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This is a guideline open to

your resourcefulness and creativity!


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

HLURB would like to acknowledge the assistance of the following in the preparation of this
Guidebook for their active participation in the various consultations conducted nationwide:

• Local Government Units, particularly the City Planning and Development


Coordinators(CPDCs), Municipal Planning and Development Coordinators (MPDCs),
and Provincial Planning and Development Coordinators (PPDCs);

• National Government Agencies such as: Commission on Higher Education (CHED),


Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of
Education (DEPED), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR),
Department of Finance (DOF), Department of Health (DOH), Commission on
Population (POPCOM), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG),
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Social Welfare and
Development (DSWD), Department of Tourism (DOT), Department of Trade and
Industry (DTI), Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC), Bureau of
Fire Protection, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Bureau of Jail
Management and Penology (BJMP), Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM),
Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), Forest Management Bureau (FMB),
Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC), Laguna Lake
Development Authority (LLDA), Land Management Bureau (LMB), League of Cities of
the Philippines, League of Municipalities of the Philippines, Local Government Academy
(LGA), Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA), Manila Water and Sewerage
System (MWSS), Metro-Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Mines and
Geosciences Bureau (MGB), National Commission on Cultural Arts (NCCA), National
Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP), National Economic and Development
Authority (NEDA), National Electrification and Administration (NEA), National Housing
Mortgage and Finance Corporation (NHMFC), National Mapping and Resource
Information Authority (NAMRIA), National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM), National
Power Corporation (NAPOCOR), National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB),
National Statistics Office (NSO), National Telecommunication Commission (NTC),
National Water Resources Board (NWRB) Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission
(PRRC), Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration (PAGASA), Philippine Coast Guard, Philippine Economic Zone Authority
(PEZA), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Philippine
NationalPolice (PNP), Philippine Postal Corporation (PPC), Philippine Sports
Commission (PSC), Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB);

• Other stakeholders such as the Academe, Private Sector, Non-Governmental


Organizations, Consultancy Firms, Donor Agencies, Professional Organizations,
namely: A-Homes, Ateneo de Manila University, Bata for Shelter, Capstone, Inc.,
Chamber of Real Estate and Builders Association (CREBA), CIDA/LGSP, Dagupan City
Heritage Commission, Dai/EcoGov, Dela Salle University, Manila, DMCI, Ecosystems
and Resources Planning and Management, Ecosystem Planning and Development
Corporation, DARUNA Technologies, Inc., Environmental Education Network of the
Philippines, Inc., Geodata, Inc., Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural
Resources, Heritage Conservation Society, Infratech System Consultants, Inc., Legal
Rights and Natural Resources Center – Kasama sa Kalikasan, LTK, MACCH
Consultants, Manila Water Company, Inc. (MWCI), Maynilad Water Service, Inc.
(MWSI), Megaworld, Miriam College, Palafox and Associates, PHILDHRRA, Philippine
Business for the Environment, Philippine Institute of Environmental Planners (PIEP),
Philippine Support Service Agencies (PHILSSA), Prime@75, SANAGMANA, Recycling
Movement of the Philippines Foundation, Sagip Pasig Movement, SAGRIC

ii
International, Samal Island Biodiversity, Sentro para sa Ikauunlad ng Katutubong
Agham at Teknolohiya, Inc. (SIKAT), Subdivision and Homeowners Developers
Association (SHDA), University of the Philippines –Institute of Environmental Science,
National Center for Transportation Studies (NCTS), National College of Public
Administration and Governance (NCPAG), School of Urban and Regional Planning
(SURP), U.P. Planning and Development Research Foundation, Inc. (UP PLANADES),
United Architects of the Philippines (UAP), URBIS, USAID;

HLURB is likewise grateful for the technical inputs, insights, comments and suggestions
from CONCEP, Inc.; to the following individuals who acted as resource persons/reactors:
Dr. Asteya Santiago, Dr. Geronimo V. Manahan, En.P. Roque Arrieta Magno, Arch. Joy
Onosawa, Dean Primitivo Cal, Dean Benjamin Cariño, Arch. Requito Bellosillo, En.P. Juanita
Canta; Ms. Cora Jose, Arch. Christer Kjorneberg and Arch. Celestino Ulep for the technical
editing works.

The Board would like to express its gratitude to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
and the Commission on Population (POPCOM) for the technical inputs and financial support
during the preparation of this Guidebook.

Special thanks to the Project Team composed of both the central and regional officers and staff
of HLURB headed by the Project Manager, Gracia M. Ang for their perseverance, diligent and
participation during the seemingly endless discussions.

Finally, we also would like to convey our sincere appreciation to those whose names may

iii
ACRONYMS

ACRONYM DEFINITION

ADSDP - Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development Plan


AFMA - Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act
AIP - Annual Investment Plan
ARC - Agrarian Reform Communities
ATO - Air Transportation Office
BAI - Bureau of Animal Industry
BAS - Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
BFAR - Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
BDP - Barangay Development Plan
CARP - Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program
CDP - Comprehensive Development Plan
CENRO - Community Environment and Natural Resources Office
CLUP - Comprehensive Land Use Plan
CPDO - City Planning and Development Office
CZC - Certificate of Zoning Compliance
DAR - Department of Agrarian Reform
DBM - Department of Budget and Management
DILG - Department of Interior and Local Government
DENR - Department of Environment and Natural Resources
DPWH - Department of Public Works and Highways
FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization
FMB - Forest Management Bureau
FSDZ - Fisheries Strategic Development Zones
GAM - Goals Achievement Matrix
GIS - Geographic Information System
GPS - Global Positioning System
HLURB - Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board
HUCs - Highly Urbanized Cities
ICCs - Independent Component Cities
IEC - Information and Education Campaign
IPAS - Integrated Protected Area System
IPRA - Indigenous Peoples Rights Act
IPs - Indigenous Peoples
IRA - Internal Revenue Allotment
Km 2 - Square kilometer
LC - Locational Clearance
LCE - Local Chief Executive
LDC - Local Development Council
LDIP - Local Development Investment Program
LGU - Local Government Unit
LMB - Land Management Bureau
LSA - Land Suitability Assessment
LTO - Land Transportation Office
MAO - Municipal Agricultural Office
MEO - Municipal Engineering Office

v
ACRONYM DEFINITION

MGB - Mines and Geoscience Bureau


MMA - Metro Manila
MPDO - Municipal Planning and Development Office
MRF - Material Recovery Facility
MTPDP - Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan
MTPIP - Medium-Term Philippine Investment Plan
MZO - Model Zoning Ordinance
NAMRIA - National Mapping and Resource Information Authority
NEDA - National Economic and Development Authority
NGAs - National Government Agency/ies
NGOs - Non-Government Organizations
NIPAS - National Integrated Protected Areas System
NPAAAD - Network of Protected Agricultural and Agri-Industrial Areas for
Development
NPFP - National Physical Framework Plan
NSO - National Statistics Office
NWRB - National Water Resources Board
PAG-ASA - Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration
PAMB - Protected Area Management Board
PARO - Provincial Agrarian Reform Office
PAWB - Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau
PCA - Preservation and Conservation Area
PENRO - Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
PLUC - Provincial Land Use Committee
PO - People’s Organization
POPDEV - Population and Development
PPA - Philippine Ports Authority
PPFP - Provincial Physical Framework Plan
PUD - Planned Unit Development
RDIP - Regional Development Investment Plan
RDP - Regional Development Plan
RLUC - Regional Land Use Committee
RPFP - Regional Physical Framework Plan
SAFDZ - Strategic Agriculture and Fishery Development Zones
SB - Sagguniang Bayan
SMART - Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time Specific
SP - Sangguniang Panlalawigan/Panglunsod
SWOT - Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
TOP - Technique of Participation
TWG - Technical Working Group
UNEP - United Nations Environmental Programme

vi
vii
ABOUT THE GUIDE

The Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation was designed to provide Local
Government Units (LGUs) with the basic steps in preparing their Comprehensive Land Use
Plans (CLUPs), which is one of the fundamental tools for local governance and decision making.
It is intended for LGU planners mainly, but may also prove useful to consultants assisting the
LGUs, planners in national government agencies, planning professionals and students, and
other stakeholders interested in local development planning.

The preparation of the Guide was done with the participation of the LGUs, particularly the City/
Municipal Planning and Development Coordinators (C/MPDCs) who attended the various
consultative workshops conducted nationwide, such as focus group discussions, surveys,
regional consultations, experts fora and validation workshops. These consultative activities
were likewise participated in by representatives from the academe, Non-Government
Organizations (NGOs), National Government Agencies (NGAs), planners, consultants, and
other stakeholders in land use planning. Results of the said consultative activities provided the
necessary inputs in the subsequent drafting of the guidelines, which was also done in a
participative manner, i.e., involving the central and regional staff of the HLURB.

Among the recommendations made during the consultative discussions with LGUs are the
following:

Minimize the use of technical terminology


Focus on CLUP preparation process
Streamline process and provide simple and clear procedural steps
Integrate environmental guidelines
Simplify the guidelines into just one or two volumes
Standardize CLUP outline and format and provide pro-forma templates
Include guide for cross-sectoral integration visioning, IEC for implementation and
monitoring
Translate local dialect and improve presentation and layout
The guidelines can be followed without consultant

This Guide is Volume 1 of the following set of guidelines in preparing Comprehensive Land Use
Plans comprising five (5) separate but complementary volumes:

Volume 1. A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation


This provides the basic steps in the CLUP process, from getting started (Step
1) through monitoring and evaluation (Step 12). It prescribes a participatory
approach throughout the process, in order to engender community participation
not only in planning but in the plan implementation as well. This is to be used in
tandem with Volume 2.

Volume 2. A Guide to Sectoral Studies in the CLUP Preparation


This provides the basic guidelines for demographic and sectoral studies needed
for the formulation of the CLUP. The guidelines include those for social, economic
and infrastructure sectors, including the integrating frameworks, analytical tools,
methods, standards, and other tools necessary in undertaking the sectoral
studies.

ix
Volume 3. A Guide to Data Management in the CLUP Preparation
This provides the basic elements for a GIS and other information systems
needed in plan preparation process, often referred to as “GIS Cookbook”.

Volume 4. Planning Strategically: Guidelines for the Application of the Strategic Planning
Process in the Preparation of the CLUP and to Important Urban Area Issues
and Problems including guides for community consultation.

Volume 5. Model Zoning Ordinance


This provides the basic elements of a Zoning Ordinance, which is one of the
implementing tool of the CLUP, among others.

The above Guides are designed to provide the rudiments for City/Municipal land use planning
and plan implementation. The Guides will complement the academic and field planning
experiences of the users that will hopefully lead to resourcefulness and creativity in preparing
a realistic and implementable plan.

These guides are therefore not prescriptive but allow for flexibility, creativity and strategic thinking
on the part of the users.

x
INTRODUCTION

Land Use Planning Concepts

The first step in understanding Comprehensive Land Use Planning is knowing the basic concepts
associated with CLUP such as land, land use planning and land use plan:

Land

Land is viewed as a shared natural resource, much like air and water found therein, to
be conserved and cared for with due regard for its effect on society as a whole and for
the conditions in which it will be passed on to future generations.

Land is also viewed as property – a private commodity which can be owned, used,
bought or sold for personal comfort and profit.

Both concepts are within the context of the Philippine constitution which protects a
person’s right to own and use his/her property as well as permits government to impose
reasonable limitations on its use to protect public health, promote safety and general
welfare of the people.

Land Use Planning

Land use planning refers to the rational and judicious approach of allocating available
land resources to different land using activities, (e.g. agricultural, residential, industrial)
and for different functions consistent with the overall development vision/goal of a
particular locality.

It entails the detailed process of determining the location and area of land required for
the implementation of social and economic development, policies, plans, programs
and projects.

It is based on consideration of physical planning standards, development vision, goals


and objective, analysis of actual and potential physical conditions of land and
development constraints and opportunities.

Land use planning is done to meet the following objectives:

To promote the efficient utilization, acquisition and disposition of land and ensure
the highest and best use of land;
To direct, harmonize and influence discussions and activities of the private and
public sectors relative to the use and management of land;
To reconcile land use conflicts and proposals between and among individuals, private
and government entities relative to the present and future need for land;
To promote desirable patterns of land uses to prevent wasteful development and
minimize the cost of public infrastructure and utilities and other social services;
To conserve areas of ecological, aesthetic, historical and cultural significance.

1 Introduction
The Comprehensive Land Use Plan

The Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) refers to a document embodying specific proposals
for guiding, regulating growth and development of a city or municipality. It is comprehensive
because it considers all sectors significant in the development process, i.e. demography,
socio-economic, infrastructure and utilities, land use and local administration, within the territorial
jurisdiction.

Rationale for the Formulation/Revision of a Comprehensive Land Use Plan

To achieve an improved quality of life;


To guide the orderly development of a city/municipality to promote the health, safety,
welfare and convenience of the population;
To promote sustainable development;
To preserve special natural features and environmentally critical areas;
To translate socio-economic policies into physical policies and plans;
To comply with the requirements of Article 41 of the Implementing Rules and
Regulations of the Local Government Code of 1991 (Sec. 20, RA 7160);
To provide guidelines for the appropriate use of natural resources;
To allocate land for settlements, industries and other urban uses on land least suitable
for agricultural and farming uses;
To serve as basis for reclassifying and converting land;
To reflect changes in the physical, social and economic characteristics of the community;
and
To incorporate changes in the goals and objectives of the community

Comprehensive Land Use Planning puts into practice the essence of local autonomy among
LGUs. This process and its output which comes in a form of a Comprehensive Land Use Plan
document sets the direction which the LGUs have to take to enable them to attain their vision
and to transform them into active partners in the attainment of national goals.

The CLUP process provides a venue to level off the different groups with varied interests in the
local planning area. It opens an opportunity for gaining community support, understanding and
ownership of the Plan through a broad-based consensus formation efforts and participatory
arrangements. The process attempts to rationalize the allocation of the limited local land
resources by using empirical basis to analyze existing social, economic, physical,
environmental, political and institutional situation. This enables the LGUs to formulate
development goals and objectives, design alternatives, and arrive at sound policies, strategies,
programs and projects.

Linkage of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan to the Provincial Physical Framework
Plan (PPFP) and other Plans (Figure 1)

The national, regional and provincial physical framework plans are policy oriented and
indicative in nature, where different land use categories such as forest lands and
agricultural lands are categorized into protection and production land uses.

The broad allocation of land uses in the level of physical framework plans are treated in
detail in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan. The goals and objectives of the framework
plans are considered in the formulation of the CLUPs.

Introduction 2
The local plans shall have the following relationships to the other plans existing in the
country:

1. Provincial plans shall promote the goals and objectives provided for in the national
and regional plan and shall provide the guidelines for the preparation of city and
municipal plans.

2. The city and municipal Comprehensive Land Use Plans shall be consistent with
and supportive of the goals and objectives in the provincial plan and shall provide
the guidelines for the development of plans for parts of the city or municipality such
as the barangay.

3. The barangay plan and other area specific plans, such as heritage area plan,
ancestral domain plan etc., shall be consistent with the vision, planning goals
and objectives set forth in the city or municipal plan of which it forms part and
shall furthermore, provide the guide to plans of smaller scale such as neighborhood
or community.

All local plans shall be consistent with the existing national agency plans, i.e. Tourism Master
Plan, Forestry Master Plan, Medium Term Agricultural Development Plan, etc.

Further, all local plans shall conform with set national planning goals, policies, as well as planning
guidelines and standards promulgated by HLURB as much as practicable.

3 Introduction
Figure 1. HIERARCHY AND LINKAGES OF PLANS

PHYSICAL
FRAMEWORK AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC INVESTMENT
COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS (IPs)
LAND USE PLANS PLANS (DPs)

NATIONAL (N)
(1) (3) (3)
NPFP MTPDP MTPIP

National
Agency Plans
and Programs

REGIONAL (R/RD)
(1) RDP RDIP
RPFP

Regional
Agency Plans
and Programs
(1)
PROVINCIAL (P/PD) PPFP
CITY (C/CD) PCLUP (4) PDIP/CDIP
(2) PCDP/CCDP

Provincial
Plans and
Programs

LOCAL (L/LD)
MUNICIPAL (M) (2) C/M CDP LDIP
C/M CLUP

City/Municipal
Plans and
Programs

NOTES:
(1) PFP = (N/R/P) Physical Framework Plan
(2) CLUP = (P/C/M) Comprehensive Land Use Plan
(3) MTP = Medium Term Philippine (DPand IP)
(4) CDP = (P/C/M) Comprehensive Development Plan

Introduction 4
Legal Mandates

Comprehensive Land Use Planning is a constitutionally supported undertaking. The State


declares its land use policies and principles in terms of relation to national economy and
patrimony as well as its police power for the promotion of public health, public safety, public
interest, public order, and general welfare.

1987 Constitution

Article XIII, Section 1 :

“The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and
enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political
inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power
for the common good. To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership,
use and disposition of property and its increments.” (Underscoring supplied.)

The reason why the State should regulate the right to use property, among other rights, is
explained in another provision of the Constitution, to quote:

“The use of property bears a social function and all economic agents shall contribute to
the common good. Individuals and private groups, including corporations, cooperatives,
and similar collective organizations, shall have the right to own, establish and operate
economic enterprises, subject to the duty of the State to promote distributive justice and
to intervene when the common good so demands.” (Art. XII, Section 6)

Republic Act 7160

The Local Government Code of 1991 or Republic Act 7160 provides the mandate of LGUs on
local planning, legislation, implementation, including budgeting, and monitoring.

Section 16.

“Every LGU shall exercise the powers expressly granted, those necessarily implied
therefrom, as well as powers necessary, appropriate or incidental for its efficient and
effective governance, and those which are essential for the promotion of the general
welfare. Within their respective territorial jurisdictions, local government units shall ensure
and support, among other things, the preservation and enrichment of culture, promote
health and safety, enhance the right of the people to a balanced ecology, encourage and
support the development of appropriate and self-reliant scientific and technological
capabilities, improve public morals, enhance economic prosperity and social justice,
promote full employment among their residents, maintain peace and order and preserve
the comfort and convenience of their inhabitants.”

Section 20(c)

“The local government units shall, in conformity with existing law, continue to prepare
their respective Comprehensive Land Use Plans enacted through zoning ordinances
which shall be the primary and dominant bases for the future use of the land resources…”

5 Introduction
Section 447(2)(vii) / Sec. 458(2)(vii)

“ Adopt a Comprehensive Land Use Plan for the municipality (Sec. 447(2)(vii)/city (Sec.
458(2)(vii): Provided, that the formulation, adoption, or modification of said plan shall be
in coordination with the approved Provincial Comprehensive Land Use Plan.”

Section 447(2) (ix) - Municipality / Section 458(2) (ix) - City

“Enact integrated zoning ordinances in consonance with the approved Comprehensive


Land Use Plan, subject to existing laws, rules and regulations,…”

Section 447(a)(2)(vi) / Sec. 458(a) (2) (vi)

Prescribe reasonable limits and restraints on the use of property within the jurisdiction of
the municipality (Sec. 447(a)(2)(ix) / city (Sec. 458(a)(2)(vi).

Section 444(b)(3)(vii) / Sec. 455 (b) (3) (vii)

“ Adopt measures to safeguard and conserve land, mineral, marine, forest, and other
resources of the municipality (Sec. 444(b)(3)(vii) / city (Sec. 455(b)(3)(vii).”

Article Six. – The Planning and Development Coordinator


Section 476. Qualifications, Powers and Duties

(b)(1) “Formulate integrated economic, social, physical and other


development plans and policies for consideration of the local
development council.”

(b)(5) “Prepare comprehensive plans and other development planning


documents for the consideration of the local development council.”

(Sections supplied)

Other related legal bases on CLUP formulation provided for under RA 7160 are found
under sections 106(a); 109,a,1-2 and 458(2)(ix); 476(7).

Executive Order No. 72

Executive Order 72 was issued providing for the preparation and implementation of the CLUP
by the local government units and for the review and approval thereof by the HLURB and the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan.

Sections 1(a, c) and 2(a, e, f):

“(a) Cities and municipalities shall continue to prepare or update their Comprehensive
Land Use Plans, in conformity with the land use planning standards and guidelines
prescribed by the HLURB and to national policies”

“(c) Cities and municipalities of Metro Manila shall continue to formulate or update their
respective land use plans, in conformity with the land use planning and zoning standards
and guidelines prescribed by HLURB”.
Introduction 6
“(a) ...the powers of the HLURB to review and approve the Comprehensive Land Use
Plans of component cities and municipalities are hereby devolved to the province”.

“(e) Pursuant to LOI 729, S. of 1987, EO 648, S. of 1981 and RA 7279, the Comprehensive
Land Use Plans of provinces, highly-urbanized cities and independent component cities
shall be reviewed and ratified by the HLURB to ensure compliance with national standards
and guidelines”.

“(f) Pursuant to EO 392 S. of 1990, the Comprehensive Land Use Plans of cities and
municipalities of Metropolitan Manila shall be reviewed by HLURB to ensure compliance
with national standards and guidelines”.

Republic Act 7279

The Urban and Development Housing Act (UDHA) or RA 7279 gives a clear-cut definition of a
Land Use Plan which the LGUs are mandated to adopt.

Section 3(k) of RA 7279 defines Land Use Plan as the “rationale approach of allocating
available land resources as equitably as possible among competing user groups and for
different functions consistent with the development plan of the area and the program
under this Act.” The extent of comprehensiveness and the focus of land use planning
process as well as the preparation of the CLUP document are defined within the bounds
of “land resources” by this provision of UDHA which must be “consistent with the
development plan of the area.”

The Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) is mandated by the following issuances
to formulate land use planning guidelines and standards:

Executive Order No. 648

Section 5, Article II

“(a) To promulgate zoning and other land use control standards and guidelines which
shall govern land use plans and zoning ordinances of local governments”

The Local Government Code of 1991

Section 468, 2, Article III, Chapter 3, Book III

“(vii) Review the Comprehensive Land Use Plans and zoning ordinances of component
cities and municipalities and adopt a Comprehensive Provincial Land Use plan,
subject to existing laws”

THE GUIDING PRINCIPLES:

This Guide advocates the principles of the Philippine Agenda 21 (PA21), which is the national
agenda for sustainable development. It outlines the integrating strategies for the country’s overall
sustainable development and identifies the intervention areas (Action Agenda) from the national
to the regional level, along with the corresponding implementing platforms and plans.

PA 21 envisions a better quality of life for all through the development of a just, moral, creative,
spiritual, economically-vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society characterized by appropriate

7 Introduction
productivity, participatory and democratic process and living in harmony within the limits of the
carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of creation.

Sustainable development as defined in the PA 21 (1996) is “harmonious integration of a sound


and viable economy, responsible governance, social cohesion and ecological integrity, to ensure
that development is a life-sustaining process.”

PA 21 has five goal elements, as follows:

Poverty Reduction: Poverty is a central concern of sustainable development.


Consistent with this, PA 21 has a poverty reduction agenda that includes measures to
create an enabling economic environment for sustained and broad-based growth;
improve employment, productivity and income; and attain food security.

Social Equity: Social equity should mean allocation of resources on the bases of
efficiency and equity to achieve balanced development. Efficiency and equity mean the
channeling of resources to developing areas where greater economic benefits
accumulate and where there is greater need, distribution being dependent on the
practicality and urgency of needs.

Empowerment and Good Governance: Empowerment is a precondition of informal


choices. Good governance is a necessary precondition to empowerment, as
empowerment is to good governance. These two are a defining element of each other.

Peace and Solidarity: The cycle of poverty and conflict goes on as the costs of war
escalate in terms of various kinds of destruction while withholding funds for basic
services, resulting in more poverty and underdevelopment.

Ecological Integrity: In general, the path towards enhancing the integrity of the country’s
ecological domain will have to involve heightened and sustained implementation of
environmental laws, as well as the continued pursuit of resource conservation, and
environmental restoration/enhancement programs.

This Guide also promotes the following principles consistent with the planning and management
of resources provided for in the National Framework for Physical Planning (NFPP):

Food security - Utilizing the country’s land and water resources in a manner that provides
sufficient and affordable food products to all Filipinos of the present and future generations
through local production and/or importation.

Environmental stability and ecological integrity- Achieving environmental stability through


the observance of appropriate standards and ensuring ecological integrity through effective
natural resource management and balancing the demand of land using activities vis-à-vis
preservation of ecosystems. Ensuring the proper selection of a site to minimize the damage
both to the environment and human health. (Appropriate location principle)

Regional Urban Development- Encouraging the sustainable growth of cities and large towns
while complementing the growth of rural areas by adopting alternative development approaches.

Spatial Integration- Linking consumption and production areas to achieve physical and
economic integration through appropriate infrastructure systems.

Introduction 8
Equitable access to physical and natural resources- Ensuring equitable access to resources
through a just distribution of the country’s resources and by providing equal opportunities to all
Filipinos in the use and acquisition of land and other resources.

Private-public sector Partnership- Encouraging shared responsibility between the government


and the private sector in the development and management of the country’s
physical resources.

People Empowerment- Establishing pragmatic appropriate flexible and dynamic structures


or mechanisms that involve the participation of key stakeholders.

Recognition of the rights of indigenous people - Ensuring the Indigenous Peoples (IPs)
right to develop, control, and use lands within their ancestral domains.

Market orientation - Adopting the interplay of market forces within the framework of ecological
and intergenerational factors as a basic parameter in the allocation and use
of physical resources.

4 Major Land Use Policy Areas – Comprehensiveness may be viewed as covering all the
four major land use components of the Land Use Policy Guidelines which form the National
Framework for Physical Planning, namely: 1) settlements development; 2) production land
use; 3) protection land use; and 4) infrastructure development.

Settlements - land uses and physical resources involving some degree of


urban or rural concentration and their associated demand
and supply requirements.
Production - focused on economic production from the extractive to the
modern service sectors.
Protection - resources that need to be protected, conserved,
rehabilitated, including areas that require prevention and
mitigation of disasters.
Infrastructure - deals with capital investments that support spatial integration,
production efficiency and social service delivery.
Local Governance - This Guide advocates that all three actors in governance, namely:
government (state), civil society, and the private sector are actively involved in the
Comprehensive Land Use Planning process. Good local governance allows for collaborative
partnerships among the local government, business, and civil society. Good governance is
characterized as sustainable, participatory, transparent, accountable, legitimate and acceptable
to the people, and promoting equity and equality.

Co-management Principle - Section 3 (i) of the Local Government Code provides that “local
government units shall share with the national government the responsibility in the management
and maintenance of ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction.” Local governments
and the national government are therefore mandated by RA 7160 to act as co-managers of the
national territory and patrimony.

Gender-responsive Population and Development (POPDEV) Framework - The


integration of gender and explicit consideration of development (socio-economic, physical,
cultural, etc.) and population inter-relationships in the entire planning process – plan formulation,
plan implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. The utilization of the POPDEV planning

9 Introduction
approach ensures or provides a mechanism for integrating sustainable development indicators
in planning. ( Refer to Volume 2 for the detailed discussion of gender responsive population
and development framework)

Approaches to CLUP Formulation

It is recommended that LGUs adopt a combined bottom-up and top to bottom approach in
preparing the CLUP as presented below:

1. Integration of Barangay Development Plans (Bottom-Up Approach)

Under the Local Government Code of 1991, the Local Development Councils, in the
case of barangay, the Barangay Development Councils are tasked to prepare Barangay
Development Plans to be submitted to the Sangguniang Barangay for review and
approval.

Thus, integration of Barangay Development Plans into the city or municipal plan is one
methodology which the LGUs can adopt in the formulation of the CLUP.

The integration aims to harmonize development goals and objectives of all barangays
in cities or municipalities. It also identifies and reconciles inconsistencies and
incompatibilities in land use proposals among adjacent barangays.

2. Top to Bottom Approach

In the absence of barangay and municipal development plans, the local planners adopt
the top to bottom approach to planning. In this case, the Provincial Land Use Plan/
Physical Framework Plan (PPFP), if available, may serve as basis and framework for
the formulation and updating of the CLUP without precluding consultation with component
LGUS. In the absence of a Provincial Land Use Plan (PPFP), other higher level plans
may serve as bases for the formulation, such as the Medium-Term Development Plan,
Regional Physical Framework Plan, metropolitan or other cluster area development
plans (i.e. MIMAROPA, CALABARZON, etc.).

Likewise, detailed area-specific plans such as coastal management plans, waste


management plans, forest land use plans, heritage preservation plans, etc. shall
be considered and integrated in the course of the preparation of the CLUP if such plans
have already been prepared/approved. The incorporation of such plans shall be subject
to review and harmonization with the city/municipal vision, goals and objectives.

Planning Area

The planning area is defined by the cities’/municipalities’ political boundaries. This includes all
component barangays and the city/municipal waters extending 3 kilometers from shoreline for
coastal LGUs. Thus, the CLUP shall cover both land and water resources of the city/municipality.

Planning Period

The CLUP covers a planning period of 10 years at the minimum. It may be reviewed every 3
years coinciding with the term of the Mayor and other locally elected officials, for their appreciation
and for continuity of plan implementation. Such review will also provide an opportunity for the
incumbent or incoming Mayor and local officials to harmonize the new administration’s

Introduction 10
development agenda with the approved CLUP and to use the CLUP as basis for budget
preparation and fund sourcing initiatives.

The review shall be without prejudice to a yearly review of the various programs and projects
identified in the plan, to ensure attainment of the development vision/goals/objectives.

THE STRUCTURE AND CONTENTS OF THE COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN

This Guide is intended to provide emphasis on the significant elements of the Comprehensive
Land Use Plan in order to achieve its full appreciation as well as to ensure efficiency,
transparency, and accountability in its implementation.

The CLUP document shall be presented/packaged in three (3) volumes:


Volume I – The Comprehensive Land Use Plan
Volume 2 – Zoning Ordinance
Volume 3 – Sectoral Studies (a documentation of the supporting studies that were
undertaken to arrive at the resultant CLUP)

VOLUME 1 – The COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN


This shall comprise the formal and substantive elements of the CLUP/ZO and shall
contain the following:

PRELIMINARY PAGES

RESOLUTION adopting the CLUP and enacting the ZO


FOREWORD
Acknowledgement
Table of Contents
List of Maps
List of Figures
List of Tables

BRIEF PROFILE OF CITY/MUNICIPALITY (GENERAL INFORMATION)

Brief History
Human Resource
Population (size, growth rate, density, distribution, labor force)
Physical Features
Geographic location, territorial jurisdiction, barangay subdivision
Physical/Infrastructure Resources (Inventory of Maps and Tables)
Transportation Network (internal and external linkages)
Social Services facilities/utilities/amenities
Utilities: Power, Water, Communication Network, Waste Management

11 Introduction
The Economic Structure
Revenue sources (Industries, agriculture, etc.)
Employment
Average Family Income and Expenditure vis-à-vis Poverty Level
Existing Land Use and Land Use Trends
Comparative/Competitive Advantages
Weaknesses: Priority issues and concerns
Functional Role of the City/Municipality

THE COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN

Vision / Mission
Goals, Objectives, Strategies
The Concept/Structure Plan (text and map)
The Land Use Plan (Text and Map Format)
Priority Programs and Projects

GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AS NEEDED

THE CLUP BROCHURE


Suggested to be a one-page information material containing Vision/Mission, Goals,
Objectives, Land Use Plan Map and Priority Programs and Projects

VOLUME 2 – The ZONING ORDINANCE (ZO)

This volume presents the locally enacted ordinance which embodies, among others, the
regulations affecting uses allowed or disallowed in each zone or district, and the conditions
and deviations legally allowed from the requirements of the ordinance.

Volume 2 is presented in two parts with the following contents:

A. The Zoning Ordinance (text)

1. SB/SP Resolution enacting the ZO


2. Title and objectives of the Ordinance
3. Substantive elements comprising articles on the following:

Definition of Terms
Zone Classifications
Zone Regulations
General District Regulation
Innovative Techniques
Miscellaneous Provisions
Mitigating Devices
Administration and Enforcement

Introduction 12
B. The Zoning Map

This is the Official Zoning Map enacted by the LGU and duly ratified and authenticated
by the approving body (Sangguniang Panlalawigan/HLURB) which is an integral
part of the Zoning Ordinance. It is the graphic presentation of the zone classifications/
designations, location and boundaries of the districts/zones that were duly
established in the zoning ordinance.

VOLUME 3 – THE SECTORAL STUDIES


This volume shall comprise the detailed documentation of the sectoral studies
conducted that provided the bases for the preparation of the CLUP. The presentation/
documentation shall have the following major sections:

1. Demography
2. Physical/ environment
3. Social sector
Housing
Health
Education
Protective Services
Sports and Recreation
Social Welfare

4. Economic Sector
Industry
Commerce and Trade
Agriculture
Forestry
Tourism

5. Infrastructure and Utilities Sectors


Transportation
Power
Water
Communication
Solid Waste Management

Sector analysis, both technical and participatory, shall be summarized in a matrix form
emphasizing on the findings/observations and their causes, effects/implications, and
possible interventions. In its final form, an integrated listing of priority issues and problems
concerning the sector and across sectors, shall be highlighted together with the
recommended policies, strategies and priority programs and projects.

13 Introduction
The CLUP
Towards the Improvement
of Quality of Life
THE 12-STEP PROCESS TO COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLANNING

Every city/municipality is a unique planning area. Thus, planners need to rely on strategic
planning approach to arrive at a more responsive/realistic CLUP.

This manual provides for a 12-step process that is proactive, rather than reactive, in approach.
It is vision-oriented and promotes maximum stakeholders participation at all stages in the
planning process to come up with a plan owned and supported by the community.

The process is dynamic and cyclic in many ways and at many times. This is an extremely
important characteristic that the users/planners should continuously bear in mind. Every step
of the way involves a cycle of brainstorming/idea building/data gathering; consensus building
and decision-making and presentation/validation of results/decisions arrived at. The cycle is
continuous until the planning team attains some level of confidence on the output of a particular
step. The process therefore allows for great flexibility and resourcefulness on the part of the
users.

It is important to note however, that involvement of community/stakeholders varies in different


stages of the planning process for reasons of budget, timelines and its value to a particular
step. This highly participative process renders the role of planners/consultants to be that of
facilitator consistent with the objective of “planning for, by, and with the people.”

The following 12-step process provides the general procedures from which the planning team,
with or without a formal training in planning, can proceed with the CLUP and ZO preparation.

Figure 2. THE 12-STEP PROCESS TO COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLANNING

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6

Getting Identifying Setting Analyzing Setting the Establishing


Organized Stakeholders the Vision the Situation Goals and Development
Objectives Thrusts and
Spatial
Strategies

Step 12 Step 11 Step 10 Step 9 Step 8 Step 7

Monitoring, Implementing Reviewing, Conducting Drafting Preparing


Reviewing the CLUP Adopting and Public the Zoning the Land Use
and and ZO Approving Hearing Ordinance Plan
Evaluating the CLUP on the Draft (ZO)
the CLUP and ZO CLUP and ZO
and ZO

15 The Structure and Contents of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
STEP
GETTING ORGANIZED
1
GETTING ORGANIZED is an important first step to take before doing the actual plan
preparation activities. Anticipating and preparing for the resources that will be needed
for the planning activities will lead to the smooth implementation and accomplishment
of the planning outputs on time.

