BY
Prof.Dr. FLZ GNE
REFERENCES
1. David K. CHENG , Field And Wave Electromagnetics , Addison
 Wesley Publishing
2. Umran S. INAN  Aziz S.INAN , Electromagnetics Engineering ,
Addison  Wesley Publishing
3. David M. POZAR , Microwave Engineering , Addison  Wesley
Publishing
4. Robert E. COLLN , Foundations For Microwave Engineering ,
McGraw  Hill Inc.,1992
5. Peter A.RIZZI , Passive Microwawe Engineering , Prentice  Hall
International
SUBJECTS
Part 1 : Transmission Line Theory
Part 2 : Impedance Transformation And Matching
Part 3 : Rectangular And Circular Waveguides
Equivalent circuits of differential length dz s of the twoconductor lossy and lossless transmission lines can be given by the
circuits in the Fig2 and 3,respectively.
where R and L are the series elements, G and C are the shunt
elements.R and G equals to zero in an ideal (lossless) transmission
line as shown in Fig. 3.
If the quantities V(z,t) and V(z+dz,t) denote the instantenous
voltages at z and z+dz positions of the line respectively ; the relation
betweeen these instantenous voltages can be given as follows:
V ( z + dz , t ) = V ( z , t ) +
V
dz
z
(1)
I ( z + dz ) = I ( z , t ) +
I
dz
z
(2)
V ( z , t ) + Ldz
I ( z , t )
+ V ( z + dz , t ) = 0
t
(3)
in the limit z
0,
(4)
equation(4) becomes
V (z, t)
I(z, t)
= L
t
z
(5)
I(z, t ) + Cdz
V(z + dz, t )
+ I(z + dz, t ) = 0
t
(6)
I(z, t )
V (z, t )
=C
z
t
(7)
2
V (z, t)
zt
2
I(z, t)
= L
2
t
I(z, t)
= C
2
z
V (z, t)
t z
2 I( z, t ) 2 I( z, t )
2 I( z, t )
2 I( z, t )
LC
=
LC
=0
2
2
2
2
t
z
z
t
(8)
(9)
(10)
V(z,t)
2
2
LC
=0
2
2
z
z I(z,t)
where v =
1
LC
(11)
(12)
z
z
V(z,t)= V+f +(t ) + Vf (t + )
v
v
(14)
z
z
I(z,t)= I+f +(t ) If (t + )
v
v
(15)
I + = v.C.V +
I  = v.C.V 
(16)
Z C =
ZC
V+
V=
=
I+
I
(v C )
=
C
LC
1
=
L
C
(17)
V+ +
z
I(z,t) =
f (t )
Z
v
c
z
V f (t + )
v
Zc
(18)
z
V + f + (t )
v
V+ +
z
I(z,t) =
f (t )
Zc
v
V(z,t) =
(19)
Using
f + ( t ) = f + (0, t )
(21)
So
V + f + (t)
V +f + (t ) =
V+
R g f + (t)
Z
C
(22 )
Z
C V (t )
Z + Rg g
C
(23)
V (z, t) =
ZC
ZC + R
Vg (t
z
)
v
(24)
I(z, t) =
v=
where
1
+ R
1
LC
V
g
and
(t
ZC =
z
)
v
(25)
L
.
C
Figure4
in
= Z
(26)
RL
10
, t)= VL = ILR
I( , t ) = I L
(27)
(28)
+
(1) If RL = Zc , V ( , t ) = V L = I ( , t )Z C is satisfied by only V ( , t)
and I + ( , t ) waves The energy carried by the incident wave is
completely absorbed by the load . V ( , t ) = 0
ZC
g t = V + g t
ZC + R g
( 29 )
1
i ( , t)
ZC
( 30 )
Since there exists the only single wave component until the waves
come to the load , so we can express the reflected voltage wave
component as
r (z, t ) = V g t
(31)
z 2
r (z , t ) = V g t +
11
The reflected voltage and current waves of the load can be given as
r ( , t ) = V g t I r ( , t ) = V g t
ZC
(32)
The boundary condition is L = ( , t ) = I ( , t )R L and substituting
the incident and reflected wave expressions into the boundary
condition, we have
L (z, t ) =
(V + V )g t R L
ZC
L (z , t ) = ( V + + V ) g t
(33)
V
=
V
R
R
L
L
Z
+ Z
(34)
Properties :
g 1
12
Figure 6
g =
ZC
+ ZC
. So , for Rg
z 2
z
(z, t ) = V + g t + L 2V + g t + U(t ) +
2
z 2
g L V + g t U(t ) +
3
z 4
g L 2V + g t + U(t ) +
4
z 4
g 2L 2V + g t U(t ) + ....
where
z
U( t )
(35)
as
13
z
1 t >
U( t ) =
0 otherwise
(36)
Figure 7
L=0.5
g=  0.5
Figure 8
Capacitive Termination
or
Ic ( t ) = C
dVc ( t )
dt
(37)
14
REFLECTION DIAGRAMS
Figure1
15
t
P5
t5
gL2V1+
4T
t4
g2L2V1+
P4
Figure2
3T
+
P3
t3
gLV1
LV1+
2T
t2
T
P1
t1
0
z1
V1+
l
It starts with a wave V1+ at t=0 travelling from the source end
(z=0) in the +z direction with a velocity u . This wave is
represented by the directed straight line marked V1+ from the
origin. This line has a positive slope equal to 1/u. When the V1+
wave reaches the load at z=l, a reflected wave V1= LV1+ is created
if RL R0. The V1 wave travels in the z direction and is
represented by the directed line marked LV1+ with a negative
slope equal to 1/u.
The V1 wave returns to the source end at instant t=2T and
gives rise to another reflected wave V2+ = gV1 = gLV1+,
which is represented by a second directed line with a positive
slope. This process continues back and forth infinitely. The
voltage reflection diagram can be used conveniently to determine
the voltage distribution along the transmission line at a given
time as well as the variation of the voltage as a function of time at
an arbitrary point on the line.
