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FORMACIN

Cuando empleamos "going to" en una oracin para referirnos al futuro, la construccin se
compone de tres elementos:
el verbo "to be" conjugado conforme al sujeto + "going" + el infinitivo del verbo principal

Sujeto

+ to be (conjugado)

+ going

+ infinitivo

She

is

going

to leave.

am

going

to stay.

Afirmativa

He

is

going

to jog.

is not

going

to jog.

he

going

to jog?

he

going

to jog?

Negativa

He

Interrogativa

Is

Interrogativa negativa

Isn't

FUNCIN
El uso de "going to" para referirse a eventos futuros sugiere un vnculo muy slido con el presente.
El momento preciso no es relevante, es posterior al ahora, pero la actitud implica que dicho evento

depende de algo que sabemos sobre la situacin actual. "Going to" se emplea sobre todo para
hablar de nuestros planes e intenciones, o para realizar predicciones basadas en evidencias
actuales. En el discurso cotidiano, "going to" suele acortarse como "gonna", especialmente en
ingls americano, aunque nunca se escribe as.

USO DE "GOING TO" PARA REFERIRSE A PLANES E INTENCIONES

EJEMPLOS

Is Freddy going to buy a new car soon?

Are John and Pam going to visit Milan when they are in Italy?

I think Nigel and Mary are going to have a party next week.

We are going to have dinner together tomorrow.

Aren't you going to stay at the library until your report is finished?

USO DE "GOING TO" PARA FORMULAR PREDICCIONES

EJEMPLOS

He's going to be a brilliant politician.

I'm going to have a hard time falling asleep.

You're going to be sorry you said that.

Is it going to rain this afternoon?

Aren't they going to come to the party?

Conjugacin del futuro: "going to"


El futuro going to se forma:
SUJETO + am/are/is going to +VERBO EN INFINITIVO
Conjugacin
I am going to eat

Significado
yo ir a comer

you are going to eat

t irs a comer

he is going to eat

l ir a comer

we are going to eat

nosotros iremos a comer

you are going to eat

vosotros iris a comer

they are going to eat

ellos irn a comer

Contracciones
En argot se contrae going to en gonna:
Un ejemplo claro es la oracin:
tonight is going to be a good night
hoy va a ser una buena noche
se convierte en:
tonight is gonna be a good night
tambin puede contraerse tonight y is, quedando:
tonight's gonna be a good night

La negacin en el futuro going to


Para formar la negacin se aade not despus del am/are/is:
Estructura:
SUJETO + am/are/is not going to + VERBO EN
INFINITIVO
I am not going to dance tonight
Yo no voy a ir a bailar esta noche
I'm not going to use the computer for around four hours
No voy a usar el ordenador en aproximadamente cuatro horas

La Interrogacin en el futuro "going to"


Para formar la interrogacin se invierte el orden del sujeto y
del verbo auxiliar to be, esto es:
am/are/is + SUJETO + going to + VERBO EN
INFINITIVO ?
Are you going to dance tonight?
Vas a bailar esta noche?

Uso del futuro going to


El "future going to" se usa para:
Acciones que se ha planificado realizar en el
futuro, usualmente en un futuro cercano.
He is going to sing tomorrow night
l va a ir a cantar maana por la noche
Recordad que si la accin no es planificada (decisin
espontanea) se usa el futuro simple

La pasiva con el futuro going to


La construccin de la pasiva es:
[SUJETO] + am/are/is going to be +[PARTICIPIO]
Pasiva

Significado

I am going to be honored

yo voy a ser premiado

you are going to be honored

t vas a ser premiado

he is going to be honored

l va a ser premiado

we are going to be honored

nosotros vamos a ser premiados

you are going to be honored

vosotros vais a ser premiados

they are going to be honored

ellos van a ser premiados

El tiempo Future (going to) responde a la pregunta: What is going to happen? = Qu


va a pasar? o What is going to be happening? = Qu va a estar pasando?. Se forma:
Sujeto + am/is/are + going to + verbo en presente (I am going to work). Sujeto +
am/is/are + going to + be + verbo en progresivo (I am going to be working).
1. Present
I work
I am working

