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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It makes me feel proud to express my deep sense of gratitude towards my respectable


guide R. S. Sonparote, for the valuable guidance, critical technical discussions, and his
care, affection and support towards me that eventually led to the completion of this thesis.
These words are formal thanks, which cannot express the real depth of feeling and
affection that I have towards him.
I have a great pleasure to express my gratitude to Dr. M. M. Mahajan, Head,
Department of Applied Mechanics, VNIT, Nagpur and all the faculty members of the
Department of Applied Mechanics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology,
Nagpur for their valuable suggestions during the project work.
I would also like to thank Dr. S.K. Jain, Professor, IIT Kanpur and NICEE team for
giving me an opportunity to visit IIT Kanpur for Literature Survey, so that I could
recognize the scope of this work.
I can never forget the treasured company of my friends: (Anand, Nazir, Kishor, Nitesh,
Shrikant, Anup, Hemant, Vaibhav, Dilip, Deepak, Madhusudan, Guari, Tripti, Dhwani,
Jyoti and Priyanka. They have provided the lighter moments those made the stay livelier,
whose assistance was invaluable. In particular, my relationship with Kishor, Nazir and
Priyanka, I saw so many technical and (more often!) non-technical matters being put in
the right track by their constructive suggestions.
Very importantly I would like to express my thanks towards My Family without whose
continuous moral support I could not have reached at this stage. I recall their numerous
sacrifices that made it possible for me to pursue my goals.
Last but not least, I am thankful to all of them who directly or indirectly helped me to
complete this project work
Amit A. Auti

ABSTRACT
Analysis and design of Slab-Girder bridge is an iterative process depending on
design load. Generally the calculations involved in the analysis and design are very
tedious and time consuming. In this project work, an attempt is made to develop
software, which can help the designer to arrive at rational, economical and sound
solution. In the present work, the software is developed for linear static analysis and
linear seismic analysis. A computer program is developed using Visual basic. VB is used
due to its advantage of inheritance and reusable code and many more other features.
Chapter 1 deals with introduction of present topic. It state scope of present work,
design aspects of bridge superstructure and finally the objectives of the project.
A review of literature collected is presented in chapter 2.
A brief idea about Bridges and its components with IRC recommendations is
discuss in chapter 3.
Chapter 4 explains brief about analysis and design of deck slab spanning in both
directions, and calculation for area of reinforcement in both directions.
Chapter 5 explains brief study of calculation for distribution factors using
Courbons method. After this a program for calculation of distribution factors has been
discussed. For this Program the inputs are in terms of Span, Carriage width, No. of main
and cross girders, Properties of main and cross girders and thickness of deck slab.
Chapter 6 deals with the analysis of the bridge using Visual Basic. The analysis
procedures used for the bridge are Static and Seismic. The step wise procedure for
analysis of bridge using VB is explained.

ii

CONTENTS
Acknowledgement

Abstract

ii

Contents

iii

List of Figures

vi

List of Tables

vii

Notations and Abbreviations

viii

Chapter 1
Introduction

1.1 Scope of present work

1.2 Design aspects of superstructures

1.3 Objectives of Project

Chapter 2
Literature review

Chapter 3
Bridges

3.1 Components of Bridge

3.2 Superstructure

3.2.1 Deck Slab

3.2.2 Main Girder

3.2.3 Cross Girder

3.3 Substructure

3.3.1 Abutment

3.3.2 Pier and Pier cap

3.3.3 Bearing

3.4 Foundation

3.5 Standard Specifications for Road Bridge

3.5.1 Loads to be considered

10

3.5.2 Dead Load

10

iii

3.5.3 Live Load

10

3.5.4 Width of carriageway

12

3.6 Distribution Factor for Longitudinal Girder


3.6.1 Calculation of Distribution Factor

12
13

3.7 Analysis of Deck Slab


3.7.1 Slab spanning in one direction

14

3.7.2 Slab spanning in two directions

14

Chapter 4
Design of Deck Slab
4.1 Numerical Study

16
16

4.1.1 Dead Load Calculation

17

4.1.2 Live Load Calculation

18

4.1.3 Cantilever Slab

20

4.2 Design of Deck Slab

20

Chapter 5
Design of Bridge structure

22

5.1 Distribution Factor for 3-Girder

22

5.1.1 Dead Load of Slab on Girder

23

5.1.2 Live Load Bending Moments in Girder

24

5.1.3 Live Load Shear

24

5.2 Distribution factor for 4-Girder

26

5.3 Distribution factor for 5-Girder

27

5.4 Distribution factor for 7-Girder

28

5.5 Design of Longitudinal girder

30

5.6 Design of cross girder

31

5.7 Stability Analysis of Abutment

32

5.8 Check for stability

34

iv

Chapter 6
Development of Software

35

General

35

6.1 Bridge design software

37

6.2 Flow Chart for Static Analysis

38

6.3 Flow Chart for Seismic Analysis

39

6.4 Illustration of Problem

40

Chapter 7
Conclusion and Future Scope

53

7.1Conclusion

53

7.2 Future Scope

54

References

55

List of Figures
Figure 3.1 Typical Cross section of the Bridge

Figure 3.2 Side view of 70R track loading

10

Figure 3.3 Side view of Class AA track loading

11

Figure 3.4 side view of Class A

11

Figure 3.5 Side view of Class B

12

Figure 4.1 Slab panel

17

Figure 4.2 Curves for m1 and m2

17

Figure 4.3 Dispersion of Live Load

18

Figure 4.4 Graph for Moment Coefficients m1 and m2

19

Figure 4.5 Cantilever part

20

Figure 5.1 Position of 70R Loading

22

Figure 5.2 Cross Sectional details of Deck Slab

22

Figure 5.3 Loading of Cantilever

23

Figure 5.4 Influence line for bending moment in girder

24

Figure 5.5 Position of I.R.C. loading for maximum shear

25

Figure 5.6 Dead load on main girders

25

Figure 5.7 Position of 70R Loading for 4-Girder

26

Figure 5.8 Position of 70R Loading for 5-Girder

27

Figure 5.9 Position of 70R Loading for 7-Girder

28

Figure 5.10 Abutment

32

Figure 6.1 Tree diagram of VB

36

Figure 6.2 self weight

40

Figure 6.3 slab moment

41

Figure 6.4 Live Load (70R)

42

Figure 6.4 Live Load (Class AA Track)

43

vi

Figure 6.6 Cantilever part

44

Figure 6.7 Final moments

45

Figure 6.8 Longitudinal girder

46

Figure 6.9 Abutment analysis

47

Figure 6.10 Check for stability

48

Figure 6.11 Slab design

49

Figure 6.12 Weight calculation for seismic analysis

50

Figure 6.13 Time period calculation

51

Figure 6.14 Earthquake force calculation

52

List of Tables
Table 5.1 Design moments and shear force

26

Table 5.2 Distribution factor for girder

29

Table 5.3 Forces and Moments for Abutment

33

vii

Notations and Abbreviations


B

Width of the slab panel

be

Effective width of slab on which the load acts.

bw

Breadth of concentration area of load.

di

Distance of girder i from the axis of the bridge

DLBM Dead load bending moment


DLSF

Dead load shear force

Eccentricity of the live load (c.g. of loads in case of multiple loads)

Ii

Moment of inertia of longitudinal girder i

Lever arm factor

Factor which is the ratio of width to span ratio

K1

Neutral axis depth factor

Length of slab panel

LLBM Live load bending moment


LLSF

Live load shear force

Modular ratio

m1 & m2 Moment coefficients


n

Number of main girders

Steel reinforcement factor

RA

Distribution factor for girder A

RB

Distribution factor for girder B

RC

Distribution factor for girder C

RD

Distribution factor for girder D

viii

Ri

Distribution factor for ith girder

Sa/g

Average response acceleration coefficient

Tl

Track length

Ts

Thickness of slab

Twc

Thickness of wearing coat

Width of the dispersion of the load parallel to the width of the slab

Length of the dispersion of the load parallel to the length of the slab

Concentrated load single load acting if number of loads are acting the
resultant of the load is considered

Wc

Width of tyre contact

Distance of centre of gravity of load from nearer support

cbc

Permissible compressive stress in concrete due to bending

st

Permissible tensile stress in steel

ix

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Bridge is a structure which provides a free flow of traffic over obstacle such as
river, road and railway. Planning and Designing of bridges is a judicious compromise
between art in consistent with location and sound aspects of structural engineering. It
is the manifestation of the creative capabilities and soundness of designers and
demonstrates their imagination, innovation and exploration.