16
V(z,t4)
V1+(1+L+gL+gL2)
V1+( gL2)
V1+(1+L+gL)
V1+(1+L)
V1+
z1
Figure3
finding the variation of the voltage as the function of time at the point
z=z1.
17
V=V1++V1+V2++V2+V3++V 3+
=V1+(1+L+gL+gL2+g2L2+g2L3+..)
=V1+[(1+gL+g2L2+.)+L(1+gL+g2L2+..)]
+
=V1 1 g L
1 + L
=V1+ 1 g L
g
+
1
g L
18
4T
t4
P4
gL2I1+
3T
t3
P3
2T
t2
P2
gLI1+
LI1+
Figure4
T
P1
t1
z1
I1+
V0
I0
+
+
V0
I0
= Z0
I(z1,t)
gLI1+
V0/3R0
gL2I1+
g2L2I1+
LI1+
V0/5R0
I1+
0 t1
t2 2T t3
3T
t4
4T
t5
Figure5
V(z1,t)
3V0/5
V0/3
LV1+
gLV1+
gL2V1+
g2L2V1+
V1+
Figure6
We see that they are quite dissimilar. The current along the line
oscillates around the steadystate value of V0/5R0 as seen at equation:
1 L V1+
IL =
1 R
g L
0
20
3 V
I L = 1
5 R0
V0
=
5R
0
i
dz,
z
(z + z; t) = (z, t) + dz
z
i(z + z; t) = i(z, t) +
(38)
21
i(z, t )
(z + z, t ) (z, t )
= R zi ( z , t ) + L
t
z
(z; t)
i(z; t)
= Ri(z; t) + L
t
z
(39)
i(z; t ) Gz(z + z; t ) Cz
(z + z; t )
i(z + z; t ) = 0
t
i( z; t )
( z; t )
= G ( z; t ) + C
z
t
(40)
22
(z; t) =
i(z; t) =
Re
V ( z ) e j t
Im
(41)
[I ( z ) e
(42)
Re
Im
j t
(43)
(44)
dI ( z )
= (G + j C ) V ( z )
dz
From (43) and (44) , we have one  dimensional wave equation for
both the voltage and current:
d2
2
2
dz
V(z)
I(z)
=0
(45)
Here
= + j = (R + jL)(G + jC)
(46)
= j c = j ( j
23
c = j
where
= Im{}rad / m
attenuation
phase
constant
constant
(47)
(48)
(49.1)
V(z)=V+(z) + V(z)
(49.2)
V0 = V + ( 0 ) e j 0
+
V ( z ) = V (0) e
+
z j( 0 z )
(49.3)
+ V (0) e
z j( 0 + z )
(49.4)
(50)
V (z) R + jL R + jL
Z0 = +
=
=+
=
G + jC
I (z)
I (z)
V+ (z)
Z0 =
R + j L
G + j C
(51)
24
IMPORTANT
(1)
SPECIAL CASES
LOSSLESS LINE
(R=0 , G=0)
(52)
1
=
= CONST. (all the frequency combinations of a
LC
signal packet will have the same up speed along the line);
(b) Up =
(2)
L
L
, R 0 =
C
C
(53)
(R<<L , G<<C)
(a ) PROPAGATION CONSTANT :
R
=+J= J LC 1 +
J L
1/ 2
1 +
J C
1/ 2
1 R
GZ
+
0 Np/m ( all the
= 2 Z
(54)
25
(b) U p =
LC
(c) Z0=R0+JX0=
J L
C
1/2
1/2
1 +
J C
G
R
<< 1 ,
<< 1 ;
From the binomial series expansion using for
L
C
R0 =
(3)
L 1 R G
L
, X0 =
0
C
C 2 L C
(55)
DISTORTIONLESS LINES
R
G
=
L
C
=+j= (R + jL )
1/ 2
= R
C
L
RC
JC +
1/ 2
C
(R + jL)
L
of ;
(b) U p =
(56)
1
LC
independent of
R + JL
L
L
=
; R0 =
; X0 = 0
z0=r0+jx0= RC
C
C
+ JC
L
(57)
26
HOMEWORK
v(z) = v0e(+j)z
I( z ) =
V0 ( + J ) z
e
Z0
(58)
V0
1
P ( z ) = Re V ( z ) I ( z * ) =
2
2 Z0
2
2
R 0e 2z
(59)
P (z )
= PL = 2 P ( z )
z
PL ( z )
Np / m
2P (z)
(60)
27
1
2
2
I(z ) R + V (z ) G
2
V0 2
2 2z
PL (z) =
(
R
+
G
Z
)e
0
2
2 Z0
PL ( z ) =
]
(61)
1
2
R + G Z0
2R 0
) np/m
Z0=R0=
L
C
1
C
L
1 R
+ GR 0 = R
+G
L
C
2 R0
2
L
C
(62)
( 63)
R G
=
using
L C
1
C GL
1
C R
= R 1 +
=
= R
2
L RC
2
L R0
(64)
28
V ( z ) = V0 e
V0+
Z0
(65)
z j( z + 0 )
+ V0 e
j(z0+ +Z0 )
V0
Z0
(66)
z j(z+0 Z0 )
e e
(67)
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT
FUNCTION
L = ( ) =
V0e
V0 e
V0e2
V0+
(68)
(z) =
V0
V0+
e 2 z
(69)
(z) = Le2(
z)
(d) = Le2d
(70 )
( d ) = L e 2 d L 2 d
29
Im{}
L
L1
L
Re{}
2d
(d)
(1)
(d) = L e2d L 2d
(71)
ZL(L)
(d)
V (d )
(d ) = +
V (d )
(72)
(73)
r (d ) = L 2 d
(74)
30
(2)
r (d) = L 2d
(75)
So if you go towards the source from the load ,all the (d) take place
on the spital starting from the l ending to the ( ).