2. Present perfect
I have worked
I have been working

3. Past
I worked
I was working

4. Past perfect
I had worked
I had been working

5. Future
I will work
I will be working

6. Future perfect
I will have worked
I will have been working

7. Future (going to)


I am going to work
I am going to be working

8. Future perfect (going to)


I am going to have worked
I am going to have been working

9. Future in past
I was going to work
I was going to be working

10. Future perfect in past


I was going to have worked
I was going to have been working

11. Conditional
I would work
I would be working

12. Conditional perfect


I would have worked
I would have been working

13. Modals
I (can, could, ...) work
I (can, could, ...) be working

14. Modals + have


I (can, could, ...) have worked
I (can, could, ...) have been working

15. Imperative
Work!
Let's work!
Simple Tenses - Continuous Tenses

Future "going to"


What is going to happen? - Qu va a pasar?
I am going to work - Voy a trabajar

I am going to leave for Asia next month.


Voy a partir a Asia el mes que viene.
We are going to watch a movie on TV tonight.
Vamos a ver una pelcula en la televisin a la noche.
The company is going to raise its prices next summer.
La compaa va a subir los precios el prximo mes.

Mrs. Black is going to teach pottery next year.


La Sra. Black va a ensear alfarera el ao que viene.
I am going to go to the grocery store tomorrow morning.
Voy a ir al almacn maana por la maana.
Paul is not going to solve the problem before the end of the year.
Paul no va a resolver el problema antes de fin de ao.
We are not going to run the marathon next June.
No vamos a correr la maratn el prximo junio.
Are you going to read Paul Austers latest novel?
Vas a leer la ltima novela de Paul Auster?
The floor is full of dry leaves. Are you going to sweep it?
El piso est lleno de hojas secas. Lo vas a barrer?

Future "going to" - Continuous form


What is going to be happening? - Qu va a estar pasando?
I am going to be working - Voy a estar trabajando

Alice is going to be lying in the sun tomorrow morning.


Alice va a estar yaciendo al sol maana por la maana.
Mr. Parker is going to be driving to Washington D.C. next Friday.
El Sr. Parker va a estar manejando a Washington D.C. el viernes que viene.
Granny is going be sewing her apron tomorrow.
La abuela va a estar cosiendo su delantal maana.
The thief is in prison now. He is not going to be stealing any more.
El ladrn est ahora en prisin. No va a estar robando ms.
Is she going to be polishing the floor the day after tomorrow?
Ella va a estar lustrando el piso pasado maana?

Existe una diferencia entre estas dos formas de expresar el futuro.


Generalmente "to be + going to" se usa para acciones que van a
suceder muy pronto o para expresar un plan que se tiene. "Will" se
usa para expresar una promesa, una prediccin o algo que se quiere
hacer en el futuro.

"Going to":
El tiempo futuro con "going to" se usa ms comnmente en el
lenguaje hablado cuando se quiere hacer referencia al futuro
inmediato, es decir, a algo que est por ocurrir.
Ejemplos:

She is going to pay with a credit card = Ella va a pagar con


una tarjeta de crdito (algo que est por ocurrir).

I am going to drop off my prescription over there = voy a


dejar mi prescripcin mdica all.

Tambin se emplea para hablar de intenciones o planes para hacer


algo:
Ejemplo:

Im going to learn English = voy a aprender ingls.

Se forma con el verbo"to be" conjugado para la persona


correspondiente, seguido de"going to" y el verbo base.

"To be" + "going to" + verbo:

I am going to pay = yo voy a pagar.

You are going to pay = t vas a pagar.

He is going to pay = l va a pagar.

She is going to pay = ella va a pagar.

It is going to pay = eso va a pagar.

We are going to pay = nosotros vamos a pagar.

You are going to pay = ustedes van a pagar.

They are going to pay = ellos/ellas van a pagar.

"Will":
El futuro con "will" se utiliza para hablar de decisiones que se toman
mientras se habla:
Ejemplos:

I need to get my medicine. I will go to the pharmacy


tonight.
Necesito comprar mi medicina. Ir a la farmacia esta noche.