A typically Tee beam deck slab generally comprises the longitudinal girder,
continuous deck slab between the tee beams and cross girders to provide lateral
rigidity to the bridge deck. The longitudinal girders are spaced at intervals of 2 to 2.5
m and cross girders are provided at 4 to 5 m intervals. The distribution of live loads
among the longitudinal girders can be estimated by many methods. Some of them are
explain in next chapter.

1.1 Scope of present work


Bridge analysis is essential to evaluate the behavior of structure. Present study
gives emphasis to develop the program for analysis of bridge components such as
deck slab, longitudinal girder, Abutment analysis, Seismic analysis of bridge and
design of deck slab.
For analysis of deck slab Pigeauds method is implemented. Various curves
are used for analysis purpose, depending upon the ratio of K and 1/K. The distribution
factors for longitudinal girder are calculated by using Courbons approach. Analysis
of abutment is done and various checks are carried out.

1.2 Design aspects of superstructures


The superstructure in any bridge must be designed so as to satisfy the
geometric and load carrying requirements to be met. The geometric requirements
depend on the number and width of traffic lanes and footpaths for which the deck is to
cater to. It also depends on the overall alignment and various horizontal and vertical
clearances required above and below the road way. Once the geometric considerations
are decided, and the superstructure has to be designed to meet the various structural
1

Introduction

requirements. This includes consideration of strength, stability and stiffness. This first
requires estimation of internal forces, moments and displacements which the
externally applied forces will cause in the selected scheme and form of structure and
then deciding the final section sizes, reinforcement. The former process constitutes
Analysis and later process constitutes Design. The analysis is generally done is
based on elastic behaviour of structure. The design is then done on either on elastic
(i.e. working) strength basis or on load-factored (Ultimate) strength basis, also
ensuring the serviceability criteria (like limiting the flexural crack width, deflections
and vibrations). Some structural analysis work is done using empirical formulae. If
the structure is very complicated model analysis is required.

1.3 Objectives of Project


The main objective of this project is to develop the software programming in
visual basic which analyse and design the different components of bridge. Brief
details of objectives are


To study the Indian Road Loadings considered for design of bridges,


also factors which are important to decide the preliminary sizes of slab
panel and main girders.

To analyse and design deck slab and main girder for different IRC
loading considered.

To analyse and design for different number of main girders for given
span and width of bridge.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
Many of the research papers, reports and books related to the topic were studied
to get information about the work that has done by various researchers. Some of the
technical papers related to the study are as given below.

A.J.Kappos, G.D.Manoli

(2)

studied that the effect of modeling approach, also including

the interaction phenomenon between supporting ground and thee pier plus deck system,
on the seismic response of reinforced concrete (R/C) bridges with irregular configuration
as well as its ramification on the design of the piers. The focus is on a four span highway
bridge with piers of unequal height crossing a mountain valley. The bridge and its
foundation system, including the surrounding soil, are modeled by finite elements plus
spring /dashpot/added mass discrete parameter system. A hierarchy of finite element
meshes is developed starting with shell elements and ending with linear elements.
Moreover, two basic types of foundations are examined, namely spread footings versus
pile groups. Following a preliminary design of the bridge, a series of time history analysis
of the combined deck-pier-foundation system are performed, the results of which are
used in assessing the influence of foundation compliance on the superstructure.
Furthermore, the influence of key construction details such as pier-to-deck connection on
the dynamic displacement and the force field that develop is also examined. Finally a
series of recommendations are given on when and how to account for the influence of the
ground in the design of the piers.
Xing-Chong Chen, Yuan-Ming Lai (11) observed that when the bridge piers with shallow
foundation are subject to intensive earthquake excitations, uplift of foundations will occur
and the foundation soil will partly become plastic. It is very difficult to use an accurate
method to simulate the uplifting and yielding of supporting soil. An improved Winkler
foundation model, which could be used to consider the uplift and yield, was employed in
the analysis. The 1940 El-Centro earthquake record is inputted to a rigid pier with
shallow foundation so that the non-linear history response is obtained. From the non-

Literature review

linear analysis, it is concluded that the non-linear effect is very remarkable when uplifting
and yielding of supporting soil are considered compared with the linear analysis, the
stiffness of bridge piersoil system degrades in each cycle after considering uplifting and
yielding. It is shown that the non-linear analysis can get larger rotational angles and
smaller bending moments compared with the linear analysis.

Alper Ucak and Panos Tsopelas

(3)

studied the role of soilstructure interaction (SSI) on

the response of seismically isolated bridges. The behavior of the pier is assumed to be
linear and the foundation system is modeled with frequency-dependent springs and
dashpots. They considered two bridge systems, one representative of short stiff highway
overpass systems and another representative of tall flexible multispan highway bridges.
Nonlinear time history analyses were employed with two sets of seismic motions. This
paper investigates the effects of SSI on the seismic response of two seismically isolated
bridges, one representing a typical stiff freeway over crossing and one representing a
typical flexible multispan highway bridge, which are founded on soft, no liquefiable soil
through pile group foundations. They concluded that,

SSI effects consistently decreased the ductility demands of the piers when
compared to the system without SSI effects.

For both bridge systems, the majority of the seismic motions of both sets, far field
and near fault the observed isolation system drift increases, due to SSI, Which are
between 10 and 20%. In some cases the isolation drift increase was even higher
than 25%. Based on these observations SSI effects are significant and must be
taken into account during the design and analysis phases of seismic isolated
bridge systems.

The modeling approach of the foundation system when SSI is considered


influences considerably the pier shear force of Bridge-2 (tall flexible bridge)
when it is excited by both far field (FF) and near field (NF) sets of motions.
Bridge-1 short stiff bridge system response variables isolation system drift and
pier shear for both sets of motions are essentially unaffected by the modeling
approach.

Literature review

A.G.Vlassis, C.C.Spraykos

(1)

studied the effects of soil-structure interaction on the

response of seismically isolated bridge piers founded on shallow soil stratum overlying
rigid bedrock and to develop a method that considers soil structure interaction and can be
easily applied to the preliminary design of bridges. They concluded that,

The fundamental period of the bridge-soil system is significantly increased when


soil-structure interaction is taken into account, especially when the isolation
devices are not much more flexible than the supporting soil.

Consideration of soil structure interaction reduces the base shear force evaluated
as recommended by the current AASHTO design procedures. The reduction is
greater for bridge piers founded on stiff conditions.

CHAPTER 3

BRIDGES
Bridge is a structure which provides a free flow of traffic over obstacle such as
river, road and railway. Planning and Designing of bridges is a judicious compromise
between art in consistent with location and sound aspects of structural engineering.

