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guide R. S. Sonparote, for the valuable guidance, critical technical discussions, and his

care, affection and support towards me that eventually led to the completion of this thesis.

These words are formal thanks, which cannot express the real depth of feeling and

affection that I have towards him.

I have a great pleasure to express my gratitude to Dr. M. M. Mahajan, Head,

Department of Applied Mechanics, VNIT, Nagpur and all the faculty members of the

Department of Applied Mechanics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology,

Nagpur for their valuable suggestions during the project work.

I would also like to thank Dr. S.K. Jain, Professor, IIT Kanpur and NICEE team for

giving me an opportunity to visit IIT Kanpur for Literature Survey, so that I could

recognize the scope of this work.

I can never forget the treasured company of my friends: (Anand, Nazir, Kishor, Nitesh,

Shrikant, Anup, Hemant, Vaibhav, Dilip, Deepak, Madhusudan, Guari, Tripti, Dhwani,

Jyoti and Priyanka. They have provided the lighter moments those made the stay livelier,

whose assistance was invaluable. In particular, my relationship with Kishor, Nazir and

Priyanka, I saw so many technical and (more often!) non-technical matters being put in

the right track by their constructive suggestions.

Very importantly I would like to express my thanks towards My Family without whose

continuous moral support I could not have reached at this stage. I recall their numerous

sacrifices that made it possible for me to pursue my goals.

Last but not least, I am thankful to all of them who directly or indirectly helped me to

complete this project work

Amit A. Auti

ABSTRACT

Analysis and design of Slab-Girder bridge is an iterative process depending on

design load. Generally the calculations involved in the analysis and design are very

tedious and time consuming. In this project work, an attempt is made to develop

software, which can help the designer to arrive at rational, economical and sound

solution. In the present work, the software is developed for linear static analysis and

linear seismic analysis. A computer program is developed using Visual basic. VB is used

due to its advantage of inheritance and reusable code and many more other features.

Chapter 1 deals with introduction of present topic. It state scope of present work,

design aspects of bridge superstructure and finally the objectives of the project.

A review of literature collected is presented in chapter 2.

A brief idea about Bridges and its components with IRC recommendations is

discuss in chapter 3.

Chapter 4 explains brief about analysis and design of deck slab spanning in both

directions, and calculation for area of reinforcement in both directions.

Chapter 5 explains brief study of calculation for distribution factors using

Courbons method. After this a program for calculation of distribution factors has been

discussed. For this Program the inputs are in terms of Span, Carriage width, No. of main

and cross girders, Properties of main and cross girders and thickness of deck slab.

Chapter 6 deals with the analysis of the bridge using Visual Basic. The analysis

procedures used for the bridge are Static and Seismic. The step wise procedure for

analysis of bridge using VB is explained.

ii

CONTENTS

Acknowledgement

Abstract

ii

Contents

iii

List of Figures

vi

List of Tables

vii

viii

Chapter 1

Introduction

Chapter 2

Literature review

Chapter 3

Bridges

3.2 Superstructure

3.3 Substructure

3.3.1 Abutment

3.3.3 Bearing

3.4 Foundation

10

10

iii

10

12

3.6.1 Calculation of Distribution Factor

12

13

3.7.1 Slab spanning in one direction

14

14

Chapter 4

Design of Deck Slab

4.1 Numerical Study

16

16

17

18

20

20

Chapter 5

Design of Bridge structure

22

22

23

24

24

26

27

28

30

31

32

34

iv

Chapter 6

Development of Software

35

General

35

37

38

39

40

Chapter 7

Conclusion and Future Scope

53

7.1Conclusion

53

54

References

55

List of Figures

Figure 3.1 Typical Cross section of the Bridge

10

11

11

12

17

17

18

19

20

22

22

23

24

25

25

26

27

28

32

36

40

41

42

43

vi

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

List of Tables

Table 5.1 Design moments and shear force

26

29

33

vii

B

be

bw

di

DLSF

Ii

K1

LLSF

Modular ratio

n

RA

RB

RC

RD

viii

Ri

Sa/g

Tl

Track length

Ts

Thickness of slab

Twc

Width of the dispersion of the load parallel to the width of the slab

Length of the dispersion of the load parallel to the length of the slab

Concentrated load single load acting if number of loads are acting the

resultant of the load is considered

Wc

cbc

st

ix

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Bridge is a structure which provides a free flow of traffic over obstacle such as

river, road and railway. Planning and Designing of bridges is a judicious compromise

between art in consistent with location and sound aspects of structural engineering. It

is the manifestation of the creative capabilities and soundness of designers and

demonstrates their imagination, innovation and exploration.

A typically Tee beam deck slab generally comprises the longitudinal girder,

continuous deck slab between the tee beams and cross girders to provide lateral

rigidity to the bridge deck. The longitudinal girders are spaced at intervals of 2 to 2.5

m and cross girders are provided at 4 to 5 m intervals. The distribution of live loads

among the longitudinal girders can be estimated by many methods. Some of them are

explain in next chapter.

Bridge analysis is essential to evaluate the behavior of structure. Present study

gives emphasis to develop the program for analysis of bridge components such as

deck slab, longitudinal girder, Abutment analysis, Seismic analysis of bridge and

design of deck slab.

For analysis of deck slab Pigeauds method is implemented. Various curves

are used for analysis purpose, depending upon the ratio of K and 1/K. The distribution

factors for longitudinal girder are calculated by using Courbons approach. Analysis

of abutment is done and various checks are carried out.

The superstructure in any bridge must be designed so as to satisfy the

geometric and load carrying requirements to be met. The geometric requirements

depend on the number and width of traffic lanes and footpaths for which the deck is to

cater to. It also depends on the overall alignment and various horizontal and vertical

clearances required above and below the road way. Once the geometric considerations

are decided, and the superstructure has to be designed to meet the various structural

1

Introduction

requirements. This includes consideration of strength, stability and stiffness. This first

requires estimation of internal forces, moments and displacements which the

externally applied forces will cause in the selected scheme and form of structure and

then deciding the final section sizes, reinforcement. The former process constitutes

Analysis and later process constitutes Design. The analysis is generally done is

based on elastic behaviour of structure. The design is then done on either on elastic

(i.e. working) strength basis or on load-factored (Ultimate) strength basis, also

ensuring the serviceability criteria (like limiting the flexural crack width, deflections

and vibrations). Some structural analysis work is done using empirical formulae. If

the structure is very complicated model analysis is required.