PURPOSE

To ensure that the needed resources for the planning activities are readily available.
To obtain the commitment, support, and participation of the local executives, Sangguniang
Bayan (SB)/Panglunsod (SP) members, Local Development Council (LDC), city/
municipal department heads and their staff, and the whole community to the
planning activities.
To establish the guiding framework and focus of the planning activities.

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

Proposal for CLUP preparation/updating (including work program and budget)


SB/SP resolution approving the proposal for the preparation of CLUP
Executive Order designating members of the planning team, Technical Working
Group (TWG), etc.
Defined roles/responsibilities of planning team, TWGs
Information and Education Campaign (IEC) Materials for Community awareness
and participation

STEPS

The Office of the City/ Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (C/MPDC) will undertake
the following activities:

Note: The CPDO/MPDO is the office primarily concerned with the formulation of integrated
economic, social, physical, and other development plans and policies as per Sec. 476(b)(1)
and (5) of RA 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991.

1. Discuss with local officials/officers the need to prepare/update CLUP and


identify rationale, framework of activities, and timeframe for planning.

Step 1. Getting Organized 16


2. Assess available resources in terms of funds, personnel and other logistic
support.

Resources needed for planning may include the following:

1. Funds to finance planning activities


2. Personnel for carrying out the planning activities
3. Supplies and materials to be used for the planning activities
4. Computers and other equipments to prepare documents, maps and other
planning materials
5. Transportation and communications

3. Prepare a detailed proposal to include the rationale, work program, required


budget, and planning teams.

The work program shall include the timelines/schedule of planning activities. The
CLUP preparation process normally takes a maximum of 18 months depending on
availability of resources, materials, and prevailing circumstances. The schedule
must be flexible enough to allow sufficient time to accomplish each activity. (Refer
to Annex 1-1 for the sample schedule of planning activities in Gantt Chart)

4. Present the proposal to the Local Chief Executive and SB/SP for approval.

5. Organize planning team and technical working groups consistent with the
proposal.

The Planning Team shall be composed of a Planning Core Group assisted


by Technical Working Groups.

The core group will coordinate the planning activities, draft and consolidate the
contents of the CLUP document. The Office of the MPDC/CPDC shall constitute
the Core Group with the following suggested members:

MPDC/CPDC
Planning Officer
Draftsman
Encoder
Statistician and researcher
Architect/environmental/urban planner
Legal officer as may be available

Note: In cases where the Office of the CPDC/MPDC is not adequately staffed as
enumerated above, staff from other departments may be tapped to compose the core
group. Hiring of consultants and other resource persons like a legal expert, etc., on
contractual basis and partnerships with the private sector, civil society, NGOs and the
like may also be opted to.

17 Step 1. Getting Organized


The Technical Working Groups (TWG)s will assist the Planning Core
Group in the following:

Conduct of sectoral / intersectoral analysis, validation and reports


Conduct of surveys, consultations/meetings, workshops
Integration/finalization of studies, research findings, and consultation/
survey outputs.

Suggested Composition of the TWGs:

Heads of local government departments,


Representatives of community groups/organizations (include gender
sensitive and sustainable development advocates), concerned national
government agencies,
Ancestral Domain Consultative Body representatives in an indigenous
peoples’ (IP) community, or where applicable,
President of the city/municipal chapter of the Liga ng mga Barangay and/or
Barangay Chairpersons of growth centers/priority development areas (as
needed),
Chairpersons of the concerned committees of the local sanggunian,
i.e. Committee on Land Use and Zoning, etc.),
Sectoral Committee Representatives

6. Brief the planning team on how planning activities will be undertaken.

7. Disseminate information on the planning activities to the general public


through barangay assemblies and other forums, posters, publications,
broadcasts, etc. to encourage public participation at the earliest stage of
plan formulation.

The information dissemination should focus on informing the general public on


the purpose, expected outcomes, and the anticipated benefits of the planning
activity to the community. The campaign can likewise solicit ideas/
recommendations/comments from the community. These will serve as a gauge
of public opinion about planning concerns that can be used as inputs in the plan
formulation.

Step 1. Getting Organized 18


Flow Chart for Getting Organized

Mandates/national
policies feedback
issues and trends

Decision to Stratategies
prepare/update to undertake
CLUP planning
1 3
Discuss need to 2 Prepare work
prepare/update Asses available program, budget
CLUP resources work teams

CLUP Proposal
for approval

EO designating SB/SP
members of Resolution
PTs/TWGs approving
proposal
5 4
6
Organize Present proposal
Brief planning
Planning Team to local officials
Team

Defined roles
and responsibilities

7
Disseminate Community
information to awareness
general public

19 Step 1. Getting Organized


Annex 1-1
WORKPROGRAM FOR CLUP AND ZO FORMULATION/REVISION

ACTIVITY M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 M16 M17 M18

1. Getting Organized
• Getting endorsement/approval of SB/SP
• Preparation of work program

Step 1. Getting Organized


• Organization and briefing of planning team
2. Identifying stakeholders
• Listing of stakeholders
• Action planning
• Information dissemination
3. Setting the Vision
• Conduct of visioning workshops
• Adoption of the vision and informing public of the adopted vision
4. Situation Analysis
• Sectoral Studies and Physical/Land Use Studies
a. Base Map Preparation
b. Data Gathering and Land Use Surveys
c . Mapping of Results (Organizing results into maps, graphs, tables,
etc.)
d. Consultations/Validation Workshop
e. Needs/Issues analysis and projections
f. Cross-sectoral analysis and integration
5. Setting of Goals and Objectives
• Goals and objectives formulation workshops
6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies
7. Preparing the Land Use Plan
8. Drafting of Zoning Ordinance and other Development Controls
9. Conduct of Public Hearing
• Conduct of public hearings/consultations
• Refinement of draft CLUP and ZO Subject to appropriate review/approving/ratifying body’s timetables.
10. CLUP Review/Adoption and Approval
• Endorsement for review to appropriate body
• Conduct of review by appropriate body
• Return of CLUP to LGU for refinement
• Refinement of CLUP
• SB/SP Adoption of Refined CLUP

20
• Endorsement to SP/HLURB for Ratification/Approval
• Ratification of SP/HLURB

Assumption: CLUP formulation will be done by the LGU Planning Team. Planning activities may be undertaken in 6 months to 1 year if LGU hires consultant.
Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
IDENTIFYING STEP
STAKEHOLDERS 2
Public participation is a fundamental part of the planning process. It ensures the
involvement of all stakeholders in order to enhance awareness, raise the quality of the
plan, and increase the likelihood of the plan’s acceptability and success of
implementation. Stakeholder participation has two essential and related components,
namely: information sharing among the stakeholders (especially between LGU and the
citizenry), and the active involvement of stakeholders in identifying issues, evaluating
options, and formulating strategies.

Who are the stakeholders and how are they identified? The next step in the planning
process, which may be held in parallel with Step 1 (Getting Organized) is Identifying
Stakeholders (IS). A stakeholder is any person, group or institution, who is potentially
affected by the plan or who can have a significant impact on the implementation of the
plan.

Stakeholder participation is important in the planning process since this gives them the
opportunity to play an active role in decision-making and in the consequent activities
that will affect them.

PURPOSE

To identify the key stakeholders and to assess their knowledge, interests and concerns
related to the CLUP formulation, and how they might affect or be affected by the plan

To understand the relations between stakeholders and the real or potential conflicts
of interest and expectations between and among stakeholders

To develop an action plan for involving the stakeholders in the planning process

To interact more effectively with key stakeholders to get their support for the plan
preparation, plan implementation and monitoring

To avoid potential misunderstandings about and/or opposition to the plan.

21 Step 2. Identifying Stakeholders


EXPECTED OUTPUTS

List of identified stakeholders, their interests and related information


Action plan/strategies for stakeholders’ participation
Stakeholder support and commitment to the planning activities

STEPS

The following steps shall be undertaken by the Planning Team:

1. Conduct workshop/s to identify stakeholders to be involved in the planning


activities.

Participants to the workshop will include the Planning Team, the Local Development Council
(LDC) members and other committees that have been organized for the planning exercise.
It is best to have an independent facilitator to handle the workshops.

The basic steps followed in the workshop are described below.

1.1 Explain the objectives of the exercise to the participants

1.2 Organize the participants into workgroups

1.3 Ask the members of each group to identify, list, and classify individuals and groups
who may have a stake in the CLUP.

The most effective way of doing this is to list as many stakeholders on a sheet of
paper. It may help to list them in rough order of importance. (There may be
changes in order of importance after the analysis)

Specific stakeholders can be identified from the following sectors:

• Local executives, legislators, special bodies.


• The Community: Residents, Non-resident landowners and neighborhood
associations.
• Non-resident employees or workers.
• Private utility companies, i.e., water, telecommunications, sewerage and
electricity (e.g., local water utilities or water districts, electric cooperatives
or private electric companies, telephone companies or cellular phone service
providers).
• Non-government Organizations (NGOs) and Peoples Organizations (POs)
representing particular interest groups (e.g., women sector, indigenous
peoples, farmers and fisher folks, heritage and environmental advocates,
etc.).
• National Government Agencies (NGAs) providing a public service within the
area (e.g., Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board, Department of
Environment and Natural Resources, Department of Interior and Local
Government, etc.).
Any other person or group (public or private) whose activities and decisions
can have an impact on any of the other stakeholders within the area.

Step 2. Identifying Stakeholders 22


Checklist for identifying stakeholders

have all primary (directly affected) and secondary (indirectly affected)


stakeholders been listed?
have all potential supporters and opponents of the plan been identified?
has gender analysis been used to identify different types of female
stakeholders (at both primary and secondary levels)?
have primary stakeholders been divided into user/occupational groups or
income groups?
have the interests of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups (especially the
poor) been identified?
are there any new primary or secondary stakeholders that are likely to emerge
as a result of the plan?

Checklist for drawing out stakeholder interests

Interests of all types of stakeholders may be difficult to define, especially if they


are ‘hidden’; or in contradiction with the openly stated aims of the organizations
or other groups involved.

A rule of thumb is to relate each stakeholder to the problems which the plan is
seeking to address.

Interests may be drawn out by asking:

what are the stakeholders’ expectations of the plan?


what benefits are there likely to be for the stakeholders?
what resources will the stakeholder wish to commit (or avoid committing) to
the plan?
what other interests does the stakeholder have which may conflict with the
plan?
how does the stakeholder regard others in the list?

Information on stakeholders may be available from a review of the mandates of


the different institutions and from social analyses. Many of the interests will
have to be defined by the persons with the best ‘on-the-ground’ experience.
Double check the interests being ascribed to stakeholder groups, to confirm
that they are plausible.

23 Step 2. Identifying Stakeholders


1.4 Ask the workgroups to choose from the list of stakeholders those individuals,
groups, organizations and institutions who may be affected directly or indirectly,
positively or negatively, and write these choices on metacards for ease of sorting
and arranging.

A stakeholder is any person, group or institution that has an interest in a


development activity, project or program. This definition includes both intended
beneficiaries and intermediaries, winners and losers, and those involved or
excluded from decision-making processes.

Stakeholders can be divided into two very broad groups:

primary stakeholders are those who are ultimately affected, i.e. who expect
to benefit from or be adversely affected by the planned interventions;
secondary stakeholders are those who are indirectly affected by the impacts
of the CLUP but may have a particular knowledge and/or significant roles
related to its formulation, implementation, and/or evaluation.

Key stakeholders are those who can significantly influence the project, or are
most important if the CLUP objectives are to be met. Both primary and
secondary stakeholders may be key stakeholders.

In designing a consultation process, it is important to identify all of the


stakeholders because they are likely to be affected by the CLUP, and they can
affect the outcome of the CLUP through their access to, or influence on, the
use of resources and power.

In addition to stakeholders who you think may be directly or indirectly affected,


it is also important to identify and include stakeholders who:

Perceive they may be affected even though you think otherwise


Think they should be involved because of their standing in the community,
and are likely to get annoyed if not invited to participate
May be neutral in their views about the project but could become critical
if not handled well.

It is particularly important that women are fully consulted on all planning and
development proposals.

1.5 Fill up a matrix that creates categories for stakeholders that will be directly
and indirectly affected in a positive or negative way by the plan. (As shown in
Table 2-1)

Step 2. Identifying Stakeholders 24


Table 2-1. List of Stakeholders Affected by the CLUP

Groups/Individuals Interests + / - Effects

A. Directly Affected

B. Indirectly Affected

1.6 Prepare an action plan for approaching and involving each person or group.

Note:
A decision has to be made regarding involvement of the stakeholders, and the extent of
such involvement.

Refer to Annex 2-1 for the guide in conducting consultations in the preparation of CLUPs.

The community should be involved at the earliest planning stage to encourage ownership
of the plan. Though general community participation is not always possible, extensive
involvement may be facilitated through representation, focus group discussions, interviews,
surveys, and other innovative forms of indirect participation.

The action plan shall also include conflict resolution mechanisms to effectively solve
any animosities or conflicts that may arise among the groups or individuals in public
consultations. Problem solving processes and constructive handling of differing viewpoints
should be part of skills training for consultation managers and facilitators.

Knowing the participants beforehand could lead to a better consultation processes.

1.7 Develop an Information and Education Campaign (IEC) plan to inform and
solicit support and commitment of the identified stakeholders and the
general public.

The IEC plan shall include detailed information on the plan preparation and
processes involved, conduct of consultation activities, and timelines for the
whole planning process so that stakeholder participation is maximized.

2. Implement the IEC Plan to ensure the early involvement of stakeholders in the
planning process.

FURTHER READING

HLURB, (2000), Planning Strategically, Chapter 4., Diliman, Quezon City

25 Step 2. Identifying Stakeholders


Flow Chart for Identifying Stakeholders

Conduct workshops to
identify stakeholders
affected by the CLUP

Objectives informed
List of interest groups/individuals
Action Plan/strategies for approaching
and involving stakeholders

Inform and solicit support and Stakeholder support


commitment of stakeholders and commitment

Step 2. Identifying Stakeholders 26


Annex 2-1
GUIDE IN CONDUCTING CONSULTATIONS IN THE PREPARATION OF CLUPS

WHAT WHEN WHO HOW


(Stage) (Step) to consult to consult

Getting started 1 Key decision Present proposal and generate commitment.


makers

Identifying stakeholders 2 Planning team/ Generate list of primary and secondary


committees/TWGs stakeholders.

Planning All members of the Identification of issues and ideas through


• Gathering information/ community broad-based discussions such as workshops,
ideas to formulate/ focus groups, surveys, meetings with existing
validate and establish: groups, and interviews.
- the vision 3
- the existing 4
conditions
- the objectives 5

• Analyzing data to 6 Planning team and Explore the pros and cons of various options
generate and evaluate interested members through participatory design workshops,
options of the community evaluative workshops, and interactive
displays/exhibits .

• Developing a draft 7 All members of the Gather feedback to fine-tune the draft through
CLUP community presentations /displays, public hearings, work-
shops and submission of written comments.

• Finalizing the plan 7,8,9 All members of the Inform the community of the final outcomes
& 10 community and decisions through use of tri-media, flyers,
and various levels of public assemblies.

Implementation 11 Concerned Consult concerned implementing offices/


individuals/groups departments/individuals, affected areas,
property owners, users, etc. depending on
the specific nature of the program or project
for implementation.

Monitoring and 12 All members of the Broad-based consultation regarding the


Evaluation community overall success of the plan and targeted
consultation to monitor, review, and commence
the revision of the CLUP.

Note: For every step of the planning process, some forms of consultation will be required
such as those involving the planning team, TWG, steering committees, and/or selected
stakeholder groups/individuals. The purpose of these consultations range from preparing
drafts, organizing reports/activities, sector analysis, review and finalization of
documents, etc.

27 Step 2. Identifying Stakeholders


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
SETTING STEP
THE VISION 3
Setting the Vision is a participative process whereby the municipality or city defines the
future that it wants. The vision lays out what the citizens of the community would like
their municipality/city to look like in terms of its physical, environmental, social and
economic development.

The visioning exercise binds the municipality/city together as a community which


recognizes their shared values and purposes, and helps them articulate a shared vision
of their locality. It creates a sense of ownership among the stakeholders to the extent
that they want to achieve their vision as the plan gets implemented over the years. The
vision serves as the driving force that moves the entire city/municipality towards the
achievement of a common development direction and provides the overall guidance
and focus in the succeeding stages of the planning process.

The VISION needs to be formulated in a participatory manner, and arrived at in a


consensus. The formulation of the VISION may be done through the conduct of a
visioning workshop participated in by the stakeholders.

In setting the VISION, the following essential elements may be considered:

Qualities of the people as individuals


Qualities of the people as a society
Nature of the local economy
State of the natural environment
Capacity of local leadership

The basic ingredients of a vision statement are:

Positive, present tense language


Qualities that provide the reader with a feeling for the municipality’s/
city’s uniqueness
Depiction of the highest standards of excellence and achievement
A focus on people and quality of life
A stated time period

PURPOSE

• To formulate a widely acceptable vision statement for the municipality/city


• To foster ownership of the vision statement

Step 3. Setting the Vision 28


EXPECTED OUTPUTS

An overall vision statement for the municipality/city


Developed better communication among stakeholders
A basis for formulation of goals, objectives, programs and policies

STEPS

There are various methods of setting the vision for the city/municipality. These can be done
through surveys, interviews, workshop, etc. The following workshop method may
be used:

FOR CITY/MUNICIPALITY SETTING A NEW VISION STATEMENT

1. Conduct preparatory activities for the visioning workshop

1.1 Identify participants/stakeholders to be involved in the visioning workshop


session(s)

At the minimum, participants shall include the members of the Local


Development Council (LDC).

1.2 Schedule the visioning workshop

1.3 Announce and publicize the schedule of the visioning workshop/s and send out
invitations well in advance for maximum participation. Avoid scheduling meetings
that will conflict with holidays or other important community events.

1.4 Prepare the workshop design using Technology of Participation (TOP)


(Refer to Annex 3-1 for some techniques of participation)

2. Conduct the visioning workshop according to the workshop design/program of activities.


During the workshop:

2.1 Discuss the objectives and mechanics of the visioning workshop

2.2 Make a brief presentation on the importance of a vision in CLUP preparation and
to the city/municipality

2.3 Define and discuss the elements of a vision, specifically its relation to the planning
process.

2.4 Group the participants into smaller workshop groups (ideally 6-8 persons per group).
Use metacards during the workshop to encourage participation and to facilitate the
generation and processing of data.

29 Step 3. Setting the Vision


2.5 Generate ideas on the perceived conditions of the city/municipality by posing the
questions below:

What do you like about the municipality/city as it is now? (aspects you may
wish to preserve)
What don’t you like about the municipality/city? (issues to be resolved/
changed)
What do you think should be done to improve the municipality/city? (things
you want to have/create in your municipality/city)

The result of this activity will provide an approximate description of the current
situation as a form of leveling-off for the participants’/community’s perception
of their city/municipality.

2.6 Generate ideas on the future/ desired state of the city/municipality by posing the
question: What do you want your city/municipality to become 10-20 years from
now? Use descriptors or adjectives to write ideas on metacards (one idea/descriptor
per metacards)

2.7 Group the meta-cards/ideas according to the following essential elements of a


vision:

Qualities of the people as individuals


Qualities of the people as society
Nature of the local economy
State of the natural environment
Condition of the built environment
Capacity of local leadership

2.8 Summarize and validate in a plenary the relevant descriptors as shown below:

ELEMENTS DESCRIPTORS
(sample)

Natural Environment Scenic, ecologically balanced, etc.


Local Economy Self-reliant, diversified, etc.
People as Society Empowered, vigilant, etc.
People as Individuals Disciplined, honest, law-abiding, etc.
Local Leadership Transparent, responsible, firm, etc.
Built Environment Orderly, clean, vibrant, etc.

2.9 Formulate at least two Vision Statements using the agreed descriptors generated
in the previous step

2.10 Evaluate, select, and reach consensus on the Vision Statement that best captures
what the stakeholders want for their city/municipality

Step 3. Setting the Vision 30


Evaluation of the vision may be guided by the following questions:

Does it capture the ideas/descriptions generated?


Is it easy to remember/memorize?
Is it inspiring, motivating and powerful?
Can it be felt or experienced?
Does it capture the aspirations of the community, and is it shared by all
sectors of the community?
Is it attractive, ambitious and achievable?

3. After the visioning workshop disseminate the selected Vision Statement to the
Sangguniang Panglunsod/Bayan and the general public for feedback.

4. Validate and refine the Vision Statement considering the feedback.

5. Present the refined Vision Statement to the LDC for endorsement to the Sangguniang
Panglunsod/Bayan for subsequent adoption.

6. Conduct extensive information campaign on the adopted Vision Statement.

The above visioning exercise was used in formulating the vision of Cagayan de
Oro City, the result of which was adopted by the city. The said vision statement
is quoted as follows:

“A peaceful, orderly, livable city with a modern trading center


where there are equal opportunities for our disciplined
citizens to develop and prosper in a clean and healthy
environment”.

FOR CITY/MUNICIPALITY REVIEWING


AN EXISTING VISION STATEMENT

LGUs may revisit/revalidate their existing vision statement guided by the vision-reality
gap analysis technique. This technique is best undertaken through a multi-stakeholder
workshop after the situation analysis stage (Step 4) of the CLUP process.

The workshop process will have the following steps:

1. Discuss the objectives and mechanics of the visioning workshop.

2. Present a brief situationer/current profile of the community.

31 Step 3. Setting the Vision


3. Define and discuss the elements of a vision, specifically its relation to the
planning process.

4. Group the participants into smaller groups (ideally 6-8 persons per group).

5. Complete the vision-reality gap matrix (refer to sample matrix on succeeding


page) considering the result of the situation analysis.

6. Fill in the matrix with the elements of the vision statement.

7. Fill in the matrix with descriptors (desired quality) of the vision.

8. Identify and agree on the success indicators for each descriptor.

9. Compare success indicators with current state of development (existing


situation).
10. Rate each indicator according to its position in relation to achieving the vision.

Use the following suggested rating scale.

0 = Nothing at all has been achieved


1 = Very little (1% to 25%) has been attained
2 = Attainment is about 26% to 50%
3 = Attainment is quite high (51% to 75%)
4 = Vision is very close to being realized (76% to 100%)
N = Inadequate information

11. Identify vision-reality gap (result of deducting the rating from the highest possible
score).

12. Identify the planning concerns for action derived from descriptors with low achievement
rating. These planning concerns will be essential when identifying initial policy options.

13. Refine the vision statement as may be necessary based on the vision-reality gap
analysis.

IF THE VISION IS REFINED

14. Present the refined vision statement to the LDC for endorsement to the SP/SB for
subsequent adoption.

15. Disseminate the adopted vision to the general public.

Step 3. Setting the Vision 32


IF THERE IS NO REVISION,

16. Proceed to the next step of the CLUP process

EXAMPLES

Vision-Reality Gap Matrix

PEOPLE AS INDIVIDUALS (element)

Descriptor Success Rating Policy Options


Indicator

God-loving Peace-loving 3 • Conduct extensive value orientation


Honest 2 courses
Reliable 3 • Strengthen moral recovery program
Caring 1 • Set up a local knowledge center for
Law abiding 2 children
Child friendly 2

Healthy Long life 3 • Introduce life prolonging programs


expectancy • Provide medical support
Low morbidity rate 2 • Establish/maintain a drug
Drug-free 1 rehabilitation center

PEOPLE AS SOCIETY (element)

Descriptor Success Rating Policy Options


Indicator

Empowered Public consultation 1


made and integral part • Encourage participation of civil society in
of the decision- making public consultations
process • Institutionalize sectoral committees
• Involve POs/NGOs in the key stages of
POs/NGOs 1 implementation of government programs and
participate in projects
planning, • Provide PO/NGO representation in all planning
implementation, stages on continuing basis prolonging
monitoring and programs
evaluation of LGU
programs and projects

Vigilant Disaster prepared 2 • Strengthen City/Municipal/Brgy. Disaster


citizenry Coordinating Council

33 Step 3. Setting the Vision


ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (element)

Descriptor Success Rating Policy Options


Indicator

Clean and Safe Quality at allowable N Monitoring and testing of surface and
water level set by ground water quality
Phil. National
Drinking Water
Standard

Attractive Density of greens 1 Protection of old trees, regeneration


within the urban core sites, mangroves, and open green
spaces

Balanced Built-up area 1 Formulate a city open space plan and


integrated with city’s management guidelines
open space network

LOCAL ECONOMY (element)

Descriptor Success Rating Policy Options


Indicator

Diversified Increased no. of 4 • Promote upgrading of quality


financial institutions education

Increased no. of • Encourage special health services


service 3 to locate in Dagupan
establishments
• Update and enact city ordinance to
accommodatethe informal sector

Environment Maximum 10% of 0 Regulate fishpens and enforce


Friendly surface water for existing local fishing ordinance
aquaculture

Step 3. Setting the Vision 34


LOCAL GOVERNANCE (element)

Descriptor Success Rating Policy Options


Indicator

Firm Enforcement of local 3 • Strict imposition of penalties


laws (e.g. zoning
ordinance

Low apprehended 3
violators, filed cases/
imposed penalties,
sanctioned violators

Progressive Less IRA dependent 2


(not only LGU • Intensify tax collection by efficient monitoring
administration and updating local ordinances on local taxes
but also • Strengthen cash management
governance) • Improve internal audit system
• Institutionalization of LGU-NGO-PO
NGO/PO registered 2 undertakings
increase, NGO/PO • Strengthening and federating SP-accredited
active participation 2 NGOs/POs

Examples of Vision Statements:

1. Pasay City
A scenic premiere city thriving with business and economic opportunities, guided by dynamic
and efficient local leadership, and home to self-reliant, healthy, and morally upright people.

2. Makati City
A sustainable, highly developed, environmentally balanced and progressive urban center
whose residents have a sense of well-being and are morally upright, educated, disciplined,
self-reliant, and community oriented.

3. San Fernando City


A well planned and properly regulated land use and philosophy that the utilization of land resources
should always gear towards improving the quality of life, especially the poor and underprivileged
and maintenance of ecological balance, over time, in the whole city.

4. Tuguegarao City
An improved quality of life that endures the optimum, balanced and sustainable development of
the municipality as an administrative, institutional, cultural and balance center for the Cagayan
Valley Region.

5. City of Himamaylan, Negros Occidental

A progressive, Ecologically-Balanced, Peaceful City characterized by a healthy, empowered


and self-reliant citizenry under responsible, accountable governance with social justice and
equality to all Himalaynon.

35 Step 3. Setting the Vision


Annex 3-1
THE BASIC METHODS OF TECHNOLOGY OF PARTICIPATION (TOP)

The basic methods of TOP as provided below have been successfully tested and applied in
the planning process.

1. Discussion method

This is a method of facilitating group conversations and discussions which allows a group
to deepen its insights and creativity on a common topic or experience. It allows the members
of the group to share the many and diverse perspectives in a non-confrontational manner.
And it also reveals the bounds of consensus the group is willing to draw.

2. Workshop method

This method is a way of facilitating a group’s thinking about a particular topic into focused
decisions and action. It is an effective way of building group consensus and moving it to
joint resolve and action.

3. Action Planning Method

This method, which combines both the discussion and workshop methods, is an effective
structure for moving a group from a good idea to a concrete plan of action within specific
time periods and with specifically outlined assignments and responsibilities.

These methods may be applied to an infinite number of situations and purposes. Creatively
combined and even adapted, these methods can serve as powerful tools for both satisfying
and empowering group experiences.

TECHNOLOGIES OF PARTICIPATION

Focused dialogue on a common topic or


experience
Discussion Share diverse perspectives in a non-confrontational
Method manner
Deepen insights/resolve of a group

Focus insights/discussions of a group (common


Workshop ground)
Method Build group consensus
Move to joint action

Action Build concrete plan (assumes consensus exists)


Planning Create clear forms of accountability
Method Initiate group action

Reference: Materials given during the Refresher Course on Basic Group Facilitation and
Conflict Resolution, Philippine Urban Forum, 6 June 2003, Innotech, Quezon City

37 Step 3. Setting the Vision


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
ANALYZING STEP
THE SITUATION 4
Step 4 of the planning process, the Situation Analysis, basically answers the question:
Where are we now? It is both analytical and diagnostic, geared towards identifying
issues, potentials and future development needs and spatial requirements of the city/
municipality. Assessment involves technical and participatory methods.

Technical assessment is based on factual data derived from surveys, official publications
and records of the city/municipality, concerned national agencies and other entities.
Assessment involves the use of indicators such as proportions, rates, frequency, quality/
condition ( e.g. severity, critical, etc.), standards and other parameters that are vital in
characterizing the situations.

Participatory assessment is based on the outcome/results of barangay/community


consultations, focus group discussions, meetings with key informants, multi-sectoral
meetings, etc. This activity facilitates the generation of the community’s felt needs,
desires, and perceived issues and opportunities. Suggestions to address issues and
concerns can also be derived from this exercise.

Planning tools such as SWOT, Problem Tree Analysis, Sieve Mapping Technique,
Geographic Information Systems (GIS ), etc. are helpful tools in situation analysis. The
HLURB A Guide to Data Management in the CLUP Preparation provides the applications,
layouts and examples of CLUP formulation using GIS as a tool.

PURPOSE

To identify/gather/update baseline data in order to assess the existing socio-


economic and physical and environmental characteristics of the LGU;

To identify the needs, issues and concerns to be addressed by the CLUP and the
opportunities/potentials that can be tapped to achieve the community vision;

To identify Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices (IKSP)

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 38


EXPECTED OUTPUTS

Socio-economic, demographic, physical and environmental profile/data base of


the city/municipality

Consolidated, prioritized major and significant development needs, issues,


strengths and potentials of the LGU which have spatial components and are
necessary in the achievement of the vision.

Existing land use map, thematic maps, and analytical maps of the entire area
covered by the city/municipality, including the marine and coastal areas and
freshwater wetlands such as rivers and lakes.

STEPS

The steps outlined below is focused on the assessment of the existing land uses in the city/
municipality. The procedures for the social, economic and infrastructure sectors are discussed
in Volume 2, Manual on Demography and Sectoral Studies In Comprehensive Land Use
Planning. All these studies may be done simultaneously.

1. Conduct sectoral studies of the planning area in parallel with the conduct of
natural/physical/environmental, and land use assessment (step 2, below).

This step involves updating of the existing demographic and socio-economic data and their
subsequent analysis to come up with information that will characterize the current and
past situations in the city/municipality.

The sectoral assessment may be guided by the Guide to Sectoral Studies


in the CLUP Preparation (Vol. 2) which covers the following:

Demography
Social
Economic
Infrastructure

2. Conduct an assessment of the natural/physical/environmental features and


existing land uses of the city/municipality following these steps:

2.1 Collect data/map requirements as shown in Table 4 - 1.

2.2 Prepare base map ( both presentation and report size maps ) of the whole planning
area. Refer to Mapping Guidelines, Vol. VII of the HLURB Guidelines for the
Formulation/Revision of Comprehensive Land Use Plan, 1996 or the HLURB: A
Guide to Data Management in the CLUP Preparation.

39 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Tips for the preparation of base maps

The base map shall serve as the working map where the different land use
categories of the whole municipality/city shall be delineated.
To facilitate a more accurate delineation of land uses, the working base
map may be enlarged to cover certain districts (i.e. CBD, growth/urbanizing
areas) and/or by clusters of barangays.
A topographic map provides important physical information and reference
points for the base map while a cadastral map gives a more accurate
parcellary boundary information of the municipality/city.
Use the standard scales as suggested by the Inter-Agency Task Force on
Geographic Information for uniformity and ease in overlaying techniques.
Suggested scales are:
1:5,000/1:10,000/1:25,000
1:2,000/1:4,000 ( for enlarging specific areas in the LGU)
The use of GIS gives greater flexibility in preparing the base/working
map in any desired scale.
Road networks and surface drainage (water bodies) shall be properly
delineated in order to facilitate the conduct of land use survey.
Coastal and marine areas should be reflected in the maps, showing the
boundaries of the municipal water .

Samples of base maps, existing land use and other thematic maps are presented
in Annex 4- 2

2.3 Conduct actual land use survey. Determine the existing land uses within the entire
boundaries of the city/municipality including uses of its freshwater and marine water
boundaries.

Methods of land use survey:

Foot survey
Area inspection is done on foot (walking). This is recommended for high-density areas
to produce precise survey checks, specifically for the urban areas or poblaciones.

Windshield survey
Windshield survey is done while riding a vehicle. It involves a rapid survey of land uses
particularly in low density areas. It is used for a general land use survey of the entire
municipality/city.
The following technology will facilitate the determination and/or validation of actual land
uses:
• Global Positioning System (GPS)
The use of handheld GPS receivers is the best way to perform actual
ground survey and ground truthing.
• Aerial photos and satellite imagery
Available aerial photographs and satellite imagery, combined with GIS
technology, is used to derive and analyze land use data.

The procedural steps in land use survey are presented in Annex 4-1; Annex 4-3
presents the land use categories and the corresponding color coding.

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 40


Table 4-1. List of Maps and Data Requirements and the Corresponding Sources

Data Requirements Sources

A. Geographical, Administrative/Political Profile

1. Geographic location of municipality Coordinates NAMRIA/Topo Map


(longitudinal/latitudinal location)
2. Location and significant role in relation to the LGU/PPFP/RPFP (other national, local
province, region and country, if any. area plans)
3. Municipal land area & boundaries
4. Political Subdivisions (Urban-Rural Barangays) DENR-FMB & LMB, LGU
5. Alienable and disposable land DENR

B. Natural and Physical Characteristics

1. Climatological conditions-type of climate-prevailing Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical


winds, average annual rainfall & mean temperature- and Astronomical Services
tidal current patterns (for coastal areas) Administration(PAG-ASA)
2. Topography NAMRIA
• topographic relief
• elevation
• slope
• surface drainage (bodies of water within the
city/municipality)
3. Vegetation/Vegetative cover BSWM & LGU
4. Soil BSWM
- type/classification
- soil suitability
- land capability (if any)
5. Hydrogeologic Features DENR – MGB, PHIVOLCS
- groundwater resources
- fault lines, etc.
- volcanoes
- bedrock foundation
6. Conservation areas and other Special Interest Areas
• Protected Areas (NIPAS and non-NIPAS) both • DENR
terrestrial and marine
• Ancestral domains • National Commission on Indigenous
People (NCIP), DENR
• Prime Agricultural Lands (NPAAAD) • DA
• Primary Forests and other forest types • DENR, FMB
• Fish Sanctuaries • DA-BFAR, PCMRD
• Historical, cultural and natural heritage sites • NHI, NCCA, DENR
• Wetlands (lakes, rivers, coral reefs, mangroves, • DENR, BFAR
seagrass beds, marshes, etc.)
• Critical watersheds • DENR, NIA, PNOC
• Geothermal Sites/Plants • PNOC
• Mining and Quarrying Areas • DENR, MGB, Provincial Government

41 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Data Requirements Sources

C. Land Use (Refer to Annex 4-3 on Land Use Categories) Primary Survey
including the following Special Interest Areas:

- Ancestral Domain National Commission on Indigenous


People (NCIP)
- Historical and cultural heritage areas NHI/DOT/PTA/NCCA, LGU
- World heritage areas NHI, NCCA
- Location of manmade structures e.g. dams, LGU
reservoirs, if any
- Location/extent of mining/quarrying activities, LGU/DENR-MGB/Provincial Office
such as sand, gravel, etc.
- Previous land use maps ( 10-20 yrs. ago, if any ) LGU
- Previous land use plan, if any LGU

D. Environmental Condition

1. Location/distribution/condition of: DENR, Project Studies, surveys,


- fish sanctuaries interview with community
- coral reefs
- mangroves
- seagrass beds
2. Classification of rivers/bodies of water within the DENR, Project studies, surveys,
municipality interviews
3. Quality of rivers, marine waters, etc. (polluted or not;
degree of pollution) - do –
4. Probable sources of pollution, if any
5. Geological/environmental hazard areas PHIVOLCS, DENR/MGB; interview with
- fault zones community; surveys, special studies, if
- volcanoes any.
- tsunami prone areas
- areas susceptible to landslides, erosion,
subsidence, sinkholes, etc.
- areas prone to noise, air pollution
- probable causes of hazards or risk

E. Other Land Related Data:

1. On-going and pipeline projects: type, location, area NGAs (i.e. DPWH), LGU
covered
2. Policies covering Production, Protection, Infrastructure PPFP
and Settlement areas as defined in the Provincial
Physical Framework Plan (PPFP)

2.4 Conduct consultation workshops or interviews to gather perception of the community


regarding the environmental condition of the city/municipality, including perceived
causes/sources of degradation, if any, and the perceived impacts.