3.1 Components of Bridge




Superstructure

Substructure

Foundation

3.2 Superstructure
The superstructure consists of the following components as shown in figure 3.1
i.

Deck slab

ii.

Longitudinal girders (Main girders)

iii. Cross girders


iv. Kerb and Handrails
v.

Cantilever part

vi. Wearing coat

Wearing
coat

Deck
slab

Kerb

Main
girder
Cantilever
part

Cross
girder

Figure 3.1 Typical Cross section of the Bridge

Bridges

Some main components of superstructure are explained below.

3.2.1 Deck Slab:


The reinforced concrete slab type deck is generally used for small spans. Deck
slabs are simpler for construction due to easier fabrication of form work and
reinforcements and placement of concrete. The deck slab is designed as a one way slab to
support the dead load and live load with impact. In case of reinforced concrete Tee beam
and slab deck, the slab spans in two directions as slab is supported on four sides on main
girder and cross girders at regular intervals.

The deck slab is generally design for the worst effect of either IRC 70R tracked
vehicle loading or IRC Class A load train. Based on analytical investigation, D.J.Victor
has reported the use of IRC Class AA wheeled vehicle for spans up to 4m and tracked
vehicle for spans greater than 4m for computations of live load bending moment. The
distribution reinforcement is designed for 0.3 times the live load and 0.2 times the dead
load moment in one way slabs. Two methods are available for analysis,
(a)Pigeauds theory. (b) Westergaards theory. Pigeauds theory is widely used for slab
analysis.

3.2.2 Main Girders


Main (longitudinal) girders are designed as T-beams which are integral with part
of the deck slab cast monolithically with the girders. The number of longitudinal girders
depends upon the road width. The slab is built monolithic with girders so that T-beam
effect is achieved. For wider bridges, the roadway is supported on number of longitudinal
girders with transverse beams or diaphragms. In deck girder bridge, cross beams are used,
each panel of slab may be considered to be freely supported at its edges with corners not
freely to lift. Alternatively, the slab may be considered to be continuous over supporting
beams. The lateral spacing of the longitudinal girders will affect the cost of the bridge.
When there are two longitudinal girders, the reactions on the longitudinal can be found
by assuming the supports of the deck slab as unyielding.

Bridges

3.2.3 Cross Girders


The provision of cross beams facilitates adoption of thinner ribs for the main
beams. It is well known that the interconnection of the main girders of a bridge by cross
girders or cross diaphragms or deck slab leads to the distribution of the loading amongst
the main girders, that is, several of these girders share the load and not only the ones
adjacent to it.. These cross girders are monolithically connected to slab similar to main
girders.
Functions of the cross girders are
i.

Stiffen the longitudinal girders.

ii.

Reduce torsion rotation in the exterior girders.

iii. Essential over the supports to prevent lateral spread of the girders at the bearings.

3.3 Substructure
Substructure is the parts below the bearing level. Substructure has following components.
i.

Abutments

ii.

Pier and Pier cap.

iii.

Bearings.

3.3.1 Abutment:
An abutment is the substructure which supports one terminus of the
superstructure of a bridge. Abutment consists of three main parts, (i) The breast wall (ii)
The wing wall
(iii) The back wall.
Abutments are used for the following purposes:


Transmit the reaction of superstructure to the foundations.

To retain the earth filling.

To connect the superstructure to the approach roads.

Bridges

3.3.2 Pier and Pier cap:


Piers are structures located at the ends of bridge spans at intermediate points
between the abutments. Pier transfer the vertical loads to the foundation, and to resist all
horizontal forces and transverse forces acting on the bridge.
Pier cap is the block resting over the top of the pier. It provides the immediate bearing
surface for the support of the superstructure at the pier location, and disperses the strip
loads from the bearings to the substructure.

3.3.3 Bearings:
Bearings are provided in bridges to transmit the load from the superstructure to
the substructure in such a manner that the bearing stresses induced in the substructure are
within permissible limits. Bearing accommodate certain relative movements between the
superstructure and substructure.
The design of foundations is an important part of the overall design for a bridge and
affects to a considerable extent the aesthetics, the safety and the economy of the bridge.

3.4 Foundation:
Foundations are generally of following type
i. Isolated, combined and strip footing
ii. Raft foundation.
The design of foundation is based on complete subsoil investigations. The selection of the
appropriate type of foundation shall be depend upon the magnitude and disposition of
structural loads, requirements of structures, type of soil or rock available. The design of
raft should be based on assumption that it is resting on elastic soil medium.

3.5 Standard Specifications for Road Bridge:


The Indian Road Congress (IRC) has formulated standard specifications and
codes of practice for road Bridges with a view to establish a common procedure for the
design and construction of road bridges. In the analysis and design of bridge girders, IRC:
6-2000 are commonly used. Overview of this code is discussed here.

Bridges

3.5.1 Loads to be considered


i. Dead load.
ii. Live load.
iii. Impact effect.
iv. Wind load.
v. Longitudinal force due to tractive effort of vehicles.
vi. Longitudinal force due to braking of vehicle.
vii. Seismic effects.
viii. Earth pressure.
ix. Vehicle collision forces etc.
3.5.2 Dead Load
The dead load carried by a bridge member consists of its own weight and the
portions of the weight of the superstructure and any fixed loads supported by the
member.

3.5.3 Live Loads


i) IRC Class 70R Loading
This loading consists of a tracked vehicle of 700 kN or a wheeled vehicle to total load of
1000 kN This loading was originally included in the Appendix to the bridge code for use
for rating of existing bridges. The contact length of the track is 4.57 m, the nose to tail
length of vehicle is 7.92 m. shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2 Side view of 70R track loading

10

Bridges

ii) IRC Class AA Loading


This loading consists of either a tracked vehicle of 700 KN or a wheeled vehicle
of 400 kN. The tracked vehicle simulates a combat tank used by the army. The ground
contact length of the track is 3.6m and the nose to tail length of the vehicle is 7.2 m.
shown in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3 Side view of Class AA track loading

iii) I.R.C. Class A loading


Class A loading consists of a wheel load train composed of a driving vehicle and
trailers of specified axle spacing and loads. The nose to tail spacing between two
successive trains shall not be less than 18.5 m. Class A loading is to be normally adopted
on all roads on which permanent bridges and culverts are constructed. Shown in Figure
3.4

Figure 3.4 Side view of Class A

11

Bridges

iv) I.R.C. Class B Loading


Class B loading comprises a wheel load train similar to that of class A loading but with
smaller axle loads. This loading is intended to be adopted for temporary structures,
timber bridges and for bridges in specified areas. Shown in Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.5 Side view of Class B

3.5.4 Width of carriageway


The width of carriageway required will depend on the intensity and volume of
traffic anticipated to use the bridge. The width carriageway is expressed in terms of
traffic lanes, each lane meaning the width required to accommodate one train of Class A
vehicles. The minimum widths of carriageway to be adopted for various types of traffic
are as below
Single Lane Bridge 4.25m
Two Lane Bridge

7.50m

Multi Lane Bridge

7.5m + 3.5m for every additional Lane

3.6 Distribution Factor for Longitudinal Girder (Courbons Method):


Courbons method estimates the reaction Ri of the main girder on any girder i of a
typical bridge consisting of multiple parallel beams is computed assuming a linear
variation of deflection in the transverse direction. The reaction Ri of the main girder is
considered as the distribution factor for ith main girder in the analysis.

12

Bridges

Assumptions and Limitations


Courbons method is applicable only when the following conditions are satisfied.
i.