I need some cash. I will pay with my debit card and ask
for cash back.
Necesito algo de efectivo. Pagar con mi tarjeta dbito y pedir
efectivo de vuelta.
Tambin es usado para decir predicciones de carcter general:

Ejemplos:

Im sure it will rain tomorrow.


Estoy seguro de que va a llovermaana.

Gerardo Gmez will win the election.


Gerardo Gmez va a ganar las elecciones.

Se forma con el verbo "will" + verbo:

I will pay later.

You will pay later.

He will pay later.

She will pay later.

It will pay later.

We will pay later.

You will pay later.

They will pay later.

Impotante!
"will" es un verbo modal (o auxiliar) que se utiliza para formar el

futuro.
"will" siempre debe ir acompaado de otro verbo para formar el
futuro.

La forma GOING TO seguida de infinitivo se utiliza:


1) Para expresar la intencin de realizar en el futuro alguna accin que ya est
decidida.
What are you going to do at the weekend?
Qu hars durante el fin de semana?
I'm going to visit a friend near Bogota.
Visitar (Tengo intenciones de visitar) a un amigo cerca de Bogot.
2) Para predecir acontecimientos futuros basndose en una evidencia presente.
(Estos acontecimientos suelen estar situados en un futuro prximo.)
Look at those clouds. It's going to rain.
Mira esas nubes. Llover. (Va a llover.)
Este ltimo uso no debe confundirse con el del tiempo Present Continuous el
cual indica una accin que est realizando en el momento en que se la
menciona.
Compara ahora estas dos frases:
Going to + infinitivo: I'm going to answer it. (Lo responder; Voy a
responderlo.)
Present continuous: I'm answering it. (Lo estoy respondiendo).
FORMACION DE LA ESTRUCTURA "GOING TO + INFINITIVO".
Esta estructura se construye con las formas del tiempo Present Continuous
del verbo go (I'm going, She's going, etc.) ms el infinitivo del verbo
principal precedido de la partcula to (to visit, to answer, etc.).
Practica un poco leyendo en voz alta estos ejemplos:
I'm going to visit some friends this afternoon.
He's going to watch TV tomorrow.
She's going to leave in ten minutes.
We're going to play tennis at six o'clock.
You're going to paint the kitchen on Friday.
They're going to go to the movies next week.

Understanding and Using Modal Verbs (#27), by


Dennis Oliver

Modal Verbs #27:


Individual Modal Verbs
The English modal verbs are often challenging for learners
of English. This happens for many reasons, including both
grammar and meaning.
In this Hint, we'll look at differences between the use of will
and be going to when talking or writing about future events.
_____________________________________
Expressing Plans for the Future
One use for the modal auxiliary will (and also for be going to)
is in showing someone's predictions about the future--things
that someone speaks or writes about before they actually happen.
Another use for will (but not be going to) is in showing
willingness or volition--being agreeable to the idea of doing
something. When will is used in this way, it can refer to either
present or future time.
When someone speaks or writes about an event in the future,
maybe that event was planned in the past and maybe it wasn't.
If the event was planned in the past, be going to, but not will,
is used. If the event was not planned in the past, either will or
be going to may be used.
Examples:
A:

Do you want to go for a cup of coffee?

B:

No, thanks. I'm really tired and I'm going to


go to bed in just a few minutes.

(B has already made plans to go to bed soon, so she/he


uses be going to, not will.)
_____________________________________
A:

Are you looking forward to your vacation?

B:

Yes, very much. I'm going to visit some


friends in San Francisco.

(B has already made plans to visit friends in San Francisco,


so she/he uses be going to, not will.)
_____________________________________

A:

What are you going to do in San Francisco?

B:

My friends and I haven't made any special plans,


but I'm sure that we'll have a good time.

(Because A assumes that B and her/his friends have made plans


about what to do, A uses be going to in the question. Because
no plans have been made, B uses will in the answer--though
be going to is also possible.)
________________________________________________

A:

Will you be back home in time to go to


Susie's party?

B:

I'm afraid not. Her party's on the 15th,


and I'm not going to leave San Francisco
until the 16th.

