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CAPSTONE PROJECT RESEARCH

JEDDAH HERITAGE &


CULTURAL FESTIVAL CENTER

By

Ibtehal F. Abdulbary
A research submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
For the degree of Bachelor of Science Architecture
At
Department of Architecture
Effat University
College of Engineering

August 22,2015
Copyright by Ibtehal F.Abdulbary.

Acknowledgment

"The lack of resources is no longer an excuse not to act. The idea that action should only be
taken after all the answer and resources have been found is assure recipe for paralysis. The
planning of city is a process that allows for corrections; it is to believe that planning can be
Done only after every possible variable has been controlled." (Jaime Lerner)

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TABLE OF
CONTENT

ACKNOWLEDGMENT2
TABLE OF CONTENT..3
TABLE OF FIGURES5
TABLE OF
CHARTS.6
CONTENT OF TABLES..7
ABSTRACT.....8
1. PROJECT OVERVIEW...9
I. INTRODUCTION10
II. OBJECTIVES.11
III.Conceptual philosophy12
IV.VISION OF THE PROJECT...13
V. LITERATURE REVIEW 14-19
2. CASE STUDIES..20
I. CASE STUDIES IN SAUDI ARABIA:
II. Museum of the Built Environment..21-24
III. King Abdul-Aziz Centre for World Culture25-29
IV. CASE STUDIES AROUND THE WORLD:
V. Harbin cultural center..30-35
VI. Visitors' center for the wetlands in Suncheon
in Korea..36-39
VII. Asakusa culture &tourism center....40-43
3. SOME OF THE INSPIRING PROJECTS:
I. Bwabah Mecca.44
II. Souq wagef...44
III. Islamic Religious and Cultural Center in Ljubljana.45
IV. Aljnaderia festivals...46
V. CONCLUSION47
4. PROGRAM ASSUMPTION..48
I. Main components48-49
II. Program methodology50
III. The impact of crowd density.50-51
IV. Jeddah population density..52
V.
Building type of recommendation..53-56
VI.
Program assumptions.56-67
5. Chapter 4
I. Site selection.
II. Passenger station site movement.....68-70
III. Site proposals.71-72
IV. Site analysis73-78
V. Conclusion..79

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Table of figures
Figure: 1-sketch shown open up plaza
Figure: 2-sketch shown of bus stop station
Figure: 3 albald residential buildings
Figure: 4 eid and Ramadan festivals
Figure: 5 -Mount Uhud
Figure: 6--Makah Al Mukarrammah seen from Noor
Figure: 7 - Hajj involves pilgrims visiting the Masjid alHaram. Figure: 8-Historic Medina
Figure: 9-The Quba Mosque is the first mosque in history built by Muhammad upon arrival in Medina
Figure: 10-Masjid Nabawi at sunset
Figure: 11-Konna keda in al balad festivals.
Figure: 12-Covent garden
Figure: 13-MOBE perspective view
Figure: 14-MOBE site plane view
Figure: 15-MOBE interior perspective view
Figure: 16-MOBE model view
Figure: 17-MOBE sections
view
Figure: 18-MOBE plan view
Figure: 19-king Abdul Aziz center for world culture
Figure: 20-king Abdul Aziz center for world culture
Figure: 21-interior shots of king Abdul Aziz center for world culture
Figure: 22-plans and perspectives of King Abdul Aziz center for world culture
Figure: 23- perspectives of King Abdul Aziz center for world culture
Figure: 24-sketch perspectives of King Abdul Aziz center for world culture
Figure: 25-perspectives of King Abdul Aziz center for world culture
Figure: 26-Harbin cultural
Figure: 27-Harbin cultural exterior perspectives
Figure: 28-Harbin cultural interior perspectives

Figure: 29-Harbin cultural interior perspectives


Figure: 30-Harbin cultural site plan perspectives
Figure: 31-Harbin cultural site plan perspectives
Figure: 32-Harbin cultural floor plans
Figure: 33-Harbin cultural sections 1, 2, and 3
Figure: 34-Harbin cultural plans 1.2.3
Figure: 35-Harbin cultural sections 1.2.
Figure: 36-Harbin cultural interior shot
Figure: 37-Harbin cultural perspectives
Figure: 38.divded tower plan
Figure: 39.interior shots
Figure: 40.plans floors 1.basements floors, 2. Floors plans, 3. Roof plan
Figure: 41.sections view 1.2.
Figure: 42.bwabaha Mecca view perspectives
Figure: 43.souq waqef view perspectives
Figure: 44. Islamic Religious and Cultural Center view perspectives
Figure: 45-aljenadriah social attractions
Figure: 46-shown 1 person per square meter
Figure: 47- 10 people per square meter. Above 5 the RISK of trips, slips or falls increases significantly.
Figure: 48-Image from the 3D crowd visualize of 2 people per square meter
Figure: 49-alharamin transportation building
Figure: 50-transportation of Al-Harmin terminal uses
Figure: 51-site proposals
Figure: 52-Alcornish site proposal 1
Figure: 53-Alhamra site proposal 2
Figure: 54-AlBalad site proposal 3
Figure: 55- site land use with main streets
Figure: 56- surrounded landmark
Figure: 57- climatic surrounding
Figure: 58- zones distribution
Figure: 59- night view
Figure: 60- day shot
Figure: 61- in front 3D shot
Figure: 62- Main Entrance
Figure: 63-Students Exhibition
Figure: 64-Bridge through Corniech sea
Figure: 65-Food Busses Area
Figure: 66- Bazar Area
Figure: 67- Backward perspective
Figure: 68- elevation 1
Figure: 69- elevation 2
Figure: 70-elevation 3
Figure: 71-elevation 4
Figure: 72- Master Development

Table of charts
Chart: 1-area distribution chart
Chart: 2-area distribution chart
Chart: 3-area distribution chart
Chart: 4-area distribution chart
Chart: 5-area distribution chart
Chart: 6-final conclusion of area distribution charts
Chart 7: Main Components Percentage distribution
Chart 8: study shown entertainment has the highest percentage
Chart 9: study shown final main components percentage
Chart 10: study shown outdoor and indoor percentage

Content of table
Table 1: reasons of visitors of Jeddah
Table 2: number of visitors of Jeddah
Table 3: way of transportation of Jeddah
Table 4: variation of visitors of Jeddah
Table 5: lists of main components
Table 6: Foyer entrance program
Table 7: Auditorium program
Table 8: Classes and workshops program
Table 9: Exhibitions and galleries program
Table 10: Book store and gift shop program
Table 11: Restaurant and cafe program
Table 12: General services program
Table 13: Main services and support program
Table 14: Plaza and social activities program
Table 15: Main spaces program Table 16: site selection criteria Table 17: site selection criteria

ABSTRACT
The primary goal of the tourism and cultural center is revitalization effort to
improve the livability and quality of life in a community by expanding and
attracting employment, visitors, shopping and social activities to understand the
spirit of the culture and social approach and how it developed the relationship
within the community through its interaction with the other surroundings indoor
and outdoor spaces in deep heart of Jeddah to turn the area into cultural and
public hub, as result it will maintain the touristic approach.