The ratio of span to width is greater than 2 but less than 4.

ii.

The cross girders extend to a depth of at least 0.75 of the depth of the longitudinal
girder.

iii. The cross beams should preferably be cast monolithically with the longitudinal or
should be cast at least before any other gravity loads comes on.

3.6.1 Calculation of Distribution Factor


The reaction Ri gives the distribution factor for the ith main girder for a given
loading, eccentricity measured from centroidal axis of deck and number of main girders
is calculated by using the following Equation

Ri =

W.I i
Ii

Ii .e.d
1+
i
2
I i .di

(3.1)

If dimension of all girder were same then

Ri =

W 1+ I
n I .d
i

.
e
.
d
i
2

The live load bending moments and shear forces are computed for each of the girders.
The maximum design moment and shear forces are obtained by adding the live load and
dead load bending moments. The reinforcements in the main longitudinal girders are
designed for the maximum moments and shears developed in the girders. The cross
girders are assumed to be rigid so that the reactions due to dead load and live loads are
assumed to be equally sheared by the cross girders.

13

Bridges

3.7 Analysis of Deck Slab


3.7.1 Slabs spanning in one direction
For slabs spanning in one direction, the total dead load moment can directly be
computed assuming the slab to be simply supported between the supports. The maximum
bending moment caused by a wheel load may be assumed to be resisted by an effective
width of slab measured parallel to the supporting edges. Effective width of dispersion
calculated by following equation,
be = K x(1 ( x / L)) + bw
3.7.2 Slab spanning in two directions
Slab supported on four edges are of common occurrence when the deck consists
of beams and slab. Each panel of the slab may be either freely supported at its edges with
corners not free to lift or the slab may be continuous over the supporting beams. Two
methods are available for analysis of each panel of slab subjected to concentrated loads is
(a) Pigeauds theory and (b) Westergaards theory.

(a) Pigeauds Method


Pigeauds derived the curves for thin plates, using elastic theory of flexure, and
assuming Poissons ratio of 0.15.
The following are the limitations of the Pigeauds theory
i.

Only loads placed at the centre can be considered. Some approximation will
have to be used while considering the non-central loads.

ii.

This method is most useful when K is more than 0.55.

iii.

When v/L is small, the reading of values m1 and m2 from the curves become less
accurate.

iv. Applicable to rectangular slabs supported freely on all four sides.


The Pigeauds method is applicable when above conditions are satisfy. For multiple
concentric loads or an eccentric load some approximation is given to calculate the
bending moment coefficients m1 and m2 as explained in later Chapter. If the panel is
either fixed or continuous Pigeauds recommends that mid-span bending moment be
reduced to 80%. The bridge deck slabs are subjected to heavily concentrated loads from
the live load. In this project also it is proposed to study the analysis of deck slab using
Pigeauds method and develop the program for it.

14

Bridges

(b) Westergaards Method


This theory is applicable to slabs which extend sufficiently far on both sides of the load at
right angles to the short span. Let a load P acting at centre of panel and distributed over a
circular area of diameter C, the maximum moments are given by
m1 = 0.21072 P(log(l / C1 ) + 0.48253
m2 = m1 0.0676 x P

Where

C1 = 2( 0.4C 2 + D 2 0.675 D
D = thickness of slab.

15

CHAPTER 4

DESIGN OF DECK SLAB


In deck Girder Bridge, if transverse beams are used, each panel of slab may be
considered to be continuous over supporting beams. Two methods are available for
analysis. (i) Pigeauds theory and (ii) Westergaards theory. Only Pigeauds theory is
considered in this project for the comparative study, since it is widely followed in the
bridge design.
Slabs spanning in one direction
For slabs spanning in one direction, the total dead load moment can directly be
computed assuming the slab to be simply supported between the supports. The
maximum bending moment caused by a wheel load may be assumed to be resisted by
an effective width of slab measured parallel to the supporting edges. Effective width
of dispersion calculated by following equation,
be = K x(1 ( x / L)) + bw
Slabs spanning in two directions
Slab supported on four edges are of common occurrence when the deck
consists of beams and slab. Each panel of the slab may be either freely supported at its
edges with corners not free to lift or the slab may be continuous over the supporting
beams. Two methods are available for analysis of each panel of slab subjected to
concentrated loads is (a) Pigeauds theory and (b) Westergaards theory. The analysis
and design of deck slab is illustrated with the following problem.

4.1 Numerical Study


Data:
Span of the bridge

16 m

Width of the bridge

7.5m

Cross section of main girders

0.3m x 1.6m

Number of main girders

Spacing of main girders

2.5m

Cross section of cross girders

0.3m x 1.4m

Number of cross girders

Spacing of cross girders

4m

Live Load considered

70R tracked loading


16

Design of Deck slab

Solution:
4.1.1 Dead Load Calculation
Size of one deck slab panel (B x L) = (2.5m x 4.0m)
Thickness of slab (Ts) = 0.3 m, Thickness of wearing coat (Twc) = 0.08 m
Density of concrete = 25 kN/m3, Density of coat = 22 kN/m3
B

Weight of slab = (0.3 25) + (0.08 22)


= 9.26 kN/m2
Slab is simply supported on all four sides and is continuous;
Pigeauds curves will be used to get influence coefficients

to compute moments.
Shortspan 2.5
=
Constants (K) =
= 0.6,
Longspan 4
1
= 1.67
K

Figure 4.1 Slab panel

From Pigeauds curve m1 = 0.046, m2= 0.02 (From in Figure 4.2)


Total weight of Slab (W) = 9.26 x 2.5 x 4 = 92.6 kN
Assuming Poissons ratio = 0.15

Figure 4.2 Curves for m1 and m2


Moment along short span = (m1 + 0.15 x m2) W
= (0.046 + 0.15 0.02) 92.6 = 4.54 kN-m
Moment along long span = (m1 x 0.15 + m2) W
= (0.046 0.15 + 0.02) 92.6 = 2.5 kN-m

17

Design of Deck slab

4.1.2 Live Load Calculation


a) 70R Track Loading:
Size of one panel of deck slab = (2.5m x 4.0m)
Width of tyre contact (Wc) = 0.84 m, Track length (Tl) = 4.57 m,
Impact factor = 10%

(Clause 211.3 IRC:6-2000)

Load per Track = 350 kN


Width of load spread along short span (u) = ( Wc + 2 Twc ) 2 + (Ts ) 2
= (0.84 + 2 0.08) 2 + (0.3) 2 = 1.044 m
Width of load spread along short span (v) = (Tl + 2 Twc ) 2 + (Ts ) 2
= (4.57 + 2 0.08) 2 + (0.3) 2 = 4.74 m
We have limited width along longitudinal direction i.e.4m.
Therefore v = L = 4 m, v/L = 1
u/B = 0.4214
From Pigeauds curves

m1= 0.084 & m2 = 0.035

4. 0
Effective Load on span = (1.10 350 )
= 327 kN
4.722

a
B

Load

L
Figure 4.3 Dispersion of Live Load
Moment along short span= (0.084 + 0.15 0.035) 327 =29 kN-m
Moment along long span= (0.084 0.15 + 0.035) 327 =15.5 kN-m

18

Design of Deck slab

b) Class AA Track Loading:


Size of one panel of deck slab = (2.5m x 4.0m)
Impact factor = 10%,
Load per Track = 350 kN
Track length = 3.6 m
Width of load spread along short span (u1) = (0.84 + 2 0.08) 2 + (0.3) 2 = 1.044 m
Width of load spread along short span (v1) = (3.6 + 2 0.08) 2 + (0.3) 2 = 3.77 m
v1/L = 0.9425
u1/B = 0.4214
From Pigeauds curves
Effective Load on span

m1 = 0.084 &

m2 = 0.035

4.0
= (1.10 350 )