(Because A isn't sure when B plans to return, she/he uses


will in the question--though be going to is also possible.
Because B has already made plans to return on the 16th,
B uses be going to in the answer.)
________________________________________________
Remember:
When no plans for the future have been made in the past,
either be going to or will may be used--because the future
event will be a prediction. When plans for the future have
been made, only be going to may be used.
________________________
Next: more on modal verbs

Curso de Ingls para Hispanohablantes


Recursos del Idioma para Estudiantes y Profesores

Tiempos Verbales
Simple Tenses

Progressive Tenses

(1) Present

(4) Past Perfect

(7) Conditional

What is happening?

What had been happening?

What would be happening?

(2) Past

(5) Future

(8) Past Conditional

What was happening?

What will be happening?

What would have been happening?

(3) Present Perfect

(6) Future Perfect

(9) Modal Verbs

What has been happening?

What will have been happening?

What (can, could...) be happening?

What (can/could/...) be happening ?--- Qu (puede/podra/...) estar pasando ?

To
Be :

amwas
are-is were

have/h
had
as
been
been

will
be

will
have
been

would (can,
would
have
could)
be
been be

Affirmative-----Subject + (can, could, may, might, should, must ) be + verb(ing)


I must be going to the office - Debo estar yendo a la oficina going

yendo

You could be coming from Brazil - Tu podras estar viniendo comin viniend
o
de Brasil
g
She should be buying everything - Ella debera estar
comprando todo

They might be living in Chicago - Ellos podran estar


viviendo en Chicago

buying

compra
ndo

living

viviendo

Negative-------Subject + (can, could, may, might, should, must) + not be + verb(ing).


I can not be selling anything - No puedo estar vendiendo
nada

You shouldn't be doing that work - Tu no deberas estar


haciendo ese trabajo

He shouldn't be giving the orders - l no debera estar


dando las rdenes

She can not be visiting anybody- Ella no puede estar


visitando a nadie

selling

vendien
do

doing

haciend
o

giving dando
visitin visitand
o
g

Interrogative---(can, could, may, might, should, must) + subject + verb(ing) ?


Should I be bringing the beer ? - Debera yo estar
trayendo la cerveza ?

Could you be taking the books ? - Podras estar llevando


los libros ?

What must he be saying ? - Qu debe estar diciendo l ?

bringi trayend
o
ng
taking llevando
saying diciendo

Might she be accepting presents ? Podra ella estar


aceptando regalos ?

accept aceptan
do
ing

Modal Verbs + be going

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I can be going

I can not be going

Can I be going ?

I could be going

I could not be going

Could I be going ?

I may be going

I may not be going

May I be going ?

I might be going

I might not be going

Might I be going ?

I must be going

I must not be going

Must I be going ?

I should be going

We should not be going

Should I be going ?

1999 Adolfo E. Bieri


Todos los Derechos Reservados
www.sherton.com.ar
adolfo@sherton.com.ar
Los verbos modales son verbos auxiliares que no pueden funcionar como un
verbo principal, a diferencia de los verbos auxiliares be, do y have que s
pueden funcionar como un verbo principal.
Los verbos modales expresan modalidad. Pueden expresar habilidad, posibilidad,
necesidad u otra condicin. Son verbos auxiliares del futuro y del condicional. Los
tiempos verbales ingleses no son suficientes para expresar ideas de posibilidad o
incertidumbre. No existe un tiempo verbal del condicional en ingls. A la vez, se

usan verbos auxiliares para el condicional. Tampoco hay un tiempo verbal como el
subjuntivo en espaol. Por eso, es muy importante entender los usos de los verbos
modales.
Como verbos complementarios que son, los verbos modales no funcionan sin otro
verbo. Este otro verbo siempre va despus del verbo modal y est en la forma de
base (el infinitivo sin to). No se conjugan los verbos modales y no tienen tiempo.
Los verbos modales son:
can
could
may
might
will
shall
should
ought to
must/have to
would

Uses

(Usos)

Can
Can indica habilidad o posibilidad. En estos casos puede ser traducido como
poder en espaol.
Ejemplos:
I can speak five languages. (Puedo hablar cinco idiomas.)
We can work late tonight if you need us. (Podemos trabajar hasta tarde esta noche si

nos necesitas.)