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1. PROJECT OVERVIEW

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Introduction
What is it cultural tourism? Cultural tourism, as the name suggest, is the point at which
culture, which defines in large part our identity as a society, meets tourism, which is
activity pursued by people with an interest in observing or becoming involved in that
society.
The strategy for cultural tourism lies at the broader strategy for developing tourism of
Jeddah. This is an area with significant potential for development, taking advantage of
boarder themes in relation to tourist preferences and behaviours.th intent of this strategy
is to provide a framework for industry stakeholders on many product that will be in place,
and to develop the social activities and market cultural tourism products and events in
ways that capture the imagination of the visitor.
Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca, Islam's holiest city, which able-bodied
Muslims are required to visit at least once in their lifetime. It is also a gateway to Medina,
the second holiest place in Islam. This Red Sea port used to be as a gateway for Muslim
pilgrims making the required hajj to Mecca, which vastly increased the town's
significance.
The primary goal of the tourism and cultural center is revitalization effort to improve the
livability and quality of life in a community by expanding and attracting employment,
visitors, shopping and social activities to understand the spirit of the culture and social
approach and how it developed the relationship within the community through its
interaction with the other surroundings indoor and outdoor spaces in deep heart of Jeddah
to turn the area into cultural and public hub, as result it will maintain the touristic
approach
so because Jeddah is the gate to Mecca and medina we could take advantage of the
futuristic transportation of trains and busses to provide for the visitors tours to attract the
people to know more about the history and traditions and "specialize "to explore the
historical events were happen inside Jeddah, Mecca and medina and in the shore of
Jeddah with diving, beach activities in general without forgetting the social attraction
activities , sense of belongings feel and the economic factors inside the building to
interest the visitor. "Design for the people & engage the local community"

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OBJECTIVES:

Objectives of such project are usually focusing on the transportation and cultural
aspects, where it can be summarized into three points of:

It reflects the importance of providing access for visitor to culture and also
interpreting it in ways that are usable for visitor.

Its holistic, and captures the full scope of activities and interests as festivals
that might be pursued by tourists in this area.

Trips and participating in cultural events and activities that keeping travel
plans or itinerary.

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Conceptual philosophy
Tourist attraction
area
Sense of
ownership
and
responsibility
community

Community
development

Improve all
livability
Local, visitors
and pass
tourist

Interaction
between
individual
&community

Existing historical
heritage
Giving our
citizen sense
of belonging

Existing Archeological sites

Urban
selfawareness
Celebration
of public
Increase
educational

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VISION OF THE PROJECT

cooperation between the community in different cultural activities for all users
and visitors with busses stops spreading in specific areas to be a functional
framework active rather than passive leads to platform identity & significance
results in public realm to understand the spirit of the culture and social approach
and it developed to turn the area into cultural and public hub.

Figure: 2 sketch shown bus stop station

Figure: 1-sketch shown open up plaza

LITERATURE REVIEW

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What is the role of cultural tourism in delivering on our community


and tourism agenda?

How can Jeddah support other stakeholders and industry the cultural tourism to
deliver the message to our community traditions and heritage?

What are the priorities elements or components for delivering the role of
community development?

Which area of cultural tourism represent the best opportunities for sustainable
growth?
Jeddah is considered an open air museum for the generations. It contains heritage
that tells the history of Jeddah. It is located in the city center and comprises a
plenty of historical places. Because of its location, it was considered as a port for
Makah to receive the provinces traders and visitors of all nationalities. A major
landmark is the Jeddah Wall, built to protect it against outside attacks. Also, there
are inner districts that tell the story of a beautiful past in addition to several
historical mosques and markets still visited by locals today.
Visitor and cultural center of Jeddah heritage will provide two aspects:

First, the tours and trips organization that will be held aims to raise awareness among
new generations about the citys former glory, adding that exclusive entertainment
programs planned for children. These trips will be in different site to tell a different story
for each place. These places will be:

Jeddah: Albalad downtown Jeddah and the futuristic project the heart of Jeddah.

Figure: 3 albald residential buildings

Figure: 4 eid and Ramadan festivals

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Mecca: Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, trips could be held
in mountain cave of Hira on Jabal al-Nour,and memories the people about the
histories and battles as the Battle of Bad rand Battle of Uhud .

Figure: 5 -Mount Uhud

Figure: 6 -Makah Al
Mukarrammah seen from
Jabal al-Nour

Figure: 7 -The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting the


Masjid al-Haram, but mainly camping in Mina and
Arafah.

Medina: prophet Muhammad's peace upon him arrivals and The Battle of the Trench

F
Figure: 8-Historic Medina

figure: 9-The Quba


Mosque is the first
mosque in history built by
Muhammad upon arrival
in Medina

Figure: 10-Masjid Nabawi at sunset

Second aspect, which is the cultural aspect that will be held the events and
festivals arrangements all over the year as:
Sami Nawar, supervisor of heritage sites and a spokesman at the Jeddah
Municipality, said that interest in preserving the architecture and heritage of Jeddah goes
far back as 1980. There is now a plan in place to renovate 34 historical buildings out of
a total of 557 sites, he explained, Jeddah heritage tourism event festival entitled Hayya
Jeddah.
The 10-day heritage festival gains significance the supreme committee of the festival.
He said such a festival would mark a milestone in the citys tourism sector and would
greatly contribute to boosting the economy be held across various sites based on the
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historic importance of the location.


He further explained that 90 percent of activities at the festival will based on Hejaz
heritage, which dates back 2,600 years, and will be centered in the historic downtown
area, known in Arabic as the balad. More than 5,000 visitors are expected to attend the
festival. On the other hand, Kona keda is another festivals arrangements which sponsored
by al-ahli, bank, afia oil, rabeeh tea, goody and others. This festival holds in different
timing festivals such as Ramadan and eid alfitr. which the rights associated with its past
or feel nostalgic to live in a time tells him about his parents and grandparents in Jeddah is
the country is the date on which the beloved sons of the bride and visitors to this came the
idea of launching a new effective entitled "Historical Ramadan," the nights of Ramadan
live atmosphere religious and Organize the region befitting Jeddah are not limited as it is
on the stalls liver and wetlands and adds to the atmosphere of a beautiful area Ramadan
search for as long as many people and revive the customs and traditions ceased to exist in
the momentum of the changes that have affected our society.

Figure: 11-Konna keda in al balad festivals.

The central square in Covent Garden is simply called "Covent Garden", often marketed
as "Covent Garden Piazza" to distinguish it from the eponymous surrounding area. The
Covent Garden area has long been associated with both entertainment and shopping, and
this continues. There are street performances at Covent Garden Market every day of the
year, except Christmas Day. Shows run throughout the day and are about 30 minutes in
length. It is associated with the former fruit and vegetable market in the central square,
now a popular shopping and tourist site, and the Royal Opera House, which is also
known as "Covent Garden".

Figure: 12-Covent garden

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Visitor centers provides tourists, market towns and cities, and historical heritage sites.
Visitor centers are a vital component in providing access to these resources. Tourism
industry must accommodate rising expectations as to what an attraction should offer.
The public now expects a higher level of service and information and retail opportunities
than it did, as well as improved access through IT and facilities for less mobile visitors.
Modern visitor centers must provide all this in an architecturally interesting and
environmentally sensitive package.
Visitor centers act either as a portal to an attraction, providing information about, and
context for, it and the surrounding area, or as a substitute to the attraction, which makes it
particularly sensitive to damage from visitor traffic.
Visitor centers are microcosms of mixed-use developments. If targeted appropriately,
they can complement the attraction and increase tourist trade.
The center can have the following functions:
Promotion. Raising awareness of the location and attraction
Orientation of visitors around the location
Filtering of visitor traffic through the building and to the main attraction
Interpretation. Educating visitors about the location and attraction
Substitution. Acting as the public face of a location that may be inaccessible
owing to the fragility of the attraction.
The significance of each of these functions will define the buildings design, for instance
Orientation and filtering affect the layout of the entrance foyer
Priority of each of these functions and help the design team understand on what the
design should be focused. The design should not only detail the visitor center layout but
its interaction with the attraction and the nature of the interpretation (of which more
lately). This can include proposed paths around the attraction and good places to view it.
Where a center is to serve a substitute function, greater attention needs to be paid to the
overall experience and can result in a larger center.
The majority of centers are free to enter and rely on their facilities to generate income.
Funding may be provided, as well as the local community and visitors to the attraction.
Examples of potential revenue streams include: car park charges, entry charges to the
attraction spaces such as museums, catering, shops and sponsored displays.
Planning issues affect a visitor center largely depend on the location and type of
attraction. Its location will be sensitive, especially if it is environmentally fragile or has a
heritage designation. As such, the planning application and programmer of works need to
account for these factors.

