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Steel Members

Dr.U.

Riyas Moideen KK

Dept. of Civil Engineering

National Institute of Technology

Raipur, India

riyasnitraipur@gmail.com

K. Dewangan

Dept. of Civil Engineering

National Institute of Technology

Raipur, India

dewangan.umesh25@gmail.com

II.

Abstract

Beam is the most common type structure that we are using for

civil engineering construction. It will undergo bending when the load

applied transversely (flexural members). The proper analysis of

beam is important for understanding the actual behavior and

economical use of sections. For this we should consider the

nonlinear effect of members. This paper studies a comparative study

of linear and geometric nonlinear load-deflection behavior of fixed

and simply supported beams under vertical loads. In a geometrically

linear analysis, the equations of equilibrium are formulated before

the deformation state and are not updated with the deformation. This

is valid in case of small deformation only. If the load is very high or

in case of thinner section the effect can't be neglected. So it is

compulsory to use updated stiffness matrix at each load increment.

For this study we formulated three noded steel beam element for both

linear and nonlinear cases. The linear and nonlinear load-deflection

behavior is carried out using STAAD PRO. The linear behavior is

also computed by developing a finite element based MATLAB code.

Load deflection behavior is studied for simply supported beams with

thickness 30 mm, 40 mm and for fixed beam with 30 mm thickness.

Keywords finite element method; geometrical nonlinear

analysis; linear analysis; staad pro; matlab

I.

INTRODUCTION

by resisting against bending. It is characterized by their profile

(shape of cross-section), their length, and their material. Beams

are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering

structural elements, but smaller structures such as truck or

automobile frames, machine frames, and other mechanical or

structural systems contain beam structures that are designed

and analyzed in a similar fashion. It is important to study the

real behavior of the beam against the vertical loads. Generally

for simplicity we are considering linear nature of both material

and geometry of structures. If the loads are heavy or we are

using thinner sections this assumption will not valid. Here we

should consider the nonlinear nature of structures for material

as well as geometry. This paper we are considering the effect of

geometric nonlinearity on load-deflection behavior of simply

supported and fixed beams with different thickness.

LITERATURE REVIEW

nonlinear analysis of elastic in plane oriented bodies like

beams and frames. The displacements and rotations are

unrestricted in magnitude and nonlinear equilibrium equations

are solved using the Newton-Raphson method. An incremental

total Lagrangian formulation is presented by Parisch (1978),

which allows the calculation of arbitrarily large displacements

and rotations. Bergan et al. (1978) discussed and surveyed the

principal methods for numerical solution of the nonlinear

equations. Special emphasis is placed upon the description of

an automatic load incrimination procedure with equilibrium

iterations. They suggested a simple scalar quantity denoted the

current stiffness parameter, which is used to characterize the

overall behavior of nonlinear problems.

Bathe and Bolourchi (1979) carried out an exhaustic study

on updated Lagrangian and a total Lagrangian formulation of a

three-dimensional beam element for large displacement and

large rotation analysis. They found that two formulations yield

identical element stiffness matrices and nodal point force

vectors, but updated Lagragian formulation is computationally

more effective than total lagrangian formulation. The analysis

of the geometrically nonlinear behavior of space structures,

using the modified arc length method is explained by Meek

and Hoon Swee Tan(1984). New stiffness matrix for the

analysis of thin walled beams is derived by YeongBin Yang

and William McGuire (1986).

Siu Lai Chan (1988) presented a geometric and material

non-linear analysis procedure for framed structures using a

solution algorithm of minimizing the residual displacements.

He introduced the concept of the effective tangent stiffness

matrix and it is found to be efficient, simple and logical in

handling the non-linear analysis of frames. Kashinath N. Borse

and Shailendra kumar Dubey(2013) addressed to the review of

advances, techniques and theoretical background of the nonlinear analysis of steel beam. Turgay Cosgun and Baris Sayin

(2014) investigated the geometric and material nonlinear

analysis of three-dimensional steel frames. A matrixreplacement method was used which takes into consideration

the effects of axial forces on the stiffness of the member by

using the stability functions and the effects of plastic hinges by

systematically changing the stiffness matrix in each occurrence

of the plastic hinges. Sabale et al. (2014) studied the behavior

of deep beam of various span to depth ratio by ANSYS 13.0

stress distribution of deep beam.