Bill and Tom cant help you. (Bill y Tom no pueden ayudarte.)
The restaurant can be expensive if you drink a lot of wine. (El restaurante puede
ser caro si bebes mucho vino.)

It can be dangerous to drive if you are tired. (Conducir puede ser peligroso si ests
cansado.)

En frases interrogativas, el uso de can puede solicitar permiso o preguntar sobre


posibilidades.
Ejemplos:
Can I have a glass of water? (Puedo tomar un vaso de agua?)
Can you help me? (Puedes ayudarme?)
Can they work late tonight? (Pueden trabajar hasta tarde esta noche?)

Could
Could indica posibilidad o habilidad en el pasado.
Ejemplos:
Joe could speak Spanish when he was young. (Joe poda hablar espaol cuando era
joven.)

I couldnt sleep last night. (No pude dormir anoche.)


It could have been worse. (Podra haber sido peor.)
Could you play an instrument when you were a child? (Podas tocar un
instrumento cuando eras un nio?)

Tambin se puede usar could para posibilidades en el futuro.


Ejemplos:
You could pass the test if you studied. (Podras pasar el examen si estudiaras.)

I think it could rain later. (Creo que podra llover ms tarde.)

Como can, en frases interrogativas could puede solicitar permiso o preguntar


sobre las posibilidades, pero es ms formal.
Ejemplos:
Could you pass the salt please? (Podra pasarme la sal por favor?)
Could you help me? (Podras ayudarme?)
Could I be wrong? (Podra estar equivocado?)

Nota: Se usa could en frases condicionales. Ver la leccin sobre frases


condicionales para ms informacin sobre el uso de could.

May
Como could, se usa may para indicar posibilidades en el futuro.
Ejemplos:
I would bring an umbrella, it may rain later. (Llevara un paraguas, puede llover ms
tarde.)

It may be better to finish this now, rather than wait until tomorrow. (Tal vez sea
mejor terminar esto ahora, en lugar de esperar hasta maana.)

Tambin se puede utilizar para dar permisos o instrucciones.


Ejemplos:
You may leave if you like. (Puede salir si quiere.)
You may use your cell phones now. (Podis usar sus telfonos ahora.)

En frases interrogativas, el uso de may es ms educado que can o could.


Ejemplos:
May I have a glass of water? (Podra tomar un vaso de agua?)
May I leave now? (Podra salir ahora?)

Might
Se usa might para indicar posibilidades en el presente o el futuro. En estos
casos, es un sinnimo de may.
Ejemplos:
I would bring an umbrella, it might rain later. (Yo llevara un paraguas, puede llover
ms tarde.)

It might be better to finish this now, rather than wait until tomorrow. (Tal vez sea
mejor terminar esto ahora, en lugar de esperar hasta maana.)

Tambin se puede usar al igual que may, para pedir permisos o hacer peticiones
corteses, aunque este uso es mucho ms comn en el Reino Unido que en los
Estados Unidos.

Will
Como veremos en lecciones posteriores, se utiliza will para formar el tiempo
futuro.
Tambin el uso de will significa voluntad o determinacin.
Ejemplos:
I will help you. (Te ayudar.)
We will learn English. (Aprenderemos ingls.)

Se utiliza will en frases interrogativas para pedir informacin, un favor o sobre


opciones.
Ejemplos:
Will they find a cure for cancer? (Encontrarn una cura para el cncer?)
Will you help me move? (Me ayudas a mudarme?)
Will he go to Paris by car or train? (Ir a Pars en coche o en tren?)

Shall
Se usa shall como will para formar el tiempo futuro. El uso de shall es
mucho ms comn en el Reino Unido y en general es ms educado.
Ejemplos:
Chris shall be happy to see you. (Chris estar feliz de verte.)
Ill take the 3 oclock train. (Tomar el tren a las 15h.)

Nota: Las formas cortas de will y shall son lo mismo. Entonces Illen el
ejemplo anterior puede significar I will o I shall.

Tambin se puede utilizar shall para ofertas y sugerencias o para preguntar


sobre opciones o preferencias.
Ejemplos:
Shall l we meet at 10pm? (Quedamos a las 22h?)
Shall we go to the movies or a museum? (Vamos al cine o a un museo?)