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 42


This activity may be done through barangay consultations and/or focus group
discussion(s) with key stakeholders usually with the elderly in the community,
who have good knowledge or have experienced natural calamities, disasters,
or other environmental degradation that affected/is affecting the community.
Guide questions shall be structured to cover the following:

Type/s of environmental degradation, calamity or disastrous events such


as flashfloods, erosion, earthquakes, etc.
Extent of damage to lives, properties, and impact to the community
Frequency of occurrences
Perceived causes
Suggestions on how the community and the government can help mitigate
such occurrences.

Note: Some of these information may already be generated/gathered during the conduct
of sectoral studies

3. Process and analyze data/information gathered.

3.1 Plot/Delineate in the working base map all data/information on physical


attributes of the city municipality for better appreciation of its spatial dimension.

Sample thematic maps are presented in Annex 4-2.

3.2 Prepare the existing land use map including water uses based on the information
from the base map and the gathered land use data. The map shall
include the following:

- delineation of the various land uses (See color codes in Annex 4-3)
- coastal and marine areas; boundaries of municipal waters
- existing major wetlands, inland waters

Note: Use maps which has the same size and scale as the base map.

3.3 Quantify and determine the extent of distribution of each land use category
and present in a tabular form and in any possible visuals or illustrations. A
tabular presentation (see Table 4 - 2) is recommended to summarize the
results of this step.

3.4. Establish the relationship of each data with other relevant data.

3.4.1 Examine/assess data relative to the geographical location and


administrative/political domain of the city/municipality. Determine the
situation of the city/municipality within the region/province in terms of
area and its significant role, if, any.

3.4.2 Analyze barangay distribution in terms of rural and urban areas;


population size/concentration; economic activities and employment
opportunities and accessibility to social services.

43 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


3.4.3 Determine/analyze extent of alienable and inalienable lands within the
city/municipality in terms of area, location, and barangays covered.

3.4.4 Analyze impacts of existing land uses on the environment of the city/
municipality, e.g. subdivision projects on sloping areas.

3.4.5 Determine existing environmental condition and validate the perception


of the community.

Table 4-2. Existing Land Uses Area, Distribution, and Percent to Total

LAND USE CATEGORIES AREA PERCENT TO


( in hectares ) TOTAL
• Urban Use Areas
Residential
Commercial
Infrastructure/utilities
Institutional
Parks/playgrounds and other recreational spaces
Industrial
• Agriculture
• Forest and forest use categories
• Mining/quarrying
• Grassland/pasture
• Agro-industrial
• Tourism
• Other uses /categories
• Cemeteries
• Dumpsites/Sanitary Landfills
• Buffer zones/greenbelts
• Idle/vacant lands
• Reclamations
• Water uses
• Nipa swamps
• Mangrove forests
• Tourism (recreation/resorts)
• Settlements on stilts
• Infrastructure (e.g. ports, fish landing)
• Aquaculture and marine culture (e.g. fish cages/
fish pens, seaweed culture, etc.)
• Others, specify (e.g. river sand/gravel quarrying,
coral reef, seagrass beds)

* Definition of terms for coastal and marine areas are


provided in Annex 4-4

TOTAL 100%

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 44


4. Discuss the existing situation of the city/municipality in terms of the following:

4.1 Geographical, Administrative and Political Domain

Geographic location, boundaries and land area


Political units (barangays: number, location, and area per barangay)

4.2 Natural and Physical Characteristics

Topography and Slope (prevailing topography and location, degree of slopes)


Climate (climate type, climatic conditions and prevailing winds)
Soil types and soil suitability (general soil types and suitability for agriculture,
settlements, other uses)
Surface drainage (major water bodies, including coastal and marine,and
freshwater lakes and rivers, marshlands, and other wetlands)
Hydrogeology (presence and extent of fault zones, types of bedrock
formation, and location of surface and groundwater)
Mineral resources

4.3 Existing Land Uses

Area per land use category and percentage to total land area (include table
of these information).
Prevailing dominant land use and their location/distribution/intensity of use
Physical condition, adaptability for future use, and constraints to development
(e.g. typhoons, fault lines, etc.)
Conflicting land uses and other land use problems and issues (e.g.
settlements inside forest areas, flooding, blight, etc.)
Urban form and development trend (direction of physical/land use change
and intensity of development)
Development potentials

4.4 Existing Uses of Coastal and Marine Areas

Coastal and marine areas – describe significant features and natural


attributes, length of coastline, and total boundary of marine municipal waters
Area and location of each utilization category
Present utilization – include other commercial activities such as resorts, or
tourism sites, ports, fishing, quarrying activities, and aquaculture
developments.
Location and extent of settlements, if applicable.
Point out specific problems, issues, particularly on conflicting uses within
the coastal zone, resulting in environmental degradation and the like.

4.5 Environmental Condition

Existing situation of coastal and marine areas - discuss manifested


environmental stresses like beach erosion, marine pollution, damaged
aquatic life, siltation or sedimentation
Freshwater bodies like lakes and rivers (quality and extent of water pollution,
if any)

45 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Risk areas/environmentally critical areas (nature, location, extent and
frequency of occurrences)
Protected Areas (area covered, location, NIPAS category), forest areas,
watersheds, and other natural resources
Land classification (location and area of forest/public lands and alienable
and disposable lands)
Infrastructure facilities (focus on adequacy, capacity, condition, and loads
for current and future population. A more detailed assessment is presented
in the sectoral manual on infrastructure, Vol 2).

5. Establish the significant historical land use trends by describing the major
land uses and general characteristics of such uses that prevailed in the
city/municipality in previous plans or at certain points/eras in the past.

5.1 Trace historical land use from as far back as existing records (documents,
maps, pictures, etc.) and verified information are available;
5.2 Presentation shall be in chronological order, from the earliest time to the
present;
5.3 Identify the major land use activities and their location
5.4 Establish the historical land use trends by describing significant changes
noted from one point to another.

6. Prepare map to reflect areas that need to be conserved and preserved, and
areas with physical constraints as follows:

Natural risks and hazards areas (volcanic, seismic, flood-prone, erosion-prone,


tsunami-prone, etc.)
Protected areas such as National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS),
NON-NIPAS, Network of Protected Agricultural and Agri-Industrial Areas for
Development (NPAAADs)
Wetlands/coastal, marine, lakes, rivers, marshes, man-made, etc.
Historical and cultural areas (if any), Man and biosphere Areas (MAB) and other
globally designated areas
Fish sanctuaries
Watersheds and forest areas
Existing land use

Other Land Studies

In addition to the land use survey, supplementary land studies may be undertaken
to obtain additional information on the physical setting which may be needed in
the formulation of the land use plan. These additional studies may or may not be
carried out, depending on local circumstances, previous studies undertaken,
available resources, etc. The discussions on Other Supplemental Land Studies
in CLUP Preparation are presented in Annex 4-5.

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 46


7. Quantify the areas considered for conservation/preservation/protection and
tabulate results.

8. Determine the available land supply for development/future expansion areas:

Land supply is the land area available within the city/municipality for urban use expansion.
Basically, this is what is left after deducting the areas considered for protection/
preservation and conservation such as the Network of Protected Agricultural and Agri-
Industrial Development Areas (NPAAADs), National Integrated Protected Areas Systems
(NIPAS), natural risks and hazards areas, and existing urban areas.

Mathematically, this can be presented as follows:

Land Supply for development/future development areas =


TLA – (PCA+UA+SLU)

Where: TLA = Total Land Area of the city/municipality


PCA = Protection/Preservation and Conservation Areas
(Refer to identified development constraints and
quantified areas)
UA = Urban Use Areas are the built-up areas or those areas
with urban activities/land uses.
SLU = Special Land Uses that are significant and unique to
the city/municipality, e.g. agro-industrial, tourism
areas designated for projects in the pipeline (Refer
to Table 1, Existing Land Uses)

Sample Computations:
Given Parameters (Figures are hypothetical) Areas (in Has.)

Total Land Area 50,000


Preservation and Conservation Areas (PCA) 25,000
Urban Use Areas (UA) 10,000
Special Land Uses (SLU) 5,000

Land Supply for Development/


Future Expansion Areas = 50,000 – (25,000+10,000+5,000)
= 10,000

9. Estimate the total land area required or needed for urban development and
other special planning areas. This may be the total land requirements
determined in the sectoral studies or derived through various methods as
follows:

Use of various national agency standards

Land for future expansion of urban and other uses is projected on the basis of the
given standard area/space requirement per sector multiplied by the population
growth index.

47 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


(A more detailed procedure on the computation of space requirements per sector
are presented in the sectoral studies manual, Vol. 2)

Future space requirement = space standard x growth index

Where the growth index is an appropriate factor to which standards are applied;
specifically, it refers to forecast levels of housing stocks, employment, production
and facility requirements.

This simple formula is not applicable to all types of land use activities. Space
requirements for some uses such as government or civic centers, art centers,
museums, and open space systems (greenbelts, land reserves) are best
determined by special studies and on a case to case basis. Also, initial
computations using space standards are usually adjusted to include allowances
for flexibility (say 20% addition to the computed area requirement) and to conform
to availability of appropriate locations and desired density/intensity.

The LGU may however, opt to agree on parameters for determining space
requirements unique to their local situation and consistent with the adopted vision.

Current urban density – this approach assumes that future land allocation for
urban use shall be based on existing urban density regardless of the growth in
urban population.

The future land requirement is derived by multiplying the current urban density
by the projected population. The derived sum will be redistributed according to
the existing share of each land use category to the total urban land requirement.

Other methods or standards as may be agreed upon by the planning team.

The estimated land requirements shall be properly justified in terms of the method
used, and the vision and functional role of the city/municipality.

The land requirements may also increase or decrease, as needed, during the
final stages of the plan formulation.

10. Conduct a cross-sectoral analysis and integration of the results of the


demographic and the socio-economic and environmental studies to derive
the most pressing and significant problems and issues.

This activity requires a series of consultative workshops with key stakeholders to


be conducted by the planning team.

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 48


This step should result to the identification of the following:

Internal strength of the city/municipality in terms of:


- Natural/physical features
- Socio-economic and manpower resources
- Administrative/institutional and financial capacities
- Other internal resources/capacities

Opportunities
- Development role assigned by higher-level plans
- On-going or pipeline investment plans, development projects of the national
government and/or private investors
- Developments in the region, province, offering opportunities for tapping the LGUs
resources
- Other internal national, regional, or local circumstances/events offering
opportunities for the LGU.

Weaknesses, such as:


- Poor soil quality;
- Lack or shortage of infrastructural support facilities such as irrigation, road,
power, water and telecommunication;
- Lack of market;
- Credit facilities, health, recreational and educational facilities;
- Lack of skilled labor force;
- Located in a typhoon prone area or along geologic fault lines;
- Presence of erosion prone areas;
- Adherence to traditional values and farming practices;
- Low literacy rates;
- Lack of response to incentives;
- Unresponsive government machinery and deteriorated peace and order
condition;
Threats
- Environmental degradation (include air/water/soil pollution) from existing or
proposed manufacturing/processing facilities;
- Ecological changes (water/moisture supply) brought about by extent of
degradation of mangrove and swamps;
- Extent of damage to flora and fauna;
- Irreversible land degradation from existing mining explorations or mineral
exploitation;
- Pollution of river systems from solid wastes; siltation due to erosion from
denuded forests;
- Depletion of coral reefs/fish sanctuaries;
- Destruction of aesthetics;
- Historical and human interest features in the province and change in government
policies or leadership;

The procedural steps for the conduct of SWOT and Cross-Sectoral analysis
techniques are presented in Annexes 4-6 and 4-7, respectively.

49 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Flow Chart for Situation Analysis

STEPS OUTPUTS

Demographic/Socio-
Economic/Infrastructure-
Utilities Profile

Conduct Sectoral
sectoral studies needs/issues/problems

Projected/future
sectoral land requirements

Physical Environmental
Conduct
Profile
assessment of
natural/physical/
environmental Existing Land Uses:
features Categories and Areas
Existing Land Use Map
Thematic and Analysis Maps

Development Constraint/
Non-buildable areas
Total future land requirements
Potential development areas
3

Conduct cross-sectoral LGU potentials and


analysis and integration of comparative advantages
sectors and land uses Priority issues and problems
Possible intervention

51 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Annex 4-1
STEPS IN LAND USE SURVEY
Foot survey

Step 1. Determine pace factor.

Pace factor is applied to calculate frontage distance for each structure in the block/zone being
surveyed.

A block is a portion of land usually bounded by streets. It can accommodate a number of


structures used for different purposes.

The pace factor is computed as follows:

√ Get a 50-meter tape measure. Spread tape.


√ Let the fieldworker walk at least three times along the tape. Record the number
of the paces in every direction.
√ Add number of paces and divide by the number of times the fieldworkers
walked along the tape.
√ Divide 50 meters by the average number of paces. The result is the pace
factor.
√ To get the frontage distance, simply multiply the number of recorded paces by
the pace factor.

Step 2. Note down the exact use of land areas and structures on them. The information
should be recorded on the survey sheet and plotted on the working map.

Windshield Survey

Step 1. Set odometer reading to zero. A working map and topographic map/aerial photo must
be on hand to record land uses and to note changes, if any.

Step 2. Use a compass to ensure correct orientation on the working map. A pair of binoculars
would also be useful in conducting the ocular survey.

Step 3. Note changes in land uses leading for instance, in area expansion.

With the use of reference points like rivers, roads and other land marks, boundaries
of specific uses maybe approximated on the topographic map/material photograph.
The odometer must be read to determine the approximate distance where the changes
occur along the highway. Boundaries may also be counterchecked with recent aerial
photographs.

Step 4. Transfer the survey findings on the base map. Use appropriate color in the delineation
of the land use categories (Refer to Table4-1 for standard color code per land use
category)

Global Positioning System (GPS) Survey

Step 1. Familiarize yourself with the GPS receiver being used.

Read and follow the manufacturer’s instruction on the use and operation of the

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 52


GPS receiver. Make sure that all settings are correct and appropriate and that satellite
and weather conditions for GPS reading are satisfied before conducting the survey.

Step 2. Proceed to the points of observation and get the GPS reading, record these readings
(usually the latitude and longitude) and a description of the points being occupied.

Step 3. Transfer readings on a base map by either manual plotting or by uploading the data
from the GPS to a computer. Software is available which can get and process data
from GPS receivers.

GPS survey can also be used to verify data on a GIS system. Method of data gathering is the
same as the steps above and once the information is uploaded in a computer, most GIS
applications can read GPS data and can be processed using these applications. Furthermore,
some GPS receivers can be uploaded with the points to be verified and others can store digital
maps so validation of boundaries can be done in the field.

Refer to Volume 3, A Guide to Data Management in CLUP Preparation for a


comprehensive discussion on land use related survey and mapping.

53 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Annex 4-2
SAMPLE MAPS

Note: Refer to GIS Cookbook (Vol. 3) for updated GIS maps.

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 54


Note: Refer to GIS Cookbook (Vol. 3) for updated GIS maps.

55 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Annex 4-3
LAND USE CATEGORIES AND COLOR CODING

LAND USE CATEGORIES COLOR CODING

• Urban Use Areas


Residential
Commercial
Infrastructure/utilities
Institutional
Parks/playgrounds and other recreational
spaces
Industrial
• Agriculture
• Forest and forest use categories

• Mining/quarrying
• Grassland/pasture
• Agro-industrial
• Tourism
• Other uses /categories

• Cemeteries
• Dumpsites/Sanitary Landfills
• Buffer zones/greenbelts
• Idle/vacant lands
• Reclamations

• Water uses

• Nipa swamps
• Mangrove forest
• Tourism (recreation/resorts)
• Settlement on stilts
• Aquaculture and mariculture (e.g. fish
cages/fishpens, seaweed culture)
• Others, specify (e.g. river sand/gravel
quarrying, coral reef, seagrass beds)

* Definition of terms for coastal and marine areas are


provided in Annex 4-4.

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 56


Annex 4-4
DEFINITION OF TERMS FOR COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS

1. Brackishwater Fishponds (earthponds) - man-made enclosures of varying size,


dependent on tidal fluctuations of water management, located in estuaries (deltas, mudflats
and mangrove swamps) and intended for the culture of fishes/aquatic species.

2. Brackishwater Swamps - land areas where most of the time the brackishwater level is at/
above the land surface.

3. Coastline - lines that form the boundary between the land and water, especially of sea or
ocean.

4. Coral reefs - simply defined, these are reefs made chiefly of fragments of corals, coral
sands, algae and other organic deposits, and the solid limestone resulting from their
consolidation. Technically, they are marine shelves or platforms formed by the consolidation
of the skeleton of hermatypic corals through cementation by coralline algae and lithification
processes.

5. Dunes - an accumulation of sand in ridges or mounds landward of the beach formed by


natural processes and usually parallel to the shoreline.

6. Estuary - a water body where sea water of oceanic origin is diluted by freshwater from
land drainage areas. Areas influenced by this include deltas, tidal marshes, and river mouth,
among others.

7. Foreshore area - as defined, it is a strip of land alternately covered and uncovered by the
tidal movements. Its interior limits are that portion of land reached by the water during the
highest equinoctial tide. The outer limit is that portion of land reached by the water during
the lowest ordinary tide.

8. Freshwater bodies - these are water bodies in basins, rivers, lakes, lagoons, channels
and aquifers not influenced by sea water.

9. Freshwater swamps - these are land areas where the freshwater table is at or above the
land surface during most of the year to promote the formation of hydric soil and to support
growth of hydrophytes such as grasses and sedges which are also influenced by sea
water.

10. Mangroves or mangrove forests - the communities of trees and associated shrubs that
are restricted to tidal flats in coastal waters, extending inland along rivers where the water
is tidal, saline or brackish.

11. Marine waters - these cover beds, banks, shell fields, zones, areas and regions of Philippine
waters totaling some 1,666,300 sq. km.

12. Mineralized areas - areas containing deposits of metallic and non-metallic minerals.

13. Municipal waters - “include not only streams, lakes and tidal waters Included within the
municipality, not being the subject of private ownership, and not comprised within national
parks, public forests, timber lands, forest reserves, but also marine waters included between
two lines drawn perpendicularly to the general coastline from points where the boundary

57 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


lines of the municipality or city touch the sea at low tide and a third line parallel with the
general coastline and fifteen (15) kilometers from it. Where two (2) municipalities are so
situated on the opposite shores that there is less than 15 kilometers of marine waters
between them, the third line shall be equally distant from the opposite shores of the respective
municipalities.” (Section 131<r>, Republic Act No. 7160)

14. Seagrass beds - vegetation dominated by flowering grasses which grow best in sandy-
muddy portions of the intertidal zone. They are highly productive habitats which serve as
the transition zone between coral reefs and mangroves.

15. Tidal flats - these are lands mostly devoid of trees and shrubs that are alternatively exposed
and inundated by tides. These may be mud flats or sand flats (see foreshore areas).

16. Woodlands - these occur behind the beach and dune on the older beach areas. In the
coastal zone, these consist essentially of a tangle of low stunted trees or shrubs. Examples
are botong, pandan, and the taller agoho and coconut palms.

Source: DENR

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 58


ANNEX 4-5: OTHER SUPPLEMENTAL LAND STUDIES IN CLUP FORMULATION

1. Vacant lands study

Vacant lands are classified according to topographic and drainage characteristics and
availability of improvements near such vacant lands. Vacant lands may be classified as
prime lands, 0-15% in slope, and are in close proximity to water, sewer and other utility
lines. Such vacant lands are suitable for industrial, commercial, residential, and other urban
uses.

Marginal lands are lands subject to flooding, over 15% in slope, or other lands unsuitable or
uneconomic to develop.

Availability of prime vacant lands for development will depend on such factors as willingness
of owners to release the property, existence of clear titles, and absence of other
encumbrances on the land.

Data on vacant lands can be presented both with the use of maps and statistical tables.
For map presentation, prime and marginal vacant lands should be distinguished by an
appropriate legend.

Compute and tabulate areas of vacant lands from the map, using dot grid or planimeter
according to previously suggested table formats. The resulting figures can then be compared
with identified needs for new development areas.

Land use planning application

The main purpose of this study (which is usually included in the land use survey) is to
classify vacant lands within the planning area as to suitability for development.

2. Flooding areas study

This particular study forms the basis for two general types of proposals:

a. Proposals for flood control works which aim to keep water away from man; and
b. Proposals for control of flood plain development through planning and regulatory efforts
which aim to keep man away from the water.

In some cases, delineating general floodway areas based on past flood records may be
sufficient for purposes of this type of study. But in more urbanized areas and where flooding
is a significant or potential problem, flooding studies should be carried out in more detail
and complexity. This would require the services of an engineer, or better, a hydrologist.

Three types of flood levels are established in the more complex flooding studies1. These
are:

a. “Highest flood of record” – areas along river or stream inundated by highest known
flood for which records are available;

1
Stuart F. Chapin, Jr., Urban Land Use Planning, University of Illinois Press, 1965, p. 307.

59 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


b. “Standard project flood” – potential flood areas based on coincidental of the most critical
conditions noted in meteorological and flood data from a wide surrounding area; this
approximates highest flood of record for the regional area;

c. “maximum probable flood” – maximum flood of reasonable regional expectancy taking


into account present knowledge; this flood is the most extensive of the three.

Ideally, local planners should seek to provide for protection from the maximum probable
flood. This would, however, entail staggering costs in terms of flood control works and the
withdrawal of more land from development. It may instead be more realistic to plan for the
eventuality of a standard project flood. In practice, local planners may, in the absence of
funds, initially establish floodway lines for the first two flood levels and phase proposed
flood control works in stages.

In addition to establishing flood levels, basic hydrological studies usually include


investigations of flood profiles (maps and cross-section diagrams of flood levels), period of
inundation, rate of rise, velocity of flood waters, frequency of flooding, obstructions that
affect crest levels, and land use encroachments on the flood plain.

Land use planning application

Identified flooding areas, or those areas covered by floodway lines drawn on a map, are
designated as ‘limited use’ areas which can be earmarked only for open space uses or for
the least intensive uses (e.g. parks, etc.); areas in flood plains which are already developed
can be earmarked for remedial action, such as relocation or flood control works.

3. Structural and environmental quality survey

The study of the quality of the urban environment and of man-made structures (residential,
commercial, industrial, institutional) is aimed at identifying the so-called urban renewal
area. Urban renewal actions are of two types:

1. Rehabilitation – the improvement or restoration of identified blighted areas; and


2. Redevelopment – clearance and rebuilding of areas which are in more advanced
stages of blight.

Conditions of blight are categorized into two types – simple and complex forms of blight.
Physical indicators of simple blight include such conditions as structural deterioration,
missing sanitation facilities, structures in disrepair or lacking in elemental maintenance,
presence of trash and rubbish accumulations, adverse, environmental influences such as
noise, odors, dust, etc., and missing community facilities such as schools, playgrounds,
public water and sewerage system, and adequate street and drainage facilities. Social
indicators may also be considered, such as abnormally high rates of juvenile delinquency,
and low health and welfare indices. Economic indicators include concentration of tax
delinquents and untaxed titled properties, declining property values, and large number of
building vacancies.

The presence of simple forms of blight usually call only for rehabilitation measures. These
may involve such actions as spot condemnation of structures, building repairs, or provision
of missing sanitary facilities through sanitation code enforcement, a public improvement
program for the provision of missing community facilities and a campaign for voluntary
clean-up, painting and improved building maintenance standards. The presence of too

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 60


many forms of simple blight may, however, call for the more drastic measures of clearance
and redevelopment.

The presence of complex forms of blight call for redevelopment measures. Indicators of
this type of blight include such characteristics as mixture of incompatible land uses (such
as the presence of pollutive industries right in the middle of residential areas), obsolete or
impractical layout of lots, blocks, and streets, unsafe and unhealthful conditions existing or
possible when marginal land is in use, particularly lands subject to floods, marshiness or
tidal flow.

Survey techniques

Information on structural conditions, particularly of residential structures, may be available


from secondary sources like the NSO census on housing. More often than not, however,
data on structural and environmental quality have to be gathered first-hand. When such is
the case, survey techniques have to be devised. The types of parameters and structural
and environmental quality standards which will apply in categorizing urban renewal areas
will depend on a host of factors such as local environmental policies, public sentiment, and
availability of funds to carry out renewal programs.

In any case, the schedule to be used in the survey should include both dwelling units appraisal
factors. Dwelling appraisals may include maintenance and state of repair, safety and
sanitation factors, adequacy of lighting, degree of room crowding, etc. Environmental quality
may be appraised on the basis of land crowing, inimical land uses on the block, inadequacy
of schools, recreation areas, and other community facilities in the area, and the extent of
hazards and nuisance in the area from traffic, railroads and industry.

For land use planning purposes, a low-ratio sampling survey (i.e. using relatively only a
small portion of the blocks or districts as sample) of urban areas would be sufficient. Based
on the items in the survey schedule, urban areas can be categorized into: 1) Areas in good
or acceptable condition; 2) Rehabilitation areas; or 3) Clearance and development areas.

Land use planning application

Data on urban renewal areas, presented both in map and statistical forms, will show the
rehabilitation and redevelopment areas to be considered in the preparation of more detailed
urban renewal plans.

4. Land values study

The land values goes into an investigation of the structure of land values, upward or
downward graduations and trends of change in these values. Actual market values are
arrived at only by extensive and costly studies which may not be practicable in most
situations. Land values of urban lots or rural lots, which are usually available at the municipal/
city Assessor’s Office. Assessed value figures may be refined based on comparison with
known selling prices and the approximate percentage deviation of assessed value from
market values.

Land use planning application

With the use of map showing approximate land values in the planning area, proposed
locations for projects can be evaluated for feasibility in terms of land costs, especially

61 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


where private investment is envisioned such as for housing or commercial development.

5. Studies of aesthetic features of the planning area

Land use planning is also concerned with the preservation and development of certain
natural and man-made features of the planning area in a manner calculated to enhance
these qualities for the enjoyment of residents, as well as visitors to the locality. Studies of
aesthetic are most directly related to the amenity considerations involved in land use
planning.

Aesthetic features are determined on the basis of perceptual considerations – as these


are observed in such terms as beauty, pleasantness, sense of spaciousness, and historical
value. Since these considerations are largely subjective in nature, it is important to establish
some acceptable and valid criteria for determining which features of the locality are to be
reserved for aesthetic considerations.

There is yet no method devised by which aesthetic features can be studied on a wholly
objective manner. Criteria used will largely depend on local policies and the values of
those concerned – local officials, planners, and the citizens alike.

As to what to look for in conducting aesthetic studies, local planners may be guided by the
following:

5.1 Identify three-dimensional characteristics of the city’s/municipality’s site and the


man-made features which have been added to the site.

a. Six basic ground forms of city/municipal sites

1. level or gently sloping or rolling


2. sloping sites, backed by hills, or steeper slopes
3. valley or gorge sites
4. ampitheatrical or fan-shaped
5. bowl-shaped
6. ridged or hilltop

b. Forms of man-made features

1. urban textures
2. green areas
3. circulation facilities
4. paved open spaces
5. individually significant architectural masses

5.2 Record significant paths and vantage points from which the city/municipality can
usually be perceived.

1. the panorama – sweeping view of sections of the city/municipality


2. the skyline – applicable in areas with conglomeration of tall structures
3. the vista – view seen from an opening, such as a street or a boulevard
4. the urban open space
5. through the experience of the individual in motion.

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 62


Land use planning application

From the reconnaissance surveys of the city/municipality’s sites, natural and man-made
features which should be visually accented or utilized and enhanced for aesthetic reasons
can be spotted and outlined on a base map. A sketchbook or photo album record of such
features may also be used.

FURTHER READING
Stuart F. Chapin, Jr., Urban Land Use Planning, University of Illinois Press, 1965.

63 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Annex 4-6
SWOT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

SWOT Analysis is a method that enables a planner to generate feasible alternative strategies
for the LGU through an assessment of the present conditions, characteristics, and current
state and utilization of the LGU’s natural/physical, human and fiscal resources.

Serves as basis for evaluating where the LGU’s strength lies. Thus, serves
as guide in determining which aspects to pursue and what weaknesses
and threats to overcome to take advantage of opportunities.
Internal strengths can be used to take advantage of external opportunities
or to overcome external threats.
The planners can formulate and pursue defensive-type strategies aimed at
overcoming weaknesses and avoiding external threats.
The planners can formulate and pursue strategies that will improve on the
LGU’s internal weaknesses by taking advantage of external opportunities.

The SWOT Matrix is an important strategy-formulation matching tool that results in the
development of four types of strategies: Strengths-Opportunities (SO) strategies,
Weaknesses-Opportunities (WO) Strategies, Strengths-Threats (ST) strategies and
Weaknesses-Threats (WT) strategies.

HOW IS SWOT ANALYSIS DONE?

SWOT Analysis is done through a workshop with the participation of the local
officials and the various representatives of the different sectors of the LGU and
key stakeholders

Step 1. Divide the participants into groups/sectors. Assign a presenter for each group/
sector.

Step 2. Using the SWOT Matrix (refer to example below), each group/sector can now
proceed to the succeeding steps.

SWOT MATRIX

Always leave this blank STRENGTHS (O) WEAKNESSES (W)

OPPORTUNITIES (O) SO STRATEGIES WO STRATEGIES

THREATS (T) ST STRATEGIES WT STRATEGIES

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 64


Step 3. List the key internal strengths in the upper middle cell.

Strengths refer to the present or inherent features, attributes or characteristics of the


LGU that enhance or aid in its development or progress. Strengths should be identified
to be able to enhance them. (e.g. vast tract of agricultural roads and power supply,
strong political will among local officials)

Step 4. List the key internal weaknesses in the upper right cell.

Weaknesses refer to the present human, fiscal or physical attributes that tend to or
inhibit the development or progress of the LGU. Weakness should be analyzed to be
able to overcome them. (e.g. inadequate irrigation facilities poor maintenance of
existing facilities)

Step 5. List the key external opportunities in the middle left cell.

Opportunities refer to the external economic, social, political, technological and


competitive trends, conditions, events or circumstances that could significantly benefit
the LGU to further improve its existing situation, (e.g. Location of foreign assisted
projects, within the BIMP-EAGA)

Step 6. List the key external threats in the lower left cell.

Threats consist of external economic, social, political, technological and competitive


trends and events that are potentially harmful to the LGU’s present and future
development or progress, (e.g. presence of EPZA in the adjacent city/municipality)

Step 7. Match internal strengths with external opportunities and record the resultant SO
Strategies in the middle right cell. SO strategies are based on using key internal
strengths to take advantage of external opportunities.

Step 8. Match internal weaknesses with external opportunities and record the resultant WO
strategies in the middle right cell. WO strategies are based on overcoming of weak-
nesses by taking advantage of opportunities.

Step 9. Match internal strengths with external threats and record the resultant ST strategies
in the lower center cell. ST Strategies are based on using strengths to avoid threats.

Step 10. Match internal weaknesses with external threats and record the resultant WT Strategies
in the lower right cell. WT strategies are on minimizing weaknesses to avoid threats.

The purpose of each matching tool is to generate feasible alternative


strategies, not to select or determine which strategies that were developed
in the SWOT Matrix will be selected or implemented.

65 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Step 11. Let each group/sector present their respective output: SWOT Analysis Matrix
(Refer to sample SWOT analysis matrix below)

SWOT MATRIX

Always leave this blank STRENGTHS (O) WEAKNESSES (W)

Vast tract of agricultural land. Inadequate irrigation facilities.

Adequate roads, bridges and


power supply. Poor maintenance of existing
utilities.
Strong political will among
local officials.

OPPORTUNITIES (O) SO STRATEGIES WO STRATEGIES

LGU is among the small Local officials to make To cooperate with the JICA
irrigation project areas of representations with the JICA authorities to facilitate
the JICA. project team for early construction of irrigation facilities
implementation. in the area.

Within the BIMP-EAGA. Expansion and development Rehabilitation and main-tenance


of commercial and of existing facilities.
production areas.

THREATS (T) ST STRATEGIES WT STRATEGIES

LGU is located within the Raise crops which can Construct facilities to mitigate
typhoon belt. withstand typhoon. floods during heavy downpour.

Traffic congestion. Develop alternative roads. Provide additional roads and


improve or maintain existing
roads.

Step 12. Generate comments from other groups, select common entries from the groups’
outputs and agree to come up with a final matrix using the group work as inputs.

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 66


Annex 4-7
INTER/CROSS SECTORAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

Inter/cross sectoral consultations and planning workshops provide for an opportunity for the
stakeholders to discuss issues/concerns and opportunities that directly or indirectly affect
their respective sectors as well as in identifying possible solutions and policy options.

The process involves a series of stakeholders’ workshops by


1 the different sectoral committees. The purpose of these
Sectoral meetings is for the individual sectoral committees to identify
Committee and analyze development issues and opportunities peculiar to
Meetings their own sectors (e.g. for social sector: inadequate number of
classrooms to house additionalstudents,absence of hospital,
absence of daycare centers).

This is the venue wherein pairing of individual sector is done


with other sectors. (Refer to Figure below). The arrows illustrate
2 the linkage among sectors. The circle at the center shows that
Inter-Sectoral the results of sectoral pairings or cross sectoral analysis are
consultations integrated in the land use, it being an integrating component
in the system.

The secret of an effective plan lies in the proper


3 matching of its sectoral elements: economic, social,
Divide the physical/infrastructure and environment.
participants into
groups/sectors

The participants may be grouped into the (a) Social Sector, (b)
Economic Sector, (c) Environment Sector, (d) Institutional

67 Step 4. Analyzing the Situation


Sector, and (e) Physical/Infrastructure Sector. Each group/sector
elect a presenter/rapporteur to present the group’s output at the
end of the workshop.

In pairing these sectors, possible conflicts, inconsistencies,


4 duplications or omissions are crosschecked before integration in
Pair each sector the land use plan.
with other sectors
following the The following pairings are suggested:
suggested pairings
a) Social - Physical Infrastructure
b) Economic - Physical Infrastructure
c) Institutional - Physical Infrastructure
d) Environment - Physical Infrastructure
e) Economic - Environment
f) Social - Economic
g) Social - Institutional
h) Social Environment
i) Economic Institutional
j) Environment Institutional

The exercise will result in several issues and opportunities which


may be presented using the sample matrix below. Further, foreseen
implications will result to policies that will serve as bases in the
generation of Preferred Development Options, Alternative Spatial
Strategies and the Land Use Plan.