3.77

= 409 kN
Moment along short span

= (0.084 + 0.15 0.035) 409


= 36.5 kN-m

Moment along long span

= (0.084 0.15 + 0.035) 409


= 19.5 kN-m

Figure 4.4 Graph for Moment Coefficients m1 and m2

19

Design of Deck slab

4.1.3 Cantilever Slab


Weight of handrails (approximately) = 1.75 kN,
Lever arm2

= 1.9 m

Weight of Kerb

= 3.75 kN,

Lever arm1

= 1.5 m

Moment due to handrails = 1.75 x 1.9


= 3.3 kN-m
Moment due to Kerb

= 3.75 x 1.5
= 5.6 kN-m
Figure 4.5 Cantilever part

Live Load Moment:


Due to the specific minimum clearance, 70R or Class AA loading will not operate on
the cantilever slab. Class A loading is to be considered.
bw = width of wheel + 2 x wearing thickness
= 0.25 + 2 x 0.08 = 0.41m,
bw = 0.41 m x = 0.8 m
Impact factor = 1.5
Load per track = 57 kN
be = 1.2 x + bw
= 1.2 x 0.8 + 0.41 = 1.37m
Live Load due to impact

= 57 x 1.5 /1.37 = 62.4 kN

Moment = 62.4 x 0.8 = 50 kN-m


Total moment = 50 + 3.325+5.625 = 59 kN-m.

4.2 Design of Deck Slab


Deck slab is design for sum of dead load moment and maximum live load
moments along both directions. Maximum live load moment will be the greater of
70R loading and Class AA loading.
Total moment in short direction

= 36.5 + 4.5 = 41 kN-m

Total moment in long direction

= 19.5 + 2.5 = 22 kN-m

Grade of concrete = M25, Grade of Steel = Fe415

20

Design of Deck slab

Effective depth,

d=

M
Q 1000

1
Q = cbc j K1
2
K1 =

(m cbc )
(m cbc + st )

m=

(280)
(3 cbc )

j = 1

cbc = fck / 3

K1
3

st = 200 N/mm2

fck = 25 N/mm2

After solving above equations we get,


m = 11.2, K1 = 0.31, j = 0.89
Q = 1.15

d=

4110 6
1.15 1000

d = 189 mm
Adopting overall depth of deck slab = 220 mm
Effective depth = 190 mm
Area of reinforcement in short direction = Ast =

Ast =

M
( st j d)
41 10 6
= 1212 mm2
(200 0.89 190)

Use 16 mm diameter HYSD bars at 150 mm centres.


Area of reinforcement provided in short direction = 1407 mm2

22 10 6
Area of reinforcement in long direction = Ast =
= 719 mm2
(200 0.89 172)

Use 16 mm diameter HYSD bars at 150 mm centres.


Area of reinforcement provided in short direction = 804 mm2

21

CHAPTER 5

DESIGN OF BRIDGE STRUCTURE


The distribution of the live loads among the longitudinal girders is determined by
using Courbons method. Courbons method estimates the reaction Ri of the main girder
on any girder i of a typical bridge consisting of multiple parallel beams is computed
assuming a linear variation of deflection in the transverse direction. The reaction Ri of the
main girder is considered as the distribution factor for ith main girder in the analysis

5.1 Distribution Factor for 3-Girder


In this method the reaction Ri gives the distribution factor of that girder.
Distribution factors are depends on the number of main girders, eccentricity of the
resultant load and the girder on which the distribution factor is calculating.
W1

W2 axis of bridge
e

1.2m

2.55m

2.55m

1.2m

Figure 5.1 Position of 70R Loading for 3-girder.

Eccentricity of the load from the face of the outer girder = 0.425 + 1.025 = 1.45m
Eccentricity of the load from the central axis of the deck (Refer Figure 5.1) = 1.1m
towards right. di is the distance of girder i (Refer Figure 5.2) from the central axis of
the bridge = 2.55m.

W
1.1

i
2.55m
Figure 5.2 Cross Sectional details of Deck Slab

22

Design of bridge structure

Ri =

Ii
W.Ii

1
.e.d
+

i
Ii Ii.di2

(5.1)

The moment of inertia of the outer and inner girder is equal. So the Equation 5.1
(distribution factor Ri for the ith main girder) becomes,

Ri =

W 3e
1 +

n 2di

(5.2)

Substitute the given data in Equation 3.2.

RA =

W
3

3 (1.1)
1 + 2 2.5

RA = 0.55W
Distribution factor for intermediate main girder, in this case the distance di is becomes
zero because the centroidal axis of the deck slab and the intermediate main girder is
coincides. Then Equation 5.1 becomes
R

W
n

(5.3)

After substituting the value di the distribution factor for the intermediate main girder is

Ri =

W
3

RB = 0.33W

5.1.1 Dead Load of Slab on Girder


Dead load of deck slab is calculated as
i) Parapet wall

= 0.7 kN/m

ii) Wearing coat = (0.08 x 1.2 x 22)


= 2.11 kN/m
iii) Deck slab

= (0.3x1.2x25) = 9 kN/m

iv) Kerb

= (0.5x 0.3x1x25)
= 3.75 kN/m

Figure 5.3 Loading of Cantilever

v) Dead load of panel = 49 kN/m

23

Design of bridge structure

Total dead load of cantilever deck = (15.5x2) + (49)


= 80.1 kN/m
It is assumed that the dead load is shared by equally by all girders
Dead load /girder = (80/3) = 27 kN/m

5.1.2 Live Load Bending Moments in Girder


Span of beam = 16 m
Impact factor (for class AA loads) = 10 %

(clause 211.3 IRC:6-2000)

The live load is placed centrally on the span as shown in figure 5.4
Bending moment = 0.5 x (4 + 3.1) x 700 =2485 kNm
Bending moment including impact and reduction factor for outer girder is
= (2485 x1.1x0.55) = 1510 kN-m
Bending moment including impact and reduction factor for inner girder is
= (2485 x1.1x0.33) = 910 kN-m

700 kN

8m

8m
L =16 m
3.6 m

Influence line for BM


Figure 5.4 Influence line for bending moment in
girder
5.1.3 Live Load Shear
For estimating the maximum live load shear in the girders. IRC class AA loads
are placed as shown in Figure 5.5.
Depth of rib (d4)

= 1.4m

Width (b4)

= 0.3 m

Weight of rib/m =(1 x0.3x1.4x24)=10.08 kN/m

24

Design of bridge structure

Longitudinal girder
350 kN

2.5 m

Cross girder

2.05

4m

2.5 m

4m

4m

4m

Figure 5.5 Position of I.R.C. loading for maximum shear


The cross girder is assumed to have the same cross-sectional dimensions of the main
girder.
Weight of cross girder

= 10.08 kN/m

Reaction on main girder

= (10.08 x 2.5) = 25.2 kN

Reaction from deck slab on each girder

= 27 kN/m

Total dead load/m on girder

= (27 +10.08) = 37 kN/m

Referring to Figure 5.6 the maximum bending moments are computed.

25.2 kN

25.2 kN

25.2 kN
37 kN/m

4m

4m

4m

4m

16 m
Figure 5.6 Dead load on main girder
Maximum bending moment at centre of span is obtained as,
Max. Bending Moment

= (37 x 162)/8+ (25.2 x 16)/4+ (25.2 x 16)/4


= 1385 kNm

Dead load shear at support

= (37 x 16)/2+25.2+ 25.2/2


= 630 kN

25

Design of bridge structure

The design moments and shears are compiled in Table 5.1.