The main objective of this project is to develop the software programming in

visual basic which analyse and design the different components of bridge. Brief

details of objectives are

also factors which are important to decide the preliminary sizes of slab

panel and main girders.

To analyse and design deck slab and main girder for different IRC

loading considered.

To analyse and design for different number of main girders for given

span and width of bridge.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Many of the research papers, reports and books related to the topic were studied

to get information about the work that has done by various researchers. Some of the

technical papers related to the study are as given below.

A.J.Kappos, G.D.Manoli

(2)

the interaction phenomenon between supporting ground and thee pier plus deck system,

on the seismic response of reinforced concrete (R/C) bridges with irregular configuration

as well as its ramification on the design of the piers. The focus is on a four span highway

bridge with piers of unequal height crossing a mountain valley. The bridge and its

foundation system, including the surrounding soil, are modeled by finite elements plus

spring /dashpot/added mass discrete parameter system. A hierarchy of finite element

meshes is developed starting with shell elements and ending with linear elements.

Moreover, two basic types of foundations are examined, namely spread footings versus

pile groups. Following a preliminary design of the bridge, a series of time history analysis

of the combined deck-pier-foundation system are performed, the results of which are

used in assessing the influence of foundation compliance on the superstructure.

Furthermore, the influence of key construction details such as pier-to-deck connection on

the dynamic displacement and the force field that develop is also examined. Finally a

series of recommendations are given on when and how to account for the influence of the

ground in the design of the piers.

Xing-Chong Chen, Yuan-Ming Lai (11) observed that when the bridge piers with shallow

foundation are subject to intensive earthquake excitations, uplift of foundations will occur

and the foundation soil will partly become plastic. It is very difficult to use an accurate

method to simulate the uplifting and yielding of supporting soil. An improved Winkler

foundation model, which could be used to consider the uplift and yield, was employed in

the analysis. The 1940 El-Centro earthquake record is inputted to a rigid pier with

shallow foundation so that the non-linear history response is obtained. From the non-

Literature review

linear analysis, it is concluded that the non-linear effect is very remarkable when uplifting

and yielding of supporting soil are considered compared with the linear analysis, the

stiffness of bridge piersoil system degrades in each cycle after considering uplifting and

yielding. It is shown that the non-linear analysis can get larger rotational angles and

smaller bending moments compared with the linear analysis.

(3)

the response of seismically isolated bridges. The behavior of the pier is assumed to be

linear and the foundation system is modeled with frequency-dependent springs and

dashpots. They considered two bridge systems, one representative of short stiff highway

overpass systems and another representative of tall flexible multispan highway bridges.

Nonlinear time history analyses were employed with two sets of seismic motions. This

paper investigates the effects of SSI on the seismic response of two seismically isolated

bridges, one representing a typical stiff freeway over crossing and one representing a

typical flexible multispan highway bridge, which are founded on soft, no liquefiable soil

through pile group foundations. They concluded that,

SSI effects consistently decreased the ductility demands of the piers when

compared to the system without SSI effects.

For both bridge systems, the majority of the seismic motions of both sets, far field

and near fault the observed isolation system drift increases, due to SSI, Which are

between 10 and 20%. In some cases the isolation drift increase was even higher

than 25%. Based on these observations SSI effects are significant and must be

taken into account during the design and analysis phases of seismic isolated

bridge systems.

influences considerably the pier shear force of Bridge-2 (tall flexible bridge)

when it is excited by both far field (FF) and near field (NF) sets of motions.

Bridge-1 short stiff bridge system response variables isolation system drift and

pier shear for both sets of motions are essentially unaffected by the modeling

approach.

Literature review

A.G.Vlassis, C.C.Spraykos

(1)

response of seismically isolated bridge piers founded on shallow soil stratum overlying

rigid bedrock and to develop a method that considers soil structure interaction and can be

easily applied to the preliminary design of bridges. They concluded that,

soil-structure interaction is taken into account, especially when the isolation

devices are not much more flexible than the supporting soil.

Consideration of soil structure interaction reduces the base shear force evaluated

as recommended by the current AASHTO design procedures. The reduction is

greater for bridge piers founded on stiff conditions.

CHAPTER 3

BRIDGES

Bridge is a structure which provides a free flow of traffic over obstacle such as

river, road and railway. Planning and Designing of bridges is a judicious compromise

between art in consistent with location and sound aspects of structural engineering.

Superstructure

Substructure

Foundation

3.2 Superstructure

The superstructure consists of the following components as shown in figure 3.1

i.

Deck slab

ii.

iv. Kerb and Handrails

v.

Cantilever part

Wearing

coat

Deck

slab

Kerb

Main

girder

Cantilever

part

Cross

girder

Bridges

The reinforced concrete slab type deck is generally used for small spans. Deck

slabs are simpler for construction due to easier fabrication of form work and

reinforcements and placement of concrete. The deck slab is designed as a one way slab to

support the dead load and live load with impact. In case of reinforced concrete Tee beam

and slab deck, the slab spans in two directions as slab is supported on four sides on main

girder and cross girders at regular intervals.

The deck slab is generally design for the worst effect of either IRC 70R tracked

vehicle loading or IRC Class A load train. Based on analytical investigation, D.J.Victor

has reported the use of IRC Class AA wheeled vehicle for spans up to 4m and tracked

vehicle for spans greater than 4m for computations of live load bending moment. The

distribution reinforcement is designed for 0.3 times the live load and 0.2 times the dead

load moment in one way slabs. Two methods are available for analysis,

(a)Pigeauds theory. (b) Westergaards theory. Pigeauds theory is widely used for slab

analysis.

