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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COLLEGE/CAREER RESEARCH PROJECT


Project Instructions
Personal Interview
MLA Citation Guide
Most Common Sources
Parenthetical Citations
Annotation Tips
Annotated Bibliography
Outline Instructions
Writing Tips
Formatting Your Essay
Formatting Quotations
Letters and Envelopes
General Check List
General Project Rubric

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THE GREAT AMERICAN DREAM


English III Research Project
PROJECT REQUIREMENTS:
RESEARCH PAPER WITH ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: This paper will consist of the information mentioned in the
speech requirements. You must have at least FIVE different sources (no more than three articles per source) cited in your
paper and on your works cited page. One of your sources must be a personal interview. Sources should be located from:
Career Cruising (School Library)

College/University Websites (.edu)

Government Websites (.gov)

For the sake of organization, you will include subheadings for each section of your paper. You must have a section for each
of the following topics (though you may have additional sections):
COLLEGE OPTION:
-School History and Traditions

CAREER OPTION:
-History/Background of the Profession

-Admissions Requirements and Costs

-Education Requirements

-Field of Study (Major/Minor)

-Average Salary, Budget, Cost of Living

-Career Opportunities

-Advancement Opportunities

Your research paper must be 1000 words in length. Your paper must be typed in MLA format, double spaced,
and written in 12-point Times New Roman font. The final draft will be submitted to turnitin.com.
PRESENTATION AND SPEECH: You need to prepare presentation (with visual aid) to share in class and a speech on your
school that will last 3-5 minutes. Your visual aid may be digital (PowerPoint, Prezi, etc.) or it may be a Free Standing (3fold Poster Board). You will only be allowed to use two 3x5 index cards when delivering your speech, so you need to be
well prepared in order to receive full credit.
Your speech should include:
COLLEGE OPTION:
-Important school information such as the
requirements for admission, the population of the
student body, the possibilities for admission, how
many apply each year, how many get in, and the
average test scores needed for admission.
-Information about the campus, campus life, school
history, and any other interesting facts.
-A major, degree, or area of concentration in which
you may be interested in pursuing. Do a detailed
analysis of the courses which will be required for this
major and discuss the professional possibilities which
will be open to you with this degree.
-Potential careers that you may be interested in
pursuing along with relevant information pertaining
to that career path.

CAREER OPTION:
-Information about the history of the profession and
interesting facts about the field.
-The application process for this profession.
-Important school information such as the education
requirements for your profession (like special
certifications or training), the average entry-level
pay, the salary ceiling for the profession, the
possibilities for advancement, and any other relevant
information pertaining to the acquisition of the job.
-Your future goals within that profession (focus on
advancement) and the necessary steps you will need
to take to reach your goal (training, certification,
years on the job, etc.).

Name:

THE GREAT AMERICAN DREAM RESEARCH PROJECT


Research Paper Rubric

INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

PROCESS POINTS:
Annotated Bibliography

THESIS STATEMENT
012345

/15

Revised
All sources cited correctly
All sources in alphabetical order
MLA format (if not, -10)

TOPIC 1 History/Tradition/Background Info


0
5
10
15
20

Source Print Outs

TOPIC 2 Application Process/Financial Plan


0
5
10
15
20

Annotation Supplement (8 points/source)

TOPIC 3 Field of Study/Education Requirements


0
5
10
15
20

Thank You Letter to Interviewee

/10

First Draft

/5

Peer Review

/10

Final Draft On Time

/5

TOPIC 4 Career/Advancement Opportunities


0
5
10
15
20
LENGTH 900-1200 Words
0
3

Less than 900

900-1200

More than 1200

/15

Highlighted/Annotated

DEDUCTIONS:
Deductions for Errors (Grammar/Usage)

DEDUCTIONS:
Plagiarized Material (Rewrite/Max Grade = 50)
Essay Note in MLA Format (-10)

Less Than 5 Sources (10 points)


