeros

114

8.686
c TEnm =

f
1 c
f

For the 30 propagation distance of Al waveguide the loss


power= 0.68 dB

outputpower
=
inputpower %85.4 ,

PLOSS=72.6 kW

If the operation frequency f increases, the variations c as dB m


are given below:

For the atmosphere pressure, the circular wave guide with the dry air
insulator, the maximum pulsive power can be

Emax=

0 .5
3.88

Pmax

TE11

= 2.7(2B)2

Pmax

TE11

=3.88 MW

f
1 c
f

x29kV =10405 W/cm


115