Main (longitudinal) girders are designed as T-beams which are integral with part

of the deck slab cast monolithically with the girders. The number of longitudinal girders

depends upon the road width. The slab is built monolithic with girders so that T-beam

effect is achieved. For wider bridges, the roadway is supported on number of longitudinal

girders with transverse beams or diaphragms. In deck girder bridge, cross beams are used,

each panel of slab may be considered to be freely supported at its edges with corners not

freely to lift. Alternatively, the slab may be considered to be continuous over supporting

beams. The lateral spacing of the longitudinal girders will affect the cost of the bridge.

When there are two longitudinal girders, the reactions on the longitudinal can be found

by assuming the supports of the deck slab as unyielding.

Bridges

The provision of cross beams facilitates adoption of thinner ribs for the main

beams. It is well known that the interconnection of the main girders of a bridge by cross

girders or cross diaphragms or deck slab leads to the distribution of the loading amongst

the main girders, that is, several of these girders share the load and not only the ones

adjacent to it.. These cross girders are monolithically connected to slab similar to main

girders.

Functions of the cross girders are

i.

ii.

iii. Essential over the supports to prevent lateral spread of the girders at the bearings.

3.3 Substructure

Substructure is the parts below the bearing level. Substructure has following components.

i.

Abutments

ii.

iii.

Bearings.

3.3.1 Abutment:

An abutment is the substructure which supports one terminus of the

superstructure of a bridge. Abutment consists of three main parts, (i) The breast wall (ii)

The wing wall

(iii) The back wall.

Abutments are used for the following purposes:

Bridges

Piers are structures located at the ends of bridge spans at intermediate points

between the abutments. Pier transfer the vertical loads to the foundation, and to resist all

horizontal forces and transverse forces acting on the bridge.

Pier cap is the block resting over the top of the pier. It provides the immediate bearing

surface for the support of the superstructure at the pier location, and disperses the strip

loads from the bearings to the substructure.

3.3.3 Bearings:

Bearings are provided in bridges to transmit the load from the superstructure to

the substructure in such a manner that the bearing stresses induced in the substructure are

within permissible limits. Bearing accommodate certain relative movements between the

superstructure and substructure.

The design of foundations is an important part of the overall design for a bridge and

affects to a considerable extent the aesthetics, the safety and the economy of the bridge.

3.4 Foundation:

Foundations are generally of following type

i. Isolated, combined and strip footing

ii. Raft foundation.

The design of foundation is based on complete subsoil investigations. The selection of the

appropriate type of foundation shall be depend upon the magnitude and disposition of

structural loads, requirements of structures, type of soil or rock available. The design of

raft should be based on assumption that it is resting on elastic soil medium.

The Indian Road Congress (IRC) has formulated standard specifications and

codes of practice for road Bridges with a view to establish a common procedure for the

design and construction of road bridges. In the analysis and design of bridge girders, IRC:

6-2000 are commonly used. Overview of this code is discussed here.

Bridges

i. Dead load.

ii. Live load.

iii. Impact effect.

iv. Wind load.

v. Longitudinal force due to tractive effort of vehicles.

vi. Longitudinal force due to braking of vehicle.

vii. Seismic effects.

viii. Earth pressure.

ix. Vehicle collision forces etc.

3.5.2 Dead Load

The dead load carried by a bridge member consists of its own weight and the

portions of the weight of the superstructure and any fixed loads supported by the

member.

i) IRC Class 70R Loading

This loading consists of a tracked vehicle of 700 kN or a wheeled vehicle to total load of

1000 kN This loading was originally included in the Appendix to the bridge code for use

for rating of existing bridges. The contact length of the track is 4.57 m, the nose to tail

length of vehicle is 7.92 m. shown in Figure 3.2.

10

Bridges

This loading consists of either a tracked vehicle of 700 KN or a wheeled vehicle

of 400 kN. The tracked vehicle simulates a combat tank used by the army. The ground

contact length of the track is 3.6m and the nose to tail length of the vehicle is 7.2 m.

shown in Figure 3.3.

Class A loading consists of a wheel load train composed of a driving vehicle and

trailers of specified axle spacing and loads. The nose to tail spacing between two

successive trains shall not be less than 18.5 m. Class A loading is to be normally adopted

on all roads on which permanent bridges and culverts are constructed. Shown in Figure

3.4

11

Bridges

Class B loading comprises a wheel load train similar to that of class A loading but with

smaller axle loads. This loading is intended to be adopted for temporary structures,

timber bridges and for bridges in specified areas. Shown in Figure 3.5.

The width of carriageway required will depend on the intensity and volume of

traffic anticipated to use the bridge. The width carriageway is expressed in terms of

traffic lanes, each lane meaning the width required to accommodate one train of Class A

vehicles. The minimum widths of carriageway to be adopted for various types of traffic

are as below

Single Lane Bridge 4.25m

Two Lane Bridge

7.50m

Courbons method estimates the reaction Ri of the main girder on any girder i of a

typical bridge consisting of multiple parallel beams is computed assuming a linear

variation of deflection in the transverse direction. The reaction Ri of the main girder is

considered as the distribution factor for ith main girder in the analysis.

12

Bridges

Courbons method is applicable only when the following conditions are satisfied.

i.

ii.

The cross girders extend to a depth of at least 0.75 of the depth of the longitudinal

girder.

iii. The cross beams should preferably be cast monolithically with the longitudinal or

should be cast at least before any other gravity loads comes on.

The reaction Ri gives the distribution factor for the ith main girder for a given

loading, eccentricity measured from centroidal axis of deck and number of main girders

is calculated by using the following Equation

Ri =

W.I i

Ii

Ii .e.d

1+

i

2

I i .di

(3.1)

Ri =

W 1+ I

n I .d

i

.

e

.

d

i

2

The live load bending moments and shear forces are computed for each of the girders.

The maximum design moment and shear forces are obtained by adding the live load and

dead load bending moments. The reinforcements in the main longitudinal girders are

designed for the maximum moments and shears developed in the girders. The cross

girders are assumed to be rigid so that the reactions due to dead load and live loads are

assumed to be equally sheared by the cross girders.