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If the visitor center is to act as gateway, the communities department, in its Good Practice
Guide on Planning for Tourism states that for visitor centers, local authority planning
departments should consider:

locating them close to transport infrastructure


establishing a visitor management program
Prove the development will protect or improve the attraction
Prove it will have a positive impacts on the viability and vitality of local
communities
Interpretation, as defined by the Association of Heritage Interpretation, enriches
lives through engaging emotions, enhancing experiences and deepening
understanding of people, places, events and objects from the past and present.
The purpose of a visitor center is to offer the activities and information that
provide a context and narrative for tourists to engage with the attraction and the
local community. Visitor centers also serve a broader civic function by their
contribution to their surroundings, either as a focal point or by complementing or
contrasting with neighboring buildings.
An interpretive theme is developed for the visitor center, derived from the
attraction, which lays out what visitors will learn, how they will feel and how they
will be encouraged to behave. In the case of a rural setting, it might be a particular
vista or wildlife habitat, whereas in the case of a heritage building (normally
located in an urban context) it might be a particular event or person in the
buildings history that informs the theme.
Whatever the inspiration for the theme, it will influence a wide variety of the
visitor centers design elements, ranging from its informatics such as signage
through displays in the exhibition to publications.
The architecture of the building is one further medium in which this theme can be
expressed.

The relationship of the building to its site varies enormously from project to project.
Often, this relationship, and the theme, is the main factors that affect the form. Other
variables include:

The clients vision, for example, sustainability, requirements for a landmark,


Commitment to quality
Type of attraction the visitor center is associated with
Core function and ancillary facilities as stated in the brief
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the architects design language


Context and sensitivity in the use of materials and form to relate to surroundings
Opportunities to create a visual or spatial statement
Physical and practical limitations of existing building
Planning restrictions.

Visitor centers have to be landmarks in their own right, and can either contrast with or
complement the attraction. In a rural setting, this can be achieved by using indigenous
materials or, instead, modern materials to heighten the contrast. In an urban context, a
landmark building can make the attraction easier to distinguish and find. This can also be
achieved by locating the building on a main access route or near the car park.
In rural settings, a particular visitor experience, such as bird-watching, may need to be
catered for in the height or orientation of the building.
Where the visitor center supports a heritage building, architectural detailing inspired by
the main attraction can be used in the new building.
For example, materials or methods which echo historic design styles or construction
techniques. However, this approach can contribute to an increase in costs if bespoke
interface connections, high-quality materials and specialized techniques are used.

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2. Case Studies
To enjoy breathtaking trips across Saudi Arabia, contact a specialized tour operator
available in all Saudi cities. All you have to do is select your city of destination and call a
tour operator there. There are no places in Jeddah to have interaction with visitors except
for Saudi Tourism an Enriching Experience web site which has tours operators as groups
guide and contacts numbers.
Searching on case studies around the world will show the architectural and the cultural
factors only; it will raise the standards of how animals should be treated. Considering
your own culture or religion in such a case is fine, but exploring the world is even better.
The examples discussed in this research internationally shows how the culture in each
city.

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Museum of the Built Environment


The King Abdullah Financial District (KAFD) is a new 55-million-square-foot mixed-use
urban community in Riyadh. Among its public buildings under construction is
FXFOWLE Architects Museum of the Built Environment (MOBE), which explores the
role of social, economic, and environmental issues in the development of the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia and the larger region. The museum will exhibit works related to the history
of the arts and architecture on the Arabian peninsula, as well as document trends in
sustainable thinking and their role in the future of the built environment. The museum
puts the traditionally private culture of Saudi Arabia on display, creating a building for
residents and visitors.

Figure: 13-MOBE perspective view

The design principles of MOBE are bound with the planning of KAFD as a whole. A
sunken wadi a dry desert riverbed that becomes wet during heavy rains runs through
the development, bisecting the museums site, a large plaza. Central to the inhabitation of
the desert, a wadi allows limited agriculture in a severe environment. At KAFD, the wadi
has been transformed into a linear pedestrian park that connects key buildings: Madin
Slih and At-Turaif, two Saudi Arabian UNESCO World Heritage sites that inspired
FXFOWLEs design. The juxtaposition of worked stone and natural rock, formed by
erosion and other geologic processes, is echoed in a dynamic carved volume that nestles
around the artificial topography of the wadi.

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Figure: 14-MOBE site plane view

The museum is situated on a large plaza bisected by a sunken Wadi, a pedestrian park
that flows through the KAFD development. Varied program elements include a series of
public spaces, permanent and temporary galleries, research, archival areas and
workshops, a 150-seat auditorium, street and wadi level retail supporting museum
activities, a destination restaurant with an outdoor terrace, administrative offices, a VIP
Lounge, and underground parking. It also houses a monorail station at its +2 level and
provides connections to neighboring parcels through a site-wide network of public
skywalks at the + 1 level. Program organization and adjacencies are designed to draw the
public into the building, perpetuating constant activity within the space at all times,
resulting in stark divisions between public and private spaces. Streamlined divisions and
transitions between the museum and the rest of the building are managed through vertical
elevator systems as well as easily accessible program layouts, and efficiency among
program components.

Figure: 15-MOBE interior perspective view

The structural concept is a hybrid use of cast-in-place concrete on the lower levels with
structural steel framing on the upper levels to reduce column requirements. The nature of
the site will require the design to carefully consider and address and number of important
orientations and approaches. Making connections and facilitating movement while
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creating moments of pause and contemplation help set the tone of the structure. The
overall performance is optimized by shaping the building form and envelope by
incorporating solar shading and self-shading in the faade. The highly insulated building
envelope, high performance HVAC system, LED and automated lighting systems with
mechanical shading devices, rain water collection are a few of the key features in
addition to open planning and connecting stairs to activate spaces and create a better
internal environment.

Figure: 16-MOBE model view

After exploring a number of ideas, we developed the formal visual concept of erosion and
chiseled rock creating a dynamic carved volume that nestles around the artificial
topography of the Wadi. Programmatic distribution is also expressed in the massing by
creating greater solidity and opacity on the museums upper levels while maintaining
transparency on the lower public levels. The upper level facade is made of prismatic
laminated glass panels creating a varied textural quality and allowing daylight to
penetrate at select controlled locations while reducing heat gain. This strategy borrows
from traditional methods of sustainability but interprets them in a contemporary manner
responding to the particular climate and culture. Small triangular apertures in the gallery
spaces also emit light, and the resulting facades are unique and specific to the museum.

Figure: 17-MOBE sections view

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The interior circulation is clear despite the intricate arrangement of program elements.
Visual cues draw visitors into the site and through the building. A large interior atrium,
publicly accessible and open around the clock, connects to parking, monorail, and
skywalk. Half interior and half exterior, the atrium marks a bridge over the wadi; it also
links levels within the museum. Museum administration and support are located at grade
and a level above. The exhibition areas and restaurant are on the upper floors,
encouraging visitors to tour the entire building. Elevators manage vertical movement
between museum spaces; horizontal circulation is organized by virtue of proximities
between similar program components. Staircases traverse the interior of the museum,
providing access to the lobby, exhibition spaces, and transportation. The elliptical
auditorium, wrapped in rapidly renewable woods, floats independently in the atrium.