Table 5.1 design moments and shear force
B.M.

D.L.B.M.

L.L.B.M.

Total B.M.

Units

Outer girder

1253

1510

2763

kN-m

Inner girder

1253

910

2163

kN-m

S.F.

D.L.S.F.

L.L.S.F.

Total S.F.

Outer girder

340

280

620

kN

Inner girder

340

345

685

kN

Design of sections for Maximum B.M and S.F


Mmax

= 2763 kN-m

(5.3)

(S.F)max = 685 kN

(5.4)

5.2 Distribution factor for 4-Girder


W

W1

W2
e

1.2m

1.7m

1.7m

1.7m

1.2m

Figure 5.7 Position of 70R Loading for 4-Girder

Eccentricity of the load from the face of the outer girder = 0.425 + 1.025 = 1.45m
Eccentricity of the load from the central axis of the deck (Refer Figure 5.7) = 1.1m
towards right. di is the distance of girder i (Refer Figure 5.7) from the central axis of
the bridge = 1.7m.
The general equation for distribution factor is,

Ri =

W.Ii
Ii .e.d
1+
i
Ii Ii.di2

26

Design of bridge structure

Distance of outer girder from axis of bridge =

2.55 m

Distance of inner girder from axis of bridge =

0.85 m

Substitute the given data in Equation 5.1.

RA =

W
4

4 2.55 1.1
1 +
2
2
(2 2.55 ) + (2 0.85 )

RA = 0.44 W
Similarly for inner girder,

RB =

W
4 0.85 1.1
1 +
2
2
4 (2 2.55 ) + (2 0.85 )

RB = 0.31 W

5.3 Distribution factor for 5-Girder

W1

W2
e

1.2 m

1.275 m

1.275 m

1.275 m

1.275 m

1.2 m

Figure 5.8 Position of 70R Loading for 5-Girder


Eccentricity of the load from the face of the outer girder = 0.425 + 1.025 = 1.45m
Eccentricity of the load from the central axis of the deck (Refer Figure 5.8) = 1.1m
towards right. di is the distance of girder i (Refer Figure 5.8) from the central axis of
the bridge = 1.275 m.
Distance of outer girder from axis of bridge =

2.55 m

Distance of inner girder from axis of bridge =

1.275 m

After substituting given data in Equation 5.1.

27

Design of bridge structure

RA =

W
5 2.55 1.1
1 +
2
2
5 (2 2.55 ) + (2 1.275 )

RA = 0.372 W
Similarly for inner girder,

RB =

W
5 1.275 1.1
1 +
2
2
5 (2 2.55 ) + (2 1.275 )

RB = 0.282 W
For central girder,

RC =

W
5

RC = 0.2 W

5.4 Distribution factor for 7-Girder

W1

W2
e

1.2 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

1.2 m

Fig. 5.9 Position of 70R Loading for 7-Girder

(Referring Figure 5.9) from the central axis of the bridge the distance di is = 0.85 m.
Distance of outer girder from axis of bridge

= 2.55 m

Distance of first inner girder from axis of bridge

= 1.70 m

Distance of second inner girder from axis of bridge = 0.85 m


Substitute the given data in Equation 3.1.

RA =

W
7

7 2.55 1.1
1 + (2 2.55 2 ) + (2 1.7 2 ) + (2 0.85 2 )

RA = 0.28 W
28

Design of bridge structure

Similarly for first inner girder,

RB =

W
7

7 1.7 1.1
1 + (2 2.55 2 ) + (2 1.7 2 ) + (2 0.85 2 )

RB = 0.23 W
For second inner girder,

RC =

W
7

7 0.85 1.1
1 + (2 2.55 2 ) + (2 1.7 2 ) + (2 0.85 2 )

RC = 0.189 W
For central girder,

RD =

W
7

RD = 0.142 W

Table 5.2 Distribution factor for girder


Distribution factor for Girder

No. of Girder
RA

RB

RC

RD

0.55

0.33

0.44

0.31

0.372

0.282

0.2

0.28

0.23

0.189

0.142

29

Design of bridge structure

5.5 Design of Longitudinal girder


For design purpose 3-girder longitudinal type girder is used. From equation 5.4
and 5.5 we get Moment and Shear force.
Mmax

= 2763 kN-m

(S.F)max = 685 kN
The girder is designed as a tee beam section, assuming an effective depth = 1400 mm
Approximately lever arm = (1350-200/2) = 1300 mm
Ast = (2763 x 106) / (200 x 1300)
= 10627 mm2
Provide 16 bars of 32 HYSD bars in four rows Ast = 12864 mm2.
According to IRC: 21-1987 maximum size of bars not to exceed 32 mm diameter. Shear
reinforcement are designed to resist the maximum shear at supports. Nominal shear
stress,
v = (S.F / b4 x d4)
= (685000 / (300 x 1400))
= 1.632 N/mm2 > 0.7 fck > 1.75 N/mm2
Assuming 2 bars of 32 to be bent up support section, shear resisted by bent up bars,
Vs = (st Ast1 sin)
= (200 x 2 x 804 x 103 2
= 227 kN.
Shear resisted by vertical stirrups is computed as balance shear (V) = 685 -227
= 458 kN.
Using 10 mm diameter-4 legged stirrups,

Spacing Sv = [( st Asv d) / V ]
= (200 x 78.5 x 4 x 1400) / 458000
= 192 mm

Provide 10 mm diameter -4 legged stirrups at 150 mm centres.

30

Design of bridge structure

5.6 Design of cross girder


Size of cross girder = 1.4 m x 0.3 m
Self weight of cross girder = 10 kN/m
Dead load from slab = (2 x 0.5 x 1.25 x 2.5 x 9.26)
= 28.9 kN
Uniformly distributed load

= 28.3 / 2.5
= 11.5 kN/m

Total load on cross girder

= 10 + 11.5
= 21.5 kN/m

Reaction on each cross girder = (21.5 x 5) / 3


= 35.8 kN
Load coming on cross girder = (350 (4-0.9) /4) = 271 kN.
Reaction on each longitudinal girder = (2 x 271) / 3
= 181 kN
Maximum bending moment in cross girder under the load at a the distance of
= (2.5-1.025)
= 1.475 m from support.
Bending moment including impact effect = 181 x 1.475 x 1.1
= 293 kNm
Dead load bending moment at 1.475 m from support
= (35.8 1.475 - 21.5 1.4752 /2)
= 29.1 kNm
Total design bending moment = 322 kNm
Effective depth of cross girder = 1300 mm

322 10 6

= 1376 mm2
Ast =
1300 0.9 200
Provide 5 bars of 20 Ast =1570 mm2

31

Design of bridge structure

5.7 Stability Analysis of Abutment


Abutments are end supports to the superstructure of bridge and they retain earth
on their back side which serves as an approach to the bridge. An abutment comprises
three distinct structural components.
a) The breast wall
b) The wing walls
c) The back wall
The forces to be considered are
1) Dead load due to superstructure
2) Live load on superstructure
3) Self weight of the abutment
4) Braking force
5) Earth pressure
6) Surcharge.
The design of an abutment is performed by assuming preliminary dimensions shown in
Figure 5.8 and checking for stability against overturning, base pressures and sliding.

Fig.5.10 Abutment

Load from superstructure per running foot of abutment wall.