Matrix 1
Economic-Social Inter-Sectoral Issues

Observations Explanations Implications Policy Options

• Encroachment Absence of a Loss of breeding Relocate


of informal system to monitor grounds for fish squatters
settlements encroachment on
into mangrove public properties
areas

Unavailability of Loss of natural Provide affordable


affordable defense to housing units to
housing units coastal soil squatters who
erosion will be relocated

Decrease in fish Establish a


production system to
periodically
monitor
encroachment on
mangrove areas

Note: Repeat the exercise with other sectoral pairs as listed above.

Step 4. Analyzing the Situation 68


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
STEP
SETTING THE GOALS
AND OBJECTIVES 5
The next step after the SA (data gathering and analysis) is the formulation of goals and
objectives that will help the municipality / city achieve its vision. It is important that the
goals and objectives reflect the “common good” or consensus of the broader community
so that implementation of the plan effectively engages all sectors, and ownership is
shared community-wide. A good way to achieve this is to conduct participatory goal-
setting processes in public settings.

The analysis will likely have revealed “weaknesses” or gaps in the municipality’s/city’s
resources or capacities. Planning goals and objectives to address these gaps is a
good place to start. Based on the analysis and alignment to the overall vision, the plan
should establish a set of goals that build on strengths to take advantage of opportunities.
The plan should also ensure that existing strengths and resources are preserved and
enhanced. Objectives are selected to be timely and indicative of progress toward goals.
The goals and objectives provide the benchmark by which the land use plan is formulated,
assessed and evaluated.

The working draft of goals and objectives may initially be prepared by the Planning
Team in consultation with key stakeholders. This will later be presented to the various
stakeholder group workshops for further comments/revisions, validation and
acceptance.

PURPOSE

To formulate achievable goals and objectives that are responsive to the issues,
needs, and potentials of the municipality/city.

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

Shared goals and objectives

STEPS

1. Review the vision statement and the major problems, issues, and opportunities
identified in the situation analysis.

The result of the situation analysis may be presented as input for validation, and
these results will become the bases for the formulation of goals and objectives
during the workshop/consultation.

69 Step 5. Setting the Goals and Objectives


2. Formulate the general goals that the LGU wish to attain within the planning period.

Goal is a broad statement of desired outcome in the medium or long term. It


aims to address a general problem situation of a municipality/city as derived
from the situation analysis.

Things to consider in formulating a goal:


A Goal must be able to translate the municipality’s/city’s vision statement
into more realistic terms
A Goal must be multi-sectoral in nature to be able to address more than
one problem situations
A Goal may be formulated for each of the identified key problem areas
necessary for the attainment of the vision .

Sample:
“An accessible, well developed City that provides high quality services and
facilities.”

(Refer to Annex 5-1 for examples of Vision, Goals, and Objectives)

3. Formulate for each goal the objectives based on the identified situations that
might fall under a particular sector.

Objectives are more specific statements of short-range desired outcomes or


results towards which development activities in the municipality/city are directed.
These may be viewed as subsets of a goal and therefore contribute to the
attainment of a stated goal. They respond to specific problem situations usually
sectoral in nature.

Objectives must be SMART:


Specific in terms of place.
Measurable, preferably in performance terms- what is achieved rather than
how to achieve it.
Attainable. Objectives must be attainable, otherwise, it will backfire and
create failure.
Realistic. It is important that the support of the key stakeholders should be
obtained, thus, objective setting should be participatory.
Time-bound. It is critical that objectives have a meaningful time frame.
The time frame should be linked to political and social realities as well as
to physical development aspects.

Step 5. Setting the Goals and Objectives 70


Flow Chart for Setting Goals and Objectives

STEPS OUTPUTS

Review vision statement


and results of situation
analysis
Analysis of vision, major
problems/issues, and
potentials

Formulate the general goals


based on analysis of vision
and existing situation

General goals
(multi-sectoral)

Formulate objectives to
translate the general goals

SMART Objectives

Check appropriateness and


Consistent goals and
consistency of goals and
objectives
objectives

71 Step 5. Setting the Goals and Objectives


Annex 5-1:
EXAMPLES OF VISION, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

City Vision Goals Objectives

“A peaceful, An accessible, well Achieve a well-balanced socio-


orderly, livable city developed City that economic growth
with a modern provides high quality
Foster human welfare development
trading center services and
through a more equitable
where there are facilities.
distribution of livelihood and other
equal opportunities
socio-economic opportunities
for our disciplined A peaceful City that
citizens to develop support cultural and Enhance hinterland development
and prosper in a social diversity and and productivity
clean and healthy encourages strong
Regenerate local resources,
environment.” community development
achieve ecological balance and a
healthful environment;
A responsive governance
that encourages Enhance partnership and
community participation, collaboration among non-
transparency and government organizations, the city
accountability; and offers government, Local Government
its residents and investors Units within the influence area of
a range of economic, Metro Cagayan de Oro, non-
employment and financial government associations and other
opportunities. development sectors s p e c i a l l y
along service delivery.

Note:

The above examples were the product of multi-sectoral and consultative processes
conducted in Cagayan de Oro City in the crafting of their city vision, goals, and objectives.

Step 5. Setting the Goals and Objectives 72


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
ESTABLISHING STEP
THE DEVELOPMENT THRUST
AND SPATIAL STRATEGIES 6
Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies are key steps in the
Comprehensive Land Use Planning process. These twin activities are critical in
determining the future development of the municipality/city. It explores the various land
use alternatives or scenarios and it involves the creative and visual part of the land use
element. Up to this point in the process a number of descriptive and graphic studies
have been prepared: a land use inventory and existing land use map; a land use analysis;
and the goals and objectives. This step in the CLUP preparation involves the
understanding of what is appropriate, feasible and possible development options for
the city/municipality through an exploration of different land use alternatives or scenarios.
The municipality/city will choose one or a combination of preferred alternatives to serve
as basis in preparing its future land use map.

The purpose of this step is to establish a preferred land use alternative. In that sense,
it is focused only on the land use element. All other sectors such as social, economic
and infrastructure development shall provide the necessary input into the land use
element. The scenarios that are developed are connected or linked with the
municipality’s/city’s vision, goals and objectives. In that sense, the scenarios are theme-
based and can be illustrated through visuals such as maps. Development alternatives
should be able to address the municipality/city character, natural resources preservation
and can test public reaction to competing goals and objectives, before these are finalized.
To reiterate, land use brings together other elements (sectors) of the plan. This opportunity
for integration is an important step in the overall process of drafting the CLUP.

In building scenarios, the idea is to come up with at least 3 different alternatives from
which to compare and select the one that would best attain the vision, goals and
objectives. The discussion of the chosen strategy may not include the documentation
of the lengthy process of evaluation and selection of preferred scenario or alternatives.

Public participation is encouraged at this stage. This could be done through simple
participatory techniques such as use of tracing papers, crayons or markers to indicate
their desired development. More complex techniques such as visualization or
Geographic Information System (GIS) may be used if available.

The agreed and accepted development thrust and spatial strategy will serve as the
basis and guide for the LGU to outline or prepare the detailed development policies,
programs, projects and action plans.

73 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


PURPOSE

To generate development options based on the inherent potentials and opportunities


of the municipality/city

To come up with criteria or guiding framework to evaluate development options and


spatial strategies

To select appropriate or suitable development thrust or spatial strategies

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

Preferred development thrust and spatial strategy/ies.

Structure Plan

STEPS

1. Conduct workshop to generate ideas/options on the appropriate development


thrust which can be pursued by the city/municipality within the planning period.

During the workshop:

1.1 Make a clear presentation of the objectives of the workshop

1.2 Present the various possible development schemes/options a municipality/city


can adopt.

The municipality/city may opt to pursue any of the following development thrusts
if suitable or applicable:

Agricultural Development
Industrial Development
Tourism Development
Commercial Development
Forestry Development
Coastal Development
Combined Development e.g. Tourism with Agriculture Development, Industrial
with Commercial, as may be applicable

Refer to Annex 6-1 for the description of the above development thrusts.

1.3 Present the adopted vision, goals, and objectives.

1.4 Present the result of the situation analysis particularly the following:

Comparative advantage/potentials
Physical and environmental constraints
Land use trend/growth pattern
Environmental quality
Sectoral needs/requirements/issues
Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 74
Population characteristics and projections
Functional role
Local economic structure
Infrastructure and utilities

1.5 Brainstorm on the possible development options for the city/municipality such as
those listed below considering the formulated vision, goals, objectives and the results
of situation analysis.

1.6 Reach consensus on the development thrust to be pursued within the planning
period.

The use of common or known terms that will best describe the development
thrust is encouraged particularly when adapting a combined development thrust.

Example:

Agri-Industrialization
Ecotourism
Agri-Ecotourism
Industrialization
Intensified Agricultural Development

Refer to Annex 6-1 for other sample development thrusts

2. Brainstorm and prepare at least 3 possible development strategies to pursue the


identified development thrust following these considerations:

Implications on environment
City/Municipality ecosystems (i.e. generally coastal, upland, island, etc.)
Implications on local economy and employment
Equitable access and distribution of services
Demand and need for social infrastructure
Social and economic implications to disadvantaged sector
Gender sensitivity and responsiveness
Urban-rural integration
Inherent comparative advantages/potentials
Impact on local heritage, culture and traditions
Sustainable utilization of indigenous resources
Financial implications
Role and impact/s on the component barangays
Functional role of the LGU as reflected in the higher level or inter-area development
plans (e.g. MTPDP, RPFP, PPFP, BIMP-EAGA, CALABARZON, etc.)
Level of development of the LGU and its adjacent LGUs
Policies on production, protection, settlement, and infrastructure land uses as defined
in higher plans
Others, as may be applicable to the local conditions

75 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


The following are sample development strategies corresponding to some development thrusts.

Example:

Development Thrust Development Strategies/Options

A. Agricultural Development - Crop Diversification


- Industrial Plantation
- Agri-Processing

B. Industrialization - Light and Medium Industrial Development


- Heavy Industrial Development
- Small and Medium Scale Industrial Development

3. Evaluate the three alternative strategies/options using appropriate evaluation/


analytical techniques and select the preferred alternative development strategy.

The following evaluation techniques are recommended in the selection of preferred


development thrust and spatial strategy:

Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM)


Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA)
Planning and Budgeting System (PBS)
Land Suitability Assessment (LSB)
Checklist Criteria
Other innovative evaluation criteria/techniques as may be agreed upon

Refer to Annex 6- 2 for the procedural steps of some of the above techniques.

To facilitate the selection process, summarize results of evaluation as follows:

Development Thrust: Industrialization

Strategies/Options Implication Positive Intervention

Option 1: Heavy Industrial


Development

Option 2: Light to Medium


Industrial
Development

Option 3: Micro, Small and


Medium-Scale
Enterprises

4. Reflect the spatial strategy for the preferred development thrust on a working
base map.

4.1 Designate probable locations of functional and development areas consistent with t h e
preferred development thrust and using the predetermined lands available for expansion
(Refer to CLUP Process Step 4 – Situation Analysis on quantified land requirements).

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 76


Note:
• Considerations listed in item # 2 above shall be taken into account.
• In designating locations for future development areas, refer to Annex
6-3 for Sieve Mapping Techniques and Suitability Analysis.

4.2 Evaluate the existing transport network within the designated probable development
and functional areas to determine the needed and required linkages, to include other
linkages with other LGUs, provinces, regions.

4.3 Identify the growth directions in relation to the following:


Natural physical limitations
Vision, goals and objectives
Areas for protection, preservation and conservation
Environmental implications
Urban-rural configurations
Development opportunities/potential
Population concentration

4.4 Describe or characterize the emerging form of the spatial strategy as a result of the
above steps. The spatial strategy shall cover the entire city/municipality including
the growth pattern of urban development. The growth pattern may be in the following
form:
Trend extension Linear urban
Multi-nodal Concentric urban
Combined forms

Refer to Annexes 6-4 for the Basic Urban Forms Conceptual Framework.

5. Prepare the Structure Plan using the results of the above steps. This will
provide the overall framework for the subsequent preparation of the City/
Municipal Land Use Plan.

The Structure Plan shall be in map form depicting the envisioned development concept or
the visual outline or shape of the overall physical and development framework of the city/
municipality. Step 7 of the CLUP planning process provides the detailed activities on how
to prepare the details or particulars of the Land Use Plan.

The Structure Map shall contain the following:

General location of development areas for agriculture, tourism, industry, and agroforestry.
General location of areas for conservation/ protection such as forest areas, critical
watersheds, protected areas, protected agricultural lands, historical/cultural sites, etc.
General location of proposed major infrastructure projects
Direction of urban expansion
Proposed circulation system that reflects the linkage among the identified development
areas within the municipality/city, linkage of the municipality/city with the adjacent
municipalities/cities, province and region.
Growth areas/nodes for production purposes or with specific development role.

77 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


Flow Chart for Establishing the Development Thrust
and Spatial Strategies

STEPS OUTPUTS

Revisit Vision, Goals, Objectives,


1 and results of SA
Clear understanding of
Vision, Goals and Objectives,
Issues and Potentials

Generate options on appropriate


2 development thrusts
Clear understanding of
Vision, Goals and Objectives,
Issues and Potentials

Develop at least three scenarios


3 to pursue the development
thrusts

3 Development scenarios
(future images of desired
development scheme)
Evaluate the alternative
4 development scenarios and
select the most suitable
delopment strategy/ies
Pros and cons of
development scenarios and
preferred development
thrusts
Reflect the spatial strategy for the
5 preferred development thrust

Desired physical form

Prepare the structure plan based


6 on the spatial strategy
Structure Plan to provide the
overall framework of the
City/Municipal Land Use Plan
(schematic diagram with
short narratives)

79 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


Annex 6-1
DESCRIPTION OF POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT THRUSTS/OPTIONS
OF A CITY/MUNICIPALITY

I) Agricultural Development

The city or municipality may opt to adopt Agriculture Development or Agriculture


intensification if the local economic structure, physical characteristics, opportunities,
and the result or outcomes of analysis using SWOT or other analytical studies of the
local situation is oriented towards agriculture.

Given this development option, the city/municipality may put the option into operation
by protecting the prime agricultural lands or areas covered by the Network of
Protected Agricultural and Agri-Industrial Development Areas (NPAAADs), providing
the required support physical infrastructure and services such as irrigation facilities,
farm to market roads, credit/lending facilities, technology, and increasing access
to markets/product end users.

The LGU as a matter of policy may encourage export of locally produced agriculture
products after ensuring and addressing the local food requirement/s of its population.

II) Industrialization

If the city/municipality will opt to adopt Industrialization (or other forms of industrial
activities) as result of the sectoral studies or SWOT analysis, the LGU should ensure
that the support services, facilities and utilities required such as power, water, roads,
telecommunication and efficient solid waste disposal, are available, well-planned and
provided for in case some of which are not present or available.

On the implementation side, to protect the community and the environment, the local
government is encouraged to provide or put in place mitigating measures to control
pollution and to address the impacts of industrial operations.

The local government may take advantage of the processing activities in the city or
municipality to complement and further augment or increase the output/s of other
productive sectors like agriculture and commerce and trade.

III) Tourism

Tourism is generally the development option chosen by cities and municipalities with
natural attractions such as beautiful coastlines and beaches and with potential for
water-based sports and recreation such as scuba diving, beach volleyball, island
hopping, fishing, etc.

Depending on the type of tourism that the LGU will adopt (i.e. Eco-Tourism, Agri-
Tourism, Cultural/Religious Tourism, etc.), the required infrastructures to support,
improve and strengthen the tourism thrust of the city/municipality will be identified,
well-planned and provided.

In detailing the thrust/option, the LGU may need to adopt measures to protect and
conserve its coastal or upland areas to ensure that tourism will not cause the

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 80


degradation of the environment, harm or affect the social or local customs/
traditions of the city or municipality.

The city or municipality may opt to prepare a tourism plan to layout the
detailed activities, programs and projects that support the thrust.

IV) Commercial

Cities and municipalities with higher level of urban functions and services may
choose or opt to adopt Intensified Commercialization/Trading Center or Urbanization
as a development thrust or option. With this development option, the LGU may
further intensify the city/municipal commercial base and strengthen or highlight its
role within the province or region.

Given this option, the LGUs need to ensure the presence or availability of facilities,
utilities, measures and incentives to encourage investors to further diversify and
increase investments.

The required programs and projects and the corresponding mitigating measures
need to be identified to address the impacts of intensified commercial activities
such as increased volume of solid and liquid wastes, need for more parking areas,
management of traffic, workers’ housing, business/personal services, health
facilities, warehouse/storage facilities, etc.

V) Community-based Forestry Management

The LGU should promote Community-based Forestry Management Options for its
forest areas in accordance with recent government policy. This option is needed in
order to address the dependence of communities on forest resources. However, it
is now accepted that focus should be given to the use of non-timber forest products
such as fruits, fiber, resins, and the like, in lieu of harvesting timber products which
are not allowed under current laws.

To help the city/municipality identify other development areas, the legal status of
lands within the jurisdiction of the city/municipality must be identified, established
and mapped accordingly to appropriately allocate lands for development in
accordance to the best and highest use of the land.

The development of physical infrastructures such as bridges and roads within forest
lands are viewed, at times, as detrimental or threatening to the protection of forest
lands. These types of infrastructures may “open” protected areas to further intrusion
of population and to other types of non-sustainable extraction of forest
resources. In this regard, the concerned local government unit/s may adopt policies
that will ensure the 1) sustainable utilization of forest resources; 2) control or regulate
the expansion of settlements within forestlands; 3) observe the rights of Indigenous
Communities; 4) settle conflicts between land suitability and legal land status; etc.

Under existing Rules and Regulations by the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources, the local government unit/s can not classify or zone its forestlands and
resources for other purposes.

81 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


VI) Coastal Areas

The development option of some cities and municipalities may be influenced by the
presence of an extensive coastline and or sizeable bodies of inland waters within
their respective territorial jurisdiction. It becomes essential to integrate coastal
area planning in the LGUs respective overall or general planning.

Cities and municipalities must, at the outset, conduct an inventory of its coastal
resources, determine priority issues and concerns, ascertain existing risks and
potential impacts to the community, and harmony with the general or overall
development option.

In planning the coastal zone as part of the general development of the city or
municipality, the LGUs must ensure the compatibility of land uses within the
coastal zone that will include uses both within the innermost (land) and the
outermost (water) limits. There are various processes and options recommended
for integrated coastal management regimes which are currently advocated by
national government agencies such as DENR, and the LGUs will do well to consult
with these agencies for the appropriate development options which are aimed at
achieving sustainable coastal development.

VII) Combined Development Options

LGUs may also opt to adopt combined development options if and when two or
more options or thrusts play significant functions in the existing local economic
structure, and, when the combination of development options will lead to the
transformation of the LGU to a well-developed city/municipality.

Example:

Agri-Tourism: Among possible combinations are tourism with agriculture or


industrial development with commercial development, whichever is applicable
for the locality according to its characteristics and vision for development.

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 82


Annex 6-2
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR EVALUATION/SELECTION
OF ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES

SOCIAL COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS (SCBA)

Social-Cost Benefit analysis (SCBA) is a comprehensive approach for appraising the social
worth of the options/alternatives or programs/projects which entail commitment of resources.
SCBA is more commonly applied within single sectors, such as the health and transportation
sectors, although inter-sectoral comparisons may also be applied. It is a useful aid in selecting
the development strategy for carrying out a project as well as in choosing among a number of
investment programs/projects competing among a limited amount of funds.

This analysis is mainly concerned with the strategy’s effects on the welfare of the community
rather than on any smaller group within it. The benefits and costs of the alternative development
strategies are identified and measured based on the references of individuals, who are affected.
Benefit is measured by the quantity of alternative goods and services which would give the
same amount of satisfaction to the beneficiaries while cost is measured by the goods and
services which would provide sufficient compensation to the losers, or which restore them to
their initial level of well-being.

The results would show the appropriate Alternative Spatial Strategy according to the
stakeholders. This would guide the local planners and decision-makers in discerning the most
acceptable spatial strategy to be employed in order to achieve the LGU’s goals and objectives.

A TWG or Stakeholders Workshop may be organized to evaluate alternative spatial strategies.


The participants may evaluate the generated development alternatives using the Social Cost-
Benefit analysis (SCBA) as indicated in Matrix 1.

Steps in Conducting Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA)

1. Prior to rating the alternative development strategies, discuss the strategies as these relate
to the situation (problems, issues and needs) of the LGU to make sure that the meaning is
clear to the participants of the Stakeholders Workshop on this planning stage.

2. List the alternative development strategies in column to the left. It is assumed that all these
adequately solve the problem.

3. Using the scales in Matrix 2, rate each problem/issue in the alternative development
strategies and compute the total. Refer to Worksheet 1 to apply this evaluation method.

4. Develop a team score for each strategy by sharing your individual ratings for each category
and then computing a total. It would be useful to post the ratings on a flipchart and then
discuss the reasons for each (Refer to Worksheet 2).

Encircle the highest-rated strategy and proceed to the preparation of the detailed strategy and
action plan.

Another way of evaluating a proposed strategy is by rating according to the benefits, costs,
ease of implementation, time and secondary impacts.

83 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


Matrix 1
EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS

Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3


CHARACTERISTICS Heavy Industrial Light to Medium Micro, Small and
Development Industrial Medium Scale
Development Enterprise

1. What it takes to realize this option


(Cost)

a) Cost of new roads and other Low Moderate Moderate


infrastructure

b) Community adjustments to risks High High Low

c) Preservation of protected Low Moderate Low


croplands and fishponds

d) Strict government enforcement of Low Moderate High


regulations

e) People’s compliance with Low Moderate High


regulations desired

2) Implications when development


option is realized (Benefits)

a) Access of people to city-wide Low Low High


services

b) Amount of air and water pollution High High Low


produced

c) Traffic problems reduced Low Low High

d) Overall attractiveness of the city Low Low High

e) Potential for increased LGU revenue Low Moderate High

f) Prospects for more jobs and higher Low Moderate High


compensation

g) LGUs role in the region maintained Low Low High

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 84


Matrix 2
RATING SCALES IN EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES/OPTIONS

EASE OF SECONDARY
BENEFITS COSTS IMPLEMENTATION TIME IMPACTS

The expected The cost will be It will be very It will be more It also results in
benefits will be very high = 1 difficult to than 5 yrs. Before some negative
minimal = 1 implement = 1 the benefits are impacts = 1
seen = 1

The expected The cost will be It will be difficult to It will be 1-5 It also results in
benefits will be high = 2 implement = 2 years before some negative
good = 2 benefits are seen impacts = 2
=2

The expected The cost will be There will be a few It will be 1 to 3 It also results in
benefits will be very low = 3 obstacles to putting years before some positive
good = 3 it into practice = 3 benefits are seen impacts = 3
=3

The expected There will be no It can be easily put Benefits will be


benefits will be added cost = 4 into practice = 4 seen in fewer than
outstanding = 4 365 days = 4

A Participant Assessment may be conducted using Worksheet 1 below.

Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3


CHARACTERISTICS Heavy Industrial Light to Medium Micro, Small and
Development Industrial Medium Scale
Development Enterprise

1) What it takes to realize this option


(Cost)
a) Cost of new roads and other
infrastructure
b) Community adjustments to risks
c) Preservation of protected croplands
and fishponds
d) Strict government enforcement of
regulations
e) People’s compliance with
regulations desired
2) Implications when urban form is
realized (Benefits)
a) Access of people to city-wide
services
b) Amount of air and water pollution
produced
c) Traffic problems reduced
d) Overall attractiveness of the city
e) Potential for increased LGU revenue
f) Prospects for more jobs and higher
compensation
g) LGUs role in the region maintained

85 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


Worksheet 2
SOLUTION WORKSHEET

ALTERNATIVE EASE OF SECONDARY


DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS COSTS IMPLEMENTATION TIME IMPACTS
STRATEGIES

Alternative 1
Heavy Industrial
Development
Alternative 2
Light-Medium
Industrial
Development
Alternative 3
Micro, Small and
Medium-Scale
Enterprise
Development

GOAL-ACHIEVEMENT ANALYSIS

Goal-Achievement Analysis is conducted to determine the extent to which alternative


development proposals will achieve a pre-determined set of “goals” or “objectives.” The approach
has the following characteristics:

Goals or objectives are formulated at the outset of the planning process. However,
these may later be modified in the light of new developments or experience gained
during the various stages of planning process.

The objectives are “multi-dimensional” (i.e., these include environmental, political,


economic, social, and aesthetic aspects).

All goals-achievement methods aim to compare development options/alternatives or


program/projects which represent alternative ways of achieving goals.

The objectives are ranked in the order of importance by assigning each a “weight” taking
into consideration the priorities of the planning area.

Simple ranking of plans with respect to the objectives, e.g., creditor’s policy evaluation matrix
in which effectiveness of the alternatives in achieving the stated policy objectives is qualitatively
expressed using the following terms:

A significant positive effect

A partial or marginal effect

A significant negative effect

No significant relationship

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 86


Steps in Conducting Goal-Achievement Analysis

1. Organize a multi-sectoral workshop to be participated in by the various sectors of society.


As indicated in Checklist 1, they shall be grouped accordingly, each group representing a
particular sector of society namely:

Checklist 1
PARTICIPANTS OF THE STAKEHOLDERS WORKSHOP

CHECK ( / ) STAKEHOLDERS

1. Farmers
2. Fisherfolks
3. Environmentalists
4. Business & Industrialists
5. Youth
6. Women
7. Elderly/Physically Challenged
8. Civic groups
9. Elective officials
10. Appointive officials
11. Health Workers
12. Media

In the workshop:

1.1 List evaluation criteria. The general welfare goals as provided for in Section 16 of
the Local Government code of 1991 (RA 7160), vision of the LGU and/or the pre-
determined set of goals may be used as evaluation criteria. As reflected in Matrix 3,
prioritization of programs and projects use the vision elements/descriptors as the
evaluation criteria.

1.2 Based on the perceived importance of each vision element-descriptor/goal to the


interests of the sector, each group shall assign weights to each goal. The numerical
total of the weights should be 100%. Subsequently, each proposal shall be rated
using the following rating scale:

0 = Option/Alternative does not contribute to the fulfillment of the particular goal


from the sector’s point of view
+ = Option/Alternative does contribute to the fulfillment of the particular goal
- = Option/Alternative is inconsistent with, or contradicts the goal

When the project contribution is (+) or (-), the extent of the contribution shall be indicated using
the following scale:

1 - Option/Alternative contributes slightly

87 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


2 - Option/Alternative contributes moderately
3 - Option/Alternative contributes greatly

1.3 Multiply the rating by the corresponding weight of the goal and enter the product
score in the appropriate cell.

1.4 Sum up the scores algebraically up for each Option/Alternative, then add all sectoral
group scores as presented below (GAM matrix).

The options/alternatives are finally rearranged according to their total scores. The Option/
Alternative with the highest total score is ranked as number one, the next number two,
and so on, as shown in the matrix of Summary of the GAM Scores.

Goal Achievement Matrix (GAM)

VISION/GOALS ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES


1 2 3
WEIGHT HEAVY LIGHT- MICRO, SMALL AND
ELEMENTS DESCRIPTOR (100%) INDUSTRIAL MEDIUM MEDIUM SCALE
DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE
DEVELOPMENT
People as Individuals 5 (.15) (.10) .10
God-loving
Healthy
Well-informed
People as Society 15 (.30) .15 .30
Empowered
Vigilant
Self-reliant
Local Economy 10 (.30) (.10) .20
Competitive
Diversified
Environment-
friendly
Natural Environment 10 (.30) .20 .20
Clean
Safe
Attractive
Restored
Built Environment 10 (.30) (.20) .20
Balanced
Planned
Safe
Attractive
Local Governance 50 (1.50) (1.00) 1.50
Firm
Decent
Progressive
TOTAL 100 (2.85) (.95) 2.5

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 88


Matrix 4
SUMMARY OF THE GOALS AND ACHIEVEMENT MATRIX (GAM) SCORES

Option 1 Option 2 Option 3


HEAVY LIGHT-MEDIUM MICRO, SMALL AND
SOCIETAL SECTOR INDUSTRIAL INDUSTRIAL MEDIUM SCALE
DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISE

Group 1 – Farmers -1.15 1.25 3.00


Group 2 – Fisherfolks -0.97 -0.55 1.41
Group 3 – Environmentalists/
Planners -1.54 -1.45 2.20
Group 4 – Businessmen/
Industrialists -0.25 0.15 1.76
Group 5 – Youth -0.81 0.02 2.59
Group 6 – Women -0.16 0.45 1.36
Group 7 – Elderly /Physically
Challenged -1.64 0.85 2.55
Group 8 – Civic Groups -1.55 -0.59 1.56
Group 9 – Elective Officials -0.54 -0.52 1.77
Group 10 – Barangay
Captains -2.85 0.95 2.50
Group 11 – Appointive
Officials -1.32 1.42 2.70
Group 12 – Health workers 0.92 0.60 2.62
Group 13 – Others -3.00 -0.15 2.95
TOTAL -14.86 2.43 28.97
RANK 3 2 1

89 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


LAND USE PLANNING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

Several methods, tools and techniques are available in analyzing information for comprehensive
land use planning. According to Kaiser in his book, Urban Land Use Planning, these methods
are Developability Analysis and Perceptual Analysis.

1. Developability Analysis

This deals with determining the accurate Pick the land use to be analyzed
information about the supply of available
land within the LGU jurisdiction to prepare
a land use plan. These have four types: Determine the site attributes that
determine suitability for that
1.1 Land Suitability Analysis (LSA) is particular use
an in-design evaluation method for
planning areas that retain
important natural environmental Weight each individual attribute
features. The outcome of the in terms of relative importance
valuation depends to a large extent for suitability
on expert judgment based on
scientific k n o w l e d g e . T h i s
evaluation method is not Rank (rescale) the internal
comprehensive but rather limited characteristics of each attribute
to alternative sites within a
specified study area for a particular
land use or set of land uses. Multiply each attribute rank by the
attribute weight
It is a procedure for mapping the
variation in relative suitability for a
particular land use across the Define the rules for the model to
jurisdiction or planning area combine weighted attributes into a
(Ortolano, 1984) single suitability scale
Steps in Land Suitability
Analysis
Reclassify the resulting range of
a. Pick the land use to be numerical scores into a simplified
analyzed (e.g., residential, composite score
commercial, institutional,
industrial, etc.)
Transform the outcome into
b. Determine the site attributes suitability by choosing a set of
that determine suitability for patterns to represent the different
that particular use (e.g., slope, degrees of suitability
inter-LGU access, water and
sewer availability).
Generate a statistical report showing
for each suitability class, the site
identification, number of acres and
other relevant data.

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 90


c. Rank (rescale) the internal characteristics of each attribute, depending upon
their contribution to suitability (e.g., slopes of 1 to 6% are given a high rank, say
2, than steeper slopes of more than 6%, which are ranked lower, with a 1).

c.1 Weight each individual attribute in terms of relative importance for


suitability (e.g., because inter-LGU access is deemed twice as important
for industrial location as slope, it weighed 2, whereas slope is weighed1.
Similarly, availability of water and sewer is deemed three times as
important as slope, so it is weighted 3)

c.2 Multiply each attribute rank by the attribute weight (e.g., the two classes
of slope, 1 and 2, are multiplied by the weight of the slope attribute 1).

c.3 Define the rules for the model to combine weighted attributes into a single
suitability scale (e.g., addition, multiplication and other algorithm).

c.4 Reclassify the resulting range of numerical scores into a simplified


composite score (e.g., less than 20 is least suitable; 20-36 is less suitable;
27-32 is suitable; and more than 32 is most suitable).

c.5 Transform the outcome into a suitability map by choosing a set of patterns
to represent the different degrees of suitability (e.g., darker pattern for
the most suitable sites, grading to lighter patterns for less suitable
sites)

c.6 Generate a statistical report showing for each suitability class, the site
identification, number of hectares/square meters and other relevant
data.

Another approach in Land Suitability Analysis is through sieve mapping as


presented in Annex 6-3.

1.2 Carrying Capacity Analysis - is


method of studying the effects of
population growth and urban Delineate the boundaries of
development on ecological committed lands for each public
systems, public facility systems,
and environmental perception.

The procedure for conducting this analysis Overlay the maps to show the
varies according to the system whose aggregate committed land areas.
capacity is at issue.

1.3 Committed Lands Analysis - Highlight the cluster of new


identifies where excess community development in areas that existing
service capacity exists and where facilities already serve.
the cost of additional distribution for
each new customer is no greater
than the value of the increased
efficiency in producing the service.

91 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


1.4. Market forecasts - attempt to project future land development. Simple forecasts
rely on projections of past trends, population and economic growth along with
information on development regulations, land use plans, and forthcoming
development proposals, to estimate the location, type, amount, and cost of future
development.

2. Perceptual Analysis

This relies on people’s perceptions which are important determinants of travel behavior,
locational choice, social relationships, and political actions. Surveys are employed in order
to maintain a systematic perceptual information. The four aspects of perception are:

2.1. Legibility - refers to the clarity of its spatial organizations and ease with which
people can “read” its structure.”

2.2. Attractiveness - degree to which it is positively perceived. From a non-professional


perspective, visual quality must be the most important influence on how people
experience and respond to urban areas and planning initiatives.

2.3. Symbolism - refers to the meanings that people attach to various parts of the urban
area.

2.4. Quality of life - is a synthetic perceptual measure based on resident ratings of


local trends of change over time in such factors as open space, urban design,
crime traffic, schools and housing affordability.

METHODS, TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN DETERMINING LAND REQUIREMENTS

Projecting Demand - the convenient way of determining the need (demand) by using
population-land resources relationship (man-land relationship) assumption on per capita
space requirements for every sector as indicated in the Sectoral Manuals. It must be
noted, however, that standards do not address the uniqueness of individual localities. It
must be noted that per capita allocation is applicable only to predominantly rural areas/
towns where urban growth is associated with the normal increase in the urban population
usually in the poblacion.

Basis for Projecting Demand for Urban Land Uses (Chapin, 1965)

For industrial use (manufacturing)

Ratio of industrial space to projected total population


Forecast increase in industrial establishments, by type
Forecast levels of industrial employment, by type
Forecast changes in industrial floor space ratio

For commercial use (wholesale, retail services)

Forecast number of establishments


Forecast of employment
Employment to shop floor ratio
Ratio of commercial area to built-up areas

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 92


For residential neighborhoods (including areas for dwelling and related uses)

Additional housing requirements consistent with affordability levels


Areas for public low-income housing

For institutional areas

Based on prescribed standards for each sector


Based on special studies

93 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies


ANNEX 6-3: SIEVE MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS

1. Basic Methods of Site Selection

One of the many activities in land use planning is related to the choice of an optimal future
land use for a particular space in the land or the selection of an optimal area to locate a
specific activity. This process is more commonly known as “site selection” in the context of
urban planning and is in a number of ways comparable to “land evaluation”. A general
example might be to determine where or which land in the locality is available for future
urbanization and how much people could be accommodated. Site selection can also be
very specific. One specific urban application is the determination of the best location for a
new site and services scheme. This process is called “Suitability Mapping” which identifies
constraints and opportunities.