Figure: 18-MOBE plans view

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Integrated passive and active strategies maximize sustainability. We used building


performance modeling to help shape the building envelope and to incorporate solar
shading. Along with the reflective, highly insulated building envelope, advanced HVAC
systems reduce energy use. Other energy-saving components include LED lighting,
automated lighting systems, and mechanical shading devices. Rainwater is collected and
gray water is treated on site. Open offices and internal stairs encourage active work
spaces and better internal environments. Sky gardens bring the landscape into the
architecture.
In the end, our greatest design goal has been to acknowledge, respect, and expand upon
the rich cultural history of Riyadh and the surrounding peninsula. Much of the inspiration
for the museum derived from the Saudi Arabian world heritage sites of Madain Saleh and
At-Turaif, and in homage to this legacy, the museum itself will serve as a symbolic
interpretation of the regions longstanding commitment to the arts as well as an
examination on how past and present trends in sustainable thinking are shaping the future
of the built environment.

Area distribution
%15

%20

%5
%5
%15

10%
8%

12%
%10

large plaza &pedestrian park

galleries

archival and workshops

auditorium

retail shops

out door resturant

administrative office

circulation

monorail station

Figure: 1-area distribution chart

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King Abdul-Aziz Centre for World Culture

Figure: 19-king Abdul Aziz center for world culture

Architecture, Landscape and Interior


2007 Expected 2015
Location Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
Typology Cultural Centre
Client

Saudi Aramco

Status

Under Construction, Expected Completion 2015

Size

100,000 m

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Figure: 20-king Abdul Aziz center for world culture

The King Abdul-Aziz Center for World Culture is a bold new initiative on the part of the
Saudi Aramco Oil Company to promote cultural development within the Kingdom.
Following an invited architectural design competition in 2007, Snhetta was selected to
design this new prestigious cultural facility. Located in Dhahran in the Eastern Province
the Cultural Center will provide for a wide range of activities serving the local population
and becoming a cultural landmark on both a regional, national and global horizon. When
completed, the project will contain diverse cultural facilities, including an auditorium,
cinema, library, exhibition hall, museum and archive. The auditorium will seat 930
visitors and will provide for a wide range of events ranging from opera, symphony
concerts, musicals and lectures etc. Together with the smaller cinema, this will be an
unrivalled venue for the performing arts in the Kingdom. The library will become a
center of learning containing some 200,000 books on open access and catering for all
ages and categories of users. The great exhibition hall will accommodate large scale
travelling exhibitions, as well as providing the setting for social events, banquets and
conferences. The museum and archive facilities connect the vibrant cultural life of the
center to the past and to the very roots of the society from which this center is conceived.

Figure: 21-interior shots of king Abdul Aziz center for world culture

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Figure: 22-plans and perspectives of King Abdul Aziz center for world culture

On May 20, 2008, the foundation stone was laid by King Abdullah; the Cultural Center is
expected to be completed in 2015.
An ellipsoidal road surrounds the project and creates a common boundary for the two
contrasting landscape features, the Lush Garden and the Mon surface.

Figure: 23- perspectives of King Abdul Aziz center for world culture

Figure: 24-sketch perspectives of King Abdul Aziz center for world culture

A longitudinal section from the early design stage shows the powerful condition of the
keystone arrangement. The main stone is seen to be suspended within the public areas
below ground while the remaining elements reinforce this event.

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Figure: 25-perspectives of King Abdul Aziz center for world culture

The museum spaces are organized around the central light. This is both a source of
daylight, penetrating deep into the space, but also a source of inspiration for the
Architecture and content of this building.

Area
proportion

%8

%4

%11
%15

20%

22%

%8
%12

auditorium

library

exhibition

museum

archive

outdoor and circulation

caf

gift shop

Figure: 2-area distribution chart

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Harbin Cultural Center

Figure: 26-Harbin cultural

Architects: MAD Architects


Location: Harbin Xian fang Cultural Center, Zhejiang Road, Xian fang,
Haerbin, Heilongjiang, China, 150090
Directors: Ma Yansong, Dang Qun, Yosuke Hayano
Area: 1,800,000 sq. m
Year: 2014
Photographs: Courtesy of MAD Architects.

Harbin Cultural Island is located in the natural landscape of the riverside


wetland north of Songhua River. The entire project covers an area of 1.8
square kilometers, with a construction area of 79,000 square meters. It is part
of the development north of Sun Island, which is an important natural habitat
in the north. In February 2010, MAD won the competition to design the
cultural center on the island. The entire building is expected to be completed
in 2014 when the Harbin July summer concert will be held.

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Figure: 27-Harbin cultural exterior perspectives

Influenced by both Chinese and Russian culture, Harbin is reputed as the music capital of
the north. Different from other theater buildings that are normally located in the urban
center, Harbin Grand Theater will not act as an isolated landmark for the city, but the
natural continuation of the human spirit. Apart from regional protection and utilization of
the wetland ecosystem, Harbin Theater, Harbin Labor Recreation Center, Harbin Great
Square and the Wetland Park together compose the Harbin Cultural Island, to join
culture, art and nature in an integrated environment.

Figure: 28-Harbin cultural interior perspectives

Surrounded by rivers, the Cultural Island embraces the wide riverbank as its background
appearing as a glacier stretching and connecting to each other into a cohesive whole. The
main entrance mimics a jade belt bridge spanning the wetlands and connecting the city
And the cultural center together. The movement of the terrain strategically directs the
flow of people from different directions to the entrance of Harbin Theater and Harbin
Labor Recreation Center. The external ramp of the Grand Theater, resembling a mountain
path formed by gusting winds, guides people from the interior to the exterior. Walking
along the landscape passage, visitors are able to appreciate the surrounding cultural and
natural landscape. Atop the highest point of these buildings, visitors are able to enjoy a
Panoramic view of the surrounding scenery as if they are on top of a mountain.

31 | P a g e

Figure: 29-Harbin cultural interior perspectives

The grand theatre takes the natural beauty of the north as its premise. In an attempt to
reduce such a large volume, the architectural form is a continuation of the natural
environment as it becomes part of the landscape. The entire building acts as an
undulating snow covered mountain, following a natural rhythm.
The cladding of the building is custom-made pure white aluminium. White stone and
concrete are also used as part of the wall, introducing a pure feeling as ice and snow. The
skylight above of the auditorium utilizes natural daylight. During the day, the need for
interior lighting can be completely satisfied with energy-saving and special lighting
effects. The Grand Theatre is made up of two different sized theatres. The larger theatre
can accommodate up to 1,600 guests and it is formed with lower level stalls and a twofloor gallery. The interior space uses a large amount of wood to provide the best possible
acoustical effects for the Performance Hall of the Grand Theatre. Also, the wood and the
white wall form a balanced contrast between warm and cold colors, resembling the
unique warm atmosphere of mountain huts.

Figure: 30-Harbin cultural site plan perspectives

The stage design for the theatre is not only suitable for western opera and modern drama
performances, but also meets the requirement of traditional Chinese theatre plays. The
acoustics and lighting design provide a high level of performance for the various venues
in the theatre. Covered by curved acrylic lamps, the second floor VIP lounge appears as a
glowing clear crystal floating in the theatre. The standardized stage is equipped with a
versatile orchestral pit, designed to meet large-scale performances of Opera, Ballet and
other various needs.

32 | P a g e

Figure: 31-Harbin cultural site plan perspectives

The 400 seat small theatre that connects with the larger theatre serves as the venue for
small drama performances, chamber music, and operas. The design of the backstage
curtain allows the stage to expand like a wide screen with natural landscape in the
background integrating the indoor and outdoor view. The outdoor water section can also
be used as an outdoor auditorium, therefore when the curtain opens, it becomes a
panoramic arena with unobstructed views. This ingenious design creates a great space
and a delicate dramatic effect for the Grand Theatre to adapt to the innovation and
changes of the modern theatre art.

