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Artificial Pancreas Market Industry



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Report Description
Artificial blood is a substitute for red blood cells. For decades, scientists have been trying to develop
artificial blood from various sources and through different methods to address the shortage of blood for
transfusions. Inadequate number of blood donors and the criticality of blood-type rejection have
encouraged researchers to develop artificial blood, thus reducing the dependency on blood donors.
Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a standard and indispensable therapy for anemic conditions.
Blood transfusion process has progressed through many developments including the development of acidcitrate-dextrose blood preservation solution, and cloning of ABO gene. However, blood transfusion has
always been challenged with respect to the risk of infections. Recombinant erythropoietin stimulating
agent therapy has been the prominent therapy in cases like chronic kidney disease, and chronic anemic
conditions. Yet in thrombotic and neoplastic complications, blood transfusion is the only option. Hence,
RBC production from hematopoietic stem cells has been the focus of regenerative therapy. Billions of
dollars have been spent on developing this technique. However, the Food & Drug Administration (FDA)
has not yet approved artificial blood for humans yet.
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Developments in Artificial Blood Technique
Scientists have been trying to develop artificial blood from diverse molecules ranging from
perfluorocarbons to hemoglobin. Later, with the advent of research in stem cells, researchers began to
develop RBCs from stem cells of cord blood. The enrollment for the first clinical trials of stem-cell based
red blood cells began in 2009. This study used stem cells from cord blood and adult bone marrow. The
study was conducted by Douay and his colleagues at the Hematological Laboratory at the University of
Paris VI.
A similar research conducted by scientists at the University of Bristol and the UKs National Health Service
(NHS) using stem cells from adult and umbilical cord blood has shown successful results from initial
studies. The study will now be entering the clinical trials with 20 subjects in 2017. The intention of this is
not replacing blood donation but providing special treatment for specific patient groups.

Market Potential
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are about 50,000 stem cell transplantations
performed annually worldwide. Nearly 2,000 cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplants are performed
annually worldwide. Use of stem cells from cord blood is increasing as it does not require perfect human
leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue matching, may be used allogenically and has less incidence of graft v/s
host disease. According to the New York Blood Center (NYBC), which is the largest cord blood bank
globally in terms of units stored, more than one half of all stem cell transplants in children, in the U.S., use
cord blood. In Japan, on the other hand, similar is the statistic in the adult group.
As the trial begins in 2017, the production is expected to begin in next 8 to 10 years.

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Cord blood stem cell transplantation is a successful therapy now in about 70 diseases. Developing artificial
blood can be of great aid to meet the demand-supply gap in blood transfusion. Known is the fact that
finding compatible donors for sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients is very difficult. Availability of
artificial blood could be the most viable solution to address the unmet needs in these patients. Continued
investment in research and development is crucial for getting this technology in production and help saving
and improving millions of lives.

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