13

Bridges

3.7.1 Slabs spanning in one direction

For slabs spanning in one direction, the total dead load moment can directly be

computed assuming the slab to be simply supported between the supports. The maximum

bending moment caused by a wheel load may be assumed to be resisted by an effective

width of slab measured parallel to the supporting edges. Effective width of dispersion

calculated by following equation,

be = K x(1 ( x / L)) + bw

3.7.2 Slab spanning in two directions

Slab supported on four edges are of common occurrence when the deck consists

of beams and slab. Each panel of the slab may be either freely supported at its edges with

corners not free to lift or the slab may be continuous over the supporting beams. Two

methods are available for analysis of each panel of slab subjected to concentrated loads is

(a) Pigeauds theory and (b) Westergaards theory.

Pigeauds derived the curves for thin plates, using elastic theory of flexure, and

assuming Poissons ratio of 0.15.

The following are the limitations of the Pigeauds theory

i.

Only loads placed at the centre can be considered. Some approximation will

have to be used while considering the non-central loads.

ii.

iii.

When v/L is small, the reading of values m1 and m2 from the curves become less

accurate.

The Pigeauds method is applicable when above conditions are satisfy. For multiple

concentric loads or an eccentric load some approximation is given to calculate the

bending moment coefficients m1 and m2 as explained in later Chapter. If the panel is

either fixed or continuous Pigeauds recommends that mid-span bending moment be

reduced to 80%. The bridge deck slabs are subjected to heavily concentrated loads from

the live load. In this project also it is proposed to study the analysis of deck slab using

Pigeauds method and develop the program for it.

14

Bridges

This theory is applicable to slabs which extend sufficiently far on both sides of the load at

right angles to the short span. Let a load P acting at centre of panel and distributed over a

circular area of diameter C, the maximum moments are given by

m1 = 0.21072 P(log(l / C1 ) + 0.48253

m2 = m1 0.0676 x P

Where

C1 = 2( 0.4C 2 + D 2 0.675 D

D = thickness of slab.

15

CHAPTER 4

In deck Girder Bridge, if transverse beams are used, each panel of slab may be

considered to be continuous over supporting beams. Two methods are available for

analysis. (i) Pigeauds theory and (ii) Westergaards theory. Only Pigeauds theory is

considered in this project for the comparative study, since it is widely followed in the

bridge design.

Slabs spanning in one direction

For slabs spanning in one direction, the total dead load moment can directly be

computed assuming the slab to be simply supported between the supports. The

maximum bending moment caused by a wheel load may be assumed to be resisted by

an effective width of slab measured parallel to the supporting edges. Effective width

of dispersion calculated by following equation,

be = K x(1 ( x / L)) + bw

Slabs spanning in two directions

Slab supported on four edges are of common occurrence when the deck

consists of beams and slab. Each panel of the slab may be either freely supported at its

edges with corners not free to lift or the slab may be continuous over the supporting

beams. Two methods are available for analysis of each panel of slab subjected to

concentrated loads is (a) Pigeauds theory and (b) Westergaards theory. The analysis

and design of deck slab is illustrated with the following problem.

Data:

Span of the bridge

16 m

7.5m

0.3m x 1.6m

2.5m

0.3m x 1.4m

4m

16

Solution:

4.1.1 Dead Load Calculation

Size of one deck slab panel (B x L) = (2.5m x 4.0m)

Thickness of slab (Ts) = 0.3 m, Thickness of wearing coat (Twc) = 0.08 m

Density of concrete = 25 kN/m3, Density of coat = 22 kN/m3

B

= 9.26 kN/m2

Slab is simply supported on all four sides and is continuous;

Pigeauds curves will be used to get influence coefficients

to compute moments.

Shortspan 2.5

=

Constants (K) =

= 0.6,

Longspan 4

1

= 1.67

K

Total weight of Slab (W) = 9.26 x 2.5 x 4 = 92.6 kN

Assuming Poissons ratio = 0.15

Moment along short span = (m1 + 0.15 x m2) W

= (0.046 + 0.15 0.02) 92.6 = 4.54 kN-m

Moment along long span = (m1 x 0.15 + m2) W

= (0.046 0.15 + 0.02) 92.6 = 2.5 kN-m

17

a) 70R Track Loading:

Size of one panel of deck slab = (2.5m x 4.0m)

Width of tyre contact (Wc) = 0.84 m, Track length (Tl) = 4.57 m,

Impact factor = 10%

Width of load spread along short span (u) = ( Wc + 2 Twc ) 2 + (Ts ) 2

= (0.84 + 2 0.08) 2 + (0.3) 2 = 1.044 m

Width of load spread along short span (v) = (Tl + 2 Twc ) 2 + (Ts ) 2

= (4.57 + 2 0.08) 2 + (0.3) 2 = 4.74 m

We have limited width along longitudinal direction i.e.4m.

Therefore v = L = 4 m, v/L = 1

u/B = 0.4214

From Pigeauds curves

4. 0

Effective Load on span = (1.10 350 )

= 327 kN

4.722

a

B

Load

L

Figure 4.3 Dispersion of Live Load

Moment along short span= (0.084 + 0.15 0.035) 327 =29 kN-m

Moment along long span= (0.084 0.15 + 0.035) 327 =15.5 kN-m

18

Size of one panel of deck slab = (2.5m x 4.0m)

Impact factor = 10%,

Load per Track = 350 kN

Track length = 3.6 m

Width of load spread along short span (u1) = (0.84 + 2 0.08) 2 + (0.3) 2 = 1.044 m

Width of load spread along short span (v1) = (3.6 + 2 0.08) 2 + (0.3) 2 = 3.77 m

v1/L = 0.9425

u1/B = 0.4214

From Pigeauds curves

Effective Load on span

m1 = 0.084 &

m2 = 0.035

4.0

= (1.10 350 )

3.77

= 409 kN

Moment along short span

= 36.5 kN-m

= 19.5 kN-m

19

Weight of handrails (approximately) = 1.75 kN,

Lever arm2

= 1.9 m

Weight of Kerb

= 3.75 kN,

Lever arm1

= 1.5 m

= 3.3 kN-m

Moment due to Kerb

= 3.75 x 1.5

= 5.6 kN-m

Figure 4.5 Cantilever part

Due to the specific minimum clearance, 70R or Class AA loading will not operate on

the cantilever slab. Class A loading is to be considered.

bw = width of wheel + 2 x wearing thickness

= 0.25 + 2 x 0.08 = 0.41m,

bw = 0.41 m x = 0.8 m

Impact factor = 1.5

Load per track = 57 kN

be = 1.2 x + bw

= 1.2 x 0.8 + 0.41 = 1.37m

Live Load due to impact

Total moment = 50 + 3.325+5.625 = 59 kN-m.