Lets find V(z) and I(z) using (z):
(76)
V0 + e z
V0 + e z
I( z ) =
(1 ( z )) =
(1 L e 2 (
Z0
Z0
(77)
VL = V( ) = V0 + e (1 + L )
V0 + e
= I( ) =
(1 L )
Z0
IL
VL
VL = Z
IL
.I L
z)
=
(78)
(79)
(80)
31
L =
ZL Z0
ZL + Z0
(81)
L1
ZL=0L= 1 V ( ) = V + ( )
ZL ,L1 V ( ) = V + ( ) (RL>R0)
IF ZL=RL L =
ZL=JXL
L =
R
R
L
L
JX
JX
R
+ R
L
L
0
0
R
+ R
arctg
0
0
=
arctg
X L
R 0
X L
R 0
jXL{ZL}
L=arctgXL
Ro
ZL
32
1 =
; 2 = 2 ; c1 = 1 1 j 1 ; c2 = 2 1 j 2
1
2
(82)
E r (0) 2 1
=
E i (0) 2 + 1
V(z)
V0
V (z)
V0
(84)
33
V (d )
V0
(1 + 2 L cos( 2 d + L ) + L
V0
d max = n
(85)
n=0,1, 2,..............
2dmax+l= n2
V (d max )
max = 1 + L
L
+
2 4
(86)
V ( z ) max = V0 (1 + L )
(87)
n=0,1, 2,..............
2dmin+l= (2n+1)
d min = (2n + 1) + L
2 4
(88)
V (d )
min
= V0
(1 L )
(89)
I(d
max
VSWR
) =
V0
Z 0
V
V
(1 L )
max
min
1 +
1
(90)
L
L
(91)
34
ZL Z0 zL 1
ZL
=
=
z
=
L
Here
ZL + Z0 zL +1 ; L
Z0
(92)
GRAPHICAL APPROACH
=0 lossless line
V (z)
V0
= 1 + ( z ) = 1 + L e j2 (
z)
( z ) = 2( z ) + L
(93)
(94)
V (z)
V0
= 1 + (z)
(95)
Dzlemi
1+(z)
(z)
Re{}
35
V (z)
V0
(96)
= 1 (z)
(97)
min
HOMEWORK:
Find the maximum and minimum positions and values of I(z)  z
(z) = L + 2d
L =
ZL Z0
= L [ L
ZL + Z0
(98)
(1)Opencircuited termination: ZL L = 1 = 10
n
, dmax1 = 0, dmax2 = , dmax3 =
2
2
(2n +1)
3
, dmin1 = , dmin2 =
2
4
4
(99)
(100)
36
VSWR =
V (z)
V0
1 + L
L 1 ;FOR OPEN CIRCUIT TERMINATED
1 L
2 + 2 cos 2 d
HOMEWORKS:
Find the standing waves pattern and VSWR for the above terminations
1. v(z)=v+
zl=z0
2. Zl0(short crcut)
3. Zl=Rl+jXl
4. Zl0 l=0;VSWR=1;V(z)max=v(z)min
5. Zl=Rl
6. Zl=jXl
VSWR =
V(z) max
V(z) min
1 + L
VSWR 1
L =
1 L
VSWR + 1
(5) Zl=Rl
Terminating line with pure
rezistance
L =
R L Z0
R L + Z0
37
1)Rl>Z0 l =l 00
2) Rl<Z0 l =l
( d ) = L + 2 d
1) (d) = 2d
P(z)=Re{V(z)I*(z)}
(101)
V + (z)
(1 ( z ))
where V(z)=V (z)(1+(z)) and I ( z ) = Z
0
+
V(z)=V+(z)ez
(102)
+
V + (z)
*
P ( z ) = Re V (z )(1 + ( z ))
(
1
(
z
))
38
V + (z) 2
2
*
P(z) = Re
(1 (z) ) (z) + (z) + Ji + + Ji
Z 0
V + (z) 2
(1 ( z ) )
P ( z ) = Re
Z
0
P (z) =
V (z)
Z0
) }=
*
V + (z)
(103.1)
2
Z0
(103.2)
2
2
= (z) P + (z)
(103.3)
P( z) = P + (z ) + P (z)
2
Pin = P in 1 in
(104)
where
+
P in =
V (0)
Z0
V0
+ 2
Z0
(105)
39
is the power of the wave that comes to the input of the line. The net
power that goes into the load is
+
PL = PL 1 L
(106)
where
PL =
VL
+ 2
Z0
V0 e
Z0
V0
+ 2
e  2
(107)
Z0
is the power of the wave that comes to the load and may also be
written as
+
PL = Pin e 2
(108)
(109)
+
ZG
I in
Vin
VG
ZL
40
VG = Vin + I in Z G
(110)
V0+
VG = V (1 + in ) +
Z G (1 in )
Z0
(111)
+
0
(112)
in = L e 2
+
V0 = V+ (0)
(113)
G =
ZG Z 0
ZG + Z 0
(114)
1 + G
ZG = Z0
1
(115)
At the time t = 0+
ZG
Z0
V 0+ =
VG Z 0
ZG + Z0
(116)
VG
41
+
Second V 0 wave
ZG
VG
V0+ = L G e 2
VG Z 0
ZG + Z0
(117)
+
Third V 0 wave
V0+ = (L G e2 ) 2
VG Z0
ZG + Z0
(118)
V0+ = V+ (0) =
VG Z0
1 + G Le2 + (G L e2 ) 2 + ............... (119)
Z0 + ZG
VG Z0
VG Z0
1
2 j
V (0) =
(
e
)
=
G L
Z0 + ZG j=0
Z0 + ZG 1 L Ge2 (120)
+
where
42
Z0 + ZG = Z0 + Z0
1+ G
2
= Z0
1 G
1 G
(121)
So we obtain
V+ (0) =
P+ (z)=
(1 G )VG
2(1 L G e )
(122)
1 G
2z
e
4Z0 1 GLe
VG
(123)
PA =
VG
(124)
4R G
Pin+ = PA
1 G
ZL
ZL = ZG
1 G in
(125)
43
Pm = Pin+ 1 in
)= P
PL = Pin+ e 2z 1 L
(1 )(1 )
2
(1 G in )
)= P
in
(126)
(1 )(1 )
2
1 G Le
L
2 z 2
=0
(1 )(1 )
2
Pin = PL = PA
(127)
1 G L e j22
SPECIAL CASES
ZG = Z0
so
G = 0
Eq. (126) becomes
44
Pm+ = PA
VG
=
4Z 0
Pin = PA 1 in
PL = PA e 2 1 L
(128)
G = 0, L = 0 and = 0
If
PL = Pin = PA
(129)
REFLECTION LOSS
P+
LR = 10 log
P
2
P = P+
LR =10 log 2
= L e 2 d
dB
thus ;
dB
is unity of
is obtained.
d is Neper.
