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The Small Turbine ORC Company

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Sommaire

Introduction
Histoire des ORC
Applications des ORC
Fonctionnement dun ORC
Dimensionnement dun ORC
Rcupration de Chaleur

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The Small Turbine ORC Company


Enogia designs and produces Organic Rankine
Cycle micro-powerplants that convert waste heat
into electrical power.
an innovative company since 2009
head office and facilities in Marseille, France
25 employees including 18 highly skilled engineers
1.1 M turnover in 2016
35 References in 11 countries
Strategic partnership with the famous research group

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Cycle de Rankine Organique (ORC)


Les cycles organiques de Rankine (Organic Rankine Cycle,
ORC, en anglais) sont des variantes des cycles vapeur
eau, qui sont utiliss lorsque la source chaude partir de
laquelle on souhaite produire de la puissance mcanique
est basse ou moyenne temprature.
Dans ces conditions, les performances des cycles vapeur
d'eau se dtriorent, et il devient prfrable de recourir
d'autres fluides thermodynamiques.
Ces fluides sont issus de la chimie organique (du carbone)
et peuvent tre des hydrocarbures, des huiles, des
rfrigrants,
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Sommaire

Introduction
Histoire des ORC
Applications des ORC
Fonctionnement dun ORC
Dimensionnement dun ORC
Rcupration de Chaleur

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Un peu dhistoire
1823: Monsieur Humphrey Davy suggre le cycle
ORC comme une alternative la machine vapeur.
William John Macquorn Rankine, (1820-1872), est un
ingnieur et physicien cossais qui travailla sur la
thermodynamique et la thorie des cycles binaires
entre 1849 et 1860
Vers 1850, Verdat Du Trembley construit un moteur
en cascade vapeur d'eau/ther pour des bateaux
remontant le Rhne et baptise ce procd vapeur
combines
En 1883, Frank Ofeldt fut le premier dvelopper un
moteur Rankine n'utilisant pas l'eau comme fluide de
travail mais du naphta
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Un peu dhistoire
Dans les annes 1950, lingnieur
Isralien Lucien Bronicki ralise des
prototypes dORC pour applications
solaires et gothermales. Il cre en 1965
la socit ORMAT, leader actuel du
march ORC
Dans les annes 1980, lcole Politecnico
Milano travaille sur les ORC sous
limpulsion du Pr. Angelino et du Pr. Mario
Gaia, qui fondera Turboden, leader
europen des ORC
Et en France, Bertin Cie dveloppe une
turbine ORC prototype pour la centrale de
Vignola en Corse
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Et maintenant ?
ORMAT (600 M de C.A.) et Turboden (>100 M de C.A.) leaders du
march
Autres acteurs significatifs : Siemens (DE), General Electric (US) , Exergy
(IT), Electra-Therm (US), Calnetix (US), GMK (DE), Tri-O-Gen (NL)
En France, la fin de la crise ptrolire et le choix du tout nuclaire a port
un coup darrt aux travaux mens dans les annes 1980, mais depuis
2008-2009, un renouveau de lORC incarn par Enertime (grande
puissance), Exos (transports) et Enogia (petite puissance et transports)

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Sommaire

Introduction
Histoire des ORC
Applications des ORC
Fonctionnement dun ORC
Dimensionnement dun ORC
Rcupration de Chaleur

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Applications de la technologie ORC

Biogas, Landfill gas

Solar

Biomass

Geothermal

Enhancement of biogas
engine via exhaust,
water jacket or both
Direct biogas to
electricity conversion
with boiler

Industrial Waste
Heat Recovery

Process Heat
Exhaust gases
Waste steam

Solar CHP with CSP


field
Solar CHP with CSP
and heat storage

Biomass to electricity
Biomass CHP
Isolated site

Diesel genset

Transportation

Efficiency enhancement
via exhaust, water
jacket or both

Sea and River


transportation
Railroad
Heavy Duty Trucks

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Natural hot sources


Medium temperature
wells (from 80C)