Should

Should indica una obligacin o recomendacin. Refleja una opinin sobre lo que
es correcto. Se traduce como el condicional de deber en espaol.
Ejemplos:
I should call my parents more often. (Debera llamar a mis padres ms a menudo.)
You shouldnt work so hard. (No debera trabajar tan duro.)
They should practice more if they want to win the championship. (Deberan
practicar ms si quieren ganar el campeonato.)

Se utiliza should en frases interrogativas para preguntar si existe una


obligacin o para pedir una recomendacin.
Ejemplos:
Should we leave a tip? (Deberamos dejar una propina?)
Should I have the steak or the chicken? (Debera comer el bistec o el pollo?)
Where should they meet you? (Dnde deberan encontrarte?)

Ought to
Ought to es un sinnimo de should.
Ejemplos:
She ought to quit smoking. (Debera dejar de fumar.)
I ought to call my parents more often. (Debera llamar a mis padres ms a menudo.)
They ought to work less. (Deberan trabajar menos.)

Note: Nunca se usa ought to en frases interrogativas en ingls americano.

Must

Must indica una obligacin, prohibicin o necesidad. Tambin puede


emplearsehave to (tener que).
Ejemplos:
You must [have to] read this book, its fantastic. (Tienes que leer este libro, es
fantstico.)

You must [have to] brush your teeth two times a day. (Tienes que cepillarte los
dientes dos veces al da.)

We must [have to] leave now or we will be late. (Tenemos que irnos ahora o
llegaremos tarde.)

You must not drink and drive. (No puedes beber y conducir.)
When must we meet you? (Cundo debemos quedar? )

Tambin se puede usar must para indicar probabilidad o asumir algo.


Ejemplos:
Johns not here. He must be sick because he never misses class. (John no esta
aqu. Debe estar enfermo porque nunca pierde clases.)

It must be difficult to learn a new language as an adult. (Debe ser difcil aprender
un idioma como adulto.)

Es posible tambin usar must para preguntas retricas.


Ejemplos:
Must you always be late? (Siempre tienes que llegar tarde?)
Must she talk so much? (Tiene que hablar tanto?)

Would
Se usa would para declarar una preferencia y para preguntar por algo
educadamente.

Ejemplos:
She would like to go to New York someday. (Le gustara ir a Nueva York algn da.)
I would like a beer and my wife would like a glass of wine please. (Me gustara
una cerveza y a mi mujer le gustara una copa de vino por favor.)

Would you like some coffee? (Le gustara un cafe?)


Would you help me please? (Me ayudas por favor?)
When would you like to go to the movies? (Cundo te gustara ir al cine?)

Nota: Se usa would en frases condicionales. Ver la leccin sobre frases


condicionales para ms informacin sobre el uso de would.

Modal Verbs
Click here for all the exercises about modal verbs
Here's a list of the modal verbs in English:

can

could

may

might

will

would

must

shall

should

ought to

Modals are different from normal verbs:

1: They don't use an 's' for the third person singular.


2: They make questions by inversion ('she can go' becomes 'can she go?').
3: They are followed directly by the infinitive of another verb (without 'to').

Probability:

First, they can be used when we want to say how sure we are that something
happened / is happening / will happen. We often call these 'modals of
deduction' or 'speculation' or 'certainty' or 'probability'.
For example:
It's snowing, so it must be very cold outside.
I don't know where John is. He could have missed the train.
This bill can't be right. 200 for two cups of coffee!
Click here to find out more about probability.

Ability
We use 'can' and 'could' to talk about a skill or ability.
For example:
She can speak six languages.
My grandfather could play golf very well.
I can't drive.
Click here to find out more about ability.

Obligation and Advice


We can use verbs such as 'must' or 'should' to say when something is necessary
or unnecessary, or to give advice.
For example:
Children must do their homework.
We have to wear a uniform at work.

You should stop smoking.


Click here to find out more about obligation

Permission
We can use verbs such as 'can', 'could' and 'may' to ask for and give permission.
We also use modal verbs to say something is not allowed.
For example:
Could I leave early today, please?
You may not use the car tonight.
Can we swim in the lake?