Figure: 32-Harbin cultural floor plans

The art center demonstrates the rich scale of the city, the nature and the people. It
encourages the publicity and mass participation of Harbins art and culture activities.
People can get a different sensory experience from different distances. The huge manmade lake between the Grand Theatre and the Culture and Art Centre contrasts the
building with a long landscape bridge wedged in-between to form a Buddhist concept of
Void.

33 | P a g e

Figure: 33-Harbin cultural sections 1

Figure: 33-Harbin cultural sections 2

Figure: 33-Harbin cultural sections 3

Along the landscape bridge, visitors can reach the Labour Recreation Centre west of the
Great Square. With a construction area of 41,000 square meters, this building is a
comprehensive building complementing the Grand Theatre. Its functions include staff
training, conferences, cultural education, exhibitions, hotel and catering space. These
facilities will provide a diversified space for visitors, spectators and the staff. The
boundary of the Cultural Centre interconnects with the river bank and wetland, blurring
the boundaries of the natural and the artificial. Open spaces like ramps, bridges, sky
terrace and squares bridge the distance between man and nature.

34 | P a g e

From the designs initial startup in 2010 to August 2013, the overall structure of the
Cultural Centre was completed and the entire project began to take shape. In the coming
year, the building faade, the interior design and landscape design will be finished. This
new cultural island in Harbin is emerging to facilitate the blend of humanity, art and
nature in the north and it will become the center of this citys spirit.

Area distribution
%9

%4

%4
%22

%4
5%
10%

12%
7%
%4
%5

%13

theater

labor recreation center

outdoor landscape

auditorium

gallery

VIP lounge

culture and art center

exhibition

cultural education space

administrative office

hotel

parking area

Figure: 3-area distribution chart

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Visitors' center for the wetlands in Suncheon in Korea

Architect: G.Lab* by Gansam Architects & Associates


Location: 540 Ochon Dong Suncheon City, Jeonnam Province, South Korea
Project Architect: Chuloh Jung
Design team: Dae Hyun Im, Sang Hyun Son, Daniel Da Rocha, Tana Hovland,
Alex Cornelius, Lawrence Ha, Lyla Wu
Client: Republic of Korea
Site Area: 33,000 sq.
Building Area: 8,300 sq.
Competition Year: 2009
Images: G.Lab*
Suncheon is one of the 5th largest tidal flats in the world, making it an
international wetland that attracts approximately 2.8 million visitors in 2008. The
methodology for this design began with the concept of leading visitors through
the wetlands to the Suncheon Bay. The imprint of the receding tide water
becomes the concept for this design.

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The visitors center is placed at the Northeast corner of the site, identified with
meandering pathways which encourage and direct visitors to experience the wetlands and
outdoor exhibitions. The choreography of these pathways allows visitors to experience
the topographical change of the site from forest to wetland. The placement of the building
maximizes both the picturesque views to the mountains beyond and to the river, creating
a visual continuation of both the waters path and visitors circulation.

The buildings and pathways are designed to minimally affect the natural order of the
protected wetland. Recesses in the pathways around the building allow for the wetland to
continue under the structures. Building functions are separated into distinctly different
envelops to allow for greater climactic control and lessen the overall energy usage. The
green roof continues the language of the mountains beyond, allowing the gallery interior
unobstructed views to nature.

Figure: 34-Harbin cultural plans 1.2.3

1.

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2.
Figure: 35-Harbin cultural sections 1.2.

The wooden faade is intended to minimize summer sun exposure, maximize potential
winter day lighting and blend with the surrounding woodland to the north. Framed views
from the gallery through these wooden slats capture light and help set the mood for this
visitors center.

Figure: 36-Harbin cultural interior shot

Providing connectivity to the 2013 garden expo, and the greater city of Suncheon, this
design intends to reconnect visitors to nature and a network of facilities designed to teach
about wetland preservation.

Figure: 37-Harbin cultural perspectives

38 | P a g e

Area distribution

%20
%30

%10
%10
%15
%15
Galleries

info center

theater

auditorium

landscape

library

Figure: 4-area distribution chart

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Asakusa Culture and Tourism Center

Architects: Kengo Kuma & Associates


Location: Asakusa, Taito, Tokyo, Japan
Design Team: Kengo Kuma, Teppei Fujiwara, Masafumi Harigai, Okayama Naoki,
Kiyoaki Takeda, Masaru Shuku, Erina Kuryu, Hiroaki Saito
Project Year: 2012
Photographs: Takeshi Yamagishi
Project Area: 234.13 sq. meter
Site Area: 326.23 sq.meter
This visitor center in Tokyo by Japanese architects Kengo Kuma and Associates looks
like a stack of smaller buildings with sloping roofs. Named the Asakusa Culture Tourist
Information Center, the building is located near the outer gate to ancient Buddhist
temple Sens-ji, which was constructed in the sixth century and is the oldest of its kind in
the city.

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Figure: 38.divded tower plan

Horizontal slices divide the tower's eight main storeys, creating sloping ceilings
in conference rooms and an exhibition space, as well as a tiered floor inside the multipurpose hall.
Wooden louvers shade each of the four glass elevations and are spaced differently
depending on the shade and privacy required by the rooms inside. Surfaces inside the
building are also timber-clad and balconies are located on two of the upper floors.

Figure: 39.interior shots

In the corner premise of just 326sqm across Kaminari-mon Gate, the building was
required to accommodate plural programs such as tourist information center, conference
room, multi-purpose hall and an exhibition space.
The center extends Asakusas lively neighborhood vertically and piles up roofs that wrap
different activities underneath, creating a new section which had not existed in
conventional layered architecture.
Equipment are stored in the diagonally shaped spaces born between the roof and the floor, and by
this treatment we could secure large air volume despite its just average height for high-and
medium-rise buildings.

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Furthermore, the roofs not only divide the structure into 8 one-storied houses
but also determine the role of each floor.

Figure: 40.plans floors 1.basements floors


2. Floors plans
3. Roof plan

First and second floor has an atrium and in-door stairs, creating a sequence from which
you can feel the slope of the two roofs.
On 6th floor, taking advantage of the slanted roof, we were able to set up a terraced floor
with which the entire room can function as a theater.

Figure: 41.sections view 1.2.

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As angles of the roofs inclined toward Kaminari-mon and the heights from the ground
vary from floor to floor, each floor relates differently to the outside, giving a unique
character to each space.
administrative services
office
5%
5%
caf and lounge
5%

exhibition
20%

theater
10%

conference room
15%

multi -purpose hall


25%
tourist info center
15%
Figure: 5-area distribution chart

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Inspiration project/ Bawabah Mecca

is a futuristic project which has the important elements that shows the Arabic identity and
graphical sculptures. These elements must be taken under consideration and make it first
of our priorities to sense community of belonging space.

Figure: 42.bwabaha Mecca view perspectives

Souq Waqif
Is a traditional market is one of the most important landmarks in the city of Doha.
Combines market between tradition and originality, and between modern civilization, the
most famous tourist and heritage teacher meant tourists and citizens. The market is
famous for selling traditional crafts and eats the food and the Arab World and the
popular.