Works Cited Not MLA Format (10 points)
No Personal Interview (10 points)
Originality Report Over 30% (10 points)

ESSAY GRADE
=
Academic Achievement

PROCESS POINTS EARNED


TOTAL IN DEDUCTIONS
PROCESS GRADE
Academic Achievement

/40

Formatted correctly
Citation and Annotation included

PERSONAL INTERVIEW
GATHERING INFORMATION FROM A LIVING, BREATHING SOURCE
One requirement for this research project is that you conduct a personal interview as one of your
sources. A personal interview is listed on your Works Cited/Annotated Bibliography just like any
other source.
1. Locate an intelligent, informed source who can answer questions that you may have about your
future career or major in college.
2. Create a list of questions that your source can LOGICALLY ANSWER.
3. Contact the person to request an interview.
4. Conduct the initial interview (either in person or through email).
5. Develop follow-up questions for clarification on any information that you may need.
6. Synthesize the information gathered from this source onto note cards for use in your paper.

CITING YOUR PERSONAL INTERVIEW


A PERSONAL INTERVIEW
Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. List the interview by the name
of the interviewee. Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.
Example:
Purdue, Pete. Personal interview. 1 Dec. 2000.
E-MAIL (INCLUDING E-MAIL INTERVIEWS)
Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom to
message was sent, the date the message was sent, and the medium of publication.
Examples:
Kunka, Andrew. "Re: Modernist Literature." Message to the author. 15 Nov. 2000. E-mail.
Neyhart, David. "Re: Online Tutoring." Message to Joe Barbato. 1 Dec. 2000. E-mail.

Interview Checklist:
Identify willing participants.
Verify names, job title, or other demographic information.
Prepare questions (you must have at least 15 questions).
Get permission to use quotes and to use real names or pseudonyms.
Make note of the date (and location if in-person) of the interview.
Be sure to ask all the questions you planned, but be prepared to ask follow-up questions as
needed.

If the interview is IN-PERSON:


Ask for permission to record the interview.
Make an appointment (if interview is conducted in-person).
Gather and check recording materials (notebook paper, pen/pencil, recording device).
Take careful notes (if you are not recording the interview).
Dont do all the talking!

MLA FORMAT
CITATION AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES
MLA FORMAT FOR CITATION:
In order to create an annotated bibliography, you need to know how to cite your source using the MLA
format. You can also go to my website to find a link to an MLA information page. In addition, I have
numerous handbooks in my classroom that detail the MLA format. However, I am going to give you a
few examples of common sources here for your reference.
Your Annotated Bibliography will be turned in BEFORE your research paper. You will also include a
Works Cited page at the end of your research paper (the last page). For a Works Cited Page, you only
need to list the citations.

BASIC RULES
Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It should have
the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper.
Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation
marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page.
Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries.
Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent.
List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer to a journal article that
appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50.
Note that MLA style uses a hyphen in a span of pages.
Use the phrase Edited by for editors and Translated by for translators of sources.
Use the phrase Accessed or Accessed on for the date of access for electronic sources.
th
MLA 8 edition requires writers to provide URLs (without the http://), DOIs, or permalinks
for electronic sources. For long URLs, break lines only at slashes.
LISTING AUTHOR NAMES
Entries are listed alphabetically by the author's last name (or, for entire edited collections, editor
names). Author names are written last name first; middle names or middle initials follow the first
name:
Burke, Kenneth
Levy, David M.
Wallace, David Foster
Do not list titles (Dr., Sir, Saint, etc.) or degrees (PhD, MA, DDS, etc.) with names. A book listing an
author named "John Bigbrain, PhD" appears simply as "Bigbrain, John"; do, however, include suffixes
like "Jr." or "II." Putting it all together, a work by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. would be cited as "King,
Martin Luther, Jr.," with the suffix following the first or middle name and a comma.

MORE THAN ONE WORK BY AN AUTHOR


If you have cited more than one work by a particular author, order the entries alphabetically by title,
and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first:
Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. [...]
---. A Rhetoric of Motives. [...]
When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a
group, list solo-author entries first:
Heller, Steven, ed. The Education of an E-Designer.
Heller, Steven and Karen Pomeroy. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design.