Deck slab is design for sum of dead load moment and maximum live load

moments along both directions. Maximum live load moment will be the greater of

70R loading and Class AA loading.

Total moment in short direction

20

Effective depth,

d=

M

Q 1000

1

Q = cbc j K1

2

K1 =

(m cbc )

(m cbc + st )

m=

(280)

(3 cbc )

j = 1

cbc = fck / 3

K1

3

st = 200 N/mm2

fck = 25 N/mm2

m = 11.2, K1 = 0.31, j = 0.89

Q = 1.15

d=

4110 6

1.15 1000

d = 189 mm

Adopting overall depth of deck slab = 220 mm

Effective depth = 190 mm

Area of reinforcement in short direction = Ast =

Ast =

M

( st j d)

41 10 6

= 1212 mm2

(200 0.89 190)

Area of reinforcement provided in short direction = 1407 mm2

22 10 6

Area of reinforcement in long direction = Ast =

= 719 mm2

(200 0.89 172)

Area of reinforcement provided in short direction = 804 mm2

21

CHAPTER 5

The distribution of the live loads among the longitudinal girders is determined by

using Courbons method. Courbons method estimates the reaction Ri of the main girder

on any girder i of a typical bridge consisting of multiple parallel beams is computed

assuming a linear variation of deflection in the transverse direction. The reaction Ri of the

main girder is considered as the distribution factor for ith main girder in the analysis

In this method the reaction Ri gives the distribution factor of that girder.

Distribution factors are depends on the number of main girders, eccentricity of the

resultant load and the girder on which the distribution factor is calculating.

W1

W2 axis of bridge

e

1.2m

2.55m

2.55m

1.2m

Eccentricity of the load from the face of the outer girder = 0.425 + 1.025 = 1.45m

Eccentricity of the load from the central axis of the deck (Refer Figure 5.1) = 1.1m

towards right. di is the distance of girder i (Refer Figure 5.2) from the central axis of

the bridge = 2.55m.

W

1.1

i

2.55m

Figure 5.2 Cross Sectional details of Deck Slab

22

Ri =

Ii

W.Ii

1

.e.d

+

i

Ii Ii.di2

(5.1)

The moment of inertia of the outer and inner girder is equal. So the Equation 5.1

(distribution factor Ri for the ith main girder) becomes,

Ri =

W 3e

1 +

n 2di

(5.2)

RA =

W

3

3 (1.1)

1 + 2 2.5

RA = 0.55W

Distribution factor for intermediate main girder, in this case the distance di is becomes

zero because the centroidal axis of the deck slab and the intermediate main girder is

coincides. Then Equation 5.1 becomes

R

W

n

(5.3)

After substituting the value di the distribution factor for the intermediate main girder is

Ri =

W

3

RB = 0.33W

Dead load of deck slab is calculated as

i) Parapet wall

= 0.7 kN/m

= 2.11 kN/m

iii) Deck slab

= (0.3x1.2x25) = 9 kN/m

iv) Kerb

= (0.5x 0.3x1x25)

= 3.75 kN/m

23

= 80.1 kN/m

It is assumed that the dead load is shared by equally by all girders

Dead load /girder = (80/3) = 27 kN/m

Span of beam = 16 m

Impact factor (for class AA loads) = 10 %

The live load is placed centrally on the span as shown in figure 5.4

Bending moment = 0.5 x (4 + 3.1) x 700 =2485 kNm

Bending moment including impact and reduction factor for outer girder is

= (2485 x1.1x0.55) = 1510 kN-m

Bending moment including impact and reduction factor for inner girder is

= (2485 x1.1x0.33) = 910 kN-m

700 kN

8m

8m

L =16 m

3.6 m

Figure 5.4 Influence line for bending moment in

girder

5.1.3 Live Load Shear

For estimating the maximum live load shear in the girders. IRC class AA loads

are placed as shown in Figure 5.5.

Depth of rib (d4)

= 1.4m

Width (b4)

= 0.3 m

24

Longitudinal girder

350 kN

2.5 m

Cross girder

2.05

4m

2.5 m

4m

4m

4m

The cross girder is assumed to have the same cross-sectional dimensions of the main

girder.

Weight of cross girder

= 10.08 kN/m

= 27 kN/m

25.2 kN

25.2 kN

25.2 kN

37 kN/m

4m

4m

4m

4m

16 m

Figure 5.6 Dead load on main girder

Maximum bending moment at centre of span is obtained as,

Max. Bending Moment

= 1385 kNm

= 630 kN

25

Table 5.1 design moments and shear force

B.M.

D.L.B.M.

L.L.B.M.

Total B.M.

Units

Outer girder

1253

1510

2763

kN-m

Inner girder

1253

910

2163

kN-m

S.F.

D.L.S.F.

L.L.S.F.

Total S.F.

Outer girder

340

280

620

kN

Inner girder

340

345

685

kN

Mmax

= 2763 kN-m

(5.3)

(S.F)max = 685 kN

(5.4)

W

W1

W2

e

1.2m

1.7m

1.7m

1.7m

1.2m

Eccentricity of the load from the face of the outer girder = 0.425 + 1.025 = 1.45m

Eccentricity of the load from the central axis of the deck (Refer Figure 5.7) = 1.1m

towards right. di is the distance of girder i (Refer Figure 5.7) from the central axis of

the bridge = 1.7m.