Depending on the importance of the proposed activities and objectives of the selection, the
attention given to each of the aspects may vary.

1.1 Suitability Analysis

The first thing to be done is to formulate criteria for suitable development areas
(see matrix, Table 6-1). The appropriate base data can now be gathered and
interpreted for the specific study. The base data can be in the form of aerial photos,
topographic map and other thematic maps where aspect maps can be derived. An
aspect map is a map dealing with only one factor. They are usually derived from
the original thematic maps which are professional interpretations of based data into
customized categories. They describe specific properties that can be used for
further comparison with other aspects.

METHODS

1.1.1 The binary method can be easily applied by sieve mapping. From each aspect map,
overlays are made with the unsuitable areas painted a dark color. Then all map
layers are put together (overlaid) on a light table where only the suitable areas
(areas that have no negative aspect) will light up. (see Figure 6-1)

Suitability levels could also be handled on a light table but in an incremental approach.
First, we compare the first aspect and delineate on an overlay the areas that qualify
for the aspect. Those areas will get a value of “1”. Then we put the overlay over the
second map and delineate the areas that qualify for the second aspect. When they
coincide with areas that have already got “1”, this will be upgraded to “2”. If these
are new areas, they will get a value of “1”. When all the factors are considered the
highest values indicated the areas that qualify on all aspects (e.g. areas with value
“5” if 5 aspects are considered). These are the same areas that we found with
binary sieve mapping. When the value is “4” it will mean that the site is not falling in
the suitability range for one aspect. If we like to know which aspect that is, we have
to compare with the original maps.

In the identification of the physical conditions that determine the suitability of the land for
urban use or future development areas, the following sample questions may serve as
guide to the planner.

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 94


Questions:

1. Where are the areas that are too steep to build upon or prone to landslides?

2. Where are the areas prone to flooding?

3. Where are the areas where ground conditions are not good for construction?

4. Where are the forest areas?

5. Where are the rights of ways for major roads not yet fully built and for high tension
electricity lines?

6. Where are the built up areas?

7. Where are the good quality agricultural lands?

8. Where are the areas that cannot be served by easy extension of existing systems?

9. Considering the said factors, what are the constraints and opportunities for using lands
in and around the town for urban use?

Before answering the last question, carry out a Sieve Map Analysis of the town and its
surroundings using the answers to the other questions.

2. Basic procedure of Determining Future Development Areas Using Sieve Mapping


Technique

Step 1 Make several transparent sheets (reproduce) of previously prepared base maps
on tracing paper based on the number of the thematic maps. (The transparent
sheets will be used for tracing the derived aspect maps to be overlaid to come
up with the map containing suitable areas.

Step 2 Prepare criteria for suitability for each thematic map. Make a classification
according to suitability for urban areas (e.g. 0 - 3% slope - highly suitable, etc.
See Table 6-1)

Step 3 Prepare aspect maps by enlarging or reducing the thematic maps (slope,
hazard, etc.) according to the scale of your base map. Using the transparent
sheets, trace the enlarged/reduced thematic map. You have the flexibility
to add or delete other thematic maps other than the ones prescribed)

Step 4 For each aspect map, delineate the areas which are highly suitable and not
suitable depending on your criteria. Color the unsuitable areas with a dark color
or patterns of hatching and leave the suitable areas blank.

Step 5 Overlay (put on top) the different aspect maps and tape them together on the
light table. Those areas that light up are those areas which have satisfied all
criteria and which is deemed suitable for development.

By carrying out sieve analysis, you can locate the areas where there are physical constraints
on the use of lands for urban purposes. By placing at a time the overlays on the base map,
the sum of the areas marked upon by the overlays can be built up on a single
95 Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies
Alternative 5: Combined Alternatives

It must be noted that the LGU may opt to adopt a combination of development alternatives and
present it as the fifth option.

The basic urban form conceptual frameworks only serve to guide the LGUs in
formulating the schematic diagrams that will best characterize the preferred
growth of development. As such, the resulting urban form must not be a precise
replication of these forms. Likewise, the preferred urban form shall be identified
in terminologies that are reflective of the local situation.

Step 6. Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies 100


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
PREPARING THE STEP
7
LAND USE PLAN
(DETAILING OF PREFERRED
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY)

Although the CLUP has a leaning towards physical planning, it can be staunchly stated
that the CLUP is also a manifestation of local social and economic values and that this
will basically guide the physical development of the cities and municipalities.

At this stage in the planning process, the Land Use Plan will translate the development
thrust and spatial strategy that describes how, why, when, and where to build, rebuild,
and preserve.

In allocating and detailing of land uses, the Land Use Plan needs to integrate the
mandatory elements such as the vision, transportation, community facilities, economic
development, critical and sensitive areas and natural hazards. Likewise, conflicts in
location of land uses are reconciled and adjustments in the whole matrix of relationships
are made.

The Land Use Plan shall specify the features of the development thrust and preferred
spatial strategy, guided by the details and policies governing the following:

Growth centers and corridors


Residential developments and basic facilities/services
Ecological system and cultural heritage protection/conservation
Economic development and local governance
Infrastructure support systems
Development intent for the entirety of the local government unit
Use of city/municipal waters

PURPOSE

To translate the development framework as reflected in the Structure Plan into spatial
dimension, and indicating the manner in which land shall be put to its highest and
best use.

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

A City/Municipal Land Use Plan with the following elements:·

Proposed Land and Water Uses


Land and Water Use Policies essential in physical development
Proposed Circulation Network
Major Development Programs/Projects

101 Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan


STEPS

The steps put into detail the development areas as reflected in the Structure Plan, which in
turn is the interpretation of the preferred Spatial Strategy/ies.

1. Review the quantified land requirements derived from the conduct of sectoral
studies, current and projected population, vision and development thrust.

2. Match the lands available for development (supply) and the quantified land
requirements (demand) to determine adequacy of supply. The figure below illustrates
the details of this activity.

BALANCING LAND SUPPLY AND DEMAND

Vision , Sectoral
Needs and wants Total Land Area
Residential

Commercial Less Land for


Estimated Land
Requirement Protection

Industrial NIPAS

Land Demand Land Supply


Institutional Non-
NIPAS

Infrastructure
Cultural
YES NO Heritage
Open Space
Matched?
ECAs
Parks and Playground

Adjusment/
Cemeteries Revision?

Other Uses

2.1. If the supply is adequate for the quantified needs and requirements, determine if
modifications or adjustments are necessary

Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan 102


Adjustments may be in the form of:

Additional expansion areas or growth areas


Allocation policies that would ensure the progressive realization of the
city’s/municipality’s development vision.

2.2 If the supply is inadequate (less than the demand), identify strategic interventions to
ensure the provision or availability of land to address space or land requirements and
to ensure the realization of the city’s/municipality’s development thrust.

The following are some suggested strategic interventions:

Increase in use density (densification) e.g., infilling of vacant lots, vertical


(high-rise) development, redevelopment
Reclamation subject to environmental and other laws and regulations
Possible conversion of development constrained areas with the least
perceived negative impact and subject to appropriate mitigating
measures

2.3 If the demand is lower than the supply, the planner/s may decide on the appropriate
use(s) of the remaining land supply to ensure the achievement of the development
thrust.

The following may be considered, as may be appropriate for the LGU:

Reversion of lands zoned as urban uses to agricultural uses to ensure


and enhance food security
Identification of new growth nodes/corridors
Identification of areas for additional infrastructure support services
Improvement of rural services and amenities
Possible relocation or socialized housing sites for informal settlers or
families, if any, and for families which may be affected by pipeline projects
and renewal/redevelopment programs in the urban areas
Other relevant uses, subject to existing laws.

3. Design the basic land use scheme.

3.1 Translate the land use requirements of the structure plan into major use categories;

3.2 Make a schematic diagram of the location and area of the identified land use categories
on the base map;

103 Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan


X The scheme should take into account the following:

Land suitability (refer to Annex 6-3, Step 6, for techniques of analysis)


Flooding areas
Fault lines
Wind direction
Other physical limitations
Existing and future activity patterns
Public sentiment on land use issues
Land values
Cost considerations
Aesthetic factors
Proposed transportation layouts
Location criteria/standards (Refer to Vol. 2 for the sector standards and location
criteria)

- Convenience standards – location of land use is determined by considering


time and distance as the primary units of measurement;
- Performance standards – the main determinants of land use areas are
health, safety, and amenity.

Location standards will normally vary from one use to another and from one
planning area to another. Local planners should be aware that standards are
not absolute but are more in the nature of guides or criteria to be followed under
normal circumstances.

X New space needs can be accommodated in three ways:

1. Use of vacant areas and urbanizable lands;


2. Re-use of areas slated for clearance; and
3. “Invasion” or change in use of existing built-up areas from one use to another
use.

3.3 Overlay the land use schemes to the existing land use map, land suitability map,
development constraint/preservation/conservation maps, infrastructure development
map, and other significant factors to come up with a tentative land use plan;

3.4 Finalize the land use plan by making adjustments and / or revisions where necessary.

These adjustments and/or revisions are made in any of the following areas:

3.4.1 Conflicts between land use and transportation

Possible conflicts between location and magnitude of land uses and


existing or proposed transportation lines should be ironed out.
Proposed land uses should be located as much as possible in areas which
are served or to be served by transportation lines or in areas where
transportation lines can be feasibly extended.

Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan 104


Where locating uses in certain areas becomes the greater imperative, the
transportation plan should be adjusted or revised accordingly.
Areas with heavy densities (in some cases, heavy daytime densities such
as CBDs, industrial areas, and school zones) should be served by
adequate transportation routes and facilities such as parking areas,
service centers, etc.

3.4.2 Conflicts between land uses

Conflicts in these areas may be in two possible ways:

a. Compatibility between land use - This shall be evaluated in such terms


as:

Possible nuisance (noise, smoke, fumes, glare, etc.) from one use to
another adjacent area;
Incompatibility in terms of aesthetic considerations;
Traffic generation where one area is exposed to heavy traffic generated
by another use or where adjacent uses (i.e. commercial and industrial
areas) generate undesirable traffic levels.

b. Sitings of lands uses - evaluated according to:

Whether a particular area is allocated for the most suitable use in


terms of land value, land suitability, cost-revenue considerations (i.e.
viable commercial housing in proposed residential area), and
exploitation of locations with good aesthetic qualities.
The feasibility of extending transportation and utilities (water, power,
sewerage, communication lines) to new locations.

3.4.3 Adjustment for space allocation - tentative space allocations of space


requirements may need to be adjusted in terms of reduction or expansion of
areas. Adjustments may be done as follows:

In cases where there is not enough land to accommodate all estimated


space requirements, the proposed areas of some uses may be reduced
but with corresponding increase in density to satisfy the requirements.
Tentative allocations may be increased to introduce flexibility in some uses,
such as, allowances for unforeseen space needs or set aside areas with
good potential as industrial land reserves.

The final land use plan that would emerge from the foregoing adjustments
and revisions should as much as possible, be the most balanced and
harmonious land use design in terms of area, location, and layout.

4. Tabulate and quantify the proposed land uses following Table 7-1 below. It shall
also include the proposed uses of water bodies within the jurisdiction of the city/
municipality.

105 Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan


Table 7-1. Proposed Land Uses

AREA (In Hectares)


LAND USE CATEGORIES INCREASE/
EXISTING PROPOSED (DECREASE)

Residential
Commercial
Infrastructure/utilities
Institutional
Parks/playgrounds and other
recreational spaces
Industrial
Agriculture
Forest and other forest use categories
Mining/quarrying
Grassland/Pasture
Agro-industrial
Tourism
Other uses/categories
Cemeteries
Sanitary waste management
facilities, e.g. sanitary landfill, STPs
Buffer zones/Greenbelts
Water uses
Nipa swamps
Mangrove forests
Tourism (recreation/resorts)
Settlements on stilts
Infrastructure (e.g. Ports and
Harbors, Fish Landing, Oil
Pipelines)
Reclamation Areas and Landfills
Aquaculture and marine culture (e.g.
fish cages/fish pens, seaweed
culture, etc.)
Fish sanctuary
Mudflats
Others, specify (e.g. river sand/
gravel quarrying, coral reef,
seagrass beds)

* Definition of terms for coastal and


marine areas are provided in
Annex 4-4.

Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan 106


The planning of forests, agricultural, wetlands, heritage areas, and other detailed
land use categories are also subject to specific area planning guidelines as
may be mandated by concerned national agencies. These plans may include:
Forest Land Use Plan, Coastal Resources Management Plan, Tourism Master
Plan, Protected Area Management Plan, Ancestral Domain Sustainable
Development and Protection Plan, Solid Waste Management Plan, Agriculture
Development Plan, etc.

The DENR-IEMSD Sustainable Planning Guidelines may be utilized in preparing


the Forest, Agriculture, and Coastal Land Use Plans. For local government
units with ancestral lands and indigenous peoples, the NCIP Administrative Order
No. 1, Series of 2004: Guidelines on the Formulation of the Ancestral Domain
Sustainable Development and Protection (ADSDPP) as presented in Annex 7-
1, should be observed.

In cases where there are already existing detailed plans as mentioned above,
prior to the preparation of the CLUP, such plan/s will have to be integrated and
reflected in the CLUP. However, this is without prejudice to the review of such
plans for purposes of harmonization and consistency with the city or municipal
vision.

5. Plot/delineate on the base map the proposed land and water uses to come up with
the City/Municipal Land Use Plan map. Use the standard color codes in delineating
the proposed land uses as presented in CLUP Process Step 4-Annex 4-3. (Refer
also to to Vol. 3, A Guide to Data Management for CLUP Preparation, to facilitate
mapping activities.).

The Land Use Plan Map will reflect the resultant land use proposals for the
entire city/municipality, including coastal and marine areas. For purposes of
having a more detailed presentation, the urban core and other urbanizing areas
may be enlarged to a bigger scale to show the detailed land uses within. The
components of urban use areas must be clearly specified and explicitly presented
to avoid subjectivity of interpretation.

6. Formulate the land use policies that will govern the specific land and water uses in
the entire city/municipality.

At this stage, identify Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices (IKSP) that can
be adopted to ensure sustainable use of special areas, i.e. Ancestral Domains.

107 Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan


Policy refers to a statement indicating specific guidelines, methods, procedures, rules
and forms that will guide all development activities in the city or municipality to support
and further encourage actions toward the achievement of the vision, goals,
objectives, and targets.

Policy statements may cover any or all of the following concerns:

Strategic functions of identified growth areas/corridors


Extent of area to be occupied and types of future commercial and industrial
activities
Intensity of activities to be generated
Visual impact regulations
Special assessment, compensation, and tax incentives and disincentives to be effected
in the implementation of the plan
Conservation, preservation, maintenance, and development of ecological system
(i.e. coastal, forest, lakes, etc.), cultural heritage sites, natural resources, and the
like
Other policies considered by the locality as necessary and relevant to the local land
development plan.

Policies are formulated through workshops or brainstorming sessions by the planning


team, the results of which, are to be presented to other stakeholders. This activity may
also result to further refinement of sectoral policies for the purpose of consistency with the
defined vision, goals and objectives.

The workshop activities shall include the following:

Review of the vision, goals and objectives and the findings of the situation analysis on
issues/problems, and the recommended interventions
Assessment of land use relationships (compatibility and linkages between land uses,
inter-intra-area compatibility)
Identification of policies that respond to specific situations in order to attain the vision,
goals and objectives.
At this stage due consideration and consistency with the general policies stipulated in
higher plans such as, PPFP, RPFP or NFPP on production, protection, settlements
and infrastructure areas shall be observed.
Checking the consistency of policies with the issues, goals and objectives. Guide
questions are as follows:

- Does each policy address the cause(s) of the priority problems identified in the
situation analysis?
- Are the policies consistent with the stated vision, goals and objectives and with
each other?
- Are the policies consistent with national, regional and provincial development
policies and plans?
- What actions will these policies require? Is there a need for executive and legislative
action?

Consolidating the identified policies for the functional development areas according
to sectors for the subsequent identification of responsibility centers.

Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan 108


7. Delineate transportation network and proposed circulation pattern considering
the achievement of the following:

a. Efficient internal and external linkages


b. Improved community access to basic social services and facilities/infrastructures
c. Stimulate development in identified development areas or growth nodes
d. Desired impacts on service provision and influence on development pattern of the
LGU

8. Identify programs and projects that will support the implementation of the Land
Use Plan.

8.1 Determine the relevant programs and projects that arise from the formulation of the
structure plan, the detailed land use plans including the identified policies, such as:

Additional linkages in terms of circulation system


Socialized housing
Parks and playgrounds and greening projects
Waste management systems such as sanitary landfills
Renewal or redevelopment programs
Cultural and heritage preservation programs
Upgrading of sanitation and drainage system
Irrigation projects
Reforestation projects
Others

8.2 Review the list of programs and projects resulting from the sectoral studies

8.3 Consolidate the programs and projects cited above into a general listing. This will
provide the basis for prioritizing projects/programs for implementation by the city/
municipality.

8.4 Classify programs and projects that can be implemented by national, regional
provincial, city / municipal government, private sector, NGOs or POs. Identifying areas
of responsibility will facilitate coordination of project implementation. These programs
and projects can be further classified according to sector.

8.5 Prepare the implementation and monitoring plans/tools to implement the CLUP (Refer
to CLUP process - Steps 8 to 10 for the detailed procedures).

109 Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan


Flow Chart for for Preparing the Land Use Plan

STEPS OUTPUTS

Review the quantified sectoral


1 area requirements

Total sectoral land


requirements in has.
Adjust total land requirements
based on the preferred devt.
2 thrusts options/strategies and
match with available land supply
Adjusted total demand
for land and growth
management
strategies
Identify proposed land uses,
3 quantify and tabulate areas

Table on proposed
land (and water) use
areas

4 Plot/delineate land uses on the


base map

Proposed Land Use


Plan
Delineate transportation network
5 and proposed circulation pattern
Traffic management/
improvement plan/
strategies
Formulate land use policies to
6 govern functional areas

Land use policies

Identify programs and projects


7 that will support the
implementation of the plan
General listing of
consolidated programs
and projects

Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan 110


Annex 7-1
GUIDELINES ON THE FORMULATION OF ANCESTRAL DOMAIN SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION PLAN (ADSDPP) PURSUANT TO NATIONAL
COMMISSION ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLE (NCIP) ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 1,
SERIES OF 2004

Section 8. Basic Steps in the ADSDPP Formulation. The formulation of the ADSDPP shall
primarily be guided by the principle of self-determination, participatory planning and cultural
integrity with the main objective of ensuring the sustainable development and protection of
ancestral domain resources and enforcement of the rights of ICCs/IPs to their ancestral domain
as well as their rights as a people and as citizens. The responsibility of formulating the ADSDPP
rests with the community and they may avail of the services and expertise of other agencies
and support groups. Upon request of ICCs/IPs, the NCIP shall facilitate the formulation of the
ADSDPP and the planning process shall proceed as follows:

a. Pre-Planning Consultations. In preparation for the ADSDPP formulation, a series of


consultations shall be conducted by the NCIP field office with the following objectives:

1. Fully inform and educate all IC/IP community members of their rights and
responsibilities pursuant to existing policies and regulations.
2. Get the commitment of concerned IC/IP community members to formulate their
ADSDPP.
3. Identify members of the working group to formulate the ADSDPP.

b. Organization of the Working Group/Planning Team. A Working Group or Planning


Team shall be organized which shall comprise the traditional leaders and recognized
representatives from all ICC/IP sectors such as the women, youth, children, farmer/
fisher folks of the tribe that owns the ancestral domain. To facilitate the planning process,
sub-working groups may be organized by ancestral domain unit and/or ICC/IP sector
to assist the core Working Group.

c. Preparation of Work and Financial Plan (WFP). Prior to the formulation of the
ADSDPP, the core Working Group (WG) shall prepare a work and financial plan indicating
the planning activities, specific outputs, schedules, responsible persons/groups per
activity and the budgetary requirements including probable resources or sources of
funds. This shall be done in consultation with the Council of Elders and other members
of the community. Thereafter, the same shall be endorsed to the NCIP, through the
provincial and regional offices, for approval and possible funding assistance.

d. Data Gathering and Assessment. Data gathering or baseline survey and assessment
is the preliminary step in the planning process to produce the ancestral domain profile
and situationer. The Working Group(s) shall conduct a participatory baseline survey
focusing on the existing population, natural resources, development projects, land use,
sources of livelihood, income and employment, education and other concerns. The
survey shall include the documentation of the ICC/IP culture or IKSPs and historical
accounts or inventory of documents relative to the sustainable development and
protection of the ancestral domain. Likewise, it includes the appraisal of the quality and
quantity of existing natural resources In the ancestral domain. The baseline survey
shall target both secondary and/or primary data with the aid of survey instruments and
procedures.

111 Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan


The Working Group shall assess the data/information, identify and prioritize problems/
issues and concerns, determine needs and gaps, and try to understand the underlying
causes and how particular problems affect particular sectors of the community. The
output shall be presented to the community for validation of its accuracy and reliability
before proceeding to the succeeding steps of the ADSDPP formulation process
hereunder.

e. IP/AD Development Framework Formulation. Immediately after the validation of


the assessed data, the community shall collectively formulate the framework for their
development as a people and the sustainable development and protection of their
ancestral domain. This shall reflect their collective vision, mission, general objectives
or long term goals, priority concerns and development strategies that will set the direction
of the program/project identification and prioritization in the ADSDPP. The process shall
involve the evaluation of alternative development options without compromise of the
ICCs/IPs’ duties and responsibilities to their ancestral domains. The framework shall
be written in the language understood by all IC/IP community members, and translated
in English.

f. Interface of IP/AD Development Framework with Existing Government Policies/


Plans/Programs/Projects, Rules and Regulations. After completion of the IP/AD
development framework, other government and non-government agencies, most crucial
of which are the DENR, DA, DAR, DPWH, and so forth shall be invited to present their
existing policies/plans/programs/projects so that ICCs/IPs will be fully apprised of
development opportunities as well as limitations. The inputs, with possible commitments,
will further guide the identification of programs in the ADSDPP. On the other hand, other
GOs and NGOs will be informed of the real desires and aspirations of ICCs/IPs, which
they may consider in the review and reformulation of their respective policies/plans/
programs/projects.

g. Program/Project Identification and Prioritization. Based on the development


framework, programs/projects/activities including basic services required shall be
identified and prioritized. A brief description of each program, project and activity shall
be presented and suggestions on implementation strategies and/or mechanisms may
be included. The presentation shall include all available resources and external
assistance that could be tapped by the IC/IP community.

h. Formulation of ADSDPP Implementation Strategies and Management Plan.


Proposed plans to implement and manage the ADSDPP and its specific parts shall be
indicated to include the monitoring and evaluation systems and tools to be used in
measuring and checking the progress of development programs and projects. The
Council of Elders/Leaders shall oversee the implementation and management of the
ADSDPP notwithstanding the visitorial powers of the NCIP. To assist the Council of
Elders/Leaders (CEL), the IC/IP community may institute a special body or bodies that
will take charge of specific tasks that will be identified.

i. Presentation, Validation and Approval of Draft ADSDPP with IC/IP Community


Members. The working group shall conduct IC/IP community assembly(ies) to present
the draft ADSDPP for their validation and approval. The presentation shall be aided by
visuals including maps and in a manner that is understood by all IC/IP community
members. When applicable, the English translation of the ADSDPP shall also be subject
for validation.

Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan 112


j. Submission of ADSDPP to NCIP. Upon validation and approval, the community through
its Council of Elders/Leaders shall submit the ADSDPP to the NCIP through the Provincial
Office (PO). The ADSDPP shall be incorporated into the Medium Term or Five Year
Master Plan for ICCs/IPs, which shall be the basis of programs/projects to be identified
in the annual and medium term budgetary proposals of the NCIP as well as other
agencies concerned with the welfare of ICCs/IPs.

Section 9. Incorporation of the ADSDPP into the Local Government Plans. After
approval of their ADSDPP, the ICCs/IPs shall submit the same to the municipal and provincial
government units having territorial and political jurisdiction over them for incorporation in their
development and investment plans. The LGUs are also encouraged to provide financial and
technical assistance in the implementation of the ICCs/IPs development plans.

113 Step 7. Preparing the Land Use Plan


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
STEP
DRAFTING THE
ZONING ORDINANCE 8
Zoning is the division of a community into zones or districts (e.g. commercial, residential,
industrial, institutional, etc.) according to the present potential uses of land to maximize,
regulate and direct their use and development according with the CLUP. It takes the
form of a locally enacted ordinance which embodies among others regulations on the
allowed uses in each zone or district and deviations from the requirements prescribed
in the ordinance.

Drafting of the Zoning Ordinance (ZO) is basically translating the Comprehensive Land
Use Plan (CLUP) into a legal document/tool. In general, Zoning has the same features
or land use classifications as the CLUP, except that it provides for more detailed
information on zone boundaries and use regulations/controls, among others.

Zoning consists of two major elements, the Zoning Ordinance and the Zoning Map.

The Zoning Ordinance is a legally binding set of rules and regulations affirming
the usage of land in a city/municipality. This document contains a set of allowed
uses and regulations that applies to each designated zone.

The Zoning Map is a duly authenticated map defining divisions of different planned
land uses and regulations of land into zones in a city/municipality. It is a graphical
translation of the regulations to efficiently carry-out the presumptions of the
Zoning Ordinance. For purposes of accountability, the zoning map shall be
provided with transparent overlay(s) depicting critical information that the users/
public should know, e.g., fault lines, subsidence areas, protected areas, etc.
A Zoning Ordinance should take the form of a statute, with a title and an enacting clause.
A Zoning Ordinance (ZO) shall have the following components/features:
Title of the Ordinance
Authority and Purpose
Definition of Terms
Zone Classifications
Zone Regulations
General District Regulation
Innovative Techniques
Miscellaneous Provisions
Mitigating Devices
Administration and Enforcement

Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance 114


PURPOSE

To define/delineate in the map the zone boundaries

To identify activities which shall be allowed/permitted within each zone

To develop other development controls to ensure an objective implementation of the


CLUP

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

Draft Zoning Ordinance


Zoning Map with transparent overlay(s) depicting critical information which the
stakeholders/users should know or be aware of, e.g., faultlines, flood-prone areas
and risk/hazard prone areas

STEPS

I. Draft the Zoning Ordinance and the accompanying zoning map.

The Planning Team, assisted by the TWGs/Committee on Land Use, shall conduct series
of meetings to draft the zoning ordinance based on the CLUP, particularly, the land use
plans/policies, vision, goals and objectives of the CLUP.

The inclusion of a legal officer and/or an SB/SP member in the planning team is an advantage.

The following activities shall be undertaken to arrive at a draft-zoning ordinance.

In all these steps, the Model Zoning Ordinance (MZO) published by HLURB
shall serve as reference for the suggested details of the ordinance.

1. Define the title and purpose of the ordinance.

This will constitute Articles I and II of the ZO.

The purpose is defined based on the goals and objectives of the CLUP.

Sample Purpose:

To guide, control and regulate future growth and development of (name of city/
municipality) in accordance with its Comprehensive Land Use Plan.

To protect the character and stability of residential, commercial, industrial, institutional,


forestry, agricultural, open space and other functional areas within the locality and
promote the orderly and beneficial development of the same.

Promote and protect the health, safety, peace, comfort, convenience and general
welfare of the inhabitants in the locality.

115 Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance


The enumerated purposes are the broad objectives of a typical local Zoning
Ordinance and may be adopted by any local government. Some local legislative
bodies may however, find these purposes stated too broadly and may wish to
translate them into more specific terms appropriate to the specific goals and
objectives of the CLUP. They may also include other purposes, which are more
expressive of the specific development needs, goals and directions of their respective
locality.

2. Designate specific zones in the city/municipality using the CLUP by defining


the location and extent of boundaries of the various zones, specifying boundaries
along named streets, significant landmarks, and other natural planning boundaries,
whenever present or appropriate.

In general, zoning boundaries shall be delineated by either natural or manmade features


such as rivers, roads etc. or by measuring depth and breadth of the zone, or by establishing
radial distance in case the zone is circular, or their combinations in irregular zones.

The textual description of boundaries should correspond accurately and exactly


with the boundaries in the zoning map. The identified zone boundaries may be
enumerated in the Appendix of the Zoning Ordinance.

The designation of zones or districts by the local government units shall be based
on the CLUP. Essentially therefore, the technical justifications of zoning lie with the
planning activities that led to the formulation of the CLUP

Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance 116


The following is a general list of zone classifications which may apply to a locality.

ZONING
CLASSIFICATION DESCRIPTION

Residential An urban area within a city or municipality principally for dwelling/housing


purposes. Residential zones can be divided into areas of low, medium, and/or
high density

Socialized Housing An area principally used for dwelling/housing purposes of the underprivileged/
low-income earners

Commercial An urban area within a city or municipality for trading/services/business purposes.


Commercial zones can be divided into areas of low, medium, and/or high density.

Industrial An urban area within a city or municipality for industrial purposes. Industrial
zones can be divided into areas of light, medium or heavy industries.

Institutional An urban area within a city or municipality principally for institutional


establishments. Institutional zones can be divided into general and special types.

Agricultural An area within a city or municipality intended for cultivation/fishing and pastoral
activities

Agro-industrial An area within a city or municipality intended primarily for integrated farm
operations and related product processing activities.

Forest An area within a city or municipality that is classified or contains a forest


ecosystem.

Park and other An area designed for open space recreational facilities and maintenance of
recreation ecological balance of the community.

Water Bodies of water within cities and municipalities which include rivers, streams,
lakes and seas

Tourism Sites within cities and municipalities endowed with natural or man-made physical
attributes and resources conducive to recreation and other activities.

117 Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance


Local governments may also adopt the following detailed zone classification, depending on
the prevailing conditions in the locality such as population density, income and level of
development.

DETAILED ZONE CLASSIFICATION

1. General Residential Zone (GRZ)


2. Socialized Housing Zone (SHZ)
3. Low Density Residential Zone (R-1)
4. Medium Density Residential Zone (R-2)
5. High Density Residential Zone (R-3)
6. General Commercial Zone (GCZ)
7. Low Density Commercial Zone (C-1)
8. Medium Density Commercial Zone (C-2)
9. High Density Commercial Zone (C-3)
10. Light Industrial Zone (I-1)
11. Medium Industrial Zone I-2)
12. Heavy Industrial Zone (I-3)
13. General Institutional Zone (GIZ)
14. Special Institutional Zone (SIZ)
15. Agricultural Zone (AGZ)
16. Agro-Industrial Zone (AIZ)
17. Forest Zone (FZ)
18. Parks and other Recreation Zone (PRZ)
19. Water Zone (WZ)
20. Tourist Zone (TZ)

The output of this step will be a Zoning Map, boundary description of each zone in the
map and the accompanying text.

Zoning Map Color Code

The basic zone classifications shall use the same color codes as the land use
categories (Annex 4-3) while each sub-zone classification shall be superimposed
with different patterns /symbols, e.g. hatching with diagonal/straight lines, letters,
and/or numbers, etc. (Refer also to Vol. 3, Guide to Data Management in CLUP
Preparation)

3. Identify and agree on zone regulations for each zone district. This includes
the list of allowable uses/activities, such as, easements/setback, building
height, bulk, open space, area, population density and other conditions.
Zone regulations of cities and municipalities will differ in many ways
depending on the type/level of development and the locality’s stated vision,
goals and objectives.

Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance 118


Examples:

a. For Residential Zones:

To make zoning more implementable and suitable in a given type of locality, two
approaches may apply in the designation of residential zone or district:

a.1 Designate a generalized residential zone without reference to density level i.e.
residential zone (R).

a.2 Designate residential zone in relation to different density levels: low density residential
zone (R-1), medium density residential zone (R-2), and high-density residential
zone (R-3) and Socialized Housing Zone (SH Z).

a.3 For highly urbanized cities and urban/urbanizing municipalities additional residential
zone with specific use regulations may be divided such as follows: Residential
Zone (R-4) for Townhouses, Residential Zone (R-5) for residential condominium.

The local planner/zoning administrator shall recommend or adopt only one approach in
relation to the policies and objectives of the locality as expressed in their respective
Comprehensive Land Use Plan.

Refer to MZO for different residential zone models.

b. For Commercial Zones:

Two approaches may likewise apply in the designation of commercial zone:

b.1 Designate a generalized Commercial Zone without reference to the type of


commercial activities provided in the locality i.e. General Commercial Zone (GCZ).

b.2 Designate Commercial Zone in relation to different types of commercial activities/


services offered i.e. Principally Commercial Zone (C-1), Quasi-Commercial/
Industrial Zone (C-2); and large shopping malls in C-3.

The local planner/Zoning Administrator/Zoning Officer shall recommend or adopt only one
approach in relation to the policies and objectives of the locality as indicated in their respective
Comprehensive Land Use Plan.

Refer to MZO for commercial zone models

c. Other Zone Considerations:

For municipalities with no potential for manufacturing industries or do not encourage


the setting up of one, there is no necessity to include industrial zone in its Zoning
Ordinance.

4. Determine any innovative techniques or designs as may be applicable;


define miscellaneous provisions; and identify/define mitigating measures to include
variance and exceptions provisions. Refer to Article IX- Mitigating Devices of
the MZO on procedures for granting of exceptions and variances.

119 Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance


4.1 Innovative techniques and designs shall apply to LGUs with projects that introduce
flexibility and creativity in design.

4.2 Miscellaneous provisions includes the following:

a. Projects of National Significance. A provision on projects declared by the NEDA


Board as a project of national significance wherein HLURB shall issue Locational
Clearance pursuant to EO 72.

b. Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC). A provision stipulating the


compliance of environmentally critical projects or projects located in
environmentally critical areas to the requirements of ECC. In some cases,
Certificate of Non-Coverage (CNC) is issued by EMB-DENR.

c. Subdivision Projects. A provision that requires all owners and/or developers


of subdivision projects to secure a locational clearance/development permit
pursuant to the provisions of PD 957 and its implementing rules and regulations
or BP 220.

The granting of exception and variances is necessary to reduce the possible


harshness that may result from the enforcement of the Ordinance. The local
government unit concerned shall consider the capacity of utility and transport
systems, among others.

5. Identify/define provisions to administer and enforce ZO. This will comprise Article
X, of the draft ZO and shall include among others, the following:

5.1 Permitting systems for various land development regulations and economic activities;

5.2 Designation of Zoning Officer and extent of responsibility;

5.3 Creation of Local Zoning Board of Adjustments and Appeals (LZBAA) composed of:

a. City or Municipal Mayor as Chairman


b. City or Municipal Legal Officer
c. City or Municipal Assessor
d. City or Municipal Engineer
e. City or Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (if other than the
Zoning Administrator.
f. Two (2) representatives of the private sector nominated by their respective
organizations and confirmed by the city or municipal mayor.
g. Two (2) representatives from non-government organizations nominated by
their respective organizations and confirmed by the city or municipal mayor.
h. SP/SB Committee Chair on Land Use/Zoning (If said committee is non-
existent, the SP/SB may elect a representative).

Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance 120


For purposes of policy coordination, the said committee shall be attached to
the Municipal or City Development Council.

In order to ensure that due process is observed in the enforcement of the Zoning
Ordinance, it is advisable that local governments provide for a Local Zoning
Board of Adjustment and Appeals. However, due to limitation in planning
expertise, some localities may find it difficult to organize their own Local Zoning
Board of Adjustment and Appeals. In these cases, the local government may
authorize the HLURB to act as its Zoning Board of Adjustment and Appeals.