WORK WITH NO KNOWN AUTHOR


Alphabetize works with no known author by their title; use a shortened version of the title in the
parenthetical citations in your paper. In this case, Boring Postcards USA has no known author:
Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulations. [...]
Boring Postcards USA. [...]
Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives. [...]

CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION


Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc, but do not capitalize articles (the, an),
prepositions, or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the
Wind, The Art of War, There Is Nothing Left to Lose.
Use italics (instead of underlining) for titles of larger works (books, magazines) and quotation
marks for titles of shorter works (poems, articles)

MOST COMMON TYPES OF SOURCES USED IN COLLEGE/CAREER RESEARCH

MLA FORMAT: 8TH EDITION


Please note that MLA format calls for everything to be double spaced. In order to save space and
paper, I have not double spaced the examples shown here. All sources should be entered in
alphabetical order (based on the name or word that begins the citation). Also remember that there
should be a hanging indention for all lines after the first in a citation.

BOOK:
Author (Last Name, First Name). Title of Book. Publisher, Year.
Example:
Heller, Nancy G. Why a painting is Like a Pizza: A Guide to Understanding and Enjoying Modern Art.
Princeton UP, 2002.

ESSAY, ARTICLE, OR CHAPTER IN A BOOK:


Author. "Title of Essay, Article, or Chapter." Title of book, Edited by Editor's name (if applicable),
Publisher, Year, Page Range of Entry.
Example:
Fewer, David. Making Available: Existential Inquires. In the Public Interest: The Future of Canadian
Copyright, Edited by Michael Geist, Irwin law, 2005, 267-284.

ENTIRE WEBSITE:
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of
institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if
available), URL, DOI, or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).
Examples:
The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008,
owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.
Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003,
www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.

COURSE OR DEPARTMENT WEBSITES


Give the instructor name (if available). Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation
for the course) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.
Use the abbreviations U for University and P for Press.
Examples:
English Department. Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/.
Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England. Purdue U, Aug. 2006,
web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007.

A PAGE OR ARTICLE ON A WEB SITE


For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by the information
covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once. The
date of access should follow the phrase Accessed or Accessed on.
Example:
Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarianchili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.

AN ARTICLE IN A WEB MAGAZINE


Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the Web magazine in italics, publisher
name, publication date, URL. The date of access should follow the phrase Accessed or Accessed on.
Example:
Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug.
2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

A PERSONAL INTERVIEW
Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. List the interview by the name of
the interviewee. Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.
Example:
Purdue, Pete. Personal interview. 1 Dec. 2000.

E-MAIL (INCLUDING E-MAIL INTERVIEWS)


Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom to message
was sent with the phrase, Received by, and the recipients name. Include the date the message was sent.
Use standard capitalization.
Examples:
Kunka, Andrew. "Re: Modernist Literature." Received by John Watts. 15 Nov. 2000.
Neyhart, David. "Re: Online Tutoring." Received by Joe Barbato. 1 Dec. 2000.

AN IMAGE (INCLUDING A PAINTING, SCULPTURE, OR PHOTOGRAPH)


Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the
work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, the URL (without http://),
and the date of access.
Example:
Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del
Prado, www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.
Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive,
www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.
If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then
follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the
author.
Adams, Clifton R. People relax beside a swimming pool at a country estate near Phoenix, Arizona,
1928. Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/.

A YOUTUBE VIDEO
Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in
MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and
nature of the source you are citing. If the authors name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author
once. If the author is different from the uploaded, cite the authors name before the title.
Examples:
8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test. YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016,
www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.
McGonigal, Jane. Gaming and Productivity. YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,
www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.

PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS
BASIC IN-TEXT CITATION RULES
In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known
as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses
after a quote or a paraphrase.
GENERAL GUIDELINES
The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium
(e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the sources entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page.
Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on
the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your
readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the
corresponding entry in the Works Cited List.
IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR PRINT SOURCES WITH KNOWN AUTHOR
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the
page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete
reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or
in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the
parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.
Example:
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).
Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).
Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).

Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the
sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more
information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth,
they would find the following information:
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print.
Example:
Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3).
Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on
the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited:
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of
California P, 1966. Print.

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IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR PRINT SOURCES WITH NO KNOWN AUTHOR


When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title
in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books,
television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number.
Example:
We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible
climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact" 6).

In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article
appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the
left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks
as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works
Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:
"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs. 1999. Web.
23 Mar. 2009.

CITING AUTHORS WITH SAME LAST NAMES


Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if
two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if
different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:
Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that
the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).

CITING A WORK BY MULTIPLE AUTHORS


For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation.
Examples:
Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).
The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith, Yang, and
Moore 76).

For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation.
Provide the first author's last name followed by et al.
Examples:
Jones et al. counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America
compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4).
Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in
America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (Jones et al. 4).

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CITING NON-PRINT OR SOURCES FROM THE INTERNET


With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have
completed in virtual environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work,
some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or
Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited.
Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the
absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all.
For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:
Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation
(e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browsers print
preview function.
Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate
entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site
includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com as opposed to writing out
http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
ELECTRONIC SOURCES
One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo is "...a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and
colonialism" (Garcia, Herzog: a Life).
The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. Its "MLA Formatting and Style Guide" is one of
the most popular resources (Stolley et al.).
In the first example, the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the
same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the authors last name and the article title
in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see
below). In the second example, Stolley et al. in the parenthetical citation gives the reader an author name
followed by the abbreviation et al., meaning, and others, for the article MLA Formatting and Style Guide.
Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:
Garcia, Elizabeth. "Herzog: a Life." Online Film Critics Corner. The Film School of New Hampshire, 2
May 2002. Web. 8 Jan. 2009.
Stolley, Karl, et al. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The OWL at Purdue. 10 May 2006. Purdue
University Writing Lab. 12 May 2006 .
WHEN A CITATION IS NOT NEEDED
Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give
sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember, this is a rhetorical
choice, based on audience. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, they'll
have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge.

SOURCE:
The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2012. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.
<http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/>

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ANNOTATION
Once you have your sources printed and your citations completed, you need to begin annotating the source. As
you annotate your sources, focus on the information that you want to use in your research paper.

-READ the source. This seems obvious, but it is an important first step that
many students skip.
-Highlight text that you want to DIRECTLY QUOTE. Do not highlight
everything. Focus only on what you actually want to include word-for-word in
your paper.
-Paraphrase in the margins. You cant quote everything in the source. Most of
the information you will need to paraphrase in your own words. Take the time to
paraphrase in the margins of your sourcethis will save you time later and help
you avoid plagiarism.

HELPFUL HINTS:
1. AVOID REDUNDANCY. Have your note cards in front of you while you research.
When you find a good source or helpful information, write it down on the cards
RIGHT AWAY! This will help direct your research.
2. PRINT OUT YOUR SOURCES. Locating direct quotations can be easy if you
highlight as you are reading through the information. You cannot do that if you
are reading directly from the screen. This is especially helpful if you do not have
internet access at home.
3. PUT EFFORT IN YOUR ANNOTATIONS. Writing your research paper will be a
snap if you put a little effort into the annotation of each source. Once you have
all of your sources printed out and your textual evidence selected, your research
paper (and your outline) is practically written for you!
4. CONDUCT A MEANINGFUL INTERVIEW. Come up with good questions that will
help you in your research. It is best to do interviews over email (if possible).
Politely ask the person you interview BEFORE you start asking questions.
5. ASK FOR HELP. When you hit a wall and you are not sure where to go, ask for
help! There is a whole school full of teachers who went to college. If you arent
sure what you need to look for, ask someone!

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14

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
It Is Not as Scary as it Sounds

WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY?


A bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, websites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for
researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called "references" or "works cited" depending on the
style format you are using. A bibliography usually just includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the
author, title, publisher, etc.).
An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation.
Therefore, an Annotated Bibliography includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources.
Depending on your project or the assignment, your annotations may do one or more of the following:
Summarize: Some annotations merely summarize the source. What are the main arguments?
What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? If someone asked what this
article/book is about, what would you say? The length of your annotations will determine how
detailed your summary is.
Assess: After summarizing a source, it may be helpful to evaluate it. Is it a useful source? How
does it compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is the information reliable? Is this
source biased or objective? What is the goal of this source?
Reflect: Once you've summarized and assessed a source, you need to ask how it fits into your
research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape your argument? How can
you use this source in your research project? Has it changed how you think about your topic?
To summarize: An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each
citation is followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the
annotation is to inform the reader of the relevant information you gained from the sources cited. While
some annotations are expected to be about 150 words in length, for this assignment, your annotations
should only be 50-100 words.
THE PROCESS FOR CREATING AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills:
concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.
First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, documents, and webpages that may
contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items.
Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.
Cite the book, article, or document using the MLA style. (See the MLA citation guide)
Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book, article, or
webpage. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the
author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another
you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

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HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY:


(You should note that the citation is indented for every line after the first and the entire entry is
double spaced. You should also note that I have not used any crazy fonts or colors. MLA
format is supposed to and should look very sophisticated. You achieve this look by using
serif fonts and black font color.)

Tuna 1
Charlie Tuna
Mrs. Oualline
English III
13 March 2009
Annotated Bibliography
Lamont, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. New York:
Anchor Books, 1995. Print. Lamont's book offers honest advice on the nature of
a writing life, complete with its insecurities and failures. Taking a humorous
approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters in Lamonts book are wry
and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to jealousy,
from perfectionism to struggling with one's own internal critic. In the process,
Lamont includes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun.

A FINAL NOTE
You should note that the information I have given you in this handout is only a sample to help
you understand MLA and how to use this format for your research paper. The examples for
citation only include some of the possible styles (there are many, many more). For more
information, you should do a little research on your own. You are very fortunate to live in an
age where information is only as far away as the click of a mouse. The most effective
knowledge is that which is acquired on your own. While I am happy to guide you and point you
in the right direction, you must take ownership of your own learning.

PLEASE NOTE THAT ALL SOURCES SHOULD BE LISTED IN


ALPHABETICAL ORDER BY THE FIRST WORD OF THE CITATION
(usually the last name of the author or the first word of the title).

16

OUTLINE
YOUR PLAN OF ATTACK FOR THE RESEARCH BEAST

I am not requiring a complex outline for this research project. However, you need to
have a plan.
The first thing you should do is organize your Note Cards by section.
You can set aside the citation cards. You no longer need these because you have
already completed your Annotated Bibliography.
Once you have you have your cards grouped by section, you need to put them
together in the order that you plan to use the information in your research paper.
After you have each section organized, you are ready to begin your outline.

Here is an example of what your Outline might look like:


I. INTRODUCTION
II. SECTION I: History and Tradition
A. Source 3
B. Source 1
C. Source 7
III. SECTION II: Financial Planning
A. Source 2
B. Source 3
IV. SECTION III: Field of Study
A. Source 5
B. Source 4
C. Source 6
V. SECTION IV: Career Opportunities
A. Source 8
VI. CONCLUSION