Habits
We can use 'will' and 'would' to talk about habits or things we usually do, or did
in the past.
For example:
When I lived in Italy, we would often eat in the restaurant next to my
flat.
John will always be late!

Past modals
The past modals 'could have + past participle', 'should have + past participle'
and 'would have + past participle' can be confusing. I explain about them here.

Modal verbs
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The modal verbs are:

can

could

may

might

shall

should

will

would

must

We use modal verbs to show if we believe something is certain, probable or


possible (or not). We also use modals to do things like talking about ability, asking
permission making requests and offers, and so on.

English Grammar

certain, probable or possible

ability, permission, requests and advice

modals + have

can, could and could have

may, might, may have and might have

can or could

will or would

will have or would have


El verbo 'must' expresa una prohibicin u obligacin fuerte as como cierta certeza: I
must go. She must be crazy. En espaol significa debo, debo de.
I must - debo / debo de

Affirmative

I must go to the library.


Debo ir a la biblioteca.
You must stay here until I come back.
Debes quedarte aqu hasta que yo vuelva.
We must be at the airport at three o'clock.
Debemos estar en el aeropuerto a las tres.
Everybody must wear a uniform.
Todos deben usar uniforme.
You must be joking!
Deben de estar bromeando!
Julia must be in Paris by now.
Julia ya debe de estar en Pars.
It must be noon already.
Ya debe de ser medioda.

Negative

You must not talk to strangers.


No debes hablar con extraos.
We mustn't make noise.
No debemos hacer ruido.
Mr. Williams must not smoke.
El seor Williams no debe fumar.

Interrogative

Must we do everything today?


Debemos hacer todo hoy?

Must you go so soon?


Debes irte tan pronto?

Must + have

I must have fallen asleep.


Debo de haberme quedado dormido.
Sally must have forgotten about the meeting.
Sally debe de haberse olvidado de la reunin.
They must have sent it already.
Ya deben de haberlo enviado.

Significado de must
Must significa deber en el contexto de obligacin:
You must wash your hands before you eat
T debes lavarte las manos antes de comer

Gramtica del verbo must


Must es un verbo modal junto con may, can, etc. Esto
significa que normalmente requieren otro verbo para
completar el significado:
We must study for the chemistry test
Nosotros debemos estudiar para el examen de qumica
Como se ve en el ejemplo, el verbo pleno que est a
continuacin de must, se encuentra en la forma deinfinitivo
sin to.

Conjugacin del verbo must


La conjugacin de "must" es especial slo se puede conjugar
en un tiempo verbal: presente simple.

Presente Simple (Present Simple)

Como al resto de los verbos modales, al verbo "must" no se le


aade una "-s" en la tercera persona del singular.
Conjugacin

Significado

I must

yo debo

you must

t debes

he must

l debe

we must

nosotros debemos

you must

vosotros debis

they must

ellos deben

La negacin en oraciones con "must"


La negacin se forma con el adverbio "not":
You must not go out at night
No debes salir por las noches

Contracciones del verbo "must"


Sin contraccin
must not

Contrado
mustn't

Conjugacin del verbo "to have to"


El verbo "to have to" es el sustituto del verbo "must" en
todos los tiempos verbales menos en el presente simple:

Presente Continuo ( Present Continuous)


Conjugacin

Significado

I am having to

yo estoy debiendo

you are having to

t ests debiendo

he is having to

l est debiendo

we are having to

nosotros estamos debiendo

you are having to

vosotros estis debiendo

they are having to

ellos estn debiendo

Presente perfecto (Present Perfect)


Conjugacin

Significado

I have had to

yo he debido

you have had to

t has debido

he has had to

l ha debido

we have had to

nosotros hemos debido

you have had to

vosotros habis debido

they have had to

ellos han debido

Pasado simple (Past simple)


Conjugacin

Significado

I had to

yo deba

you had to

t debas

he had to

l deba

we had to

nosotros debamos

you had to

vosotros debais

they had to

ellos deban

Futuro Simple ( Future Simple)


Conjugacin

Significado

I will have to

yo deber

you will have to

t debers

he will have to

l deber

we will have to

nosotros deberemos

you will have to

vosotros deberis

they will have to

ellos debern

Pasado continuo ( Past Continuous Tense)