5.4 Creation of Local Zoning Review Committee (LZRC) composed of the following
sector representatives responsible for the operation, development and progress of
all sectoral undertakings in the locality:

a. Municipal/City Planning and Development Coordinator


b. Municipal/City Health Officer
c. Municipal/City Agriculturist
d. President, Association of Barangay Captains
e. Municipal/City Engineer
f. Community Environment and Natural Resources Officer (CENRO)
g. Municipal Agrarian Reform Officer (MARO)
h. District School Supervisor
i. Three (3) Private Sector Representatives (eg. Local Chamber of Commerce,
Housing Industry and Homeowner’s Association, etc.)
j. Two (2) NGO Representatives (eg. Women; Indigenous People, etc.)

The Local Zoning Review Committee shall have the following powers and
functions:

1. Review the Zoning Ordinance for the following purposes:

a. Determine amendments or revisions necessary in the Zoning Ordinance


because of changes that might have been introduced in the Comprehensive
Land Use Plan.

b. Determine changes to be introduced in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan


in the light of permits given, and exceptions and variances granted.

c. Identify provisions of the ordinance difficult to enforce or are unworkable.

2. Recommend to the Sangguniang Panlungsod/Bayan necessary legislative


amendments and to the local planning and development staff the needed
changes in the plan as a result of the review conducted.

3. Provide information to the HLURB that would be useful in the exercise of its
functions..

121 Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance


5.5 Procedures for handling complaints and opposition.

5.6 Procedures for amending the Zoning Ordinance.

Changes in the Zoning Ordinance as a result of the review by the Local Zoning
Review Committee shall be treated as an amendment, provided that any
amendment to the Zoning Ordinance or provisions thereof shall be subject to
public hearing and review evaluation of the Local Zoning Review Committee
and shall be carried out through a resolution of three fourths vote of the
Sangguniang Panlungsod/Bayan. Said amendments shall take effect only after
approval and authentication by HLURB or Sangguniang Panlalawigan.

5.7 Provisions on violation and penalty.

5.8 Provision on suppletory effect of other laws and decrees.

This will clarify national-local relationship, specifically providing answer to the


common problem that usually arises from decisions made by national agencies
which are in conflict with the Comprehensive Land Use and which could frustrate
its implementation.

5.9 Other provisions pertaining to separability, repealing and effectivity clause.

6. List and define terms to be used in the ZO, this will comprise Article III. Sample
terms suggested to be included are listed in the MZO.

Some of the terms used in the Zoning Ordinance are technical and carry specific
meanings which should not be subject to varying interpretation by the reader/s.
Also, there are definitions of terms which may be applicable only to the local
government concerned. Hence, the need for a section on definition of terms.
Only those terms, which are actually employed or used in the Ordinance, should
be included.

The City/Municipality has the option to place this Article at the end of the Ordinance
as an appendix or to have it as the third article, just like the Model. The advantage
of placing it as an appendix is that it follows a more logical sequence because,
usually, readers refer to this section only when they meet the terms in the course
of reading the Ordinance.

II. Present the draft zoning ordinance and accompanying zoning maps to LDC and SB/
SP for validation purposes prior to the conduct of public hearing.

FURTHER READING

HLURB Model Zoning Ordinance (Vol. X), 1995

Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance 122


Flow Chart for Drafting The Zoning Ordinance

Define Title
1 and Purpose
of ZO
Art. I & II. Authority
and Purpose

Designate/
2 classify
specific zones
Art. IV. Boundary
Descriptions

Identify
zone use
3 and
regulations
Art. V & VI. Zone/
District Regulations

Determine innovative
techniques,
4 miscellaneous
provisions and
mitigating device
Art. VII, VIII & IX.
Innovative Techniques,
Miscellaneous Provisions
and Mitigating Devices
Identify/define
provisions to
5 administer and
enforce ZO
Art. X.
Administration
and Enforcement

List/define
6 terms

Art. III. Definition


of Terms

123 Step 8. Drafting the Zoning Ordinance


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
STEP
PUBLIC HEARING FOR THE
DRAFT CLUP AND ZO 9
Step 9 provides a systematic approach to consensus building on the final draft of CLUP/
ZO prior to its submission for approval/ratification. This involves a 3-stage process:
public display and information dissemination, conduct of public hearing/consultation,
and the refinement of the CLUP/ZO as a result of the public hearing/consultation.

PURPOSE

To inform the general public and ensure an objective and participatory review of the
draft CLUP/ZO

To encourage ownership of the plan and gain support for plan implementation

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

Final draft of CLUP/ZO for approval/ratification

STEPS

1. Prepare the required documents for the three-stage process of consensus building
on the draft CLUP/Zoning Ordinance. The 3-stage process are as follows:

Public exhibition

Public hearing

Committee hearing

Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO 124


Required Documents for Public Exhibition and Information Dissemination

Executive Summary of the Plan (Refer to Annex 9-1 for the suggested
outline)

Feedback form where stakeholders can write reactions/comments/


suggestions. (Provide suggestion boxes)

Information flyer and poster on the proposed public hearings/consultation,


stating the following information:

- Schedule of public hearing(s).


- Deadline for submission of position papers
- Venue
- Purpose of the consultation
- Stakeholders invited and committee in-charge of the activity and contact
numbers
- Steps/process by which a concerned person/stakeholder can air his/
her position on the plan.

The above information details for the poster/flyers shall be as agreed upon and
provided for by the Hearing Board constituted for public hearing purposes.

2. Conduct internal briefing prior to public hearing.

Orient the City/Municipal Mayor, Local departments, SP/SB members, and Local
Development Council on the draft CLUP. This may be conducted in one general session or
series of sessions for different cluster groups.

The internal briefing is aimed at local officials’ familiarization and understanding


of the draft CLUP/ZO. Some of them will constitute the members of the hearing
board during public hearings and the conduct of stakeholders’ committee
meetings.

3. Prepare an information dissemination plan for the draft CLUP/ZO and designate
the implementing department or office.

Strategies for information dissemination may include publication in local newspapers, radio
broadcast, and distribution of posters/flyers in schools, offices and public assemblies,
depending on the level of development or complexity of the municipality/city concerned.
These will also depend on the budget and funds available for the purpose.

4. Constitute the Public Hearing Board.

125 Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO


SUGGESTED COMPOSITION OF THE PUBLIC HEARING BOARD
(PHB):

City/Municipal Mayor as Chairperson


City/Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator
HLURB Technical Representative, as may be available
SP/SB Representatives
Local Sectoral Representatives

FUNCTIONS OF THE PHB:

Coordinate activities prior to and after the conduct of public hearing.Such


activities may include organizing, designing, facilitating, documenting,
disseminating information, and evaluating.
Actual conduct of public hearing to be presided by the chairperson of
the PHB. Refer to Annex 9-2 for the principles of an effective consultation
process.
Evaluate and decide on comments, suggestions and position papers
for incorporation in the plan.

A quorum is necessary to convene the session. A simple majority (50% + 1)


of the total membership of the Public Hearing Board constitutes a quorum.

The Mayor, as Chairperson of the Public Hearing Board, shall preside over
the public hearing. In the absence of the Chairperson or inability to preside,
the members of the hearing board shall elect among themselves the
Presiding Officer of the day.

The Chairperson may appoint a moderator to assist during the proceedings of


the public hearing. The Moderator need not be a member of the Public Hearing
Board.

5. Implement the three-stage process as follows:

5.1 Public exhibition of the draft CLUP and ZO (Stage I)

5.1.1 Identify strategic areas to display the above documents. Suggested places
are: the provincial/city/municipal halls, barangay centers, public markets, civic
centers, shopping centers, and other places frequently visited by the public.

5.1.2 Exhibit the plan and other information documents at least seven (7) days
prior to the public hearing.

Public display of CLUP is a more effective way of getting public reaction


and in making the public more aware of the proposed city/municipal
development plan.
The number of days of the exhibit shall be at least seven (7) days.

Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO 126


5.1.3 Disseminate information on the CLUP through any of the following ways:
publication in local newspapers, radio broadcast, and distribution of posters/
flyers in schools, offices and public assemblies.

5.2 Conduct of Public Hearing (Stage II)

Public hearing on the draft CLUP can be undertaken in several stages depending
on the budget and complexity/level of development of an LGU. This is
undertaken prior to endorsing the plan to the SP/SB for deliberation and
enactment.

For Component Cities and Municipalities (CCMs), at least one public hearing
is recommended
For Highly Urbanized Cities (HUCs) and independent component cities
(ICCs), at least two (2) public hearings.

In addition to the said minimum number of public hearings, SP/SB committee


hearings may be conducted with the participation of the committee stakeholders.

5.2.1 Design the public hearing/consultation process guided by the following


questions:

Why conduct the consultation


Who to consult
When to consult/accept reactions
How to consult/submit position papers/reactions
How to evaluate the consultation

Refer to Chapter 4, Designing a Consultation Program, Planning


Strategically, HLURB (2000).

5.2.2 Announce/publicize the public hearing through the following:

Letters, posters, banners, flyers, advertisements and use of internet


Verbally by phone, face-to-face contact, through meetings, presentations,
displays in public, house-to-house visits
Through print media, radio and television

5.2.3 Conduct the public hearing.

The presence of the Provincial Land Use Committee (PLUC) members during
this stage is suggested to facilitate the subsequent review of the draft CLUP/ZO.
The public hearing may be conducted with the following suggested activities:

i. Briefing of participants on mechanics, purpose and scope of the


consultation.

127 Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO


Briefing of the participants shall include the following: :

The importance/benefits/use of having a CLUP.


The manner it was drafted.
Objective of the public hearing/consultation.
Matters outside the scope of consultation, i.e., matters that are “Non-
negotiable”.

These non-negotiable aspects shall be made clear at the beginning of


the consultation. It is important to define what the consultation is about and
what it is not about. For instance, the government may have already decided
that a dumping site within a City/Municipality with significant number of
informal settlers will be redeveloped for medium density housing. The
purpose of the consultation process is not to seek feedback on whether the
community agrees with that decision, but rather to seek their views on issues
that need to be addressed in the actual redevelopment of the area, as well
as options for the development.

How the stakeholders’ views will influence the decision-making process or


the final CLUP.

The Public Hearing Board shall be guided by the following parameters to ensure
accountability of actions relative to the consultation/hearing:

- Who will make the final decision?


- How will the outcomes of the consultation process be used?
- What factors in addition to the community’s views will also be taken into
account?
- How will the community be informed of the outcomes of the consultation
process?
- Will they be able to see clear evidence of how their views have been
taken into account?
- When is the likely final decision?

ii. Presentation of the highlights of the draft CLUP and ZO and supporting sectoral
studies.

iii. Open forum to solicit reactions/comments on the plan. Workshops/small group


discussions may be opted to ensure maximum participation.

iv. Presentation of next steps to be undertaken or subsequent activities of Hearing


Board to include the tentative date when the finalized CLUP is expected to be
ready.

5.3. Conduct the SP/SB committee hearings to be participated in by concerned


stakeholders (Stage III)
(example: The hearings of the Committee on Housing shall include stakeholders
such as the homeowners associations, real estate developers and concerned
national agencies).

Refer to step 5.2.3 above for the flow of activities during the committee hearings.
Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO 128
The committee hearings can be done after the Public Hearing, while
awaiting for the comments and while refining the draft CLUP/ZO.

6. Consolidate, evaluate the comments, suggestions, and positions received by the


Hearing Board, and decide on what will be incorporated/considered in the final
draft.

The public should be given at least fifteen (15) days after the public hearing
to submit position papers.

7. Refine the draft CLUP and ZO as a result of above steps (5.1 to 5.3 ). A series of
meetings/workshops may be conducted, as necessary.

8. Brief the LDC and submit to Sangguniang Panglunsod/Bayan (SP/SB) the refined
draft CLUP and ZO for their First and Second Readings prior to the subsequent
mandatory review by the concerned offices/agencies in the provincial, regional, or
national levels.

After passing the 1st and 2nd readings of the SP/SB, the CLUP/ZO will then be
submitted to the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP) through the PLUC or to the
HLURB through the Regional Land Use Committee (RLUC) as appropriate.
The CLUP and ZO shall be finally adopted by the SP/SB after the
comprehensive review and favorable endorsement by the appropriate body.

Please refer to CLUP Step 10 for the complete guide on CLUP/ZO Review,
Adoption and Approval.

129 Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO


Flow Chart for Conducting Public Hearing for CLUP and ZO

CONDUCT PRE-PUBLIC HEARING ACTIVITIES

Prepare presentation materials on CLUP and ZO documents


Conduct internal briefing re- public hearing activities with LGU
officials and concerned staff
Prepare information dissemination plan
Constitute the public hearing board
Publicize/announce the conduct of public hearing
Design the public hearing/consultation process
Exhibit the draft CLUP and other information (Stage I)

CONDUCT PUBLIC HEARING (Stage II)

Brief participants on mechanics and objectives of the public


hearing
Present highlights of the draft CLUP and ZO
Solicit reactions/comments through open forum
Conduct workshops/FGDs (optional)
Present next steps

CONDUCT COMMITTEE HEARINGS (STAGE III)

POST PUBLIC HEARING

Consolidate, evaluate, and decide on the comments,


suggestions, and positions generated from the public hearing/s
Refine the draft CLUPand ZO as may be necessary
Brief the LDC and submit to SB/SP the refined CLUP and ZO

Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO 130


Annex 9-1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CITY/MUNICIPALITY

PlanningPeriod to

I. Vision

II. Brief Situationer

Demography
Social Services
Economiy
Physical Infrastructure
Natural Environment (forest, water bodies, solid/liquid wastes, etc.)
Land Use Development Trend
Local Administration

III. Development Constraints and Opportunities including a list of prioritized


Issues and Concerns

IV. Major Development Goals and Objectives

V. Preferred Development Thrust(s) and Spatial Strategy (Structure/Concept


Plan)

VI. Proposed Land Uses and Zoning Plan

VII.Proposed Major Programs and Projects

131 Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO


Annex 9-2

PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE CONSULTATION

The following points summarize the key aspects or principles that underpin an effective
consultation process. They are useful to use as a checklist when planning and undertaking
a consultation process.

1. Clearly define the purpose and scope of the consultation process including:

The aims of the consultation process;


The extent to which the consultation can influence the outcomes having clearly
identified what decisions have already been made and what remains to be
made.

2. Involve all those likely to be affected, recognizing:

The diversity of the community, including minority groups;


Opportunities to link into existing networks.

3. Involve the community as early as possible and in all stages of the project
in:

Identifying issues and ideas for addressing these issues;


Providing input into and feedback on options and draft plans.

4. Provide information about the topic under discussion as well as a


consultation process that is:

Accurate and unbiased;


Clear and free of jargon;
Appropriate to the reader’s level of interest, literacy and cultural background.

5. Use a range of techniques to inform and involve the community


recognizing:

Different levels of interest and awareness about the topic under discussion;
The need for different techniques for different situations.

6. Allow adequate time and resources insuring:

Longer time frames that will be needed for more complex projects or proposals;
Consultation events that do not conflict with other commitments such as holidays,
peak times for business and major community events.

Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO 132


7. Treat people with respect by:

Actively listening and valuing all ideas and opinions;


Providing information in a non-defensive manner;
Accurately recording what people have said.

8. Ensure that decision making processes are open and accountable by:

Advising those who have participated about the outcomes of the decision making
process which followed consultation;
Demonstrating how the outcomes of the consultation have been considered in
making the final decision.

9. Continue to improve consultation process by:

Evaluating the consultation process both during and at the end of the process;
Learning from these experiences

133 Step 9. Public Hearing for the Draft CLUP and ZO


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
REVIEWING, ADOPTING STEP
AND APPROVING
THE CLUP AND ZO 10
This step provides the guide to conducting the mandatory comprehensive review and
ratification of the CLUP/ZO by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP), Regional Land
Use Committee (RLUC), or the HLURB.

PURPOSE

To review the plan in terms of its consistency with national, regional and other relevant
plans
To provide the CLUP/ZO the legal mandate for implementation

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

Adopted/ atified CLUP/ZO

STEPS

1. The LGU, through the SB/SP (Sangguniang Panlungsod), endorse and transmit
the final draft of CLUP/ZO, together with the supporting documents for review
and subsequent approval to the SP (Sangguniang Panlalawigan)/HLURB.

Required Documents for Submission

1. At least 3 copies of the draft Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP)


and Zoning Ordinance (ZO)
2. One set of presentation maps
3. Executive Summary of the CLUP (refer to Annex 9-2 of CLUP Step 9)
4. Public Hearing Board’s Certificate of Public Hearing conducted (Refer
to CLUP Step 9)
5. Minutes of Public Hearing
6. List of invitees and sector represented
7. Copy of issued invitation letter/Notice of public hearing
8. Copy of Attendance Sheet

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 134
2. Conduct of review, approval and ratification of the CLUP/ZO by the following
authorized bodies as mandated by law:

The CLUPs/ZOs of component cities and municipalities shall be reviewed by the


Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP) through the Provincial Land Use Committee (PLUC).

Composition of the PLUC

Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator (PPDC) – Chair


Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB)
Provincial Agriculturist
Representatives of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) that are
represented in the Provincial Development Council (PDC)
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)
Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)
Department of Tourism (DOT)
Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Note: Other agencies concerned may be invited as necessary, e.g., NCIP,


POPCOM, etc.

The CLUPs/ZOs of Highly Urbanized Cities (HUCs) and ndependent Component


Cities (ICCs) shall be reviewed by the Regional Land Use Committee (RLUC).

Composition of the RLUC

National Economic and Development Authority(NEDA) – Chair


Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB)
Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC)
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)
Department of Tourism (DOT)
Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC)
Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)
Department of Agriculture (DA)
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)
Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)
Department of Science and Technology (DOST)
Non-Government Organizations

Note: Other agencies concerned may be invited as necessary. e.g., NCIP, POPCOM,
etc.

135 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
The CLUPs/ZOs of the cities and municipalities in Metro Manila shall be reviewed
by Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA).

2.1 Conduct of review proper shall be guided as follows:

X Refer to Figures 1-3 for the systematic activities in conducting the CLUP
review.

X The parameters for review of CLUPs/ZOs per LGU classification are


provided as follows to guide the concerned reviewing bodies:

Annex 10-1, Plan Review, Adoption and Approval Process for


Comprehensive Land Use Plans of Component Cities and Municipalities
(CCMs)

Annex 10-2, Plan Review, Adoption and Approval Process for


Comprehensive Land Use Plans of Highly-Urbanized Cities (HUCs)
and Independent Component Cities (ICCs)

Annex 10-3, Plan Review, Adoption and Approval Process for Metro
Manila Cities and Municipalities (MMCMs)

2.2. The RLUC/MMDA shall endorse the reviewed CLUPs/ZOs of highly-urbanized


and independent component cities, cities and municipalities of Metro Manila to
the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) for final review and
subsequent approval.

2.3. The reviewing body returns the CLUP and ZO to the LGU for revision together
with the review comments and recommendations or for adoption and enactment
if no revisions were recommended.

3. The LGU revises the plan consistent with the recommendations of the reviewing
body, if any.

At this stage, close coordination between the LGU and the reviewing body is
recommended to facilitate the review and plan adoption process.

4. If no revisions were recommended or upon compliance with the review


recomendations, the SP/SB conducts the 3rd and final reading to adopt the CLUP
and enact the ZO.

5. SP/SB submits adopted CLUP and enacted ZO to the SP/HLURB for approval/
ratification (See flowchart process, Figures 1-3).

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 136
The following documents are to be submitted:

Six (6) copies of adopted CLUP and duly enacted ZO.


Three (3) sets of Presentation Maps.
SP/SB Resolution adopting the CLUP and enacting the ZO.
Documents enumerated in STEP I.

Approval/ratification of CLUP/ZO shall be subject to the provisions of the Local


Government Code and supplemental guidelines issued by the DILG.

6. LGU publishes the approved/ratified CLUP and Zoning Ordinance consistent with
Section 59 of the Local Government Code (RA 7160).

137 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
Annex 10-1
PLAN REVIEW, ADOPTION AND APPROVAL PROCESS FOR
COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLANS
OF COMPONENT CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES (CCMS)

RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

Local Government Units (LGU) 1. Mayor transmits to Sangguniang Panlalawigan


- City/Municipality (SP), one (1) set of presentation maps and at least
three (3) copies of final draft of Comprehensive
Land Use Plan (CLUP) and Zoning Ordinance (ZO)
together with the following documents:

a. Executive Summary of the CLUP*;


b. Sangguniang Bayan(SB)/Sangguniang
Panglungsod(SP) Secretary’s Certificate of
Public Hearing conducted;
c. Minutes of Public Hearing;
d. List of Invitees and sector represented;
e. Copy of Issued Invitation letter/Notice of
Public Hearing; and
f. Copy of Attendance Sheet.

SangguniangPanlalawigan (SP) 2. Receives plan documents and endorses to PLUC


for review.

Provincial Land Use 3. Receives plan documents and checks


Committee (PLUC) completeness.

3.1 If incomplete, requests LGU to complete


documents.
3.2 If complete, proceed with activity 4.

4. Reviews CLUP & ZO.

4.1 Schedules review.


4.2 Routes copies of plan documents to PLUC
members at least two (2) weeks before the
actual review.
4.3 The PLUC Chairman invites other
stakeholders as needed.
4.4 PLUC member confirms attendance to the
Secretariat.

The PLUC Chairman 4.5 Convenes the members of the PLUC.


a. If there is quorum, proceeds with the
review.

b. If there is no quorum, defers review until


quorum is met. A quorum is met when
majority [50%+1] of the members are
present.

NOTE: * Refer to Annex 9-1 of CLUP Step 9 for Sample Executive Summary.

141 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

Local Government Units (LGU) 4.6 Presents the plan to PLUC.

Provincial Land Use 4.7 Conducts review of CLUP & ZO consistent with
Committee (PLUC) the review parameters hereto attached.
4.8 Committee members present respective
comments and recommendations.
4.9 Prepares report/recommendations.

4.9.1 If with revision, transmits documents


to LGU.
4.9.2 If no revision, proceeds with activity 7

Local Government Units (LGU) 5. Revises the draft CLUP and ZO integrating the
recommendations of PLUC. (LGU may coordinate/
consult with PLUC). Proceeds with activity 6.

Provincial Land Use 6. Checks if comments/recommendations were


Committee (PLUC) incorporated in the CLUP and ZO and endorses
to Sangguniang Bayan (SB)/Sangguniang
Panlungsod (SP) for adoption & enactment.

7. Endorses CLUP and ZO to LGU for adoption and


enactment.

Local Government Units (LGU) 8. SB/SP adopts CLUP and enacts ZO.

9. Submits to Sangguniang Panlalawigan, five (5)


copies of CLUP and ZO together with the following
documents:

a. Three (3) sets of Presentation Maps;


b. SB/SP Resolution adopting the CLUP and
enacting the ZO; and
c. Documents a to f in step 1.

SangguniangPanlalawigan (SP) 10. Receives documents. Conducts cursory review


and endorses the CLUP and ZO for approval.
(Coordinates with LGU, if further changes have
to be made).

11. Approves CLUP and ZO.

12. Authenticates CLUP, ZO and other plan


documents.

13. Retains 1 set of plan documents for PPDO.

14. Furnishes the following with copies of plan


documents, presentation maps and

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 142
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

Sangguniang Panlalawigan Resolution approving


the plan:

- HLURB-RFO (1 set)
- LGU (remaining copies)

Local Government Units (LGU) 15. Complies with publication requirement per Sec.
59 of Local Government Code (R.A. 7160).

PARAMETERS FOR THE REVIEW OF CLUPs OF


COMPONENT CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES (CCMs)

1. Provincial 1.a If the province has a provincial plan, checks if local plan
Planning and conforms or is in harmony with the provincial plan.
Development 1.b If the province has no provincial plan, checks if plan
Coordinator conforms with development thrust of the province and does
(PPDC) not conflict with the land use plans or development thrust of
other adjacent municipalities.

2. Provincial 2.a Checks if irrigated and irrigable lands are identified, delineated
Agriculturist and quantified per RA 8435.
(PA) 2.b Determines if areas identified for urban expansion are outside
the identified Network of Protected Areas for Agricultural and
Agro-Industrial Development (NPAAAD) and Strategic
Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones (SAFDZ).
2.c Checks if the fishponds (if any) are identified, delineated and
quantified.

3. Non- 3.a Checks whether the plan increases the access of the under-
Government privileged and other basic sectors to socio-economic
Organization opportunities.
(NGO) 3.b Evaluates how development strategies, programs and projects
will affect the basic sectors.
3.c Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis laws and regulations affecting
human rights, gender, and other sectoral concerns.

4. Housing and 4.a Checks whether LGU clearly identified its functional role and
Land Use whether the proposed land use plan and development strategies
Regulatory are consistent with its vision.
Board 4.b Evaluates if the plan is in harmony with the land use plans of
(HLURB) adjacent cities and municipalities.
4.c If the province has no provincial plan, evaluates the city/
municipal plan in accordance with the development policies of
the Province.
4.d Evaluates if the land requirements for basic services and
facilities are identified, quantified and properly delineated.
4.e Evaluates if the location of different land uses are suitable,

143 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
properly allocated, and delineated.
4.f Evaluates if proposed socio-cultural and other infra. support
facilities are adequate and supportive to the city’s functional
role and development thrust.
4.g Checks if sites for socialized housing are identified pursuant
to R.A. 7279 (Urban Development and Housing Act of 1992).
4.h Checks if the identified programs/projects are responsive to
the LGU’s needs, properly prioritized and incorporated in the
LDIP.
4.i Checks whether the land use plan is translated into the requisite
Zoning Ordinance with clear Zone Boundaries.
4.j Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

5. Department of 5.a Checks whether present and proposed settlement sites are
Environment free from legal and environmental constraints.
and Natural 5.b Checks whether there are inconsistencies between areas
Resources proposed for development and areas for protection.
(DENR) 5.c Checks if there are sites identified for disposal and projects
for management of solid and other hazardous waste within
the city.
5.d Checks the consistency of the City/Municipal Solid Waste
Management Plan with the CLUP.
5.e Checks if the plan promotes the enhancement of the
environmental quality through local initiatives to control water,
air and land pollution.
5.f Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

6. Department of 6.a Checks/evaluates if there are any lands identified for


Agrarian reclassification and/or conversion that are tenanted or covered
Reform by notice of coverage/acquisition and are within the coverage
(DAR) of CARP and if these lands are delineated and quantified.
6.b Determines if there are tenants/beneficiaries which need to be
compensated.
6.c Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies
/plans/programs.

7. Department of 7.a If applicable, checks if the sites jointly identified by DTI and
Trade and LGU as Regional Agro-Industrial Centers (RAICs), District Agro-
Industry Industrial Centers (DAICs)/ Countryside Agro-Industrial Centers
(DTI) (CAICs) /Provincial Industrial Centers (PICs)/Peoples Industrial
Estates (PIEs), etc. are delineated, considered and quantified
in the plan.
7.b If applicable, checks if Special Economic Zones identified by
PEZA are delineated and quantified in the plan.
7.c Evaluates if the proposed industrial sites are feasible and
suitable for industrial development per DTI standards.
7.d Checks if the requisite utilities and facilities are adequate for
identified industries in the area.
7.e Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 144
plans/programs.

8. Department of 8.a Checks/evaluates if the proposed road network and other


Public Works infrastructure facilities and utilities are adequate to support
and Highways the various land uses and are consistent with regional and
(DPWH) national sectoral plans.
8.b Evaluates if the CLUP has integrated DPWH plans and
programs for implementation within the planning period.
8.c Determines if mitigating measures for flooding and appropriate
disaster prevention programs are identified.
8.d Checks if the proposed Traffic Management Program (TMP)
has linkage with the TMPs of adjacent cities and municipalities.
8.e Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

9. Department of 9.a Checks if potential tourism sites are identified and considered
Tourism in the plan.
(DOT) 9.b Checks if the sites identified for local tourism development is
supportive of the Regional Tourism Master Plan.
9.c Determines if there are adequate utilities/facilities to support
tourism activities needed to sustain projected number of
tourists.

10. Department of 10.a Checks if the proposed projects/programs are the actual
Interior and translation of the LGUs needs and requirements as identified
Local in the socio-economic and infrastructure sector and if these
Government are prioritized.
(DILG) 10.b Checks if the implementing mechanisms are adequately
provided.
10.c Checks the adequacy/sufficiency of the proposed organizational
structure for CLUP/ZO implementation.
10.d Evaluates the sources of funds for identified programs and
projects.
10.e Checks if the proposed implementing and monitoring schemes
are consistent with the Local Government Code.
10.f Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

145 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
Annex 10-2
PLAN REVIEW, ADOPTION AND APPROVAL PROCESS FOR
COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLANS OF HIGHLY-URBANIZED CITIES (HUCS)
AND INDEPENDENT COMPONENT CITIES (ICCS)

RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

Local Government Unit (LGU) 1. City Mayor transmits to the Housing and Land
Use Regulatory Board - Regional Field Office
(HLURB-RFO), one (1) set of presentation maps
and at least three (3) copies of final draft of
Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) & Zoning
Ordinance (ZO) together with the following
documents:
a. Executive Summary of the CLUP*;
b. Sangguniang Panlungsod (SP) Secretary’s
Certificate of Public Hearing conducted;
c. Minutes of Public Hearing;
d. List of Invitees and sector represented;
e. Copy of Issued Invitation letter/Notice of Public
Hearing; and
f. Copy of Attendance Sheet.

Housing and Land Use 2. RFO receives plan documents and checks
Regulatory Board (HLURB) completeness.

2.1. If incomplete, requests LGU to complete


documents.
2.2. If complete, proceeds with activity 3.

3. RFO transmits documents to RLUC copy


furnished FOSG for review.

4. FOSG reviews the plan, prepares report/


recommendations and transmits the same to
RFO.

5. RFO transmits HLURB report to RLUC.


RLUC
6. Reviews CLUP and ZO.

a. Schedules review.
b. Routes copies of plan documents to members
at least two (2) weeks before the actual review.
c. Invites other stakeholders as needed.

RLUC Chairman 6.1. Convenes the members of the RLUC.

a. If there is quorum, proceed with the


review.

NOTE: * Refer to Annex 9-1 of CLUP Step 9 for Sample Executive Summary.

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 146
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

b. If there is no quorum, defers review until


quorum is met. A quorum is met when
majority [50%+1] of the members are
present.

Local Government Unit (LGU) 6.2 Presents the plan to RLUC.

RLUC 6.3 Conducts review of CLUP and ZO consistent


with the review parameters hereto
attached.

a. Committee members present respective


comments and recommendations.
b. Prepares report/recommendations.‘

b.1. If with revision, transmits documents to


LGU.
b.2. If no revision, proceeds with activity 9.

Local Government Unit (LGU) 7. Revises the draft CLUP and ZO integrating the
recommendations of RLUC (LGU may
coordinate with RLUC). Transmits documents to
RLUC.

RLUC 8. Checks if comments /recommendations were


incorporated in the CLUP and ZO.

9. Endorses CLUP and ZO to LGU for adoption and


enactment.

Local Government Unit (LGU) 10. SP adopts CLUP and enacts ZO.

11. Submits to HLURB Central Office (FOSG), six (6)


copies of CLUP and ZO together with the
following documents.

a. Three (3) sets of presentation maps;


b. SP Resolution adopting the CLUP and
enacting the ZO; and
c. Documents a to f in step 1.

Housing and Land Use 12. FOSG receives documents. Conducts cursory
Regulatory Board (HLURB) review (coordinates with LGU, if necessary),
Central Office recommends CLUP and ZO for Board approval
and requests presence of HLURB Regional Officer
during the Board Meeting.

13. Subjects the plan for Board deliberation and


ratification.

147 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

a. City Mayor or his duly authorized


representative presents the plan.
b. BOARD approves/ratifies CLUP and ZO.

14.Authenticates CLUP, ZO and other plan


documents.

15. Retains 1 set of plan documents with one (1) set


of presentation maps.

16.Furnishes the following with copies of plan


documents and Board Resolution approving the
plan:

- HLURB-RFO (1 set of plan docs.) with 1 set of


presentation maps
- LGU (remaining copies).

Local Government Unit (LGU) 17. Complies with publication requirement per Sec.
59 of Local Government Code (R.A. 7160).

PARAMETERS FOR THE REVIEW OF CLUPs OF HIGHLY-URBANIZED CITIES (HUCs)


AND INDEPENDENT COMPONENT CITIES (ICCs)

1. National 1.a Checks if the CLUP/ZO is consistent with the PPFP, RPFP
Economic and and other national/regional policies set by NLUC/RLUC.
Development 1.b Checks if the CLUP/ZO does not conflict with the land use
Authority plans or development thrust of adjacent cities and municipalities.
(NEDA) 1.c Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related
policies/plans/programs.

2.a Checks whether LGU clearly identified its functional role and
2. Housing and whether the proposed land use plan and development strategies
Land Use are consistent with its vision.
Regulatory 2.b Evaluates if the city plan is in harmony with the land use plans
Board of adjacent cities and municipalities.
(HLURB) 2.c Evaluates if the land requirements for basic services and facility
are identified, quantified and properly delineated.
2.d Evaluates if proposed socio-cultural and other infrastructure
support facilities are adequate and supportive to the city’s
functional role and development thrust.
2.e Checks if sites for socialized housing are identified pursuant to
R.A. 7279 (Urban Development and Housing Act of 1992).
2.f Checks if the locality has responsive programs and projects to
solve the squatting problems, if any.
2.g Checks if the identified programs/projects are responsive to
the LGU’s needs, properly prioritized and incorporated in the

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 148
LDIP.
2.h Checks whether the land use plan is translated into the requisite
Zoning Ordinance with clear zone boundaries.
2.i Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

3. Department of 3.a If applicable, checks if the sites jointly identified by DTI and
Trade and LGU as Regional Agro-Industrial Centers (RAICs), District Agro-
Industry Industrial Centers (DAICs)/Countryside Agro-Industrial Centers
(DTI) (CAICs)/Provincial Industrial Centers (PICs)/ Peoples Industrial
Estates (PIEs), etc. are delineated, considered and quantified
in the plan.
3.b If applicable, checks if Special Economic Zones identified by
PEZA are delineated and quantified in the plan.
3.c Evaluates if the proposed industrial sites are feasible and
suitable for industrial development per DTI standards.
3.d Checks if the requisite utilities and facilities are adequate for
identified industries in the area.
3.e Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

4. Department of 4.a Checks if potential tourism sites are identified and considered
Tourism (DOT) in the plan.
4.b Checks if the sites identified for local tourism development is
supportive of the Regional Tourism Master Plan.
4.c Determines if there are adequate utilities/facilities to support
tourism activities needed to sustain projected number of tourists.
4.d If the locality has identified priority sites for tourism development,
reviews the local tourism plan prepared by private groups (local/
international) and other government agencies.

5. Department 5.a Checks if the proposed transportation and communication


Transport- facilities and utilities are adequate to support the current and
ation and future requirements of the locality.
Communi- 5.b If applicable, furnishes LGU a list of projects within the city that
cation are programmed for implementation by DOTC which are not
(DOTC) identified in the plan.
5.c Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

6. Department 6.a Checks if the proposed projects/programs are the actual


of Interior translation of the LGUs needs and requirements as identified
and Local in the socio-economic and infrastructure sector and if these
Government are prioritized.
(DILG) 6.b Checks if the implementation plan is consistent with the
requirements of the new Local Government Code.
6.c Checks the adequacy/sufficiency of the proposed organizational
structure for CLUP/ZO implementation.
6.d Evaluates the sources of funds for identified programs and
projects.