44 | P a g e

Figure: 43.souq waqef view perspectives

Islamic Religious and Cultural Center in Ljubljana

45 | P a g e

Figure: 44. Islamic Religious and Cultural Center view perspectives

Jenadriah Heritage & Cultural Festival

Figure: 45-aljenadriah social attractions

These festival includes almost every aspect of Saudi culture. Artisans, such as potters,
woodworkers and weavers, demonstrate their traditional crafts in small shops with typical
palm-frond-roofed porches. Visitors can also stroll through the past in a heritage village,
which resides permanently in Jenadriyah.
At these exhibits one may watch a metal smith fashion a traditional brass and copper
coffee pot. A wood carver slowly transforms a piece of wood into a saddle frame. Basket
makers weave palm fronds and straw into hats, baskets and containers decorated with
46 | P a g e

Colorful designs. A potter using a foot-powered wheel shapes clay into bowls and
water jars. Leather is cut and shaped into sandals, pouches and bags. Large planks are
cut and fashioned into doors and windows that have intricate carvings and inlays.
Blacksmiths heat chunks of iron in a furnace and hammer them into gleaming swords and
daggers. Tailor hand-sewn golden threads into the collar of a mans cloak. Jewelers fuse
precious metals and mount semi-precious stones to make intricate bracelets, necklaces
and earrings. Craftsman put together ingenious wooden pulleys used in the old days to
laboriously draw water from wells for irrigating crops.
In addition, folklore troupes perform the ardha and other national dances, while singers
from around the Kingdom perform traditional songs and music. Literary figures from
across the country participate in poetry competitions between contemporary poets
reciting historic verses.

Conclusion
9%
5%

15%

4%
4%
5%

20%

5%
15%

10%

5%

22%

8%
12%

13%

7%

5%

5%
15%

20%

10%

4%
5%

10%

4%
11%
8%

22%

12%

12%
8%

4%

20%

10%
15%

25%
15%

47 | P a g e

Area distribution

%20%30
%10
%15%10
%15
Galleries

info center

theater

auditorium

Landscape

library

Figure: 6-final conclusion of area distribution charts

From the previous projects and inspirations we could take advantage of the
environmental, industrial, and social factors, respect the identical elements and lead us to
implement the program design and project.

Chapter 3

PROGRAM ASSUMPTION

The number of visitors to the center and the theme of the attraction defines the floor area
and arrangement. The drivers of visitor numbers are the location of the attraction, its
nature and market position and its long-term development strategy.
Estimating annual visitor numbers, particularly for new attractions is difficult. It is
possible to use data from similar centers where the attraction, existing infrastructure and
demographics are comparable. Alternatively, market research can be performed to
establish potential numbers. The aim of research is to establish the peak day (maximum
number of visitors on the busiest day of the year) and design day (average number of
visitors per day on the 20 busiest days) of visitors.
The center is sized for the maximum number of visitors the center needs to manage
during peak periods. The Architectural Press Metric Handbook Planning & Design
Data provides details of the suggested space allocations required for a variety of
buildings.

48 | P a g e

Although it does not include specific data for visitor centers, guidance for galleries and
museums provides an indication of the space allocations required per person (see table
below).
These allowances are used in conjunction with the number of visitors predicted for the
peak design hour to calculate the area that should be allocated to that particular function.
Finally, additional functional space will be required, including administration,
accommodation, storage and maintenance space and staff facilities.
The location of the facilities in relation to each other creates the visitors journey. The
entrance foyer, exhibition space and toilets are normally placed at the start of the journey
or front of the center, whereas the retail area is located after the exhibition space.
Catering facilities can be located at either end of the exhibition space and it can be
supplemented with an open terrace.

Main components
Entrance foyer. The main purpose of the foyer is the orientation and filtering of
visitors as they enter. Particular attention should be paid to its position and relationship to
other areas, particularly the arrival facilities which might include: ticket stations,
information desk and terminals, and the toilets.
The layout of the entrance foyer should be such that users do not need to resort to signage
as their main means of navigation.
Finally, it may be worth considering allocating space for coach parties to congregate
upon arrival that does not obstruct the entrance or overload the ticketing facility.
Exhibition design and gallery.
The exhibition will be largely informed by the interpretation process, with promotion
being a by-product. Wherever possible, the interpretative designer should be part of the
project team right from the stage to ensure that features that support the interpretive
objectives of the center are an integral part of the overall design. Design principles for
interpretation are based on an understanding of how people behave and learn in informal
settings. They aim to ensure that interpretation is physically and intellectually accessible
and sympathetic to the surroundings.
With regards to the planning of exhibitions, research has shown that visitors spend more
time at the first exhibit than at the end. The exhibition space needs a suitable allowance
for this and should avoid lengthy introduction texts or video displays of set duration that
can act as a bottleneck.

49 | P a g e

Exhibition could show the exchanging cultural arts and heritage for different countries
and Jeddah on the other side.
Artists that produce traditional hand crafts or other could rely on galleries and other
public spaces to display and sell their arts.
Classes and workshops
Classes and workshops to implement and teach the people how to work with hand
crafts and traditional games and other materials, including educational events, and
training sessions.
Cafe and restaurant. The cafes menu has an impact on the turnover of visitors,
As different food offerings have different dwell times.

Bookstore and gifts shop.

Plaza "social activities"


Gallery and exhibit space can benefit the cultural center; however by increasing
public use of the facilities in an opening area .serving the community also help the
proposed cultural center gain contributions from supporters of cultural traditional
arts. With meeting and gathering events and award ceremonies, rental space and
various are performing happening every week similar functions.
With regards to the retail offering, sufficient space needs to be allowed for circulation
and product displays. Additionally, stock storage, till space and a secure office need to be
considered.
Program methodology

Analyzing the case studies major zones of the project could be estimated with its
approximate percentage or approximate capacity of each one.
From the survey result the major demand component is the (Entertainment) area.
Then I started to detail each zone to different functions with its spaces according
to the standards and regulations.
The impact of crowd density

The impact of crowd density (the number of people per square meter) for a standing
crowd and a moving crowd is important to understand for crowd safety. For example, to
assess the efficiency of crowd movement, throughput and rates of fill for places of public
50 | P a g e

Assembly you need to understand the relative risks of both standing crowd density and
the moving crowd density. The diagrams below illustrate the standing density in people
per square meter.
1 person per square meter. Above the image is created with one person in each square,
below 1 person per square meter but with random distribution (2 people in one square
and 0 persons in the fourth). Both of these images represent 1 person per square meter
packing density. Crowds rarely pack in regular formation.

1 person per square meter

1.5 people per square meter

2 people per square meter

2.5 people per square meter

Figure: 46-shown 1 person per square meter

Below is a 100 square meter space with packing increasing from 1 person per square
meter to 10 people per square meter. This serves to illustrate how the crowd may look in
low risk and high risk situations. The safety limits for events are typically assessed at 2
people per square meter (UK Event Guidance). For a moving queuing system the
guidance states 4 people per square meter. The guidance (UK Green Guide - Guide to
Safety at Sports Grounds) states 4.7 people per square meter for standing viewing areas,
but fails to highlight that the demographics (individual sizes) need to be factored into the
density analysis.

51 | P a g e

Figure: 47 10 people per square meter. Above 5 the RISK of trips, slips or falls increases significantly.

Figure: 48Image from the 3D crowd visualize of 2 people per square meter

From the previous study we could figure out that we should take in consideration the
population density and the maximum number of visitors of active place as our project
with festival and plaza area.
Here is the study shown the population density in Jeddah and reasons of staying during
vacations and several events without forgetting the transportation they were used.

52 | P a g e

Jeddah population density

Table 1: reasons of visitors of Jeddah

Table 2: number of visitors of Jeddah

Table 3: way of transportation of Jeddah

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Table 4: variation of visitors of Jeddah

As we saw in the previous study we took in consideration the maximum number of


visitors in the festival during the seasons and the regularly week day base.
we assumption that the maximum number of visitor could be 3000 max visitor number
during the seasons and 600 person during the weekends festivals and 120 persons during
the week day..