17

WRITING YOUR RESEARCH PAPER


A HANDY GUIDE TO TAMING THE RESEARCH BEAST
If you have done everything I have asked you to do, you are now ready to write your
Research Paper.
HERE ARE SOME HELPFUL TIPS FOR WRITING YOUR RESEARCH PAPER:
Approach each section like it is a stand-alone essay. Each section (except for the
introduction) should have its own heading (see MLA format guide). Within each
heading you will basically be writing an essay on that topic.
For example, if you are working on the History and Traditions section, then you
are basically writing a 200-250 word essay about the History and Traditions of
the school you researched. That essay will have an introduction, body, and
conclusion just like every other essay you have written for my class. In other
words, you will have 2-3 paragraphs for each section of your research paper.
Each time you finish a section, raise your hand so I can check your progress. I
will have a spreadsheet for this project and it is very important that you meet the
deadlines to stay on schedule and avoid falling behind.
You will receive a participation grade for each section of the research paper, so
STAY ON SCHEDULE for easy 100s!
After you finish your four sections, you will need to write an introduction and
conclusion. These should be brief and direct. You do not need a lot of fluff in a
research paper like this.
DO NOT forget your Thesis Statement in your introduction. Your thesis
statement should look something like this:
By researching the history and traditions of Texas A&M, creating a financial plan, examining a
major in English, and exploring a career in teaching, I will be better prepared to be successful
after I graduate from high school.

18

The MLA Style


A Guide for Formatting Your Essay/Paper
MLA: MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION:
I have been talking about MLA format all year. Every time you turn in a paper with MLA heading, you are
practicing part of the MLA style for formatting essays and papers. (I told you that everything I do has a
purpose.) Now we are going to take the MLA format further. You are going to produce an entire paper that
uses the MLA style. In order to do that, you need to have a little information first.
FORMATTING YOUR WORD DOCUMENT:
When you open your word processor, the first thing you should do is format your document.

FONT: For my class, you are required to write in 12-point, Times New Roman font.
SPACING: You will need to set your document to double spacing. You also need to Remove Space After
Paragraph in the line spacing options.
HEADER: You will need to set your header to include your last name and the page number justified to the right
of the page. Click Insert and select Page Number. You want to use Style 3 and then type your name.
MLA Heading: You should already have this ingrained into you being. If not, you can look at the example that
has been on my board all year long.
TITLE: Every essay or paper you write should have a title. This is your chance to influence your audience (that
would be me) before she begins to read (or grade) your paper. Titles should be creative and not boring or generic.
BEGIN TYPING: You do not need to enter any extra spaces. You should only hit Return once every time you
start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be indented.
PARENTHETICAL CITATION: Each time you use a source (whether directly quoted or paraphrased), you
must make a parenthetical citation to note that the ideas expressed come from an outside source (that is, outside of
your head). You do this by putting the authors name and page number in parenthases at the end of the citation.
Example: (Lamont, 6) Failure to provide proper citation is PLAGIARISM.
Green 1
V. Beth Green
Dr. Yang
English 412
04 August 2003
The Influence of a Powerful Queen in Shakespeares Comedies
Queen Elizabeth I of England is one of the most fascinating characters in British history.
The Golden Age of her reign coincides with the English Renaissance and the careers of great
English playwrights William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and Ben Johnson. Shakespeares
use of the powerful woman in his comedies is reflective of his powerful Queen. In Much Ado About
Nothing and The Taming of the Shrew, the presence of the strong woman and the ways with which
she is dealt by the men around her is influenced by the life of Queen Elizabeth, the relationship she
held with her court, and the political and social issues which encompassed her reign.

19

Formatting Sample for College Research Project

Tuna 1
Charlie Tuna
Insert page # and last
name in header

Mrs. Oualline
English III

Your MLA heading ONLY goes on


30 March 2012 the first page, not in the header

You MUST have a


title, 12pt, no bold
or italics.

American Dreams: A College Research Experience


Your introduction should begin immediately after your title. You do not have to have
an extremely long and wordy introduction, but you should definitely have a few sentences
(including a statement of purpose, or thesis statement).
History and Tradition of Texas A&M University
Each section of your paper should have a subheading that is underlined and justified to
the left. Make sure you indent every paragraph. Approach each section of your paper as if it is
a 500-word essay and it will be much easier for you to meet the 1800-2000 word requirement.
Be sure to
include
My College Financial Plan
subheadings
Each section should have an introduction, body, and conclusion. Your introductions
that are
underlined
may only be a couple of sentences long.
and not
indented, for
each section
Your paper
of your
should have
the standard
1 margins
(top, bottom,
left, and
right)

20

FORMATTING QUOTATIONS
SHORT QUOTATIONS
To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the
quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse,
provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks
such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and
exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after
the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:
According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality," though others disagree (Foulkes 184).
According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).
Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?