149 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
6.e Checks if the proposed implementing and monitoring
schemes are consistent with the Local Government Code.
6.f Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

7. Department of 7.a If applicable, checks if irrigated and irrigable lands are identified,
Agriculture delineated and quantified per RA 8435 and checks if areas
(DA) identified for expansion of urban uses are outside the coverage
of the Network of Protected Areas for Agriculture and Agro-
Industrial Development (NPAAAD) and Strategic Agricultural
and Fisheries Development Zone (SAFDZs).
7.b If applicable, evaluates if the areas identified for reclassification
are not or have ceased to be economically feasible for
agricultural purposes.
7.c Evaluates CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans /programs.

8. Department of 8.a Checks whether present and proposed settlement sites are
Environment free from legal and environmental constraints.
and Natural 8.b Checks whether there are inconsistencies between areas
Resources proposed for development and areas for protection.
(DENR) 8.c Checks if there are sites identified for disposal and projects for
management of solid and other hazardous waste within the
city.
8.d Checks the consistency of the City Solid Waste Management
Plan with the CLUP.
8.e Checks if the plan promotes the enhancement of the
environmental quality through local initiatives to control water,
air and land pollution.
8.f Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

9. Department of 9.a Checks/evaluates if there are any lands identified for


Agrarian reclassification and/or conversion that are tenanted or covered
Reform by notice of coverage/acquisition and are within the coverage
(DAR) of CARP and if these lands are delineated and quantified.
9.b Determines if there are tenants/ beneficiaries which need to
be compensated.
9.c Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

10. Department of 10.a Checks/evaluates if the proposed road network and other
Public Works infrastructure facilities and utilities are adequate to support the
and Highways various land uses and are consistent with regional and national
(DPWH) sectoral plans.
10.b Evaluates if the CLUP has integrated DPWH plans and
programs for implementation within the planning period.10.c
Determines if mitigating measures for flooding and appropriate
disaster prevention programs are identified.
10.d Checks if the proposed Traffic Management Program (TMP)
has linkage with the TMPs of adjacent cities and municipalities.

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 150
10.e Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs.

11. Department of 11.a If applicable, furnishes LGU list of projects/studies/researches


Science and useful for land use within the city that are programmed for
Technology implementation by DOST but not identified in the plan.
(DOST) 11.b Checks or recommends whether there are available
technologies for the development of low cost housing materials
in the locality.
11.c Checks or recommends the suitability of technology identified
in the proposed projects.
11.d Checks whether there are indigenous technology worthy of
development which can be adopted, innovated or improved.
11.e Evaluates the CLUP vis- à- vis approved agency related policies/
plans/programs

12. Non- 12.a. Checks whether the plan increases the access of the under-
Government privileged and other basic sectors to socio-economic
Organization opportunities.
(NGO) 12.b. Evaluates how development strategies, programs and projects
will affect the different sectors.
12.c. Evaluates the CLUP vis-à-vis laws & regulations affecting
human rights, gender and other sectoral concerns.

151 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
Annex 10-3
PLAN REVIEW, ADOPTION AND APPROVAL PROCESS
FOR METRO MANILA CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES (MMCMS)

RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

Local Government Unit (LGU) Important: Step 1 below shall only take place after the
following activities had already been undertaken:

Plan formulation (in consultation with HLURB,


MMDA and PRRC, among others)
Passed SB/SP 1st and 2nd readings.
Required Public hearing conducted.

Local Government Unit (LGU) 1. SP/SB transmits to the MMDA planning office
(OAGMP), one set of presentation maps and at
least 2 copies of draft of Comprehensive Land Use
Plan (CLUP) and Zoning Ordinance (ZO) together
with the following documents:
a. Executive Summary of the CLUP*;
b. Sangguniang Panlungsod/Bayan (SP/SB)
Secretary’s Certificate of Public Hearing
conducted;
c. Minutes of Public Hearing;
d. List of invitees and sector represented;
e. Copy of issued Invitation letter/Notice of public
hearing; and
f. Copy of Attendance Sheet

Metro Manila Development 2. Office of the Assistant General Manager for


Authority (MMDA) Planning (OAGMP) receives and checks
completeness of plan documents.

a. If the documents are incomplete, requests


LGU to complete documents.
b. If the documents are complete, schedules final
technical review and invites LGU to present
the plan.

Metro Manila Development 3. Conduct joint technical review and prepare report/
Authority (MMDA) and recommendation.
Housing and Land Use
Regulatory Board (HLURB) a. If without revision, requests LGU to adopt
CLUP and enact ZO. Proceed to activity 7.
b. If with revision, proceed to activity 4.

Local Government Unit (LGU) 4. Revises the draft CLUP and ZO integrating the
recommendations of joint tech. review group. If
necessary, conducts public hearing among
stakeholders affected by the revisions, incorporate
critical comments in the revision.
5. Transmits the documents to MMDA-OAGMP.

NOTE: * Refer to Annex 9-1 of CLUP Step 9 for Sample Executive Summary.

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 152
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

Metro Manila Development 6. OAGMP receives documents and checks if the


Authority (MMDA) comments/recommendations were incorporated
in the CLUP and ZO.
7. Endorses CLUP and ZO to LGU for adoption
and enactment.

Local Government Unit (LGU) 8. SP/SB conducts 3rd / final reading. Adopts CLUP
and enacts Zoning Ordinance.
9. Endorses the plan and submits to MMDA-AGMP
four (4) copies of CLUP & ZO together with the
following documents:

a. Three (3) sets of presentation maps.


b. SP/SB Resolution adopting the CLUP and
enacting ZO; and
c. Documents a to f in step 1.

Metro Manila Development 10. OAGMP checks completeness of documents.


Authority (MMDA) 11. Transmits plan docs. to Metro Manila Council
(MMC). (Invites the LGU to present the plan, if
necessary).

Metro Manila Commission 12. MMC Passes resolution endorsing the CLUP and
ZO to HLURB for approval/ratification.

Housing and Land Use 13. FOSG receives documents. Conducts cursory
Regulatory Board (HLURB) review (coordinates with LGU, if necessary),
recommends CLUP & ZO for Board approval/
ratification.

- Mayor or his/her authorized representative


presents the plan.

14. Board approves/ratifies the CLUP and ZO.


15. Authenticates plan documents.
16. Furnishes the following agencies/offices copies
of plan documents with copy of Board resolution
approving the plan:

- (1 set) HLURB library for safekeeping/


reference;
- (1 set) MMDA; and
- (2 sets) LGU

Local Government Unit (LGU) 17. Keeps 2 sets of plan documents.

- 1 set for Mayor’s Office


- 1 set for M/CPDC

153 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

18. Complies with publication requirement under Sec.


59 of the Local Government Code (RA 7160).

NOTE: In view of the ninety-day reglamentary period, the MMDA shall indorse to the
HLURB Board, through the FOSG, plans for approval within sixty (60) from the date of
submission of plan documents.

PARAMETERS FOR THE REVIEW OF


METRO MANILA CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES’
COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLANS (CLUPs)
AND ZONING ORDINANCES (ZOs)

RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

MMDA - OAGMP 1. Checks if local plan conforms with the Metro


Manila Physical Development Framework Plan
(1996 - 2016) or other approved national or
regional plans.

a. Evaluates if the plan adequately defines the


role of the city/municipality in relation to metro
manila development framework or
specialization of the locality vis-à-vis other
cities/municipalities in MMA.
b. Evaluates if the plan adequately defines the
locality’s interrelationship with the adjoining
cities/municipalities.
c. Determines if the proposed development
strategy is responsive to the needs of the
residents and its defined development role and
others availing of locality’s services/facilities.
d. Evaluates the infrastructure and utilities
solid waste disposal, traffic situation, drainage
and sewerage, flooding; social services and
economic structure.
e. For MMA LGUs along Pasig River, check if
the following policies covering the adoption of
a uniform easement provision along the Pasig
river system including its major and minor
tributaries, as provided in MMDA Resolution
no.3, are complied with/integrated in the
CLUP/ZO:

Establishment of a continuous 10-meter


Environmental Preservation Area (EPA),

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 154
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

determined from the existing bank of the


river, along both banks of the 27-km stretch
of Pasig River, from Manila Bay to Laguna
Lake, including the major tributaries of
Marikina River and San Juan River and
developing the same into linear parks,
roads, walkways, or greenbelts, conducive
to transport, recreation and tourism.
Establishment of a 3-meter easement
along secondary tributaries, creeks and
esteros of the Pasig River.
Construction of permanent structures are
not allowed within the 10-meter EPA for
pocket parks, linear parks, plazas,
viewpoints, pedestrian promenades, bike
lanes, play lots, open air sports facilities
(basketball courts, tennis courts),
reflexology areas, urban agriculture, plant
nurseries and wastewater gardens.
Construction of the following structures are
allowed but shall be subject to PRRC
guidelines: ferry stations; sewage
treatment plants; emergency call boxes or
stations; security stations or coast guard
stations; public toilets, pergolas, gazebos,
trellises; tourist information facilities, shops
and snack bars, ambulant carts,
newsstands; benches; drinking fountains;
public art; plant boxes; parking; existing
roads and underground power/cable
lines.
The following activities/uses are strictly not
allowed along the easement: residential
uses; service facilities; storage uses;
pollutive activities; solid waste transfer
stations; and land fills.
Immediate adjacent developments are to
face the Pasig River and provide a
maximum view of the river through
provision of a maximum height of 1.80
meters. Materials are to be made of
wooden lattice, grill, or interlink wire
materials. CHB walls are allowed subject
to a maximum height of 0.60 m, in
combination to the above materials.
Maintenance of architectural and visual
qualities of existing historic buildings and
streetscapes through preservation and
adaptive re-use of historically and culturally

155 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

f. For MMA LGUs along Pasig river, checks if


proposed development plans and guidelines
for the rehabilitation and improvement along
the 500 meters from the banks, for the entire
length of the Pasig river, conform to the goals
and objectives, land uses and development
strategies of the approved Pasig River
Rehabilitation Master Plan (PRRMP).

Housing and Land Use 2. Validates the following:


Regulatory Board (HLURB)
a. If local plan conforms or is in harmony with
the Local Government Code and the Metro
Manila Physical Development Framework plan
(1996 - 2016) or conforms to other
national standards, guidelines and relevant
laws.

b. If the plan adequately defines the role of the


city/municipality in relation to metro manila
development framework or specialization of
the locality vis-a-vis other cities/municipalities
in MMA.

c. If the plan adequately defines the locality’s


interrelationship with adjoining cities/
municipalities.

d. If the proposed development strategy is


consistent with letters b and c and responsive
to the needs of the residents and availing
of locality’s services/facilities.

e. For MMA LGUs along Pasig River, if the


policies covering the adoption of a uniform
easement provision along the Pasig river
system including its major and minor
tributaries, as provided in MMDA resolution no.
3, are complied with.

f. For MMA LGUs along Pasig River, if proposed


development plans and guidelines for the
rehabilitation and improvement along the 500
meters from the banks, for the entire length of
the Pasig river, conform to the goals and
objectives, land uses and development
strategies of the approved Pasig River.

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 156
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

g. Reviews the following sectors:

g.1 Economic

g.1.1 Checks if the plan adequately presents


the locality’s main economic base in terms
of actual income generated; employment
and land devoted for such economic
activity.

g.1.2 If applicable, checks if the areas identified


for urban use are outside the coverage of
DA’s Networks Protected Areas for
Agriculture and Agro-Industrial
Development and Strategic Agriculture
and Fisheries Development Zones
(SAFDZ).

g.1.3 Checks if proposed commercial areas are


suitable and properly delineated and
quantified.

g.1.4 If applicable, checks if industrial sites/


areas are suitable and feasible for
industrial development per DTI standards.

g.1.5 Checks if requisite utilities/facilities are


adequate for identified commercial and
industrial activities in the area.

g.1.6 If applicable, checks if the sites identified


by DOT as probable tourism sites are
delineated, considered and quantified in
the plan.

g.1.7 Evaluates if the proposed tourism sites are


feasible for development as per DOT
standards.

g.1.8 Evaluates if there are adequate utilities/


amenities for each designated clientele for
proposed tourism areas.

g.2 Infrastructure and Utilities

g.2.1 Evaluates if the proposed road network


and other infrastructure facilities and
utilities are responsive to the locality’s
chosen development option/strategy and

157 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

defined role and adequate to support the


various land uses in the localities.

g.2.2 If applicable, ensures inclusion of


proposed government and private
infrastructure projects within the locality
that are supportive to the locality’s
development thrust.

g.2.3 Ensures the inclusion of a proposed traffic


management program which is consistent
with MMDA’s Metrowide Traffic
Management plan.

g.2.4 If applicable, ensures if there is an


adequacy of flooding control programs and
if these are linked with MMDA’s Metrowide
Flood Control Program.

g.2.5 Ensures if the proposed transportation,


communication facilities and utilities are
adequate to support the current and future
requirements of the locality.

g.2.6 If applicable, checks if the plan includes


projects within the city that are
programmed for implementation by
DOTC/DPWH, concerned agencies and
other relevant government agencies and
are not identified in the plan.

g. 3 Social

g.3.1 Checks if the requisite socio-cultural


infrastructure such as school buildings,
hospitals or clinics are identified, properly
delineated, quantified and matched the
requirements within the planning period.

g.3.2 Checks if the locality has responsive


programs or projects to solve the squatting
problem.

g.3.3 Checks if the LGU has identified sites for


socialized housing.

g.3.4 Evaluates if the identified socialized


housing sites are adequate and suitable
for identified program beneficiaries of

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 158
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

RA 7279.

g.3.5 Checks if the local housing projects utilize


HUDCC accredited indigenous materials
or innovative techniques/building
technologies for housing development.

g.4 Environment/Ecology

g.4.1 Evaluates if there are flood prone areas


and other environmentally critical areas
such as earthquake prone areas, fault
lines/traces identified for urban use or are
existing in built-up areas. If so, are there
proposed mitigating measures?

g.4.2 Ensures that watershed reservation or


national parks are not reclassified into other
uses.

g.4.3 If applicable, ensures that areas with slope


18% and above are not reclassified for use
that are designated as urban. Needs to
delineate which is for the forest and which
is Alienable and Disposable (A&D).

g.4.4 If applicable, ensures that the identified


areas for urban use are not within the
coverage of DENR’s ECAs.

g.4.5 Checks if there are plans for sustainable


development and management of natural
resources within the city/municipality.

g.4.6 If applicable, checks if there are


endangered flora and fauna in the area that
require protection or preservation and if
there are corresponding programs/
projects for such
areas.

g.4.7 Checks/evaluates the proposed solid


waste management program and if these
conforms with the provisions of Ecological
Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003).

g.5 Land Use

g.5.1. Evaluates the efficiency of the urban

159 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

design in terms of distribution and location


of the different functional areas.

g.5.2 Evaluates if the space allocation for various


uses can adequately meet the
requirements vis-à-vis the needs, vision
and functional role of the LGU.

g.5.3 Determines if there are areas that require


renewal/rehabilitation and if there are
proposals to solve these problems.

g.5.4 If applicable, evaluates if suggested areas


for densification, reclamation, land
readjustment and the like have
corresponding justification and project
proposals to implement the same.

g.5.5 Evaluates if the land use plan is an


adequate translation of the locality’s
development goals and objectives and
responsive to its defined role, chosen
development option/development thrust.

g.6 Zoning Ordinance and other Forms of


Regulation

g.6.1 Evaluates if the ZO is the correct translation


of the proposed land use plan.

g.6.2 Checks if the zoning boundaries or zoning


districts are correctly and adequately
delineated on the maps and described in
the next.

g.6.3 Evaluates if proposed performance zoning


or other innovative zoning techniques/
approaches and other forms of
development regulations respond to the
locality’s requirement.

g.6.4 Checks the major changes in theZO.

g.7 Local Administration

g.7.1 Evaluates if the proposed project/


programs are the actual translation of the
LGU’s needs and requirements given its
functional role and development thrust and

Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO 160
RESPONSIBLE PARTY ACTIVITIES

as identified in the socio-economic, land use and


infrastructure sectors and whether these are
prioritized.

g.7.2 Determines if proposed institutional


mechanism is consistent with the Local
Government Code and responsive to its
development requirements.

g.7.3 Checks and evaluates innovative


approaches or solutions to the LGU’s need
for additional sources of funds for project
implementation.

g.7.4 Checks if the proposed implementing and


monitoring schemes are consistent with
the new Local Government Code and
requisite for the attainment of the set
development goals, objectives and
strategies.

161 Step 10. Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
IMPLEMENTING THE STEP
CLUP AND ZONING
ORDINANCE 11
Implementing the CLUP requires resources, institutional structures and procedures,
among others, to be realized. The Local Government Code allows great flexibility for
LGUs to design and implement its own organizational structure and staffing pattern
taking into consideration its vision, mission, goals and objectives as contained in the
CLUP and accountability to the community

To realistically implement the CLUP/ZO, a number of prerequisite measures and


instruments other than the enacted Zoning Ordinance are needed. Some of the
instruments/measures herein suggested may not necessarily be appropriate for the
time being for some municipalities/cities because of varying situations prevailing in
these places.

It is important to note that LGU “creativity” in governance or in implementing the CLUP/


ZO as used by various successful cities and municipalities, is the key to a successful
plan implementation. Documented best practices on good governance will also be of
help for the LGU.

PURPOSE

To establish detailed operational plans for the implementation of the CLUP and ZO
To establish institutional mechanisms responsive to the vision, goals and objectives of
the CLUP
To establish partnerships and cooperation arrangement with stakeholders

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

Approved Institutional Structure and Systems and Procedures


Investment Programs
Information, Education and Communication Plan (IEC)/Advocacy

STEPS

I. Strengthen Existing Institutional Structure and Mechanisms

The CLUP need people, institutional structures and procedures, among others, to be realized.
The Local Government Unit can design and implement its own organizational structure
and staffing pattern taking into consideration its vision, mission, goals and objectives as
contained in the CLUP and accountability to the community. The Local Government Code,
however, serves as the legal basis for the following activities.

Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance 162


1.1 Review existing local organizational structure, staff composition, and
responsibility centers vis-à-vis the requirements to effectively implement the
CLUP/ZO.

The review shall cover all operating units which are mandated by law or generic to the
LGU and those special bodies or units created for purposes relevant to CLUP/ZO
implementation. Special bodies may be on a permanent or ad hoc tenure. Note that
the review of organizational structure shall be governed by the limitation set forth by
the Local Government Code (LGC), Civil Service Commission (CSC) and other
relevant laws and legally constituted authorities.

Sample: REVIEW OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND SUPPORT

OFFICES/ADHOC
BODIES DIRECTLY ISSUES AND RECOMMENDED
IMPLEMENTING CLUP CONCERNS ACTION

C/MPDO Inadequate staff, lack of Additional plantilla position,


expertise/training budget for capacity building
program

Office of the Municipal Concern: LC prerequisite to Conference/Conduct of


Engineer issuance of Building Permit coordinative meetings

Office of the Municipal Consideration of CLUP/ZO in -do-


Assessor land assessment/valuation

Housing Board Absence of a housing affairs Creation of Housing Affairs


unit Unit

Urban Poor Unit -do- -do-

Urban Affairs Unit -do- -do-

Office of the Zoning Strengthening the Office of the Capability building training/
Administrator Zoning Administrator seminar

Local Zoning Review Not yet constituted/No Strategic Planning by the


Committee established action program LZRC and MPDO

Local Zoning Board of Not yet constituted Constitute the LZBAA per
Appeals and Adjudication ZO

Project Monitoring Committee Existing but focused on Integrate the monitoring of


(PMC) projects only CLUP implementation

Executive and Legislative Weak on monitoring Establish linkage with PMC,


Agenda Committee Capacity building

In most cases, LGUs will require changes in its organizational structure to improve
development performance and eventually attain the vision, goals and objective of
CLUP. Some offices may need to be strengthened by way of additional staff and/or
163 Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance
capacity building programs, while others may need to be scaled down or abolished
and new offices/units deemed necessary in implementing the CLUP may have to be
established.

LGUs may likewise need to institutionalize AD HOC committees to handle critical


functions and to promote community/multi-sectoral participation in governance. Such
AD HOC committees are suggested to be of a multi-sectoral composition to ensure
a sustained partnership in enforcing the CLUP and ZO.

Some recently approved CLUPs/ZOs have resulted to the creation of special bodies/
committees where the stakeholders are aptly represented. To cite some:

Area Development Council composed of multi-sectoral representatives created to


ensure an effective partnership in implementing the policies, programs and projects
in the designated Area Development Zones (ADZs) provided for in the CLUP and ZO.
(Pasay City CLUP)

Local Housing Boards composed of local government unit officials, private sectors
and informal settlers association created to manage the housing program in the LGU.
These are based on the Housing Sector Plan as well as the land use plan on residential
areas as reflected in the CLUP/ZO of the LGU. (e.g. Office of Population and Urban
Affairs, Ormoc City).

Citizen Participation Committee – a multi-sectoral committee established to ensure


the active participation of community in governance. (Naga City)

1.2 Revisit details of existing operational guidelines vis-à-vis the requirement of


the CLUP and ZO implementation.

This activity is necessary to ensure transparency, accountability, efficiency and


compliance with recent national policies. In many cases existing operational guidelines
need only to be amended to be consistent with the development framework, vision,
goals, objectives and policies in the CLUP.

1.3 Identify mechanisms to implement the Zoning Ordinance as follows:

a. Creation/establishment of the required operating units as provided for in the


Administration and Enforcement provision of the approved ZO :

a.1. Office of the Zoning Administrator


a.2. Local Zoning Board of Appeals and Adjudication
a.3. Local Zoning Review Committee

Membership, functions and duties of the units shall be based on the approved
zoning ordinance.

The City/Municipality may designate the CPDC/MPDC as the Zoning Administrator


in view of its expertise and involvement in planning.

b. Establish a permitting system to govern land use development regulations and


ensure implementation of the land use plan through the zoning ordinance. This
shall be in terms of processing and approval of applications for:

Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance 164


b.1. locational clearance of development projects
b.2. building permits
b.3. development permits for subdivision and condominium projects
b.4. business permit and investment potentials
b.5. local revenue assessment
b.6. environmental clearance
b.7. procurement clearance and permits consistent with the Government
Procurement Reform Act, e.g. for hiring consultants.

c. Assess applications for land use development permits and management schemes
based on the following considerations:

c.1. Conformity with the approved comprehensive Zoning Ordinance in terms of


site zoning classification, use regulations, area regulations, documentary
requirements and others.

c.2. Determine whether proposed development project is a permitted use,


allowable use or a possible variance within the zone applied for.

c.3. Use of Decision Guidelines for Land Development Projects/Development


Assessment Guidelines in assessing project. See Annex 11-1 for the Decision
Guidelines for Land Development Projects.

1.4 Identify other development regulations in addition to the zoning ordinance


needed to fully implement the ZO.

a. Review existing local ordinances related to land use development/control for


possible:

- consistencies with the CLUP/ZO and


- possible gaps in development regulation

The most common land development regulations are:

Special levy tax providing for incentives/disincentives


Detailed area development regulations/standards particularly for such areas
as cultural heritage sites/zones, high risk/danger zones, etc.
Industrial estates/subdivision development regulations

b. Prepare amendments in existing statutory ordinances found to be inconsistent


with the CLUP/ZO.

c. As maybe necessary, prepare draft ordinance that will respond to the identified
gaps in legislative measures needed to implement CLUP/ZO.

1.5 Consolidate the results of the above steps and reach consensus on the
changes in organizational structure and additional mechanisms needed to
implement the CLUP/ZO

Consider the following for submission/deliberation by SP/SB

a. Revised organizational structure to include special bodies/committees to be


constituted as a result of the above steps.
165 Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance
The creation of the special bodies through an Executive Order shall likewise define
the following:
functions of the committee/body
membership requirements and qualification standards
time frame of the committee (the same special bodies are created for short
term/urgent programs hence may be short-lived)
operating procedures/linkages with other departments/offices

The revised organizational structure shall identify the following:


staff requirements and qualification standards
training/capacity building program
new office/unit to be created/strengthened
budget requirements

b. Draft proposed amendments to existing ordinances found to be inconsistent with


the CLUP/ZO
c. Draft of proposed new legislation/ordinance to respond to identified gaps in
implementing CLUP/ZO
d. Draft proposed amendments, (if any), to existing operational guidelines
e. Systems and procedures for various permits/clearances.

II. Assess and Prioritize the General Listing of Programs and Projects Generated in
Step 7: Preparing the Land Use Plan

1. Check for the desirability, redundancy, practicality and efficiency of the consolidated
general list of programs and projects. These programs and projects shall be included
in any investment planning exercise of the City/Municipality.

This activity is a first level assessment, which will result to the short-listing of programs
and projects.

The above assessment criteria are defined as follows:

1. Redundant projects - those that duplicate or overlap existing, new or proposed projects.
For example: building a barangay road in the same alignment as a secondary road; on
setting up an agricultural state college or a hospital in every municipality.

2. Impractical or unrealistic projects - those that do not conform to technical standards or


feasibility indicators. For example: a hydroelectric power plant project in a barangay
without potential water resources; or a nuclear power plant on an earthquake fault or
known active volcano.

3. Undesirable projects - those that pose negative side effects to the population or area or
offend the values and cultural beliefs of the people. For example: a golf course project in
a remote and depressed municipality; the promotion of highly pollutive industries in a
pristine river system; or garbage disposal near a watershed.

4. Inefficient projects - projects that are costly to run at the local level because they cannot
take advantage of economies of scale. For example: a nuclear power plant. This type of
project is operated more efficiently by the national or regional government. Other projects
that may be considered inefficient are those whose modes of implementation are inefficient.
For example: a health and nutrition program implemented house-to-house may be less
efficient than one given at an accessible health center; or the training of all farmers
on a particular technology compared to using a demo farm to promote a technology.

Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance 166


2. Conduct the second (2nd) level assessment of the short listed programs and projects
to determine conflicts, compatibility and complementarities.

Assessment criteria are defined as follows:

1. Conflicting projects - those with expected benefits that tend to nullify the benefits of
other projects or when the implementation of which obstructs the implementation of another.
For example: an incineration project to solve the garbage disposal problem in an area
conflicts with an environmental project that seeks to minimize air pollution to protect
people’s health.

2. Complementary projects - are those activities, components or objectives that mutually


support each other. For example: Gintong Ani, provision of post-harvest facilities, farm-
to-market toad, agricultural credit facilities and an irrigation project.

3. Compatible projects - those that are neutral, that is, they neither complement nor conflict
with each other or those that can be implemented without affecting the benefits or costs
of the other projects. For example: construction of classrooms has no effect on the
construction of health centers (although they may compete for scarce resources).

The following matrix of assessment maybe used following the instructions below:

CONFLICT-COMPATABILITY-COMPLEMENTARITY MATRIX

Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Project 4 Project 5 Others

Project 1 X O N N N
Project 2 X O O X N
Project 3 O X X O O
Project 4 N X N X X
Project 5 N N N O N
Others X O X N O

How to accomplish the matrix:

1) Assign a number to each of the projects resulting from the first level assessment,
i.e.,Project 1, Project 2, etc.

2) Fill in the top most row and 1st column with the projects as numbered. (See above
matrix)

3) Assess projects using the criteria: conflicting, complimenting and compatibility as


defined above. Fill in the matrix of analysis using the following marks to fill in the
appropriate cell in the matrix

X - for projects that are conflicting


O - for projects that are complementary
N - for projects that are compatible

Leave blank the cells corresponding to same project listed in the row of projects.

4) Delete or de-prioritize, as appropriate, projects which generally conflict with the


majority of projects.

167 Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance


Flow Chart for Implementing the CLUP and ZO

STEPS OUTPUTS

Strengthen existing
institutional structures and
mechanisms
Define roles of offices/
departments, operational
guidelines and mechanisms
vis-a-vis the implementation
of the CLUP and ZO
2

Assess and prioritize the


general listing of programs
and projects

Short-list of prioritized
programs and projects
including project proposal
and fund sourcing

Prepare IEC plan to promote


transparency and
accountability in
implementing the CLUP/ZO
Strategies to disseminate/
inform about the CLUP/ZO to
the stakeholders and general
public

Review/revise budgetary Revised budget requirements


support/requirement to to support the implementation
implement the CLUP/ZO of the CLUP/ZO

Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance 170


Annex 11-1
DECISION GUIDELINES FOR LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

The following provides a useful checklist of guidelines to assess an application for land use
development projects. In general this is termed as Development Assessment Guidelines.

Not all criteria can apply at all times and they will vary from zone to zone and from use-type to
use-type.

Zoning/Enforcement officers will need to exercise their own judgment as to which


criteria is relevant for a particular application.

Assessment/decision guidelines for development applications:

Compliance with all relevant national laws and policies;


Compliance with all relevant ordinances and resolutions of the city’s SP;
Compliance with the relevant policies of the zoning ordinance;
The primary purpose of the zone;
That the proposal is not prohibited under the zone;
Complies with any special requirements for such a use within the zoning ordinance;
That the proposal does not inhibit the orderly planning of the area generally;
That the proposal enhances the amenity of the area (but at the very least, does not
detrimentally affect the amenity of the area);
The proximity of the development to any public land and the likely impacts;
Factors likely to contribute to land degradation, salinity, or reduction of water quality;
Whether the proposal will generate undesirable off-site impacts from uncontrolled or
untreated storm water flows;
The extent and nature of vegetation on the site and the likelihood of its destruction;
Whether on-site vegetation can be protected, planted, or allowed to regenerate;
The degree of flood erosion or fire hazard associated with the location of the land or the
proposed use or development, or any proposed management measures to minimize such
hazards;
The effect that existing uses on nearby or adjacent land may have on the proposed use;
The availability and provision of utility services such as:

- Storm water drainage;


- Electricity/power/gas
- Reticulated water/reticulated sewer and other approved sewer system
- Telecommunications;
- Any other relevant matters.

The effects of any traffic to be generated by the use or development;


The use (or interim use) of those parts of the land not required for the proposed use or
development;
The design of the building(s), including adequate provision for daylight and solar access;
The design of buildings to maximize conservation and energy efficiency;
Provision for on-site car parking and loading bay facilities;
Requirement for professionally prepared traffic generation and traffic impact assessment
for major developments (major developments to be defined by SP ordinance, resolution or
policy direction);
Provision for on-site landscaping, particularly fast growing shade trees;
For use or development in areas adjoined by different zones; extent of proposed buffers
(distances and other approved/functional treatments), or the compatibility (or otherwise)
of the proposed use to other existing developments;
171 Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance
For industrial uses or developments; the effect that the proposal may have on nearby existing
or proposed residential areas, or other uses that are sensitive to industrial off-site effects;
The effect on the free movement of pedestrians, cyclist, supply vehicles, waste removal,
emergency services, and public transport;
The location of garbage storage or waste collection area or facilities, and areas for sorting.
Storing and removal of recyclables (critical in shopping areas);
Defining who is responsible for on-going and regular maintenance of buildings, landscaping,
and paved areas;
Any natural or cultural values on or near the land such as heritage classified sites, objects,
or buildings;
The capability of the land to accommodate the proposed use or development, addressing
site quality attributes including such things as: soil type, soil fertility, soil structure, soil
permeability, soil stability, aspect, contour, slope, and drainage pattern;
For agricultural applications; how the use or development relates to agricultural land use,
agricultural diversification, and natural resource management;
The maintenance of farm production and the impact on the agricultural economy;
The suitability of the site for the proposal and the compatibility with adjoining and nearby
farming activities;
The need to prepare an integrated land management plan;
The requirements of any existing or proposed rural industry (especially value-added or
downstream industries);
The impact in agricultural areas of any existing or proposed agricultural infrastructure;
The need to prepare an Environmental Effects Statement (EES), or an Environmental
Impact Statement (EIS) for any proposal;
Any likely environmental impacts on the natural physical features and resources of the
area, in particular any impact caused on the soil or water quality or by the emissions of
noise, dust or odors;
Any likely impacts upon flora, fauna, and landscape features of the area, particularly
endangered native vegetation or fauna;
The need for particular requirements for the repair or restoration of the environment;
The need or otherwise for any dwelling(s) in association with the proposed use or
development;
The need for and impact(s) of any roads, access ways, paths, on the agricultural
environment, and the justification for their need in support of the proposal;
The need for, and visual impact (or otherwise) of any proposed advertising signage, either
free-standing or attached to the proposed development;
In floodplains, the compatibility of the proposal having regard to known flood risks;
Any local flood plain plans or flood risk reports;
Any comments or requirements from the relevant flood plain management authorities.
Compliance with distance/buffer requirements for project developments adjoining risk such
as fault zones, sink holes, water bodies, etc.

The following matrix links the foregoing assessment/decision guidelines to the


zones under the current Model Zoning Ordinance (ZO). The extent of their
application is advisory only, however, consideration of the different types of
development applications against the criteria will result in better environmental,
urban amenity and development solutions/outcomes.

Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance 172


DEVELOPMENT CONTROL/ASSESSMENT PLANNING

These decision guidelines are advisory

Parks & Other Rec. Zone (PRZ)


Socialized Housing Zone (SHZ)

Med. Dens. Comm. Zone (C-2)


Low Dens. Comm. Zone (C-1)

High Dens. Comm. Zone (C-3)


Med. Density Res. Zone (R-2)

Gen. Commercial Zone (GCZ)


High Density Res. Zone (R-3)
Low Density Res. Zone (R-1)

Spec. Institutional Zone (SIZ))


only. Their application will produce better

Medium Industrial Zone (I-2)

Gen. Institutional Zone (GIZ)


Heavy Industrial Zone (I-3)

Agro-Industrial Zone (AIZ)


Light Industrial Zone (I-1)
General Res.Zone (GRZ)
assessment and outcomes, however the

Agricultural Zone (AGZ)


extent to which they are applied in each
case should be decided on a case to

Tourist Zone (TZ)


Forest Zone (FZ)

Water Zone (WZ)


case basis.

Assessment/Decision Guidelines for


Development Applications

1 Compliance with all relevants national • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


laws and policies;
2 Compliance with all relevant ordinances • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
and resolutions of the city’s SP;
3 Compliance with the relevant policies of • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
the zoning ordinance;
4 The primary purpose of the zone; • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
5 That the proposal is not prohibited under • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
the zone;
Complies with any special requirements
6 for such a use within the zoning • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
ordinance;
7 That the proposal does not inhibit the • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
orderly planning of the area generally;
That the proposal enhances the amenity
8 of the area (but at the very least,does • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
not detrimentally affect the amenity of the
area;
9 The proximity of the development to any • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
public land and the likely impacts;
Factors likely to contribute to land
10 degradation, salinity, or reduction of water • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
quality;
Whether the proposal will generate
11 undesirable off-site impacts from • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
uncontrolled or untreated storm water
flows;
12 The extent and nature of vegetation on • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
the site and likelihood of its destruction;
Whether on-site vegetation can be
13 protected, planted, or allowed to • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
regenerate;
The degree of flood, erosion or fire
hazard associated with the location of the
14 land or the proposed use or
development, or any proposed • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
management measures to minimize such
hazards;
The effects that existing uses on nearby
15 or adjacent land may have on the • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
proposed use;

173 Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance


These decision guidelines are advisory

Parks & Other Rec. Zone (PRZ)


Socialized Housing Zone (SHZ)

Med. Dens. Comm. Zone (C-2)


Low Dens. Comm. Zone (C-1)

High Dens. Comm. Zone (C-3)


Med. Density Res. Zone (R-2)

Gen. Commercial Zone (GCZ)


High Density Res. Zone (R-3)
Low Density Res. Zone (R-1)

Spec. Institutional Zone (SIZ))


only. Their application will produce better

Medium Industrial Zone (I-2)

Gen. Institutional Zone (GIZ)


Heavy Industrial Zone (I-3)

Agro-Industrial Zone (AIZ)


Light Industrial Zone (I-1)
General Res.Zone (GRZ)
assessment and outcomes, however the

Agricultural Zone (AGZ)


extent to which they are applied in each
case should be decided on a case to

Forest Zone (FZ)

Tourist Zone (TZ)


Water Zone (WZ)
case basis.

