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# ME3122/ME3122E

## ME3122/ME3122E HEAT TRANSFER

(Semester 1 : AY2014/2015)

## Time Allowed : 2 Hours

INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS:
1.

Please write your student number only. Do not write your name.

2.

This assessment paper contains FOUR (4) questions and comprises FOUR (4)
printed pages.

3.

## Students are required to answer ALL questions.

4.

Students should write the answers for each question on a new page.

5.

## This is a CLOSED BOOK ASSESSMENT. Students are NOT allowed to bring in

any reference materials into the examination hall.

6.

7.

## Programmable calculators are NOT allowed for this assessment.

PAGE 2

ME3122/ME3122E

QUESTION 1
A fuel rod system consists of a long cylindrical fuel rod of diameter 30 mm covered by a thin
shield which is concentric to the rod. The gap between the fuel rod and the shield is a
vacuum. The fuel rod has a thermal conductivity of 15 W/mK, and its surface is diffuse-gray
with an emissivity of 0.90. The shield has a diameter of 60 mm, and its surface is maintained
at a constant temperature of 340 K. The inner and outer surfaces of the shield have an
emissivity of 0.10, and its outer surface is exposed to the surrounding air at 300 K with a
convective heat transfer coefficient of 30 W/m2K.
(a)

Construct the thermal circuit for the fuel rod system and hence derive the steady-state
energy balance equation for the fuel rod system;
(9 marks)

(b)

## Determine the surface temperature of the fuel rod;

(6 marks)

(c)

Determine the internal heat generation rate of the fuel rod; and
(5 marks)

(d)

## Determine the maximum temperature in the fuel rod.

(5 marks)

QUESTION 2
Water flowing at a rate of 1 kg/s is to be heated from 20C to 80C by pumping it through the
tubes of a two-shell pass, four-tube pass heat exchanger. The heating medium is hot oil at an
inlet temperature of 130C flowing at 2.5 kg/s in the shell of the heat exchanger. If the
specific heat of the oil is 2007 J/kgK and the overall heat transfer coefficient between the oil
and the water is 250 W/m2K, determine the heat exchanger area required.
(25 marks)

QUESTION 3
Air at atmospheric pressure flows with an inlet velocity of 1 m/s across a bank of tubes 10
rows deep in the direction of flow. The tubes have an outside diameter of 10 mm and are
arranged in a staggered manner with a longitudinal pitch of SL = 15 mm and a transverse
pitch of ST = 15 mm. The surface temperature of the tubes is maintained at 77C by hot water
flowing in the tubes. Determine the mean heat transfer coefficient for heat transfer between
the air and the tubes. The average temperature of the air across the tube bank may be
assumed to be 52C.
(25 marks)

PAGE 3

ME3122/ME3122E

QUESTION 4
Consider cooling of a microprocessor chip in a mainframe computer (temperature = 30C) in
a data center. The 33 cm2 chip consists of multiple layers as shown in the figure below. The
dimensions and properties of each layer are summarized in the following table. During the
operation of the chip, 2108 W/m3 of heat is generated in Layer 2. On one side of the chip
(Side A), the thermal resistance is huge and we can consider it as insulated. On the other side
(Side B), heat is dissipated through convection, with or without an array of fins. To enhance
the cooling of the chip, Side B is cooled by pre-cooled air at 15C with a convective heat
transfer coefficient of hconv=30 W/m2-K. You can ignore radiation, heat loss through the
sides of the chip, and thermal resistance of interfaces in this problem.
Side A insulated
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Layer 4

Side B with or
without fins

Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Layer 4

Thickness (m)
50
20
80
200

k (W/m-K)
0.7
40
25
140

## Specific heat (J/kg-K)

1040
703
520
703

Density (kg/m3)
1830
2330
5100
2330

(a)

Sketch the steady-state temperature profile in the chip when the chip is operating and
heat is being generated in Layer 2. Make sure that you clearly indicate/label the
features of the temperature profile. Pay particular attention to the slopes of the
temperature profile so that it is consistent with the properties of the layers.
(5 marks)

(b)

## Consider the case that there are no fins on Side B.

(i)

Draw a thermal circuit to represent heat loss from Layer 2 through Side B.
(2 marks)

(ii)

## What is the steady-state temperature at the surface of Side B? What is the

maximum temperature in the chip in steady-state?
(7 marks)

PAGE 4

(c)

ME3122/ME3122E

To enhance the cooling of the chip and reduce the temperature of the active layer
(Layer 2), an array of 250 cylindrical fins (diameter=0.1 mm, length = 20 mm) is
fabricated on Side B. The fins are made of the same material as Layer 4.
(i)

Can the fins be assumed to be long? Justify your answer with calculations.
(3 marks)

(ii)

What is the maximum temperature of the chip with the fins? In your
calculations, include the heat loss through both the fins and the areas without
the fins. (Hint: you can use an appropriate control volume to solve this
subproblem.)
(8 marks)

- END OF PAPER -