LONG QUOTATIONS
For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or three lines of prose, place quotations in a freestanding block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote
indented one inch from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by
an additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should
come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should
maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples:
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:
They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put
it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by
hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries
were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and
inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)

When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if the passage from the paragraphs is less
than four lines. Indent the first line of each quoted paragraph an extra quarter inch.
In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement," David Russell argues:
Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and
examinations came into wide use in the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral
examination. . . .
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict
within industrail society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional
work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widerning number of
citizes into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society (promoting social equity). . . . (3)

21

ADDING OR OMITTING WORDS IN QUOTATIONS


If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not
part of the original text.
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states, "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a
point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).

If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipsis
marks, which are three periods ( . . . ) preceded and followed by a space. For example:
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every
recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).

***Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless adding brackets would clarify your use of
ellipses.

FINAL NOTE
You MUST include both direct quotation and paraphrasing from your sources and all
information that comes from your sources must be properly cited (with parenthetical
citation).
HOWEVER, remember the 70/30 RULE for Research Papers. Only 30% of your
research paper may be directly quoted from outside sources. The other 70% should be
written IN YOUR OWN WORDS. The purpose of a research paper is not to merely
regurgitate information from your sources. You are to SYNTHESIZE the information and
ANALYZE what you have learned. This is a complex process that requires you to use
your own knowledge. There is no short cut, no substitute for quality research. Poor
efforts receive poor grades.

22

Letters and Envelopes


In this digital age, students are no longer accustomed to using snail mail. However, as you
move out into the real world you will find that there are some circumstances in which you
will be required to use the postal service to send important documents.
As part of your American Dreams research project, you will be required to send a letter to
the college or business of your choice requesting information. In this assignment, you will
learn the basic skill of drafting and mailing a business letter.

LETTERS
I am presenting you with the block format for drafting a business letter. This is not the only
format for letters, but it is the most formal and the one I am requiring you to use for this
assignment. See a sample below.
Sample Letter
201 Main Street
Franklin, TX 77856

Your Address

February 21, 2011

Todays Date

Joan Sinclair, Dean of Admissions


St. Vincent College
Box 7481-B
Latrobe, PA 15650

Name and Title of Person


Name of College or Business
Mailing Address
City, State, Zip Code

Dear Ms. Sinclair:

Salutation

My name is Jane Whitman and I am a junior at Franklin High School. I am currently working on
a research project over potential colleges and universities for my English class. I would
appreciate any information you are willing to send about St. Vincent College that will help me
with my research. Information about the history of the college, financial aid, scholarships,
course requirements, and entrance requirements would all be helpful. Also, I plan to major in
Astrophysics, so any information about the course work for that major would be appreciated.
Thank you for your time and I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Sincerely,

Respectful Closing
Your Signature

Jane Whitman

Your Name, typed

23

ENVELOPES
As part of this assignment, you must bring a stamped and addressed envelope. The
envelope should be letter size. On your envelope, you need to include BOTH your name
and address and the name and address of the person to whom you are writing.
Your address goes in the top left corner. The address for the person to whom you are
writing should be centered in the middle of the envelope. The stamp goes in the top right
corner. Make sure your handwriting is legible. (You can choose to type the addresses if you
want a more professional look.)
Sample Envelope
Jane Whitman
201 Main Street
Franklin, TX 77856

STAMP

Joan Sinclair, Dean of Admissions


St. Vincent College
Box 7481-B
Latrobe, PA 15650

Remember that we are actually going to mail these to the college. You want to put your
best foot forward, so you need to make sure that you are using formal language and proper
grammar and punctuation.
As I have said many times, this Research assignment is more for me than it is for you. The
more you effort you put in, the better off you are going to be when you are making your
post-high school plans.