In this case between line of input and load reflection loss is derived
that
45
1
L R = 10 log 10
2 e 4 d
L
1
4 d
= 10 log
+
10
log
e
10
10
2
II
PA =
PA= 1 W
VG
4R G
202
2
4 10
=1W
L 0 150 100
=
: L + = 250 = 0,2
L
0
46
P in = P in+ 1 in
) where
P in = 1 1 0 , 2 2 = 0 ,96 W is obtained.
(a) For the lossless line =0 is given before , so that
PL =Pin=1 W
(b) For the lossy line =0,5 dB/m
0,5
= 0,23 Np/m and 2 = 0,46 Np
8,69
Pin = Pin+ 1 in
) where ;
PL = PL+e2 1 L
47
Z0 , ,
V(0)
ZL
Zin
Definition :
V (0 )
Z in = in =
I in
I (0 )
Z in
Zin
if
V + (1 + in )
+
I (1 in )
Z0 ( 1 +
= 0
in
1 in
= Zo(
1 + in
1 in
, Z0 = R0 and substituting
L =
ZL Z0
ZL + Z0
we can write ;
48
j2
1
+
e
L
Zin = Z0 (
1 L e j2
Z
Z
Z
1
Z
1 +
= Z0
Zin ( , Z L ) = Z 0
L
L
L
L
Z
Z
Z
Z
j2
j2
0
0
0
Z L + jZ 0 tg ( )
Z 0 + jZ L tg ( )
(130)
n
= + n .In the other words Z in is repaeted by
2
2
or
intervals.
Z inMAX = Z 0
1 + in
(
)
1 in
=Z
VSWR
(resistive)
Z inMiN
Z (
= 0
1 + in
)
1 in
Z0
VSWR
49
IMPORTANT TERMINATIONS
Zin (
ZL
)=
Z0
Z L )
Z L + jZ 0 tg ( )
Z 0 + jZ L tg ( )
1+ j
=Z
( L =1 ,
tg ( )
ZL
Z0
+ jtg ( )
ZL
Z in = jX in = j Z 0 cot( )
(131)
Z0 ,
ZL
Zin
50
in =
j Z 0 cot( )
Zin
/4
/2
3/4
4 <
=
< 4
+n
<
2 +n 2
Z in
capacitive
Z in SERIES resonance
Z in
inductive
Z in PARALEL resonance
51
Z in
If
Z in
jXin = j
Zin = j
<<1 then
tg ( )
Z0
j
=
L
C
LC
and
Z in
= j
becomes
1
CL
1
CL
radiation.
Z L + j Z 0 tg ( )
(
)
Zin( ) = Z0
Z 0 + j Z L tg ( )
=
+ j Z 0 tg ( )
Z in = jX in = j Z 0 tg ( )
52
Xin = Z0 tg
/4
=0
0<
<
/2
<
<
3/4
Z in
short circuit
Z in
inductive
Z in
PARALEL resonance
Z in
capacitive
Z in
SERIES resonance
53
Substituting
= (2n1)
,n = 1, 2,.....=>
tg ( )
= (2n1) .
in equation (130), Z
2
in
Z 02
=
Z L
in
becomes
(132)
Z0 ,
ZL
Zin
= (2n1)
ZL
Z in = 0
ZL 0
Z in
ZL =J
ZL =
L
1
j C
Z02
j L
Z02
 j
L
Z in =
Z in =  j C Z 0 2
54
Z02
Z in =
=Z 0
Z L
ZL = R L
=>
Z 0 = Z 0 .R L
Zin=
=n
ZL
n = 0, 1, 2,.....
2
=n
2=
repeated by n intervals.
(133)
Z0 ,
Zin
Z0,
RL
55
Z 0 '2
Z in =
RL
Z0,

Z 0 '2
Z0
RL
Z 0 '2
+ Z0
RL
To obtain
L P +
L = 0 we must have
where R L and
Z0
Z0 '2
Z Z 0 ' = Z0.RL
RL = 0
are given.
Z0
RL
RL
56
WORKED EXAMPLES :
EXAMPLE 1: For an matched load in any position ; find :
(a) V(z,t) , I(z,t)
Zg
4m
Z 0 = 50
=0
u p = 2,5.10 8 m / sn
+
ZL
Z=0
Z=
ZL Z0
= 0,
ZL + Z0
ZL= Zo
L =
VSWR =
1 + L
=1
1 L
+
+
V(z) = V (z) + V (z) = V (z) (1+
(z))= V + (z)
57
VG
V (z) =
Z0 + ZG
Z0
= 0,3
j z 50
= 0 , 294
51
e j
2 10 8
= 0,8
2,5 10 8
w
=
u p
V + ( z ) = 0,294
e j(0,8 )z
V + (z)
(1 (z) )
I (z) =
Z0
V + (z)
as we have (z) = 0 then I+(z) =
Z0
0,294
I(z) = I (z) =
50
+
VL (t)
= 0,294
I L (z) =
e j (0,8 ) z =
5,88. 10
e j (0,8 ) z
V L (z)
= 5 ,88 10 3
Zo
e j 3, 2
1+
+ 2 cos( 2 d )
= 0 then
58
V (z)
V 0+
=1
V (z ) = V 0+
59
V(z) =
Vo+ e
j z
VG
V (z) =
Z0 + ZG
(1+
(z))
ZG . e
j z
(z) = L
( 1 + L
j 2 d
j 2 d
where
VG
+
V0 =
Z
Z0 + ZG G
25 + j 25
25 + j 25 50
Z Z0
=
=
L = L
75 + j 25
25 + j 25 + 50
ZL + Z0
35 e j 135
=
79 e j 18 , 43
= 0,44 e
j 116 , 57
60
Vo+ = 100 (
V(z) = 50 e
50
) = 50
100
2
z
3
(1 + 0,44
b) Vi = V ( 0 ) = 50 (1 + 0,44
2
3
j(
4
z 0,128 )
3
e j ( 0 ,128 ) )
c) VL=VL(3,6)
1 + 1 + 0 , 44 e
d) VSWR =
=
1 1 0 , 44 e
1
e) P =
2
VL
ZL
j 11 , 57
j 11 , 57
P = 0,119 W
61
SMITH CHART
Transmissionline calculations such as the determination of input
impedance, reflection coefficient and load impedance often involve
tedious manipulations of complex numbers. This tedium can be
alleviated by using a graphical methot of solution. The best known
and most widely used graphical chart is the Smith chart devised
by P.H. Smith in 1939. Smith chart is a graphical plot of normalized
resistance and reactance functions in the reflection coefficient plane.