Dead load

= 120 kN/m

Live load

= 54 kN/m

32

Design of bridge structure

Slab thickness = 300 mm height h =5 m , w = 18 kN/m3


To calculate self weight of abutment, treating the section as composed of 3 elements as
shown in Figure 5.8, the weight of each element and moment about toe base are
computed.
Longitudinal force due to braking force = 0.2 x 1000 = 200 kN
This force acts at 1.2 m above road level.
Horizontal force per m of wall = 100 / 7.5 = 13.33 kN/m
Active earth pressure = 0.5 wh2Ka
Here Ka taken as 0.496, depend upon angle of cohesion = 35o
Active pressure = 0.5 x 18 x 52 x 0.49 = 110 kN/m
Height above base of centre of pressure = 0.42 x 5 = 2.1 m
Horizontal force due to surcharge = 1.2 x 18 x 0.49 x 5 = 53 kN/m acting at 2.8 m.
Vertical force due to surcharge = (1.2 x 18 + 0.3 x 25 ) 2.6 = 75 kN/m
Weight of earth on heel slab = 18(5-0.75) 2.6 =199 kN/m
The Forces and Moments for Abutment as calculated above are shown in Table 5.3.
Table 5.3 Forces and Moments for Abutment
Sr. No.

Details

Force

Lever

Force

arm m

V(kN)

H(kN)

Mv(kNm)

Mh( kNm)

DL from superstructure

120

1.5

180

Earth pressure

110

2.1

231

Hori.force due to surcharge

53

2.8

149

Ver.force due to surcharge

75

3.5

263

Self weight part1

84

2.4

201

Self weight part2

81

1.7

138

Self weight part3

1.68

16

Weight of heel slab

199

3.5

697

Live load from superstructure

54

1.5

81

10

Horizontal braking force

13.3

4.3

57

Total

622

176.3

1633

380

33

Design of bridge structure

5.8 Check for stability


i. Overturning
Overturning moment about toe = 622 kNm
Restoring moment about toe = 1633 kNm
Factor of safety against overturning = 1633 / 622 = 2.62 > 2.0

safe.

ii. Check for stress at bases


Total downward forces = 622 kN
Extreme stresses at base = (622 / (4.8 x 1)) (1+- ((6 x 0.78) /4.8)
= 255 or 3.2 kN/m2
Maximum pressure = 255 kN/m2 > Bearing capacity of soil.
Minimum pressure = 3.2 kN/m2

>0

iii. Check for sliding


Sliding force = 176.3 kN
Force resisting sliding = 0.6 x 622 = 373 kN
Factor of safety against sliding = 373 / 176.3
= 2.11 > 1.5

safe.

34

CHAPTER 6

DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE
General
Visual Basic (VB) is an ideal programming language for developing sophisticated
professional applications for Microsoft Windows. It makes use of Graphical User
Interface (GUI) for creating robust and powerful applications. The Graphical User
Interface as the name suggests, uses illustrations for text, which enable users to interact
with an application. This feature makes it easier to comprehend things in a quicker and
easier way Coding in GUI environment is quite a transition to traditional, linear
programming methods where the user is guided through a linear path of execution and is
limited to small set of operations. In GUI environment, the number of options open to the
user is much greater, allowing more freedom to the user and developer. Features such as
easier comprehension, user-friendliness, faster application development and many other
aspects such as introduction to ActiveX technology and Internet features make Visual
Basic an interesting tool to work with.
A Visual Basic program consists of the visual interface that makes up the windows and
controls that the user sees and interacts with. In addition, programming code connects
everything together. Each control is both automated and set up to respond to the
programming code. For example, a command button will visually show a click action
when the user clicks the button with the mouse when running the program. As figure 6.1
shows, windows handle a few events but pass most to the programs currently running.
Windows is a multitasking operating system so more than one program can run
simultaneously.
Visual Basic applications contain multiple modules and procedures that need to share
data between each other. When writing extensive applications, it must be able to share
data between procedures and modules by declaring the variables appropriately and by
writing procedures in such a way that other procedures can access them. Visual Basic
internal function is to perform common analysis and data manipulation of strings,
numbers, and other kind of data.

35

Development of software

Event 1

Event 2

Event 3

Event 4

Event 5

Windows gets
events

Windows handles
some events

Event 1

Windows passes some


events to the applications
that should receive those
events

Windows

Event 2

Application 1

Event 3

Application 2

Fig.6.1 Tree diagram of windows handle a few events


Important Features of Visual Basic (VB)


Full set of objects - you 'draw' the application.

Lots of icons and pictures for your use

Response to mouse and keyboard actions

Clipboard and printer access

Full array of mathematical, string handling and graphics functions.

Can handle fixed and dynamic variable and control arrays.

Sequential and random access files support.

36

Development of software

6.1 Bridge design software


The present study deals with the development of software for bridge design. The
software is developed using visual basic. The software can be used for any type of bridge
with any number of girders generally used. However, for the illustration purpose three
girder bridge is used as explained in chapter 4.

The steps for analysis and design of Bridge using software are as follows
1.

Static Analysis
i.

Calculation of self weight of Deck slab.

ii. Calculation of slab moment.


iii. Calculation of Live load moment (70R loading).
iv. Calculation of Live load moment (Class AA loading).
v.

Calculation of Cantilever moment.

vi. Calculation of Final moments.


vii. Calculation of distribution factor and moment for Girder.
viii. Calculation of forces on Abutment.
ix. Check factor of safety for Abutment.
x.
2.

Design of Deck Slab.

Seismic Analysis
i.

Calculation of total weight of structure.

ii. Calculation of time period for structure.


iii. Calculation of earthquake force on structure.

37

Development of software

6.2 Flow Chart for Static Analysis


START

Static Analysis

Selection of no. of girder and


calculation of slab panel
weight

Slab moments calculation

Calculation of Live load


moment (70R track loading)

Calculation of Live load


moment (Class AA loading)

Calculation of cantilever moment

Yes

If 70R> Class
AA loading

Slab moment +
70R loading

No

Slab moment +
Class AA loading

Final Moments

Live load moment


in Main girder

Check stability in
Abutment

Design of deck slab

END

38

Development of software

6.3 Flow Chart for Seismic Analysis

START

Seismic Analysis

According to selection of no.


girder calculation of dead
weight of structure

Calculation of stiffness
of bridge pier

Calculation of time
period in both directions

Calculation of (Sa/g) and


value of Ah

Calculation of Earthquake force

END

39

Development of software

6.4 Illustration of Problem


White boxes indicate the input data while the orange indicates the output we
require.

Figure 6.2 Self Weight


Tab used for Self Weight
This is the first step for the static analysis of the bridge. In this depending on the
requirement of the span and other conditions of the bridge assessment, numbers of girders
required for the bridge are selected. In this program we can choose the number of girder
required for the analysis, by selecting the appropriate value. The other inputs required for
the calculation of self weight are clear span, clear width, thickness and the length of
cantilever portion. The values of these inputs are required to be given as a part of input to
the program. Depending on the values of the input, the program calculates the panel size
i.e. length and width of panel size. Finally we get the self weight of the girders. The
details procedure is represented graphically in Figure 6.2.

40

Development of software

Tab used for Slab Moment


From the previous input, clear span and clear width we get value of K and 1/K.
For the value of K and 1/K, corresponding value of moment coefficients m1 and m2 are
obtained from graph. Depending on the values of m1 and m2 the total dead load and total
slab moment are obtained as shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3 Slab Moment

41

Development of software

Tab used for Live Load (70R track loading)


The next step is the calculation of the live load on the bridge. The live load has
been divided into the two parts;
a) Live Load 1:- which includes the 70R Track Loading
b) Live Load 2:- which includes the Class AA Track Loading

Figure 6.4 Live Load (70R Track loading)

Figure 6.4 shows window for Live load calculation depending upon track loading. When
we click on 70R loading button directly the ratio of u/B and v/L are displayed.
From these ratios, moment coefficients values (i.e. m11 and m22) are taken as input from
the graph displayed in window, and Live load moments are obtained.