Assessment/Decision Guidelines for


Development Applications

The location of garbage storage or waste


27 collection area or facilities, and areas for • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
sorting, storing and removal of
recyclables(critical in shopping areas);
Defining who is responsible for on-going
28 and regular maintenance of buildings, • • • • • • • • • • •
landscaping, and paved areas;
Any natural or cultural values on or near
29 the land such as heritage classified sites, • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
objects, or buildings;
The capability of the land to accommodate
the proposed use or development,
30 addressing site quality attributes including • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
such things as soil permeability, soil
stability, aspect, contour, slope, and
drainage pattern;
For agricultural applications; how the use
31 or development relates to agricultural • •
landuse, agricultural diversification and
natural resource management;
32 The maintenance of farm production and • •
the impact on the agricultural economy;
The suitability of the site for the proposal
33 and the compatibility with adjoining and • •
nearby farming activities;
34 The need to prepare an integrated land • •
management plan;
The requirements of any existing or
35 proposed agricultural industry (especially • •
value-added or downstream industries;
The impact in agricultural areas on any
36 existing or proposed agricultural • •
infastructure;
The need to prepare an Environmental
37 Effects Statement (EES), or an • • • • • • • •
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for
any proposal;
Any likely environmental impact on the
natural physical features and resouces
38 of the area, in particular any impact caused • • • • • •
to the soil or water quality or by the
emissions of noise, dust or odors;
Any likely impacts upon flora, fauna and
39 landscape features of the area, • • • • • • • • •
particularly endangered native
vegetation or fauna;

175 Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance


Annex 11-2
FRAMEWORK FOR SPECIFYING CAUSAL LINKS BETWEEN
PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC OUTCOME

Project Project Impact on Impact on Impact on


Output Effects Socioeconomic Proximate Demographic
(e.g., rural (e.g., use of’ Factors Determinants Processes
electrification electricity) of
Income Demographic Fertility
Production Processes Mortality
Employment Migration
Pool of Wage rate - Use of health
project Others care services
- Use of contra-
ception
- Use of safe
water supply
- Nutrient and
Outputs of Effects of
dietary intake
Other Projects Other Projects
Inputs of other
(e.g., irrigation, (e.g., use of
projects
credit, roads, irrigation, use
family planning, of loaned funds
health services) for business
expansion)

177 Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance


Annex 11-4
SAMPLE FORMAT – PROJECT BRIEF

City/Municipality of ,

PROJECT BRIEF

Project Title

Proposed Location and Area Coverage

Duration Funding Agency Implementing Agency

Project Objectives and Targets

Project Activities

Expected Output

Budgetary Requirements

Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance 180


Annex 11-4
COMPONENTS OF FEASIBILITY STUDY

A good feasibility study covers the various phases of project implementation, organization and
management, marketing, technical specifications and financial aspects, which comprise the
components of a feasibility study.

Market Study - determines the future demand or need for the project’s effects or outcomes
or its potential to satisfy or meet a demand-supply gap. For example, if there is a scarcity
or gap between the number of pupils and the actual number of classrooms, then there is a
market for additional classrooms or an additional school building.

Technical Study - ascertains whether the technical specifications of a project are practical
and can be followed. For example, construction of a public market should consider
accessibility and safety to market users. The public market that is remote from the
consumers or is located in a perennially flooded area of the locality is not considered
technically feasible. Otherwise, the said market project may be made technically sound,
by adding other project components (e.g., providing for a road to give consumers better
access to the market, or improving the flood control and drainage system in the proposed
market location). These innovations, of course, entail additional project costs.

Financial Study - establishes if the financial requirements are adequate. It also determines
whether the money put into the project will enable the project to become commercially
viable or at least self-liquidating while, at the same time, servicing its debt obligations.
Commercial viability means that the project is able to operate at a return that can finance
its day-to-day operations (salaries and wages of personnel, rent, utilities and maintenance
costs, etc.) and at the same time service whatever debts or loan obligations it has incurred.

Economic or Social Desirability Analysis - determines the project’s social and economic
costs and benefits (net benefit-cost ratio) to the community or society. This component
assesses the project’s benefit to the community such as additional income or revenue to
the locality, generation of employment, human resource development and other indicators
of a community’s overall well being. For example, building a P10 million 50-kilometer farm-
to-market roads connecting agricultural municipalities with a shipping port may be feasible
and desirable if food production and farm income in the area will increase.

Operation and Management Study - analyzes the overall capability of the project’s
implementers and the entity assigned to run and manage the project. This includes analysis
of the project’s organizational structure and staffing pattern and the cost of operating and
maintaining such structure and personnel.

FURTHER READING

- Gender-responsive Population and Development Planning Guide, Step and Preparation and Projection of Concept
- Guide to Population and Development Planning
- Setting the Plan Mechanism

181 Step 11. Implementing the CLUP and Zoning Ordinance


Comprehensive Land Use Planning
CLUP
MONITORING, REVIEWING STEP
AND EVALUATING
THE CLUP AND ZO 12
With the CLUP and its implementation program established, assessment procedures
of its effectiveness must be instituted. Monitoring, review and evaluation are performed
to assess how fully and how effectively a plan is being carried out. On the whole, the
process is meant to assess the overall impact of the plan to the quality of life of the
population. Basically, monitoring and evaluation of land use changes and specific
program/project implementation is carried out.

PURPOSE

To establish/assess the effectiveness of the CLUP as determined by the quality of life


indicators set forth in the vision.

To evaluate conformity of land development projects issued permits and clearances


with the approved ZO.

To assess impacts of land development project issued permits and clearance on the
local economy, environment and on social services.

To ensure completion of program or project being implemented through a systematic


and progressive assessment based on timetables, cost and benefits to target groups
or outcome.

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

Monitoring system and procedures, and set of indicators for quality of life assessment.

Monitoring system and procedures for land use changes.

Project Monitoring Schemes (PMS)

STEPS

1. Organize/create monitoring review and evaluation (MRE) teams, which are


coordinative in nature and consisting of LGU organic personnel and other
stakeholders, i.e., multi-sectoral teams; barangay level monitoring teams.

2. Develop monitoring systems and procedures and establish indicators and


benchmark data and frequency of monitoring activities to serve as guide for
monitoring in the following aspects: (Refer to Annex 12-1 Designing a Project
Monitoring System)

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO 182
2.1 Quality of Life Assessment using the essential elements of the vision adopted by
the city/municipality. This can be done through:

a. The Vision Reality Gap Analysis described in Step 3, Setting the Vision.

b. Use of indicators of well-being consistent with population and development


sensitive planning approach. These indicators of abilities (“to be”) or capabilities
(“to do”) include, among others, health (to be healthy); nutrition (to be well-
nourished); education (to be educated or to be knowledgeable and skilled); fertility
(to bear and rear desired number of children); and migration (to travel in search of
economic and social opportunities)

Refer to Annex 12-2 on Core Indicators for Gender-Responsive Population


and Development (POPDEV) Planning at the Local Level

2.2 Land Use Changes, considering land use development clearances and permits
issued by the Office of the Zoning Administrator. These are presented in reports of
issuances, decision maps and environmental studies conducted for the purpose.
Consultations with stakeholders are also conducted to assess community’s reactions
on the particular project or land use change.

Decision mapping may be done manually by indicating in the Zoning Map the
approximate location of land development projects issued clearances and
permits using “mapping pins”. To facilitate interpretation color of pin shall
correspond to the color codes for land use categories specified in Step 7:
Preparing Land Use Plan. This method will make transparent to stakeholders
the real-time monitoring of land use changes. The guide on the use of GIS in
monitoring land are provided in the HLURB GIS Cookbook for LGUs.

If a significant number of locational clearances or development permits are


non-conforming or inconsistent with the CLUP/ZO, the LGU may decide to
revisit the effectiveness/responsiveness of the existing CLUP/ZO.

A sample guideline prepared by HLURB-RFO 10 for assessing when to revise


the CLUP is presented in Annex 12-3.

2.3 Project Implementation Monitoring System/Scheme (PMS) is basically a systematic


design of monitoring a particular project. It is a systematic, timely, and regular gathering
of feedback about the progress of a project in terms of inputs, operations and outputs,
and the timely provision of appropriate support or intervention, if need be.

Actual data is compared with the plan to determine whether clearance from funding
and support agencies has been sought and whether there are any deviations from
the original plan. The cause of deviations, if any, are examined and solutions/persons
likely to solve the problem and necessary interpretations are identified. (Refer to
Annex 12-1, Designing a Project Monitoring Scheme)

183 Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO
2.4 Conduct of review and evaluation of action taken and development outcomes to
determine relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. The intent
is to incorporate lessons learnt in the process.

3. Conduct actual monitoring consistent with the developed system and procedures.

3.1 Conduct “comparing sessions”/consultative workshop on indicator of well-being for


quality of life assessment.

3.2 Conduct decision mapping sessions/consultations/workshops on impacts of land


use changes.

3.3 Conduct project monitoring sessions/consultation/workshop to determine stages


of implementation of program/project.

4. Evaluate the results of the monitoring activities.

Evaluation maybe done in two ways:

1. On-going Evaluation - On - going and periodic evaluation is conducted to


provide early feedback to project management on the following concerns:
policies affecting the project; attainment of sectoral goals and objectives;
adequacy of institutional arrangements; and the appropriateness of project
design and the level of resources.

One familiar activity is the conduct of mid-program and project evaluation


to determine if the assumptions made regarding the project environment
and target group are still valid. The review likewise helps determine whether
the project should be modified due to environmental constraints. Moreover,
the review can ascertain how natural phenomena, local political events,
national and international incidents have affected the project (NCRFW, 1993:
31).

2. Post Evaluation - On the other hand, post evaluation involves the


systematic and objective assessment of completed development projects.
It may be done at the end of the project or sometime thereafter. It analyzes
project outcomes and the underlying factors which contribute to the project’s
success or failure so that it can identify the features that deserve replication
in future projects as well as the pitfalls that need to be avoided.

In cities/municipalities with existing Monitoring team/unit or Project Monitoring


Committee (PMC), integrate monitoring of CLUP implementation, considering
the above stated activities.

5. Submit monitoring, review and evaluation reports, findings and recommendations


to the Mayor, SB/SP for consideration and appropriate action.

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO 184
Findings and recommendations may lead to:

Revision of strategies or policies provided for in the CLUP and development control/
guidelines in the ZO or at least revision of CLUP.

Repacking and refocusing of programs and projects, including financial aspects.


(Refer to Annex 12-4 - Updating or Revising an Existing CLUP)

ANNEXES

Annex 12-1 Designing a Project Monitoring Scheme

Annex 12-2 Core Indicators for Gender-Responsive Population and Development


(POPDEV) Planning at the Local Level

Annex 12-3 Guidelines on the evaluation of CLUP/ZO for Re-planning Purposes

Annex 12-4 Updating or Revising an Existing CLUP

FURTHER READING

Gender Responsive Population and Development Planning Guide


Planning Strategically

185 Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO
Flow Chart for Plan Monitoring and Evaluation

Organize/create
monitoring review
1 and evaluation
(MRE) teams

MRE Teams created/organized

Develop
monitoring
2 systems and
procedures
Monitoring systems and
procedures, including
benchmarks and indicators

Conduct actual
3 monitoring Monitoring of:

- Changes in quality of life


(impacts)
- Land use changes
- Programs and projects
implementation
Evaluate results
4 of monitoring
activities
On-going and post evaluation
of plans and programs
implementation

Prepare review and


evaluation reports,
5 findings, and
recommendations

Proposed actions for


revision/amendment/
updating of the CLUP/ZO
and/or other implementation
schemes

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO 186
Annex 12-1
DESIGNING A PROJECT MONITORING SCHEME

The Project Monitoring Scheme (PMS) is basically a systematic design of monitoring a particular
project. If properly designed, it serves as a useful tool to systematize the task of monitoring. It
is input-based, activity-related and output oriented.

Steps in Designing and Implementing PMS:

Step 1 Develop the Monitoring Objectives

A PMS should specify the purpose for undertaking monitoring. A set of objective statements,
which include checking of explicit consideration of population factors/issues and tracking gender-
differentiated progress of projects for target beneficiaries, should be formulated vis-à-vis identified
project performance targets.

Step 2 Developing a Monitoring Plan

The monitoring plan embodies the project outputs, critical activities and project inputs (data on
these can be gathered from various project documents), monitoring points, and the plans and
schedule for gathering and analyzing of information.

Step 3 Gather Information

Actual monitoring starts with the collection of information regarding the conduct of the project.
Depending on the kind of information needed, technical person assigned in the monitoring then
selects the best monitoring strategies to employ to achieve this end.

Step 4 Analyzing Information

Analyzing information for monitoring purposes generally involves comparing the actual
performance/ accomplishments (dates, activities, outputs) with the intended or planned; and
then finding the reasons for and correcting, any discrepancies - whether the deviations are
reasonable and beneficial or unjustified and harmful to the project.

Step 5 Provide Support Intervention

When gathering and analyzing information about a project, one may come across many ideas
on how to improve the conduct of the project, or how to correct certain deficiencies. There
may be several alternatives for improving the project. One of the tasks in project monitoring is
to discuss the alternatives with the implementer and decide what plan of action would be best
for the interest of the project.

There should be a list of options for interventions. Resources needed are determined for
each option.
For urgent cases, one may directly suggest corrective measures
Legal measures are a last resort and sought only when other options failed
Monitoring should end with report writing, summarizing the findings and recommendations.

187 Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO
Annex 12-2
CORE INDICATORS FOR GENDER-RESPONSIVE
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT (POPDEV) PLANNING AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

LATEST SOURCE
INDICATOR DEFINITION LEVEL OF FREQUENCY AVAILABLE OF BASIC
DESEGRAGATION DATA DATA

Population Processes

1. Crude Birth Rate The number of live national, regional, Annual 1997 1) Vital Statistics Report,
births per 1,000 provincial, National Statistics
population during a municipal, city, Office (NSO)
given period
national, regional, After every 1995-2005 2) Population Projections,
provincial census year NSO

2. Crude Death Rate The number of deaths national, regional, Annual 1997 1) Vital Statistics Report,
per 1,000 population provincial, NSO
during a given municipal, city
period
national, regional, After every 1995-2005 2) Population Projections,
provincial census year NSO

3. Total Fertility Rate The average number national, regional, Annual 1997 1) Vital Statistics Report,
of children that would provincial NSO
be born alive to a
woman during her national, regional, After every 1995-2020 2) Population Projections,
lifetime if she were to provincial census year NSO
pass through her
child-bearing years
conforming to the age-
specific fertility rates of
a given year

4. Maternal Mortality Rate The number of deaths national, regional, Every 5 1997 1) Vital Statistics Report,
among women 15-49 provincial years NSO
years old from
pregnancy-related 1990-1995 2) Technical Working
causes per 100,000 Group - Maternal and
live births in a given Child Mortality, NSO
period

Population Outcomes
5. Annual Population The pace at which the national, regional Every 10 2000 Census of Population and
Growth Rate population is increas- provincial, city, years Housing (CPH), NSO
ing (or decreasing) municipality
during a given period
on a yearly basis
expressed as a
percentage of the
basic population

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO 188
LATEST SOURCE
INDICATOR DEFINITION LEVEL OF FREQUENCY AVAILABLE OF BASIC
DESEGRAGATION DATA DATA

6. Percentage of Percentage National, regional Every 10 2000 CPH, NSO


Population distribution of the provincial, city, years
by Five-Year Age population classified municipality
Group and by Sex by 5-year age group
and by sex

Development Processes
7. Percentage Distribution Percentage Regional, Annual 2001 Bureau of Local
of Local Government Distribution of Local provincial, city, Government Finance
Expenditures by Specific Government municipality
Activities Expenditures by
Specific Activities
such as:
1) social
improvement;
2) adjudication;
3) protective
services;
4) general
administration;
5) government
finance;
6) equipment;
7) economic
development;
8) real property;
9) inter government
aids, loans/
advance/
transfers;and
10) others

8. Labor Force Participat- Percent of National, regional Quarterly October-00 Integrated Survey of
ion Rate by Sex population 15 years provincial, key Households Bulletin,
old and over who are cities Labor Force Survey,
either employed or NSO
unemployed but
looking for work in
relation to the total
population

9. Length of Local The length of local National, regional, Annual 2001 DPWH
Government Roads by government roads provincial, city -
surface Type (in kilometers) by municipality
surface type such as:
earth, gravel, asphalt
and concrete

10. Elementary and The number of total National, regional Annual SY 2000 - DECS Statistical Bulletin
Secondary Cohort enrollees in the provincial, city - 2001 and/or Basic Education
Survival Rates beginning grade/ municipality Statistics
year who reached

189 Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO
LATEST SOURCE
INDICATOR DEFINITION LEVEL OF FREQUENCY AVAILABLE OF BASIC
DESEGRAGATION DATA DATA

the final grade/year


at the end of the
required number of
years of study
expressed as a
percentage of
enrollees in the
beginning grade/
year.

11. Doctor-Population Ratio The number of National, regional, Annual 1996 Philippine Health
population per provincial, city – Statistics, (PHS), DOH
doctor in a municipality
population

12. Hospital Bed-Population The number of National, regional, Annual 1996 PHS, DOH
Ratio population per provincial, city
hospital bed

13. Percent of births The number of births National, regional, Annual 1997 1) Vital Statistics Report
attended by Health attended by health provincial, city
Personnel personnel expressed 2) PHS, DOH
as a percentage of
the total number of
births in a given
period

14. Contraceptive The percentage of National, regional Every 5 1998 National Demographic
Prevalence Rate women currently years and Health Survey,
using a family (NDHS), NSO
planning method
among currently
married women in
the reproductive
ages (15-49)

15. Percentage Distribution The number of National, regional, Annual 2000 CPH, NSO
of Households by Type households by type provincial, city,
of Housing Unit of unit occupied municipality
Occupied which include:
1) single house;
2) duplex;
3) apartment/
accessoria/
condominium;
4) improvised
barong-barong;
5) commercial/
industrial/
agricultural/etc.;
and

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO 190
LATEST SOURCE
INDICATOR DEFINITION LEVEL OF FREQUENCY AVAILABLE OF BASIC
DESEGRAGATION DATA DATA

6) other housing
units, expressed
as a percentage
of the total
number of
households

16. Percentage Distribution The number of National, Every 10 2000 CPH, NSO
of Households by Main households by main provincial, city, years
Source of Water Supply source of water municipality
supply which include:
1) tap (inside
house);
2) public well; and
3) private deep well,
expressed as a
percentage of the
total number of
households

17. Percentage Distribution The number of National, regional, Every 10 2000 CPH, NSO
of Households by Type households by type provincial, city, years
of Toilet Facilities Being of toilet facilities used municipality
Used which include:
1) water-sealed,
sewer/ septic
tank, used
exclusively by the
household;
2) water-sealed,
sewer/septic tank,
shared with other
households;
3) water-sealed,
other depository,
used exclusively
by the
households;
4) water-sealed,
other depository,
shared with other
households;
5) close pit;
6) open pit; and
7) others, expressed
as a percentage
of the total
number of
households

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO


191
LATEST SOURCE
INDICATOR DEFINITION LEVEL OF FREQUENCY AVAILABLE OF BASIC
DESEGRAGATION DATA DATA

18. Percentage Distribution The number of National, Every 10 2000 CPH, NSO
of Households by Type households by type provincial, city, years
of Garbage Disposal of garbage disposal municipality
which include:
1) pick by garbage
truck;
2) burning;
3) composting; and
4) burying,
expressed as a
percentage of the
total number of
households

19. Crime Rate by Type Number of crimes National, regional, Annual 2001 Philippine National Police
reported per provincial, city,
100,000 population municipality
by type

20. Percentage Distribution The number of National, regional, Annual 2001 Department of Social
of DSWD Clienteles DSWD clienteles provincial Welfare and Development
Served by Type and by served by type which
Sex include:
1) household heads
and other needy
adults;
2) socially-
disadvantaged
women;
3) children in difficult
situations;
4) victims of
calamities and
social
disorganization;
and
5) disabled persons,
expressed as a
percentage of the
total number of
clienteles and
classified by sex

Development Outcomes
21. Unemployment Rate, Total number of National, regional, Quarterly October-00 Integrated Survey of
Total and by Sex unemployed persons provincial, key Households Bulletin,
expressed as a cities Labor Force Survey,
percent of the total NSO
number of persons
in the labor force,
total or by sex

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO 192
LATEST SOURCE
INDICATOR DEFINITION LEVEL OF FREQUENCY AVAILABLE OF BASIC
DESEGRAGATION DATA DATA

22. Average Family Income Refers to the total National, regional, Every 3 2000 Family Income and
family income provincial, key years Expenditure Survey,
received in cash or in cities NSO
kind realized by all
families in the area
divided by the total
number of families in
the same area

23. Literacy Rate by Sex The percentage of National, Every 10 2000 1) CPH, NSO
the population who regional,provincial years
can read and write a 2) Functional Literacy,
simple message in Every 5 1994 Education and Mass
any language or years Media Survey, NSO
dialect classified by
sex

24. Percentage of The number of 7-10 National, Every 5 1996 Updating of the Nutritional
Malnourished 7-10 year old children who regional,provincial, years Status of Filipino Children
Years Old Children are moderately and key cities at the Provincial Level,
severely underweight FNRI
expressed as a
percentage of total
population of
children 7-10 years
old

25. Percentage of Infants The number of National, regional, Annual 1997 Vital StatisticsReport,
with Low Birth Weight Infants with birth provincial, city NSO
weight of less than
2.5 kilograms
expressed as a
percentage of the
total number of
infants

26. Morbidity Rates by The number of National, regional, Annual 1996 PHS, DOH
Leading Causes reported illnesses provincial, city
from a specific
leading cause
expressed as a
percentage of the
total number of
illnesses from all
causes

27. Elementary and Completion rate National, regional, Annual 2003 BEIS, DepEd
Secondary Completion refers to the private and public
Rates by Sex percentage of first
year (female/male)
entrants in the cycle
of education
surviving to the end

193 Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO
LATEST SOURCE
INDICATOR DEFINITION LEVEL OF FREQUENCY AVAILABLE OF BASIC
DESEGRAGATION DATA DATA

of the cycle. The


term is used
interchangeably with
survival rate and
retention rate

28. Employment rate by Ratio (in percent) of National, regional Quarterly 2004 LFS, NSO
sex, age group and the total number of
highest grade completed women/men in labor
force

29.Nutritional status of The condition of the National, regional Every 5 2003 FNRI
pregnant women/ body resulting from years
incidence of Malnutrition the intake, absorp-
tion and utilization of
food and from
factors of pathologi-
cal significance

30.Mortality by leading Death ratios. Shows National, regional, Annual 2004 Vital Statistics Report,
causes, age and sex the numerical provincial NSO
relationship between
deaths from a cause
and from the total
number of deaths
from all causes in all
ages taken together

31.Morbidity by leading Morbidity is any National, regional Annual 2001 FHSIS, DOH
causes, age and sex departure, subjective
or objective from a
stage of physiological
well-being

32.Percent of women The number of National, regional, Every 2004 COMELEC


candidates and share in women candidates provincial, election year
local elective positions over the total municipality
number of
candidates

33.Percent of women in Number of women in National, regional, Quarterly 2004 CPH, LFS, NSO
managerial, supervisory managerial, provincial,
and technical positions supervisory and municipality
technical positions
over the total
number of women in
managerial,
supervisory and
technical positions

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO 194
LATEST SOURCE
INDICATOR DEFINITION LEVEL OF FREQUENCY AVAILABLE OF BASIC
DESEGRAGATION DATA DATA

34.Percent of male/female Number of male/ National, regional Annual 2003 CPH, NSO, FIES, APIS
headed households by female headed
civil status households by civil
status over the total
number of
households

35.Leadership/membership Distribution of National Annual 2003 BITS-BLES


in labor unions, leadership/
cooperatives and membership in labor
peasant organizations by unions, cooperatives
sex and peasant
organizations in
labor unions by sex

195 Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO
Annex 12-3
GUIDELINES ON THE EVALUATION OF CLUP/ZO FOR REPLANNING PURPOSES
(REF: HLURB REGION X)

I. OBJECTIVES:

To provide bases in recommending decisions as to whether an area/locality needs to


replan, update and/or amend their CLUP/ZO.

1. To identify areas for re-planning/updating.


2. To provide systems and procedures on the assessment/evaluation of the
implementation of the approved CLUP/ZO.
3. To ensure the integration of solutions on issues/problems identified in the course of
implementing the CLUP/ZO.

II. TOOLS FOR EVALUATION/ASSESSMENT

DZA report on applications for Certificate of Zoning Compliance (CZC), Exception,


Variance, CNC (Certificate of Non-Conformance, where applicable)
Decisions of the Regional Officers (ROs) on Locational Clearance (LC) applications
(before the devolution of the LC issuance function to the LGU)
Decisions of Zoning Administrator/Zoning Officer/Enforcement Officer (Upon the
devolution of HLURB function)
Decisions of the SP/SB on subdivisions, including subdivisions 9 lots and below, farmlot,
memorial parks and Socialized Housing Project counterpart.
Decisions on violations of the ZO

III. PARAMETERS

Nature and number of CZCs issued


Nature and number of Variances, Exceptions, CNCs issued
Amount of change and rate of increase
Nature and number of structures without CZCs
Nature and number of subdivision projects (9 lots and below, farmlot, SHP and memorial
parks)

IV. PROJECT INVENTORY

Location of projects with CZCs/LCs


Location of subdivision projects with DPs
Projects in the LDIP, whether implemented or not
Other projects not in the LDIP but implemented
Revisit VISION, development thrusts not only of the city/municipality but also that of the
province, region and nation as a whole, (the in-thing, the buzz-word for the season,
e.g., Countryside Agricultural Development, Newly Industrialized Country, Sustainable
Development, Gender Sensitivity, etc.)
Interview with Local Government Officials, NGOs, POs, Civil Society
Actual development in the city/municipality as against the proposals in the development
plan

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO 196
All revisions/rezoning found to be too harsh for implementation
All projects implemented as against projects programmed for implementation

V. PROCEDURAL GUIDELINES

Check the completeness of the CLUP


Determine the degree and/or extent by which the CLUP and ZO have been implemented/
enforced

- Prepare inventory of projects


- Conduct field investigations
- Conduct interviews with public and private sectors/officials

VI. REVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

Do the CLUP and ZO contain substantial elements as indicated in the CLUP/ZO


guidelines?
Has the CLUP/ZO been fully implemented/enforced by the locality?
Are the proposed programs and projects indicated in the plan being implemented in the
identified locations and in the timeframes as scheduled/ programmed?
Are those the priority projects of the city?
Are the intended clientele benefited by the projects?
Are there other projects implemented which are not included in the CLUP?
If yes, do these projects support the development need of the city?
Is the actual development of the city still within the conceptual framework of the CLUP/
ZO (How much of non-urban areas have been converted to urban uses, % of non-
urban to total urban area)
Is the overspill due to lack of available space in non-urban areas?
Are there deviations between the actual development and the proposed land use/ZO? If
yes, identify the specific areas where there are deviations and the development projects
(classification and location) taking place.

Deviation from proposed land use/ZO are considered significant when:

The number of non-conforming applications/projects for specific classification granted


within the zone is 50% and above of the total number of applications within the city.
The land area covered by identified non-conforming project classification is 50%
and above of the area of the given zone.
The programs and projects identified in the LDIP are not implemented by at least
20%.
Do the goals and objectives, and projections of the plan still support the current
development trend? If no, elaborate.
Has the local government met difficulties/setbacks in the implementation of the
CLUP/ZO? If yes, specify and discuss.

VII. RE-PLAN

Current developments in terms of urbanization has overtaken the projections indicated


in the CLUP.
CLUP/ZO has been outdated by the LGU’s emerging functional role, goals and
objectives, and requirements brought about by current developments.

197 Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO
VIII. RE-ZONE/UPDATE

Development is still within the confines of the plan, but certain proposed zones have
been developed into other uses.
Development has reached the limit of the plan within the immediate period, thus, the
need to update projections, requirements and land use proposal, etc.
If the approved plan has not been enforced, it should be updated to keep abreast with
current developments.

IX. STATUS QUO

If at least ten (10) out of the fourteen (14) questions in the questionnaire for review have
been answered “yes”
If the plan and actual developments are at par.

Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO 198
Annex 12-4
UPDATING OR REVISING AN EXISTING CLUP

Existing Data
Existing Conditions Should always be kept
Sectoral Data up-to-date and readily
Base Mapping accessible. GIS or MIS is
Constraints ideal, but also possible in
SWOT Analysis hardcopy

Review relevance of:


Vision
Objectives
EXISTING PPPs
CLUP Not everything will need
to be changed. Much
may still be relevant

Land Use Plan


Will almost certainly
Zoning Ordinance and require updating
incorporated land use
policies
Will need to be updated
Prioritized PPPs and re-prioritized. Many
PPPs should be finished
and new ones identified

Monitoring of decisions,
Decision-making and outcomes, compliance,
CPDO administrative and complaints may
process indicate the need for
changes

In most cases, need only


REVISED a “minimalist” document
CLUP providing:
Based on updated data Report on process
Steps in strategic process Data updates
as necessary Policy updates
Inputs from monitoring Revised framework
and review(s) undertaken Plan updates
ZO update
in the planning period
CPDO and admin updates/
changes

199 Step 12. Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating the CLUP and ZO
Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of 1991, RA 7160.

Serote, Ernesto M. 2004. Property, Patrimony & Territory:


Foundations of Land Use Planning in the Philippines. School of Urban and Regional
Planning, University of the Philippines and UP Planning and Development Research
Foundation, Inc., Diliman, Quezon City.

201 References
STAKEHOLDERS FEEDBACK ON THE FINAL DRAFT OF THE GUIDEBOOK

The following are some feedbacks on the final draft of this guidebook gathered during the
nationwide validation workshops:

DILG - Region X . . .

“ The revised CLUP Guide are logically presented and can be easily
understood. This will be surely utilized by the LGUs who will be updating
their CLUPs.”

LGU - Region VIII . . .

“The draft guidelines is now “municipal-friendly”, provides clear steps and


with less technical data requirements.”

NCR, Region VIII, Region X, Region VI participants . . .

“The steps provided allow for flexibility and creativity, hence generally
acceptable.”

CARAGA participants . . .

It helps LGU to be fully aware of the importance/relevance of the CLUP;

Critical issues has been given emphasis especially in the protection


and management of the environment;

It envisions transparency and accountability in the implementation of


CLUP/ZO.

Stakeholders Comments on the Guidebook 202


PROJECT ORGANIZATION

STEERING COMMITTEE
Comm. TERESITA A. DESIERTO Comm. ROMULO Q. M. FABUL Comm. JESUS YAP PANG

Comm. FRANCISCO L. DAGÑALAN


Over-All Project Adviser
Dir. Petronila V. de Castro, Head, PPG
Project Advisor

PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE


Chair: Ms. Grace M. Ang, Head, RSDG POLICY REVIEW
Co-Chair: Ms. Nora L. Diaz, Head, FOSG COMMITTEE
Coordinator: Lloyd A. Sioson, RSDG AND CONSULTANT
Special Participation: Anacetas Dalangin, RFO VIII

SECRETARIAT
Coordinator: Ms. Julie A. Torres, RSDG
Members: Ms. Angelita C. Agustin, RSDG
Josefina R. de Lara, RSDG
Eleonor C. Sandoval, FOSG

Sectoral Development Study Group Sectoral Development Study Group Sectoral Development Study Group
(SDSG) 1 (Luzon Region) (SDSG) 2 (Visayas Region) (SDSG) 3 (Mindanao Region)

Sectors : Social Sector and Sectors : Demography, Sectors : Economic Sector and
Infra-Utilities Sector Environmental Local Administration
Management and
Chairman : Dir. Alfredo M. Tan II Land Use Chairman : Ms. Evangeline B. Agan
Regional Officer, RFO IV-B Regional Officer, RFO X
Chairman : Ms. Pilar J. Jamandre
Project Coordinators: Regional Officer, RFO VI Project Coordinators:
Ms. Rebecca Torres Ms. Elizabeth A. Bueno
Regional Officer, CAR Project Coordinators: Regional Officer, RFO IX
Dr. Teresita V. Galacgac, Ph. D. Rose Marie M. Bermejo, Mr. Roy T. Lopez
Regional Officer, RFO I Staff, RFO VI Regional Officer, RFO XI
Mr. Antonio P. Urata Alipio Bacalso, Jr. Mr. Ayunan B. Rajah
Regional Officer, RFO II Staff, RFO VII Regional Officer, RFO XII
Ms. Editha U. Barrameda Anacetas Dalangin, Ms. Charito A. Raagas
Regional Officer, RFO III Regional Officer, RFO VIII Regional Officer, (CARAGA)
Dir. Belen G. Ceniza
Regional Officer, RFO IV-A Members: Members:
Dir. Jesse A. Obligacion Cristina C de la Cruz (FOSG) Nemiah R. Hernandez (RSDG)
Regional Officer, ENCR Evelyn D. Gatchalian (FOSG) Dolores O. Alcala (FOSG)
Mr. Nestor Dizon Annabelle F. Guanzon (RSDG) Ricardo Ma. E. Rivera (Office of
Staff, RFO V Emma C. Ulep (Head, MIS-ITG) Commissioner for Planning)
Meselemia R. Bitancor (PPG) Jocelyn A. Vailoces (RFO IX)
Members: Jemima M. Ragudo (RSDG) Judy G. Sumabat (RFO X)
Lloyd A. Sioson (RSDG) Jamelon A. Bellosillo (RFO VI) Ramon E. Revilla (RFO XI)
Betty O. Jimenez (FOSG) Rosario Ladrido (RFO VI) Abdila U. Bayao (RFO XII)
Marissa R. Felizardo (RSDG) Amy P. Tantioco (RFO VI) Harvey A. Villegas (CARAGA)
Julius Caesar O. Villanea (RSDG) Melka Turley (RFO VII)
Percival E. Asuncion (FOSG) Zenaida Estur (RFO VIII)
Arilda Solano (CAR) Ofelia Yu (RFO VIII)
Roderico Beltran (RFO I)
Sherwin Patanao (RFO I)
Alexander Carrera (RFO II)
Julie Collado (RFO II)
Eleodor Balgos (RFO III)
Corazon Labay (RFO III
Lilia Lumbera (RFO IV-A)
Elizabeth Bandojo (RFO IV-B)
Jose Christopher Mendoza (RFO IV-B)
Eva Balisnomo (RFO V)

203