In order to understand how the Smith chart for a lossless transmission
line is constructed, let us examine the voltage reflection coefficient of
the load impedance.
ZL R 0
= e jQr
ZL R 0
(133)
zL =
ZL RL
X
=
+ j L = r + jx
R0 R0
R0
(134)
= r + ji =
zL 1
zL +1
(135)
where ,and are the real and imaginary parts of the voltage reflection
coefficient respectively. The inverse relation of Equation (135) is
jQr
1+ 1+ e
zL =
=
1 1 e jQr
(136)
or
62
r + jx =
(1+r ) + ji
(1r ) ji
(137)
r=
1 r 2 i2
(138)
(1 r )2 + i2
and
x=
2i 2
(139)
(1 r )2 + i2
If equation (138) is plotted in the plane for a given value of, the
resulting graph is the locus for this. The locus can be recognized when
the equation is rearranged as
r
1+ r
i2
1
=
1+ r
(140)
63
1.0
x=1
x=0.5
x=2
0.5
r=0
r=0.5
r=1
p
r=2
0.5
x=1
x=0.5
x=2
1.0
(141)
64
This is the equation for a circles having radius 1/x and centered at
r = 1 and i = 1/x .
Different values of x yield circles of different radii with centers at
different position on the r = 1 line. A family of the portions
f xcircles lying inside the  = 1 boundary are shown in dashed lines
in Fig 1. The following is a list of several salient properties of the xcircles.
1. The centers of all xcircles lie on the r = 1 line: those for x > 0
( inductive reactance ) lie above the r axis and those for x< 0
( capacitive reactance ) lie below the r axis.
2. The x = o circle becomes the r axis.
3. The xcircles become progressively smaller as x increases from
0 toward , ending at the ( r = 1, i = 0) point.
4. All xcircles pass though the ( r = 1, i = 0) point.
RL =
RO
S
(142)
66
900
1200
r=0
600
x=1
x=0,5
r=0,5
x=2
150
1800
x=0
pm
300
00
PM
2100
3300
2400
3000
270
Figure 2
In summary, we note the following:.
1. All circles are centered at the origin, and their radius vary
uniformly from 0 to 1.
2. The angle, measured from the positive real axis, of the line
drawn from the origin through the representing zL equals .
3. The value of the rcircle passing through the intersection of the
circle and the positivereal axis equals the standingwave
ratio S.
67
1 + j 2 z '
V ( z' )
Z i ( z' ) = I ( z' ) = Z 0 1 e j 2 z '
e
(143)
Z
Z
i
0
1+
e
=
1 e
1+ e
1 e
j 2 z '
j 2 z '
(144)
j
j
(145)
where
= 2z
(146)
SMITH CHART
APPLICATION
a) A , B , C , in = ?
b)Find VSWR, maximum and minimum voltage positions for both
lines.
SOLUTION :
Solution is obtained by the Analytical and Graphical methods.
1)Analytical method
L L =
L 0 zL 1
=
L + 0 zL + 1
z L = 2 + 1 j1.5 L =
( zL =
L
0 )
2 + j1.5 1 1 + j1.5
=
= 0.46 + j 0.26
2 + j1.5 + 1 3 + j1.5
69
L = 2.3 + j1.3
j
j l
0.12
VA
1 + A 1 + L e
1 + L e
1 + L e j 0.48
= 0
= 0
= 0
=
j l
4
j 0.48
A=
j 0.12
1
1
e
1
A
A
L
L
1 L e
B = A + j 30
B =
1
B
C = B +
1
j 200
C =
1
C
0.06
zC 1
1 + C e
1 + C e j 0.24
C =
in = 0
= 0
4
j
0.06
zC + 1
1 C e j 0.24
1 C e
2)Graphical Method
A : A = 1 j1.3
B = 1 j1.3 + j
30
= 1 j 0 .7
50
70
B : B = 1 j 0.7 = 1 ,
j=0.7
could
j
.50 = 0.67 + j 0.72
200
is
C : C = 0.7 j 0.74
l1
5cm
=
= 0.25 1.Line
20
l2
12,8cm
=
= 0.64
20
2.Line
71
zL =
Z L 20
=
= 0,4
Z 01 50
VSWR =
1
= 2.5
zL
Rm =
z0
Rs
r =
50
= 2,5
20
second line
125
= 1.39
90
0.64 = 0.5 + 0,14
ZA =
Z in = z 02 .z in Z in = 81 j 27
in = 0,165. 100
in =
Z in Z 0
Z in + Z 0
72
j
2d j 2 d
Z in 1 + in 1 + L e L e e
=
=
Z in =
Z 0 1 in 1 L e j L e 2d e j 2 d
1 + L e 2d e j ( L 2 d )
Zin =
1 L e 2d e j ( L 2 d )
Z line =
Vline
I line
Numerical Application
73
a)
L1 =
Z L1 Z 0
= 1 L = 1e j
Z L1 Z 0
L = rad
z in =
Z in 45 + j225
=
= 0,6 + j3
Z0
75
1+ in 1+ Le2(lz)e2dej2d
d = l z, forz= 0
zin =
=
2
(
l
z
)
2
d
j
2
d
1 in 1 Le
e e
1+ eje2le j2l 1+ e22ej(22)
= 0,6 + j3
zin =
=
j 2l j2l
22 j(22)
1 e e e
1+ e e
If the line is lossless input impedance is purely reactive.Also it could
be inductive or capacitive.This condition changes by the lenght of
line.