42

Development of software

Tab used for Class AA track loading


Figure 6.5 for case 2. The output of this is the live load moments. After entering
the values of moment coefficients (m41 and m42) the moments along both directions are
obtained.

Figure 6.5 Live Load (Class AA track loading)

43

Development of software

Tab used for Cantilever Moment


In this weight of railing is approximately taken as 1.75 KN and size of Kerb is
assumed as 0.5 x 0.3 m with bw is taken as 0.5m as of class A. In this we have to give
values of leave arm for railing and Kerb as an input to the program. This gives the dead
load moment for cantilever slab. After giving the value of a, we get the effective width
of dispersion be, and finally we get the live load moment for cantilever. The details
calculation for the program is given in the Figure 6.6

Figure 6.6 Cantilever Part

44

Development of software

Tab used for Final Moments


This is the last step for the calculation of the moments due to the dead and live
loads for slab. This can be obtained by clicking on the tab of Final Moments given on the
window of the VB. The values of the total moment are shown in Figure 6.7.

Figure 6.7 Final Moments

45

Development of software

Tab used for Longitudinal Girder


Depending on the requirement of the girder we have to select the number of the
girders from the tab of Self weight as given in Figure 6.2. After giving number of girder
the tab of Longitudinal Girder will shows the figure of the bridge with particular number
of girders. After selecting the number of girder we have to give thickness and depth of
the girder as input, and then the reaction factor R1 and R2 are obtained. Using these
reaction factors, the total moment and shear force due to dead load and live load are
obtained as shown in Figure 6.8.

Figure 6.8 Longitudinal Girder

46

Development of software

Tab used for Abutment


In this step we get the value of dead load, earth pressure, live load surcharge and
braking force. The input to be given to this tab is the value of shear force due to live load,
height of the abutment, base width and angle of cohesion. These values are provided at
the respective text boxes. Figure 6.9 shows the details of the output for the considered
problem.

Figure 6.9 Abutment Analysis

47

Development of software

Tab used for factor of safety


This section deals with the safety of the abutment. Here, no input is required. We
just have to click on the Calculate button. The result obtained here are the FOS against
sliding, overturning. Stresses at the base are also checked. The details are given in Figure
6.10.

Figure 6.10 Checks for Stability

48

Development of software

Tab used for Deck Slab Design


The inputs required in this part are grade of concrete, grade of steel and
permissible stress in steel. The output what we get after clicking on the OK button are
Permissible compressive stress, depth required, depth provided, main reinforcement, steel
in longitudinal direction. The details are given in Figure 6.11. This ends the static
procedure for the analysis of the bridge. The next step is the seismic analysis.

mm

mm

mm2

mm2

Figure 6.11 Deck Slab Design

49

Development of software

In this analysis for the calculation of the stiffness of the bridge one assumption is
made. It is assumed that pier cap is taken as 7.5 x 1x 0.5m and pier diameter is of 2m
with height of pier is taken as 5m.

Tab used for calculation of Total Weight of bridge


By clicking on the Seismic Analysis Tab we can go into the seismic part of the
bridge. After the clicking the OK button, the Mass of Slab in tones, Mass of Girder, Mass
of Pier cap, Mass of Pier are obtained. As earlier mentioned we are assuming the pier
dimensions, hence the stiffness directly obtained. The details are given in Figure 6.12.

Figure 6.12 Total Weight calculations for seismic analysis.

50

Development of software

Tab used forTtime Period calculation


This step gets activated by clicking on the tab of Time period. With the output
from previous tab time period in traffic and current direction, the value of sa/g from the
graph shown is obtained. Thus the time period of the structure can be obtained as shown
in Figure 6.13.

Figure 6.13 Time Period calculation


.

51

Development of software

Tab used for Earthquake Force


The last step in the seismic analysis is the earthquake force calculation. The input
required here is Zone Factor and Importance Factor. By clicking on OK button, the value
of Ah and Required earthquake forces can be obtained as shown in Figure 6.14.

Figure 6.14 Earthquake Force calculation

52

CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

7.1 Conclusion
An effort is given to develop software which can support the static and seismic
analysis of bridge as well as design of superstructure. It is observed that the program
developed in present study gives very good results when compared to conventional
method. Hence this Program is very useful for designers and helpful in saving time for
Analysis of bridge.

Initially the analysis of deck slab is done, considering 70R and Class AA track
loading. Pigeauds method is employed for slab moment. Output result has been
verified manually.

The software developed in this study is very useful in calculation of distribution


factor (using Courbons method) and Live load moment for various numbers of
girders. And for the design of longitudinal girders.

The analysis of substructure is carried out. Various stability checks are carried out
and supported by manual calculation.

Design of Deck slab has been done, software gives the area of reinforcement in
both (longitudinal and transverse) directions.

Seismic analysis is done by software verified with model prepared in SAP. For
this a simple cantilever beam model is prepared with mass lumped at free end in
SAP. The time period is given by SAP nearly matches with software.

The program will be used efficiently for any span length and width of the Bridge.

53

7.2 Future Scope


The software contains analysis of three, four, five, and seven girder with deck slab bridge
structure. The analysis of girder is done for single 70R track loading; the study can be
extended for two IRC70R loading or wheeled loading. The study of various forces acting
on the bridge can be done. The study of analysis of bearing can be done by extending
program for bearing analysis. The study of bridge-soil interaction can be done.

54

REFERENCES

1. A.G.Vlassis, C.C.Spraykos Seismically isolated bridge piers on shallow soil


stratum with soil

structure interaction Available on science direct.com

Computers and Structures 79 (2001) Pgs.2847-2861.


2. A.J. Kappos, G.D. Manolis, Seismic assessment and design of RC bridges with
irregular configuration, Including SSI effects, Engineering Structures 24 (2002),
Pgs. 1337-1348.
3. Alper Ucak and Panos Tsopelas Effect of SoilStructure Interaction on Seismic
Isolated Bridges Journal of Structural Engineering, Volume 134-7 (2008),
Pgs.11541164.
4. Evangelos Petroutsos Mastering Visual basic 6 by BPB Publications.
5. Johnson Victor, D., Essentials of Bridge Engineering, Sixth Edition Oxford and
IBH Publishing Company Pvt. Ltd. (2007).
6. Khan Abdulbari, Investigation into Seismic Analysis of RC Bridge Pier with Soil
Structure Interaction Master of Technology thesis, Department of applied
Mechanics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (2006-07).
7. Krishna Raju, N., Design of Bridges, Third Edition, Oxford and IBH Publishing
Company Pvt. Ltd., (1998).
8. R.Ravikumar, Investigation into The Analysis of Bridges Master of Technology
thesis, Department of applied Mechanics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of
Technology, Nagpur (2005-06).
9. The Indian Roads Congress-21, Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for
Road Bridges, section III, Cement concrete (Plain and Reinforced), (2000).

55

10. The Indian Roads Congress-6, Standard specifications and code of practice for
Road Bridges, section II, Loads and stresses, (2000).
11. Xing-Chong Chen, Yuan-Ming Lai Seismic performance of RC bridge piers in
Japan: an evaluation after the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, Program
Structural engineering (2000); Pgs. 82-91.

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