III.

A. Linear Analysis

Linear analysis in which structure which returns into

original form after the removal of loads and there will be small

changes in shape stiffness and no change in loading direction

or magnitude. A linear FEA analysis is undertaken when a

structure is expected to behave linearly, i.e. obeys Hook's Law.

In linear elastic analysis, the material is assumed to be

unyielding and its properties invariable and the equations of

equilibrium are formulated on the geometry of the unloaded

structure. In this approach the primary unknowns are the joint

displacements, which are determined first by solving the

structure equation of equilibrium. Then the unknown forces

can be obtained through compatibility consideration. In

geometrically linear analysis, the equations of equilibrium are

formulated in the undeformed state and are not updated with

the deformation. This is valid in case of small deformation

only. Three node beam element is selected as the finite element

model in this study, having six degrees of freedom; one lateral

and one rotational at each node. Two nodes at each supports

and one node at the center of the beam as shown in Fig. 1

2

a structure experiences large deformations, its changing

geometric configuration can cause the structure to respond

nonlinearly. Geometric nonlinearity is characterized by large

displacements or rotations. It arises due to the lateral loading

also and this stretching leads to a nonlinear relationship

between the strain and the displacement.

[K(d)] {d} = {F}

Nonlinearity is achieved by updating element stiffness

matrices with respect to nodal displacements. The element

stiffness matrix is the function of displacement. So at each load

increment the value of stiffness matrix will change. Newton

Raphson Method is used for nonlinear analysis. The force is

applied in several increments and these increments are equally

divided. At each increment the iterations are performed until

the convergence is achieved. If the iterations cannot converge,

the applied load is divided into two. The reasons for nonconvergence are either the element fails or the iterations are not

enough. Decreasing load increments solves both of these

problems. By this approach the failure load is determined.

When the applied load is solved with initial tangent stiffness ,

the applied force and the internal force are not equal to each

other. The difference is called unbalanced load and at each

iteration the unbalanced load decreases. When the unbalanced

loads are smaller than a tolerance, the solution is converged.

IV.

{d }= [d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6]

where d1,d3,d5 are the lateral displacement and d2,d4,d6

are rotations at nodes one, two and three respectively. In this

work our objective to find out the deflection at center of the

beam (d4) . After selecting elements and nodal unknowns next

step in finite element analysis is to assemble element properties

for each element. These element properties are used to

assemble global properties/structure properties to get system

equations

METHODOLOGY

geometrical nonlinear load-deflection behavior of beams we

are analyzing three types of beams using software's. Linear

behavior is carried out using STAAD Pro and by a finite

element based MATLAB code and nonlinear behavior by using

STAAD Pro. For checking the effect of thickness of beam and

supporting condition for geometrical nonlinear problems we

are considering three beams :1) Simply supported steel beam with thickness 30 mm,

length 1000mm and width 50 mm shown in Fig. 2.

2) Simply supported steel beam with thickness 40 mm,

length 1000mm and width 50 mm.

3) Both end fixed steel beam with thickness 30 mm,

length 1000mm and width 50 mm.

30 kN

B

h

1000 mm

F = Load vector

K = Global stiffness matrix

Then the boundary conditions are imposed. The solution of

these simultaneous equations give the nodal unknowns. In the

linear analysis of beams the value of stiffness matrix is

constant throughout the analysis. Deflection of beam is

calculated from the above expression.

B. Non-Linear Analysis

In order to approach the real behavior of the steel beams,

rather than the approximate solutions with linear analysis,

nonlinear analysis is preferred. In nonlinear analysis the

structure will not regain its original shape after the removal of

V.

RESULTS

& DISCUSSIONS

element based MATLAB code while nonlinear by STAAD

Pro. In the analysis part we considered only the point load at

the centre of the beam (30KN) and we neglected the self

weight of the beam for all cases. Load deflection behavior of

supported steel beam with thickness 40 mm and

both end

fixed steel beam with thickness 30 mm, are shown in Fig. 3,

Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 respectively.