74
Graphical Solution
OPin
= e 2l
OPin
=2l
OPin
ln 0.89
= e 2l = 0,89
= 0,028 Np / m = =0,25 dB
2
l
OPin
(1Np=8.69 dB),
Z i1 = 45 + j 225
=0,029 ,
=0,2
Zo=75
75
b)
=?
=?
ZL=67,5j45
Zin
0,2
zL =
ZL
= 0,9 j 0,6
z0
76
Zin=z0.zin=54,75+j20,25
IMPEDANCE MATCHING
77
P(z)= P+ ( 1 (z)2 )
1) g=0
2) L=0
Zg=Zo P+=Pmax
ZL=Zo PL=P+
78
79
zin= zin + jx = 1 = 1+ j0
zin= 1+jXin + jx = 1 +j0
Xin + X = 0
X=  Xin
So, chosen and d lengths must supply these equations.
Lets think about pure resistive load empedance (ZL=R , zL=R=r)
If tand=t, then
Xin = (1 r).t
= (/2). Arctan (r /1 r)
80
GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS:
For a 1 metre long dipole antenna at 120 MHz, the load impedance is
44.8 ohms  j 107 ohms. The normalised empedance is 0.597  j 1.43
with respect to the 75 ohm coaxial line. We shall determine the
position and length of a series stub which will match this antenna to
the transmission line.
If we look at the SMITH Chart we find a circle of constant real
normalised impedance r=1 which goes through the open circuit point
and the centre of the chart. In our example in the next picture, this
circle is drawn in red. If you plot any arbitrary normalised impedance
on the SMITH chart, and follow round clockwise at constant radius,
81
from the centre of the SMITH chart, towards the generator (along the
green line in the example), you must cross the r=1 circle somewhere.
This transformation at constant radius represents motion along the
transmission line towards the generator. (One complete circuit of the
SMITH chart represents a travel of one half wavelength towards the
generator.) At this intersection point the generalised arbitrary load
impedance r + jx has transformed to (1+jx'), so, at least the real part
of the impedance equals the characteristic impedance of the line.
Matching has not yet been achieved because of the residual reactance
x' which must be tuned out with the stub. Note that x' is different from
x in general. For each transformation around the SMITH chart,
representing travel one half wavelength towards the transmitter, there
are two intersections with the r=1 circle. Stubs may be placed at either
of these points.
At the transformed (see figure 1 ) intersection point (red and green
circles) the line is cut and a pure reactance jx' is added. This is done
by creating this reactance jx' using a seriesconnected lossless stub.
Now, the total impedance looking into the sum of the line impedance
(which is 1+jx') and jx' is therefore (1+jx') jx' = 1 and the line is
matched.
Again, one looks at the SMITH chart and finds the outer circle where
the modulus of the reflection coefficient is unity. On this circle are the
SHORT and OPEN points, and all values of positive (top half of the
SMITH chart) and negative (bottom half of the SMITH chart)
reactance. The resistance is zero everywhere. It has to be zero, as a
lossless transmission line with load infinity ohms (open) or zero ohms
(short) has no mechanism for absorbing power. To generate a
specified reactance, start at a short circuit (or maybe an open circuit)
and follow the rim of the SMITH chart clockwise around towards the
generator until the desired reactance is obtained. Cut the stub this
number of wavelengths long.
82
FIG 1
In our example, the SMITH chart construction to find the stub length
is shown in the next picture.
From the blue arc in the previous picture we see that the reactance at
the r=1 intersection point is +j1.86, so to cancel this out we must add a
series stub having reactance j1.86. In the next figure we plot the blue
arc j1.86 and, starting from the short circuit (r = x = 0) we follow the
green line around a distance of 0.328 wavelengths clockwise towards
the generator, to generate this value of reactance. If we had started
from an open circuit we would only travel a distance (0.328  0.250) =
83
84
(Faraday)
H = ( + jw ) E + Ju (Ampere)
(Gauss)
H = 0
(Gauss)
E =
E ( x, y , z )
H ( x, y , z )
{ 2 + k 2 }
D ( x, y , z ) = 0
Helmholtz Equation
B ( x, y , z )
{Ju=0,=0}
The Helmholtz equation is
equation. So ;
85
E X ( x, y , z )
{ 2 + k 2 } EY ( x, y, z ) = 0
E Z ( x, y , z )
H ( x, y, z ) = H t ( x, y, z ) + H Z ( x, y, z ) = h( x, y)e jz + hz ( x, y)e jz
t =
ax + a y
x
x
We have ;
E = ( t +
a z ) E = ( t j a z ) (e + e z )e jz
x
j z
(h + hz )e j z
=jw0 (h + hz )e
t e j az e +
longitudinally
component
breadthways
component
t e z
t az ez = az t ez
j az ez = j0 (h + hz )e j z
0
Faradays Law :
t e = j0 h z
(1)
86
az t e z j az e = j0 h
(2)
Amperes Law :
t h = j e z
a z t h z + j a z h = j e
To analyze the general cylindrical transmission lines, first we
have to obtain e and h as the parameter of ez and hz .
e = g (ez , hz )
h = f (ez , hz )
Second we have to solve the Helmholtz equation in V domain to
obtain ez(x,y) and hz(x,y) and finally assign all the EM components in
V domain.