The general equation for distribution factor is,

Ri =

W.Ii

Ii .e.d

1+

i

Ii Ii.di2

26

2.55 m

0.85 m

RA =

W

4

4 2.55 1.1

1 +

2

2

(2 2.55 ) + (2 0.85 )

RA = 0.44 W

Similarly for inner girder,

RB =

W

4 0.85 1.1

1 +

2

2

4 (2 2.55 ) + (2 0.85 )

RB = 0.31 W

W1

W2

e

1.2 m

1.275 m

1.275 m

1.275 m

1.275 m

1.2 m

Eccentricity of the load from the face of the outer girder = 0.425 + 1.025 = 1.45m

Eccentricity of the load from the central axis of the deck (Refer Figure 5.8) = 1.1m

towards right. di is the distance of girder i (Refer Figure 5.8) from the central axis of

the bridge = 1.275 m.

Distance of outer girder from axis of bridge =

2.55 m

1.275 m

27

RA =

W

5 2.55 1.1

1 +

2

2

5 (2 2.55 ) + (2 1.275 )

RA = 0.372 W

Similarly for inner girder,

RB =

W

5 1.275 1.1

1 +

2

2

5 (2 2.55 ) + (2 1.275 )

RB = 0.282 W

For central girder,

RC =

W

5

RC = 0.2 W

W1

W2

e

1.2 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

0.85 m

1.2 m

(Referring Figure 5.9) from the central axis of the bridge the distance di is = 0.85 m.

Distance of outer girder from axis of bridge

= 2.55 m

= 1.70 m

Substitute the given data in Equation 3.1.

RA =

W

7

7 2.55 1.1

1 + (2 2.55 2 ) + (2 1.7 2 ) + (2 0.85 2 )

RA = 0.28 W

28

RB =

W

7

7 1.7 1.1

1 + (2 2.55 2 ) + (2 1.7 2 ) + (2 0.85 2 )

RB = 0.23 W

For second inner girder,

RC =

W

7

7 0.85 1.1

1 + (2 2.55 2 ) + (2 1.7 2 ) + (2 0.85 2 )

RC = 0.189 W

For central girder,

RD =

W

7

RD = 0.142 W

Distribution factor for Girder

No. of Girder

RA

RB

RC

RD

0.55

0.33

0.44

0.31

0.372

0.282

0.2

0.28

0.23

0.189

0.142

29

For design purpose 3-girder longitudinal type girder is used. From equation 5.4

and 5.5 we get Moment and Shear force.

Mmax

= 2763 kN-m

(S.F)max = 685 kN

The girder is designed as a tee beam section, assuming an effective depth = 1400 mm

Approximately lever arm = (1350-200/2) = 1300 mm

Ast = (2763 x 106) / (200 x 1300)

= 10627 mm2

Provide 16 bars of 32 HYSD bars in four rows Ast = 12864 mm2.

According to IRC: 21-1987 maximum size of bars not to exceed 32 mm diameter. Shear

reinforcement are designed to resist the maximum shear at supports. Nominal shear

stress,

v = (S.F / b4 x d4)

= (685000 / (300 x 1400))

= 1.632 N/mm2 > 0.7 fck > 1.75 N/mm2

Assuming 2 bars of 32 to be bent up support section, shear resisted by bent up bars,

Vs = (st Ast1 sin)

= (200 x 2 x 804 x 103 2

= 227 kN.

Shear resisted by vertical stirrups is computed as balance shear (V) = 685 -227

= 458 kN.

Using 10 mm diameter-4 legged stirrups,

Spacing Sv = [( st Asv d) / V ]

= (200 x 78.5 x 4 x 1400) / 458000

= 192 mm

30

Size of cross girder = 1.4 m x 0.3 m

Self weight of cross girder = 10 kN/m

Dead load from slab = (2 x 0.5 x 1.25 x 2.5 x 9.26)

= 28.9 kN

Uniformly distributed load

= 28.3 / 2.5

= 11.5 kN/m

= 10 + 11.5

= 21.5 kN/m

= 35.8 kN

Load coming on cross girder = (350 (4-0.9) /4) = 271 kN.

Reaction on each longitudinal girder = (2 x 271) / 3

= 181 kN

Maximum bending moment in cross girder under the load at a the distance of

= (2.5-1.025)

= 1.475 m from support.

Bending moment including impact effect = 181 x 1.475 x 1.1

= 293 kNm

Dead load bending moment at 1.475 m from support

= (35.8 1.475 - 21.5 1.4752 /2)

= 29.1 kNm

Total design bending moment = 322 kNm

Effective depth of cross girder = 1300 mm

322 10 6

= 1376 mm2

Ast =

1300 0.9 200

Provide 5 bars of 20 Ast =1570 mm2

31

Abutments are end supports to the superstructure of bridge and they retain earth

on their back side which serves as an approach to the bridge. An abutment comprises

three distinct structural components.

a) The breast wall

b) The wing walls

c) The back wall

The forces to be considered are

1) Dead load due to superstructure

2) Live load on superstructure

3) Self weight of the abutment

4) Braking force

5) Earth pressure

6) Surcharge.

The design of an abutment is performed by assuming preliminary dimensions shown in

Figure 5.8 and checking for stability against overturning, base pressures and sliding.

Fig.5.10 Abutment

Dead load

= 120 kN/m

Live load

= 54 kN/m

32

To calculate self weight of abutment, treating the section as composed of 3 elements as

shown in Figure 5.8, the weight of each element and moment about toe base are

computed.

Longitudinal force due to braking force = 0.2 x 1000 = 200 kN

This force acts at 1.2 m above road level.

Horizontal force per m of wall = 100 / 7.5 = 13.33 kN/m

Active earth pressure = 0.5 wh2Ka

Here Ka taken as 0.496, depend upon angle of cohesion = 35o

Active pressure = 0.5 x 18 x 52 x 0.49 = 110 kN/m

Height above base of centre of pressure = 0.42 x 5 = 2.1 m

Horizontal force due to surcharge = 1.2 x 18 x 0.49 x 5 = 53 kN/m acting at 2.8 m.