Fig. 5. Load vs Deflection curve for both end fixed steel beam with thickness

40 mm

Fig. 3. Load vs Deflection curve for simply supported steel beam with

thickness 30 mm

Fig. 4. Load vs Deflection curve for simply supported steel beam with

thickness 40 mm

30 mm shows its nonlinear behavior at a load level of thirty

percentage of total load (9 kN) while the beam with 40 mm

thickness shows at seventy percentage of total load (21 kN).

The thickness of beams play a significant role in geometrical

nonlinearity of structures. Beam with both end fixed shows

almost linear behavior for both cases. The STAAD value and

finite element based MATLAB code value almost coincide for

Load

Percentage

(Load In KN)

Difference

Between

Linear &

Nonlinear

Nonlinear

analysis

Linear

analysis

using

staad

Linear

analysis

using

matlab

10 (3)

2.706

2.717

2.71

0.011

20 (6)

5.28

5.435

5.420

0.155

30 (9)

7.512

8.152

8.130

0.640

40 (12)

9.424

10.87

10.84

1.446

50 (15)

11.078

13.587

13.55

2.509

60 (18)

12.53

16.305

16.26

3.775

70 (21)

13.823

19.022

18.97

5.199

80 (24)

14.99

21.74

21.68

6.750

90 (27)

16.056

24.457

24.39

8.401

100 (30)

17.037

27.175

27.10

10.138

for three beams under the point load is shown below in table 1,

table 2 and table 3.

Table 1: Deflection of 30mm thickness steel beam with simply

supported ends

Supported Ends

Deflection Under The Load (mm)

of Beam with Different Thickness

Difference

Between

Linear &

Nonlinear

Load Percentage

(Load In KN)

Percentage

Variation of Linear

And Nonlinear

(H=30mm)

Percentage

Variation of Linear

And Nonlinear

(H=40mm)

1.1433

10 (3)

0.404858

2.298

2.2866

0.014

20 (6)

2.851886

0.609230

3.486

3.447

3.4299

0.039

30 (9)

7.850834

1.131420

40 (12)

4.632

4.596

4.5732

0.036

40 (12)

13.30267

0.783290

50 (15)

5.737

5.744

5.7165

0.007

50 (15)

18.46618

0.121866

60 (18)

6.794

6.893

6.8598

0.099

60 (18)

23.15241

1.4362400

70 (21)

7.802

8.042

8.0030

0.240

70 (21)

27.33151

2.9843320

80 (24)

8.762

9.191

9.1463

0.429

80 (24)

31.04876

4.667610

90 (27)

9.675

10.34

10.290

0.665

90 (27)

34.35008

6.431335

100 (30)

10.544

11.489

11.433

0.945

100 (30)

37.30635

8.225259

Load

Percentage

(Load In KN)

Nonline

ar

analysis

Linear

analysis

using

staad

Linear

analysis

using

matlab

10 (3)

1.149

1.149

20 (6)

2.312

30 (9)

support at both ends

Load

Percentage

(Load In KN)

Difference

Between

Linear &

Nonlinear

Nonlinear

analysis

Linear

analysis

using

staad

Linear

analysis

using

matlab

10 (3)

0.685

0.685

0.67751

20 (6)

1.372

1.37

1.355

0.002

30 (9)

2.069

2.055

2.0325

0.014

40 (12)

2.776

2.74

2.71

0.036

50 (15)

3.49

3.425

3.3875

0.065

60 (18)

4.201

4.11

4.065

0.091

70 (21)

4.906

4.795

4.7425

0.111

80 (24)

5.603

5.48

5.4201

0.123

90 (27)

6.291

6.165

6.0976

0.126

100 (30)

6.969

6.85

6.7751

0.119

more in case of simply supported beam with thickness 30 mm.