Building type of recommendation:

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55 | P a g e

56 | P a g e

As we listed before the main components of the project are:


Exhibition and Gallery
Classes and workshops
Plaza ,temporary rental shops "social
activities
Cafe and restaurant
Book store and gifts shop
Administration & Staff
auditorium

15%
12%
20%
10%
8%
7%
10%

Table 5: lists of main components

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area distribution
Exhibition and Gallery
Classes and workshops
7%

10%

15%

10%

12%
8%

plaza and social


activities
Caf and restaurant

20%
Book store and Gifts
shop
Administration and
foyer entrance
auditorium

Chart 7: Main Components Percentage distribution

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this chart is shown the interests of audience as listed below:

Series 1
educational

Entartainment

Series 1

other

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

Chart 8: study shown entertainment has the highest percentage

After we determined the main functions and distributions now we know the capacity of
the areas had been calculated according the standards as following:
Program assumptions:
Program elements include recommended area requirements. This it intended to provide a
guide toward laying out the project. As designs develop, the areas are subject to change
out but should be within approximately 10% of recommendation.

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Room
/use

Area
per
pers
on

QTY.

Entrance Foyer
2
1
Info
desk
Tourist 2
4
guide
office
Drop in 1.25 1
lounge
Cafeter
ia

0.60

Female
/male
toilet

0.60

Sitting/
waiting
area
Manag
er
office
Manag
ers
toilet
Meetin
g room

1.00

1.00

1.00

2.75

Confer
ence
hall

0.6

cap
acit
y

Prop
osed
unit
area

Roo
m
heig
ht

Area

Total
area

Functio Act
n
ivit
y
leve
l

10

M2

--

20

20

service

++

10

M2

--

20

80

service

+++

6m2

750

750

++

3m2

600

600

Entranc
e/Waiti
ng area
service

++

3m2

50

100

service

++

M2

6m2

300

300

Adm.
space

++

M2

4m2

50

50

Adm.
space

M2

3m2

service

M2

4m2

55

110

Adm.
space

M2

6m2

60

60

Adm.
space

++

600 M2
pers
ons
100 M2
0
pers
ons
6
M2
Uni
t in
eac
h
300
pers
ons
1
pers
on
1
pers
on
20
pers
on
100
pers
ons

Publi
c
inter
actio
n

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Staffs
offices

1.00

Staffs
toilet

0.6

Securit
y room

0.6

Storage 3

6
pers
ons
3
unit
s
2
pers
ons
5
pers
ons

M2

3m2

20

120

Adm.
Space

M2

3m2

25

50

services

++

M2

3m2

15

15

Adm.
space

M2

3m2

15

15

service

Total
area

2259 m2

Table 6: Foyer entrance program

Room
/use

Area
per
perso
n

QTY. cap
acit
y

Auditorium components
-1
Back
stage/se
rvices
Audien 0.72
1
ce seat
VIP
0.8
1
seats
Recepti 1.25
1
on hall
Sound
hall
caf
Waitin
g area
storage

Prop
osed
unit
area

Roo
m
heig
ht

Area

Total
area

Functi
on

Act
ivit
y
leve
l

Publi
c
inter
actio
n

M2

6m2

373

373

service

+++

150
0
250

M2

--

1080

1080

+++

M2

4m2

200

200

+++

600

M2

4m2

750

750

service

+++

service

+++

H
H

+++
+++

+++

10

M2

6m2

30

30

0.60
0.8

1
1

750
200

M2
M2

6m2
3m2

450
160

450
160

M2

6m2

15

15

service

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Female
/male
toilet

0.60

M2

3m2

50

100

service

+++

Uni
t in
eac
h

total

3158

Table 7: Auditorium program

Room
/use

Area
per
perso
n

QTY. cap
acit
y

Classes and Workshops


Info
2
1
desk
Multip
6
4
urpose
hall
Work
5.17
4
shop
storage 3
1
Female
/male
toilet

0.60

Prop
osed
unit
area

Roo
m
heig
ht

Area

Total
area

Functi
on

Act
ivit
y
leve
l

Publi
c
inter
actio
n

10

M2

--

20

20

service

+++

100

M2

--

600

2400

service

+++

100

M2

4m2

517

2068

service

+++

M2

6m2

15

15

service

+++

M2

3m2

50

100

service

+++

Uni
t in
eac
h

total

4603

Table 8: Classes and workshops program

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Room
/use

Area
per
perso
n

QTY. cap
acit
y

Exhibitions and galleries


Info
2
1
10
desk
Exhibit
6
1
350
ion
Galleri
6
1
350
es
Tempo
rary
Gallery
storage
Female
/male
toilet

Prop
osed
unit
area

Roo
m
heig
ht

Area

Total
area

Functi
on

Act
ivit
y
leve
l

Publi
c
inter
actio
n

20

service

+++

M2

--

20

M2

--

1200

2100

service

+++

M2

4m2

1200

2100

service

+++

30

M2

6m2

105

105

service

+++

0.60

M2

3m2

50

100

service

+++

Uni
t in
eac
h

total

4425m2

Table 9: Exhibitions and galleries program

Room
/use

Area
per
pers
on

QTY.

cap
acit
y

Book store & Gift shop


2
1
10
Info
desk
Refere 4m2 1
30
nces/ar
chive
room
Photoc 2.8
2
5
opying
service

Prop
osed
unit
area

Roo
m
heig
ht

Area

Total
area

Functio Act
n
ivit
y
leve
l

Publi
c
inter
actio
n

M2

--

20

20

service

+++

M2

6m2

120

120

service

M2

--

14

28

service

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Coffee
shop
Study
room
Readin
g area
Media
room
IT
Service
s
Utilities
room
storage
Gift
shop
storage
Female
/male
toilet

3.6

100

M2

4m2

360

360

service

+++

2.5

M2

4m2

12.5

75

activity

+++

2.27

300

M2

6m2

681

681

activity

+++

40

M2

--

80

80

activity

+++

2.96

30

M3

--

88.8

88,8

service

2.1

20

M2

--

42

42

service

3
0.6

1
10

5
25

M2
M2

6m2
3m2

15
15

15
150

service
service

L
H

+
+++

3
0.60

1
2

5
6

M2
M2

6m2
3m2

15
50

15
100

service
service

H
H

+++
+++

Uni
t in
eac
h

Total
area

2572

Table 10: Book store and gift shop program

Room
/use

Area
per
perso
n

QTY. cap
acit
y

Restaurant and cafe


Food
2.5
1
corners
Food
1.5
1
corners
services

Prop
osed
unit
area

Roo
m
heig
ht

Area

Total
area

Functi
on

Act
ivit
y
leve
l

Publi
c
inter
actio
n

10

M2

--

1080

1080

service

+++

10

M2

4m2

200

200

service

+++

64 | P a g e

Eating
area

1.84

storage

Female
/male
toilet

0.60

1
1
2

600

M2

4m2

750

M2

6m2

15

M2

3m2

50

750
15
100

service

+++

service

+++

service

+++

Uni
t in
eac
h

total

2145

Table 11: Restaurant and cafe program

Room
/use

Area
per
perso
n

General Services
Clinic
Mosqu
e
ATM
machin
e
kitchen
ette

QTY. cap
acit
y

Prop
osed
unit
area

Roo
m
heig
ht

Area

Total
area

Functi
on

Act
ivit
y
leve
l

Publi
c
inter
actio
n

M2

--

40

40

service

++

200

M2

--

370

370

service

++

--

M2

4m2

1.68

5.04

service

++

--

M2

--

15

15

service

++

total

430.04

Table 12: General services program

65 | P a g e

Room
/use

Area
per
perso
n

QTY. capaci
ty

Main service and support


Main
---storage
Main
2
1
electric
al room
Main
6.6
1
plumbi
ng
room
Main
3
1
mechan
ical
room
Main
1
janitori
al room
WC
1
total