Vertical force due to surcharge = (1.2 x 18 + 0.3 x 25 ) 2.6 = 75 kN/m

Weight of earth on heel slab = 18(5-0.75) 2.6 =199 kN/m

The Forces and Moments for Abutment as calculated above are shown in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3 Forces and Moments for Abutment

Sr. No.

Details

Force

Lever

Force

arm m

V(kN)

H(kN)

Mv(kNm)

Mh( kNm)

DL from superstructure

120

1.5

180

Earth pressure

110

2.1

231

53

2.8

149

75

3.5

263

84

2.4

201

81

1.7

138

1.68

16

199

3.5

697

54

1.5

81

10

13.3

4.3

57

Total

622

176.3

1633

380

33

i. Overturning

Overturning moment about toe = 622 kNm

Restoring moment about toe = 1633 kNm

Factor of safety against overturning = 1633 / 622 = 2.62 > 2.0

safe.

Total downward forces = 622 kN

Extreme stresses at base = (622 / (4.8 x 1)) (1+- ((6 x 0.78) /4.8)

= 255 or 3.2 kN/m2

Maximum pressure = 255 kN/m2 > Bearing capacity of soil.

Minimum pressure = 3.2 kN/m2

>0

Sliding force = 176.3 kN

Force resisting sliding = 0.6 x 622 = 373 kN

Factor of safety against sliding = 373 / 176.3

= 2.11 > 1.5

safe.

34

CHAPTER 6

DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE

General

Visual Basic (VB) is an ideal programming language for developing sophisticated

professional applications for Microsoft Windows. It makes use of Graphical User

Interface (GUI) for creating robust and powerful applications. The Graphical User

Interface as the name suggests, uses illustrations for text, which enable users to interact

with an application. This feature makes it easier to comprehend things in a quicker and

easier way Coding in GUI environment is quite a transition to traditional, linear

programming methods where the user is guided through a linear path of execution and is

limited to small set of operations. In GUI environment, the number of options open to the

user is much greater, allowing more freedom to the user and developer. Features such as

easier comprehension, user-friendliness, faster application development and many other

aspects such as introduction to ActiveX technology and Internet features make Visual

Basic an interesting tool to work with.

A Visual Basic program consists of the visual interface that makes up the windows and

controls that the user sees and interacts with. In addition, programming code connects

everything together. Each control is both automated and set up to respond to the

programming code. For example, a command button will visually show a click action

when the user clicks the button with the mouse when running the program. As figure 6.1

shows, windows handle a few events but pass most to the programs currently running.

Windows is a multitasking operating system so more than one program can run

simultaneously.

Visual Basic applications contain multiple modules and procedures that need to share

data between each other. When writing extensive applications, it must be able to share

data between procedures and modules by declaring the variables appropriately and by

writing procedures in such a way that other procedures can access them. Visual Basic

internal function is to perform common analysis and data manipulation of strings,

numbers, and other kind of data.

35

Development of software

Event 1

Event 2

Event 3

Event 4

Event 5

Windows gets

events

Windows handles

some events

Event 1

events to the applications

that should receive those

events

Windows

Event 2

Application 1

Event 3

Application 2

Important Features of Visual Basic (VB)

36

Development of software

The present study deals with the development of software for bridge design. The

software is developed using visual basic. The software can be used for any type of bridge

with any number of girders generally used. However, for the illustration purpose three

girder bridge is used as explained in chapter 4.

The steps for analysis and design of Bridge using software are as follows

1.

Static Analysis

i.

iii. Calculation of Live load moment (70R loading).

iv. Calculation of Live load moment (Class AA loading).

v.

vii. Calculation of distribution factor and moment for Girder.

viii. Calculation of forces on Abutment.

ix. Check factor of safety for Abutment.

x.

2.

Seismic Analysis

i.

iii. Calculation of earthquake force on structure.

37

Development of software

START

Static Analysis

calculation of slab panel

weight

moment (70R track loading)

moment (Class AA loading)

Yes

If 70R> Class

AA loading

Slab moment +

70R loading

No

Slab moment +

Class AA loading

Final Moments

in Main girder

Check stability in

Abutment

END

38

Development of software

START

Seismic Analysis

girder calculation of dead

weight of structure

Calculation of stiffness

of bridge pier

Calculation of time

period in both directions

value of Ah

END

39

Development of software

White boxes indicate the input data while the orange indicates the output we

require.

Tab used for Self Weight

This is the first step for the static analysis of the bridge. In this depending on the

requirement of the span and other conditions of the bridge assessment, numbers of girders

required for the bridge are selected. In this program we can choose the number of girder

required for the analysis, by selecting the appropriate value. The other inputs required for

the calculation of self weight are clear span, clear width, thickness and the length of

cantilever portion. The values of these inputs are required to be given as a part of input to

the program. Depending on the values of the input, the program calculates the panel size

i.e. length and width of panel size. Finally we get the self weight of the girders. The

details procedure is represented graphically in Figure 6.2.

40

Development of software

From the previous input, clear span and clear width we get value of K and 1/K.

For the value of K and 1/K, corresponding value of moment coefficients m1 and m2 are

obtained from graph. Depending on the values of m1 and m2 the total dead load and total

slab moment are obtained as shown in Figure 6.3.

41

Development of software

The next step is the calculation of the live load on the bridge. The live load has

been divided into the two parts;

a) Live Load 1:- which includes the 70R Track Loading

b) Live Load 2:- which includes the Class AA Track Loading

Figure 6.4 shows window for Live load calculation depending upon track loading. When

we click on 70R loading button directly the ratio of u/B and v/L are displayed.

From these ratios, moment coefficients values (i.e. m11 and m22) are taken as input from

the graph displayed in window, and Live load moments are obtained.

42

Development of software

Figure 6.5 for case 2. The output of this is the live load moments. After entering

the values of moment coefficients (m41 and m42) the moments along both directions are

obtained.