If we multiply Eq2 by j a z vectorally, we obtain;
j [a z (a z t e z ) j a z (a z e)] = j ( j )a z
j (a z t e z )(a z ) + j (a z (a z ))t e z
(k 2 2 )e = j0 a z t h z j (t e z )
(k )h = j a z t e z j (t h z )
2
k = 0
87
Bt =
j .ez t Ez jk t Bz
k0 2 k 2
{ t 2 + ( 2 k 2 }
Ez
Bz
=0
(3)
(4)
B = H = 0
H = 0
(t j az )(h + hz )e j z = 0
t h j hz = 0
t h = j hz
D = 0
t e = j ez
89
+ k 2}
=0
{ 2 + k 2 }
Ez
=0
Hz
(5)
2 = . = (t j az )(t j az )
2 =t 2 2 (6)
2
2
t = t .t = 2 + 2
x y
t = az + a y
x
y
+k
E z ( x, y , z )
H z ( x, y , z )
=0
2
2
e + 2 ez + (k 2 2 ) ez = 0 ;
2 z
x
y
2
2 2
h =k 
h 2 = k 2 2 Characteristic value
k2 =
U
U =
0 0
= k 2 h2
{R and k2 > h2 }
90
= k 2 h2
C
k
=
C
1) For =0 k=kcutoff =h ,
U = h
c=h U
fC =
2 0
h.c
2 r
fC
k
=
1
2 2
k h > 0
f
f < fc
h kC C U C
= =
=
=
k k U
3) For k < h
k > kc
f < fc
k2
= k h = h (1 2 )
h
2
cut off
91
If f = fc cut off
If f > fc propogation
If f < fc attenuation
For > c :
2
C
2
U
U
For < c :
2
C
2
+ =
U
U
RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES
The solution of the EM waves propagating in the z direction in the
section
cannot exist.
92
kc2=k22=h2
2
2
hz + 2 hz + kc 2 hz = 0
2
X
y
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4.1)
93
1 d 2g
d 2g
2
= ky
+ ky 2 g = 0
2
2
g dy
dy
(4.2)
(4.3)
(5.1)
(5.1)
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
y
y=b
X=Q
y=0
a
y=0
z
hz
n
h
x
boudary
X =0
X =a
=0
=0
h
y
Y =0
Y =b
=0
f
= KxA1 sin kx.x + kxA2 cos A2 . cos kx.x
x
(16)
]xx==0a
=0
94
for x=0
A2=0
(7.1)
for x=a
kxA1sinkx a=0
kx.a=m m= 0,1 ...
kx= m m= 0,1 .....
(7.2)
hz
y
Y =0
Y =b
=0
g
= B1 ky.sin ky.y +B2ky cos k.y = 0
x
For
B2 =0
y=0
(7.3)
For
y= b
(7.4)
Thus,
h(x,y) = f(x) . g(y)
hz(x,y)= Hmn . cos
mx
ny
. cos
a
b
2
m n
kc = kx +ky = kmn =
+
b
2
Hmn A1B1
=
(8.1)
(8.2)
95
Wc= wmn = kc U
2
2
U m n
fc=fmn=
+
2 a b
1/ 2
There is TE modes and all of them have different cut off frequency.
There is not EM power of the waves propagating in the z direction
which belong to
f
f= fmn
(9.1)
f>fmn
w 2 wmn 2
2 2
1/2
mn = jmn = j (k k mn) = j
U
1/ 2
1/ 2
2 2 m 2 n 2
m = 0,1..,
mn = j a b
n = 0,1...
(9.3)
96
U m n
fmn =
+ m = 0,1...
2 a b
n = 0,1.., a > b
U
TE10 = f 10 =
2a
TE10 f10=
U
The Lowest Cut Off Frequency
2a
U
U
Allowable Operating Frequency Range
< f<
2a
a
97
U
TE10 The lowest cut off frequency (a>b)
2a
<a<
U
f
15 cm < a < 30 cm
THE WIDTHWISE EM COMPONENTS FOR TEmn AND TMmn
MODES
Ht =
hz
j
hz jz
az +
ay e
tHz = / kc
k
x
y
Ug= (d/dw)1
Et= j/kc2 t Ez
98
PROPAGATION SPECIALITIES
2
fmn
2f
=
1
= k 2 kmn 2 =
U
f
Up =
U
fmn
1
>U
For general rectangular waveguide the speed of waves are bigger than
the speed in space
Fmn the cutoff frequency for TEmn or TMmn
Up/U
Up
U
Ug/U
f/fc
1
GROUP SPEED
99
Vg
Up
Ug.Up= U2
Up> Ug
POWER
1
Port = Re {ExH * }w / m2
2
PORT
Port = Wort U U =
= Ug
WORT
100
g =
1 ( fmn / f )
>
2
= g. = 2
k
ZTEMN=
2
fmn
1
> =
377
r
az
Z T =
TM
Et
Ht
E
H
Ht
101
Port ds
Pmn =
widthwise
1
Pmn = Re
2
a
1
= Re
2
0
1
= Re
2
*
(Et x H t ).az dx.dy
x =0 y =0
[ExH
b
y Ey.H * x ]dx.dy
*
*
[Hy.H y + Hx.Hx ]dx.dy
a
Zwmn =
Exmn Eymn
=
Hymn Hxmn
1
2
2
Pmn = Re Zwmn

Hx

+

Hy

)dxdy
2
widthwise sec tion
By using Hx and Hy
102
1
Pmn = Re Zwmn
2
ab 2
4 n 0
ab n = 0
2
2
(sin
0
m
ny
x + cos 2
dxdy
a
b
m0
m0
Et
Et
Zwmn Ht = Zwmn
=
Zwn 2 Zwn
2
m=0
1
on =
2
n=0
m>0
n>0
2
10 = k k10
2
m n
k10 =
+
a b
103
1
a
P10= w10 ab  H10 2
4
P10=
1 1
ab  E max 2
4 ZT 10
Emo x =
woa Ho
(DOMINANT MODE)
Hz0
y=b
x=0
X=Q
104
x
Ey= jw 0
Hx= j
H10 sin
H 10 sin
xe jz
xe
j z
jz
P10 =
1 1
a.b . E max 2
4 ZTE10
105
P=
1
1
Zw
*
*
.
.