Pr
op
ose
d
un
it
ar
ea

Roo
m
heig
ht

M
2
M
2

---

Total
area

Functi
on

Act
ivit
y
leve
l

Publi
c
inter
actio
n

60

60

service

20

20

service

20

20

service

M
2

20

20

service

M
2

20

20

service

M
2

15

15

service

M
2

--

Area

155

Table 13: Main services and support program

66 | P a g e

Outdoors Activities

Room
/use

Area
per
perso
n

Pr
op
ose
d
un
it
ar
ea
Plaza and outdoors social activities
landsca
---M
2
pe
Tempo
2
1
600
M
rary
2
rental
shops
plaza
6.6
1
1150- M
1250
2
Parkin 25m2 600 600
M
car
2
g lot
Per
car
Busses 60m2
10
10
M
cars
2
stop
storage 3
1
5
M
2

Roo
m
heig
ht

Female
/male
toilet

0.60

QTY. capaci
ty

M
2

Area

Total
area

Functi
on

Act
ivit
y
leve
l

Publi
c
inter
actio
n

--

--

+++

--

--

--

1200

1200

service

+++

--

7500

7500

service

+++

--

25m2

15000

service

+++

--

600

600

service

+++

--

15

15

service

+++

--

50

100

service

+++

Unit in
each

total

8815

Table 14: Plaza and social activities program

67 | P a g e

Main spaces
2259
Foyer Entrance
3158
auditorium
Classes &workshops 4603
4425
Exhibition &
Gallery
2572
Book store &Gift
shop
2145
Restaurants and
Cafe
8815
Plaza "social
activity"
430.04
General Services
155
Main service and
support
Total
28,562.04 m2
+25%
35702.55 m2
Table 15: Main spaces program

Gross Area= 35702.55

68 | P a g e

Area distribution

8%

12% 15%
17%

10%
30%
8%

Exhibition and
Gallery
Classes and
workshops
plaza and social
activities
Caf and
restaurant
Book store and
Gifts shop
Administration and
foyer entrance
auditorium

Chart 9: study shown final main components percentage

Built area
19,162.04
total

Un built area
94,00.04

28,562.04

69 | P a g e

Built & unbuilt area

31%
Intdoor
Outdoor

69%

Chart 10: study shown outdoor and indoor percentage

Chapter 4/Site selection


After we developed the program assumption and approximate area of the building
site selection will be approved after we take the program and facilities
Surrounding under consideration.

70 | P a g e

Site selection should be as these criteria:


Criteria
Accessibility
Central to population

privacy
Adjacent civic gathering
space
Physical feature of site
Noise
Healthy Environment
Land use
Total

weight
It is critical to select site
20 that is reachable from
Different area of the site
the site should be located
10
in area surrounded by
Residentia
l
Site shouldn't be
20
surrounded by high rise
Building
Should be near school,
15
mall or any gathering space
10
Noise level of the
5
surrounded area
Far from any industry zone 10
Variety of land use
10
100

Table 16: site selection criteria

A passenger station is currently being constructed in each of these cities. The four
stations are designed on the principles of a modular approach to enable speedy
delivery of high quality buildings and simultaneously enhance the passenger
experience (Haramain High Speed Rail Project also known as the "Western
Railway"), is under construction in Saudi Arabia. It will link along 444 kilometers
(276 mi), the Muslim holy cities of Medina and Mecca via King Abdullah
Economic City, Rabigh, Jeddah and King Abdul-Aziz International Airport.[90]
This rail line is planned to provide a safe and comfortable transport in 320
kilometers per hour (200 mph) electric trains in-turn reducing the travel time to
less than two hours between Mecca and Medina.

Passenger Stations Location

Makah Station is located at the main entrance of Makah city on the 3rd ring road at
Al Rasifa district. It is about 3 km from the Holy Mosque in Makah. The station is

71 | P a g e

bordered by Abdullah Areef Street from the east, and King Abdul-Aziz Road
Project from the north.
KAEC Station is located at the entrance of KAEC from the east (near the King
Abdullah University of Science and Technology) and within the administrative
boundaries of KAEC.
Medina Station is located in Knowledge Economic City on King Abdul-Aziz Road
and along the Prophet's Mosque. The train station is bordered by Al Jamaat Road
(University Road) from the west and the Junction of the 3rd ring road from the east.

Jeddah Station is located in the center of Jeddah, specifically in Al-Sulaymaniyah


district on the junction of Al Haramain Road with King Abdullah Road. It is
bordered from the west by Ali Murtaza Street.
Al Haramain transportation will provide for us the transportation we need with the
tours and trips easy and available for everyone.

Figure: 49-alharamin transportation building

Figure: 50-transportation of Al-Harmin terminal uses

72 | P a g e

Orange Line:
line length of 67 km

Number of stations 22
Line starts from Mecca and pierce through the central region, and then sailed north to
the fork to the east on Sari Street

Blue Line:
line length of 24 km
Number of stations 17
extends from the King Abdul Aziz Airport in the south and up Haramain train station in
Jeddah

Green Line:
line length of 17 km

Number of stations 7
extends from the Corniech on the road to Palestine and fork to pierce the old airport
down Haramain train station
as its shown in front figure this plan explains how the train movement and how could it
be as a service area for the project as transportation way for tours and reach multiple and
various areas. The orange and green lines intersect with the main way which is the blue
one linking between Jeddah Mecca and medina with the other areas as kornieche and sari
Streets and surroundings of Jeddah for later use.

73 | P a g e

Site proposals:

Figure: 51-site proposals

The three sites were selected in different areas until we


decide the best suitable destination to the project.
Proposal 1: Al-Cornish road

125
484
Figure: 52-Alcornish site proposal 1

74 | P a g e

Location: this site is located king Abdul Aziz road north of Jeddah, in the between AlCornish road and Zayd Ibn al-Hassan which will remain an active place with active
surroundings.

Proposal 2: Alhamra District

246
308
225
234

Figure: 53-Alhamra site proposal 2

Location: this location is in middle of Jeddah beside the highest flag around the world
and in the eastern side of Jeddah municipality.

Proposal 3: Albalad district

Location: this site is in Albalad district in front of al-baiah square.

Figure: 54-AlBalad site proposal 3

75 | P a g e

Site criteria:

Table 17: site selection criteria

Site analysis:
Accessibility and surroundings:

Figure: 55- site land use with main streets

Main streets
Vacant land
Residential
Mixed use
Commercial
Entertainment

This site surrounded with different land usage from residential to commercial
buildings with highly accessible from different road as alconiech road and zaied ibn
Alhassaan.

77 | P a g e

Surrounded land mark:

Figure: 56- surrounded landmark

78 | P a g e

Climate site analysis:

Figure: 57- climatic surrounding

This site is direct to the sun and with limit building


surrounding which make it a high
Wind movement

Zoning:

Figure: 58- zones distribution

Chapter 5/Capstone project (perspectives)

Figure: 59- night view

Figure: 60- day shot

Figure: 61- infront 3D shot

Figure: 62- Main Entrance

Figure: 63-Students Exhibition

Figure: 64-Background Entrance

Figure: 64-Bridge through corniech sea

Figure: 65-Food Busses Area

Figure: 66- Bazar Area

Figure: 67- Backard prespective

Figure: 68- elevation 1

Figure: 69- elevation 2

Figure: 70-elevation 3

Figure: 71-elevation 4

Figure: 72- Master Development

References
en.kingabdulazizcenter.com/
archdaily.com/251370/asakusa-culture-and-tourism-center-kengo-kumaassociates/
gkstill.com/Support/crowd-density/CrowdDensity-1.html
saudirailways.org/portal/page/portal/PRTS/root/Home/04_Expansion_Specifi
cation/03Introduction/03Phase-%20I%20Package-2
jeg.org.sa/index.php?sec_code=eco_cat&sectorId=107
sauditourism.sa/en/Events/Pages/HeritageEvent.aspx
qatar.qa/en-us/events/eventdetails.aspx?ID=c23e9f61-2a57-e311-8a7c00155d020d00#.VKVQKHn9nIU
visitlondon.com/discover-london/london-areas/central/covent-garden

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