Conjugacin

Significado

I was having to

yo estaba debiendo

you were having to

t estabas debiendo

he was having to

l estaba debiendo

we were having to

nosotros estbamos debiendo

you were having to

vosotros estabais debiendo

they were having to

ellos estaban debiendo

Pluscuamperfecto ( Past Perfect)


Conjugacin

Significado

I had had to

yo haba debido

you had had to

t habas debido

he had had to

l haba debido

we had had to

nosotros habamos debido

you had had to

vosotros habais debido

they had had to

ellos haban debido

Verbos modales: 'Must'


"Must" es un auxiliar modal. Se usa principalmente para indicar
una obligacin o prohibicin ("deber hacer algo" o "no
deber hacer algo").
Como verbo auxiliar comparte las caractersticas de los modales:
- Va seguido de un verbo en infinitivo sin "to", excepto be able to, need to, have to y
ought to.
- La tercera persona del singular no lleva -s en el presente simple.
- No necesita aadir el auxiliar do/does para la forma interrogativa y negativa.
- No tiene tiempos compuestos ni progresivos.

- No tiene infinitivo.

Afirmativa
Interrogativa

Forma negativa

Negativa
corta

must

must not

mustn't

Afirmativo

Negativo

I must do

I must not do

I mustn't do

You must do

You must not do

You mustn't do

He must do

He must not do

He mustn't do

She must do

She must not do

She mustn't do

It must do

It must not do

It mustn't do

We must do

We must not do

We mustn't do

You must do

You must not do

You mustn't do

They must do

They must not do

They mustn't do

Interrogativo

Must I do?

Mustn't I do?

Must you do?

Mustn't you do?

Must he do?

Mustn't he do?

Must she do?

Mustn't she do?

Must it do?

Mustn't it do?

Must we do?

Mustn't we do?

Must you do?

Mustn't you do?

Must they do?

Mustn't they do?

Para otros tiempos verbales (por ejemplo, el futuro) se puede


emplear "to have to".
I'll have to go to the doctor.

Tendr que ir al mdico (futuro).


I had to go to the doctor.

Tena que ir al mdico (pasado).

Usos de "must"
1 Para expresar obligacin, deber moral o consejo.
You must be back before midnight.

Debes estar de vuelta antes de


medianoche.
She must respect her parents.

Debe respetar a sus padres.


You must visit New York.

Debes visitar Nueva York.


La diferencia con "have to" es que "must" se usa para dar rdenes o
expresar una obligacin moral de la persona que habla u ordena y
"have to" indica que la obligacin viene de normas externas, una
tercera persona o de una circunstancia.
I must go to work.

Tengo que ir a trabajar.


I have to do what my parents say.

Tengo que hacer lo que mis padres


dicen.
2 Para expresar prohibicin.
La forma negativa, "must not" expresa una prohibicin. En
cambio, "don't have to" indica que algo no es necesario, es decir,
que no existe obligacin (tambin se puede expresar con "need
not/needn't").
You mustn't eat in class.

No debes comer en clase.

You don't have to come to visit me.


You needn't come to visit me.

No tienes por qu venir a visitarme.


3 Con significado de deduccin afirmativa.
Slo se utiliza "must".
He arrived late. He must be tired.

l llego tarde. Debe estar cansado.


Look at that Porsche. It must be expensive.

Mira ese Porsche. Tiene que ser caro.


Para la deduccin negativa o imposibilidad usaremos "can't".
He can't be her boyfriend.

No puede ser su novio.


Ejercicios

Elige la opcin correcta.


1 ____ wear a suite in your job?

Must you

Have you to

2 My brother ____ tidy his room this afternoon.

must

must to

3 You ____ be quiet at the hospital.

mustn't

must

4 Its cold, you ____ to put it in the fridge.

don't have to

mustn't

5 It ____ be your umbrella.

mustn't

can't

6 We ____ take care of the environment.

must to

must

7 ____ wash up?

Must I

Have I to

8 This watch is very expensive, you ____ buy it to me.

mustn't

don't have to

9 Your mother ____ see that film.

must

has to

10 We ____ arrive late today to classes.

havent to

mustn't