(azxEt )
Et
H
t
ds
=
Ht
Ht
d
s
Ht
2 Zw
2
Zw
Et
= Zw
Ht
p
= PL = 2 Poe 2z
z
=2P= 2(c+d)P
canductivity
lass
dielectric
loss
c =
PL
2P
PL =
Rs
Ht.Ht * dl
Rs =
1
because of peffective depth there is a Rs surface impedance
gs
106
c =
e Ht.Ht dl
Zw s Ht.Ht ds
Rs
DIELECTRIC LOSSES
Eef = j
d
d: dielectric conductivity
w
REMEMBER
x H = ( d+jw) E J u = 0
x H = jv( j d ) E
w
=d+j = j
=j
k 2 kc 2
w2 o ef kc 2
2
binomial serials.
d =
d o
2
1/ 2
wc
1
w
Np / m w >> wc
107
DB/m=
=
10
log10 e 2z = 8,686
z
10
[
log e 2Z ] = 20 x x Log10e
Z
w>> wc iin d=
d
2
o /
There are two losses. The c is because of material not being ideal.
The other loss becomes from cutoff frequency.
CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE
carried out. Since the general properties of the modes that may exist
are similar to those for the rectangular guide.
2 + k = 0 Helmholtz Equation
1
r
r r r
2
1
2
+
k
=0
+ 2
2
r
e jz (r , , z ) = R(r ) ()ejz
r d
R dr
1
dR
2 2
r
+ h r
=
dr
only function of r
d 2
d 2
only function of
For given r,
For = n n=0,1,2,.And = 0 . w
( ) = C cos n
109
r2
d dR
2 2
2
r
+ (h r n ) R = 0
dr dr
DJ n (hr ) + EN n (hr ) = 0
Bessel Function Neumann Function
In order to the function goes to infinite ,it should be E=0
(r , , z ) = DJ n ( hr ) cos n e jz
z
n
2 = k 2 h 2
(TE) H z
equation of
boundary
z
r
r =b
=0
qnm
110
J ' n(hb)=0
fTE nm
qnmU
= 2b
Jn(hb)=0
J ' n(qnm)=0
qnm=hb
q nm C
=
h=
U
b
Jn(pnm)=0
pnm=hb
p nmU
fTM nm =
2b
TE and TM cutoff frequencies are different from each other.
Order of the modes w.r.t the cutoff frequencies (from low to high)
( nm=0)
TE11 , TM01 , TE21 , TE01/TM11..TE31
EXAMPLE:
(a) f=6 GHz , 500 kW continuous wave power l=30 feet, choose a
traditional(commercial available) circular wave guide,
(b) Order the lowest five cutoff frequencies,
(c) Find out the operation bandwidth for the TE11 mode,
(d) Find out the loss,
(e) Find out the maximum wave for electrical field strength And
compare it with break down value for the dry air,
(f) If you insert a Teflon disk in the wave guide , in order to have
it as invisible what should its thickness be?
SOLUTION:
(a)f=6 GHz ;
q11U
fc TE11 =
2b
The operation frequency has to be higher than fc TE11 for the safety
margin let us choose.
111
f=1.25x fc TE11
f
fc TE11 =
1.25
1.25x fc TE
11
0.9xfc TE2
Taking
fc TE11 =5 GHz
1,841xc
fc TE11 =
2b
2b=3,5cm=1,39
WC 150
WC 150
Wave guide Circular
for this value(2b=1,5) we obtain:
EAI
Designation
WC 992
WC 847
WC 724
WC 618
Inside Dimensions(Inches)
Diameter
Tolerance
Roundness
+ or Tolerance
9,915
0,01
0,01
8,47
0,008
0,008
7,235
0,007
0,007
6,181
0,006
0,006
Recommended
Frequency Range
TE11 Mode GHz
0,8031,10
0,9391,29
1,101,51
1,291,76
WC 528
WC 451
WC 385
WC 329
5,28
4,511
3,853
3,292
0,005
0,005
0,004
0,003
0,005
0,005
0,005
0,003
1,512,07
1,762,42
2,072,83
2,423,31
WC 281
WC 240
WC 205
WC 175
2,812
2,403
2,047
1,75
0,003
0,0025
0,002
0,0015
0,003
0,002
0,002
0,0015
2,833,88
3,314,54
3,895,33
4,546,23
WC 150
WC 128
WC 109
WC 94
1,5
1,281
1,094
0,938
0,0015
0,0013
0,001
0,0009
0,0015
0,0013
0,0011
0,0009
5,307,27
6,218,51
7,279,97
8,4911,6
112
WC 80
WC 69
WC 59
WC 50
0,797
0,688
0,594
0,5
0,0008
0,0007
0,0006
0,0005
0,0008
0,0007
0,0006
0,0005
9,9713,7
11,615,9
13,418,4
15,921,8
WC 44
WC 38
WC 33
WC 28
0,438
0,375
0,328
0,281
0,00045
0,00038
0,00033
0,00028
0,0004
0,0004
0,0003
0,0001
18,224,9
21,229,1
24,333,2
28,338,8
WC 25
WC 22
WC 19
WC 17
0,25
0,219
0,188
0,172
0,00025
0,00025
0,00025
0,00025
0,0001
0,0001
0,00007
0,00007
31,843,6
36,449,8
42,458,1
46,363,5
WC 14
WC 132
WC 11
WC 9
0,141
0,125
0,109
0,094
0,00025
0,00025
0,00025
0,00025
0,00005
0,00005
0,00005
0,00005
56,677,5
63,587,2
72,799,7
84,8116
TE11
TM01
TE21
TE01/TM11
4.614
6.028
7.654
9.604
11
0.95xfc TE
21
TM01:
E_ lines
 H_ lines
113
TE11:
E_ lines
TE21:
E_ lines
(d) c TEnm
n: the order of the Bessel function ,
114
8.686
c TEnm =
f
1 c
f
outputpower
=
inputpower %85.4 ,
PLOSS=72.6 kW
For the atmosphere pressure, the circular wave guide with the dry air
insulator, the maximum pulsive power can be
Emax=
0 .5
3.88
Pmax
TE11
= 2.7(2B)2
Pmax
TE11
=3.88 MW
f
1 c
f