I WILL EDIT YOUR ESSAYS BEFORE THEY ARE MAILED. IF THERE ARE
ANY ERRORS, I WILL ASK YOU TO MAKE CORRECTIONS!

24

NAME:

RESEARCH PAPER CHECK LIST


MLA Format

12 point, Times New Roman font


MLA heading (on the first page only)
Last name and page number in the header
Double spaced

Centered
12 point, Times New Roman Font
No extra space before or after

Remove ALL contractions

Subheadings

Remove ALL boring words

Justified to the left


Underlined
One for each section (4 total) plus conclusion

From each of your seven (min.) sources


You should not have a source on the Annotated
Bibliography that was not cited in your paper

Every time you use information from a source,


direct quote or paraphrasing

Your Own Words

Last page of your paper


Should start a separate page
Sources in alphabetical order
Use the CITATIONS from your Bibliography

Correct ALL grammatical errors

Parenthetical Citation

Title

Direct Quotation and Paraphrasing

Works Cited

70-80% of the paper should be written in


YOUR OWN WORDS
Only 20-30% of the paper should come from
outside sources (i.e., direct quotations)

Check Originality Report


1000-1500 Word Count

Remove the second person (YOU, YOUR)

a lot
very
good
great
big
okay
starting sentences with the words Well or
So or Now

To properly format direct quotation, You must make sure to put any
information that is directly quoted in quotation marks and follow
that direct quotation with parenthetical citation so I will know which
source the information comes from (Oualline).
When you paraphrase, you are putting information into your own
words and, therefore, not using ANY direct quotation. You must
still use parenthetical citation to note that the information comes
from another source (Ouallinator Times).
You should not use direct quotation that is longer than three
lines, but if you do, the quotation should be set off from the
rest of your paper in block format and you still have to use
parenthetical citation to note which source the information
comes from (OuallineRocks.org).
Your parenthetical citation should always be the shortest possible
way to give credit to the source. For your interview, this will be the
last name of the person you interviewed. For websites, it will be a
shortened version of the page title (English III).

Honor Statement:
By signing this page, I verify that I have written this RESEARCH PAPER myself. I have not plagiarized
other sources or another student in any of these assignments. I also verify that I understand how I will
be graded (the rubric) and have made every effort to improve my essays through revision.

Sign and Date

25

THE GREAT AMERICAN DREAM RESEARCH PROJECT


Research Paper Rubric

INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

PROCESS POINTS:
Annotated Bibliography

THESIS STATEMENT
012345

/15

Revised
All sources cited correctly
All sources in alphabetical order
MLA format (if not, -10)

TOPIC 1 History/Tradition/Background Info


0
5
10
15
20

Source Print Outs

TOPIC 2 Application Process/Financial Plan


0
5
10
15
20

Annotation Supplement (8 points/source)

TOPIC 3 Field of Study/Education Requirements


0
5
10
15
20

Thank You Letter to Interviewee

/10

First Draft

/5

Peer Review

/10

Final Draft On Time

/5

TOPIC 4 Career/Advancement Opportunities


0
5
10
15
20
LENGTH 900-1200 Words
0
3

Less than 900

900-1200

More than 1200

/15

Highlighted/Annotated

DEDUCTIONS:
Deductions for Errors (Grammar/Usage)

DEDUCTIONS:
Plagiarized Material (Rewrite/Max Grade = 50)
Essay Note in MLA Format (-10)

Less Than 5 Sources (10 points)


Works Cited Not MLA Format (10 points)
No Personal Interview (10 points)
Originality Report Over 30% (10 points)

ESSAY GRADE
=
Academic Achievement

PROCESS POINTS EARNED


TOTAL IN DEDUCTIONS
PROCESS GRADE
Academic Achievement

26

/40

Formatted correctly
Citation and Annotation included