When the thickness increasing the effect of nonlinearity

decreasing. The support condition has also significant affect

on the nonlinear behavior of beams. In case of both end fixed

with thickness the effect of nonlinearity is almost negligible

Percentage variation of linear and nonlinear deflection for

beam with different thickness is shown in table 4.

of Beam with Different End Conditions

Percentage

Variation of Linear

and Nonlinear SSB

Percentage

Variation of Linear

and Nonlinear

Fixed

10 (3)

0.404858

20 (6)

2.851886

0.145985

30 (9)

7.850834

0.681265

40 (12)

13.30267

1.313869

50 (15)

18.46618

1.89781

60 (18)

23.15241

2.214112

70 (21)

27.33151

2.314911

80 (24)

31.04876

2.244526

90 (27)

34.35008

2.043796

100 (30)

37.30635

1.737226

Load Percentage

(Load In KN)

different end conditions with same thickness of beam is show

in table 5. In full load condition the percentage variation of

linear and nonlinear deflection is 37.3 for thickness 30 mm

while it is only 8.22 for beam with thickness 40 mm. Hence

the size of beam is affecting the behavior of beams

significantly.

VI.

CONCLUSIONS

nonlinear behavior of flexural members subjected to central

point load. The studies on Software and theoretical results

associated with them lead to the following conclusions:

1) Thickness of beams significantly affect the

geometrical nonlinearity of beams. The percentage variation

of linear and nonlinear deflection is very high for beam with

thickness 30 mm when compared with beam thickness 40 mm.

2) Support conditions affect variation of deflection

between linear and nonolinear considerably.The variation

between linear and geometrical nonlinear deflection of beam

is neglegible when the ends are fixed. same beam with simply

supported condition have variation upto 37 percentage.

3)

Linear deflection of beams that obtained from

STAAD Pro and finite element based MATLAB code are

almost same.

4)

Geometrical nonlinearity is more when the load is

very high and section is thin. At the initial stages of loading

behavior of beam is linear and it behaves nonlinear while

increasing the load.

REFERENCES

[1]

element analysis of beams, frames, arches and axisymmetric shells,

Computers & Structures Volume 7, Issue 6, December 1977, Pages 725

735.

[2] H. Parisch, " Geometrical nonlinear analysis of shells," Computer

Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering Volume 14, Issue 2,

May 1978, Pages 159-178I.

[3] P. G. Bergan,G. Horrigmoe, B. Brkeland, T. H. Sreide Solution

techniques for nonlinear finite element problems, International

Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Volume 12, Issue 11

1978 Pages 16771696.

[4] Klaus-Jrgen Bathe and Sad Bolourchi, Large displacement analysis of

three-dimensional beam structures, International Journal for Numerical

Methods in Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 7,1979 ,Pages 961986

[5] J.L. Meek and Hoon Swee Tan, Geometrically nonlinear analysis of

space frames by an incremental iterative technique, Computer Methods

in Applied Mechanics and Engineering Volume 47, Issue 3, December

1984, Pages 261-282.

[6] YeongBin Yang and William McGuire, " Stiffness matrix for geometric

nonlinear analysis," Journal of Structural Engineering, Volume 112,

Issue 4 (April 1986).

[7] Siu Lai Chan, " Geometric and material non-linear analysis of beamcolumns and frames using the minimum residual displacement method"

International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Volume 26,

Issue 12 December 1988 Pages 26572669.

[8] M.A. Crisfield," Non-linear finite element analysis of solids

and structures," volume 1: essentials, Reprinted April 2000, ISBN 0

471 92956 5 (v. I); 0 471 929964.

[9] N. Kashinath Borse and Shailendra kumar Dubey, " Geometric linear

and nonlinear Analysis Of Beam, " International Journal of Engineering

Research & Technology (IJERT), ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 2 Issue 7, July

- 2013.

[10] Turgay Cosgun and Baris Sayin, " Geometric and material nonlinear

analysis of three-dimensional steel frames," International Journal of

Steel Structures March 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 59-71.

[11] V. D. Sabale, M.D. Borgave and P. K Joshi, " Non-linear finite element

analysis of deep beam " International Journal of Engineering Research

& Technology (IJERT), ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 3 Issue 5, May - 2014.

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