43

Development of software

In this weight of railing is approximately taken as 1.75 KN and size of Kerb is

assumed as 0.5 x 0.3 m with bw is taken as 0.5m as of class A. In this we have to give

values of leave arm for railing and Kerb as an input to the program. This gives the dead

load moment for cantilever slab. After giving the value of a, we get the effective width

of dispersion be, and finally we get the live load moment for cantilever. The details

calculation for the program is given in the Figure 6.6

44

Development of software

This is the last step for the calculation of the moments due to the dead and live

loads for slab. This can be obtained by clicking on the tab of Final Moments given on the

window of the VB. The values of the total moment are shown in Figure 6.7.

45

Development of software

Depending on the requirement of the girder we have to select the number of the

girders from the tab of Self weight as given in Figure 6.2. After giving number of girder

the tab of Longitudinal Girder will shows the figure of the bridge with particular number

of girders. After selecting the number of girder we have to give thickness and depth of

the girder as input, and then the reaction factor R1 and R2 are obtained. Using these

reaction factors, the total moment and shear force due to dead load and live load are

obtained as shown in Figure 6.8.

46

Development of software

In this step we get the value of dead load, earth pressure, live load surcharge and

braking force. The input to be given to this tab is the value of shear force due to live load,

height of the abutment, base width and angle of cohesion. These values are provided at

the respective text boxes. Figure 6.9 shows the details of the output for the considered

problem.

47

Development of software

This section deals with the safety of the abutment. Here, no input is required. We

just have to click on the Calculate button. The result obtained here are the FOS against

sliding, overturning. Stresses at the base are also checked. The details are given in Figure

6.10.

48

Development of software

The inputs required in this part are grade of concrete, grade of steel and

permissible stress in steel. The output what we get after clicking on the OK button are

Permissible compressive stress, depth required, depth provided, main reinforcement, steel

in longitudinal direction. The details are given in Figure 6.11. This ends the static

procedure for the analysis of the bridge. The next step is the seismic analysis.

mm

mm

mm2

mm2

49

Development of software

In this analysis for the calculation of the stiffness of the bridge one assumption is

made. It is assumed that pier cap is taken as 7.5 x 1x 0.5m and pier diameter is of 2m

with height of pier is taken as 5m.

By clicking on the Seismic Analysis Tab we can go into the seismic part of the

bridge. After the clicking the OK button, the Mass of Slab in tones, Mass of Girder, Mass

of Pier cap, Mass of Pier are obtained. As earlier mentioned we are assuming the pier

dimensions, hence the stiffness directly obtained. The details are given in Figure 6.12.

50

Development of software

This step gets activated by clicking on the tab of Time period. With the output

from previous tab time period in traffic and current direction, the value of sa/g from the

graph shown is obtained. Thus the time period of the structure can be obtained as shown

in Figure 6.13.

.

51

Development of software

The last step in the seismic analysis is the earthquake force calculation. The input

required here is Zone Factor and Importance Factor. By clicking on OK button, the value

of Ah and Required earthquake forces can be obtained as shown in Figure 6.14.

52

CHAPTER 7

7.1 Conclusion

An effort is given to develop software which can support the static and seismic

analysis of bridge as well as design of superstructure. It is observed that the program

developed in present study gives very good results when compared to conventional

method. Hence this Program is very useful for designers and helpful in saving time for

Analysis of bridge.

Initially the analysis of deck slab is done, considering 70R and Class AA track

loading. Pigeauds method is employed for slab moment. Output result has been

verified manually.

factor (using Courbons method) and Live load moment for various numbers of

girders. And for the design of longitudinal girders.

The analysis of substructure is carried out. Various stability checks are carried out

and supported by manual calculation.

Design of Deck slab has been done, software gives the area of reinforcement in

both (longitudinal and transverse) directions.

Seismic analysis is done by software verified with model prepared in SAP. For

this a simple cantilever beam model is prepared with mass lumped at free end in

SAP. The time period is given by SAP nearly matches with software.

The program will be used efficiently for any span length and width of the Bridge.

53

The software contains analysis of three, four, five, and seven girder with deck slab bridge

structure. The analysis of girder is done for single 70R track loading; the study can be

extended for two IRC70R loading or wheeled loading. The study of various forces acting

on the bridge can be done. The study of analysis of bearing can be done by extending

program for bearing analysis. The study of bridge-soil interaction can be done.

54

REFERENCES

stratum with soil

2. A.J. Kappos, G.D. Manolis, Seismic assessment and design of RC bridges with

irregular configuration, Including SSI effects, Engineering Structures 24 (2002),

Pgs. 1337-1348.

3. Alper Ucak and Panos Tsopelas Effect of SoilStructure Interaction on Seismic

Isolated Bridges Journal of Structural Engineering, Volume 134-7 (2008),

Pgs.11541164.

4. Evangelos Petroutsos Mastering Visual basic 6 by BPB Publications.

5. Johnson Victor, D., Essentials of Bridge Engineering, Sixth Edition Oxford and

IBH Publishing Company Pvt. Ltd. (2007).

6. Khan Abdulbari, Investigation into Seismic Analysis of RC Bridge Pier with Soil

Structure Interaction Master of Technology thesis, Department of applied

Mechanics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (2006-07).

7. Krishna Raju, N., Design of Bridges, Third Edition, Oxford and IBH Publishing

Company Pvt. Ltd., (1998).

8. R.Ravikumar, Investigation into The Analysis of Bridges Master of Technology

thesis, Department of applied Mechanics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of

Technology, Nagpur (2005-06).

9. The Indian Roads Congress-21, Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for

Road Bridges, section III, Cement concrete (Plain and Reinforced), (2000).

55

10. The Indian Roads Congress-6, Standard specifications and code of practice for

Road Bridges, section II, Loads and stresses, (2000).

11. Xing-Chong Chen, Yuan-Ming Lai Seismic performance of RC bridge piers in

Japan: an evaluation after the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, Program

Structural engineering (2000); Pgs. 82-91.

56

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