Educational and
research

With boiler
simulating heat
source

ORC on engines
ORC is used to enhance Biogas CHP efficiency using both
jacket water and exhaust heat recovery :

~90C

Hot loop

LT ORC
DEVICE

Cooling
device or
Cold loop
rejected heat
user

~70C

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Renewable Energies : Biomass


ORC is used to generate electricity from biomass boiler
heat :

Hot loop

LT ORC
DEVICE

Cold loop

Biomass boiler

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COOLING
DEVICE
OR
HEAT USERS

Renewable Energies : Geothermal


ORC is used to produce electricity from geothermal natural
source or geothermal well :

Hot water from geothermal


natural or enhanced source

Hot loop

LT ORC
DEVICE

Cold loop

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COOLING
DEVICE

Renewable Energies : Solar


ORC is used to generate electricity from CSP field :

Hot loop

LT ORC
DEVICE

Cold loop

CSP field

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COOLING
DEVICE
OR
HEAT USERS

Le march actuel des ORC


Par zone gographique

Par secteur dactivit

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Un march en pleine expansion

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En rsum, Atouts des ORC

Seule technologie capable de convertir de la chaleur basse


temprature en lectricit,
Trs flexible car large choix de fluides
Opration beaucoup plus simple que les cycles vapeur (pas de
traitement deau, plus grande flexibilit de fonctionnement)
Utilisable petite chelle ( partir de quelques kW)
Technologie trs fiable car peu de pices mobiles et faibles contraintes

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Sommaire

Introduction
Histoire des ORC
Applications des ORC
Fonctionnement dun ORC
Dimensionnement dun ORC
Rcupration de Chaleur

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Principe de lORC

Turbine expander

Electricity

Organic
fluid
cycle

Waste heat

Evaporator

Cooling

Condenser

Feed-pump

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Les fluides
Plusieurs catgories de fluides peuvent tre utiliss, avec
diffrentes caractristiques : cest lavantage sur la vapeur
deau !!!

Hydrocarbures
Fluides rfrigrants (chlors, fluors, nouvelles gnrations)
Huiles silicones
Ammoniac, Tolune,

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1 Fonctionnement de lORC grandeurs


de base
Units utilises :
C or K pour la temprature,
Bar pour la pression
Kg/s pour les dbits massiques
M3/h pour les dbits volumiques
kJ/kg pour les enthalpies spcifiques
kW pour les puissances

Lenthalpie :
L'enthalpie est un potentiel thermodynamique correspond l'nergie totale d'un
systme thermodynamique.
Lenthalpie spcifique est lnergie contenue dans 1 kg de fluide
Si on multiplie une enthalpie spcifique par un dbit massique, on obtient une
puissance thermodynamique

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La slection des fluides


D'une manire gnrale, on peut distinguer, dans toutes les
classifications, quatre principales catgories de critres :

critres de performance,
critres technico-conomiques ;
critres de limite de fonctionnement ;
critres d'environnement et de suret.

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Fluides secs et fluides humides


On peut distinguer trois types de fluides : les fluides secs, les fluides
isentropiques et les fluides humides.
Cette distinction se fait par la valeur de la pente de la dtente dans le
diagramme entropique, dfinie par =dS/dT sur la courbe de saturation
vapeur.
si >0, le fluide est dit sec ;
si =0, le fluide est dit isotropique ;
si <0, le fluide est dit humide .

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Autres critres
critres technico-conomiques :
Prix au kg
Mise en uvre

critres de limite de fonctionnement :


Temprature et pression maximum
Vide partiel acceptable ou non

critres d'environnement et de suret.


GWP et ODP
Les rglementations environnementales se sont durcies durant les deux dernires
dcennies. Le choix du fluide doit suivre les standards de protection
environnementale en vigueur et en cours d'laboration pour construire un cycle
prenne pour les dcennies venir
Toxicit et inflammabilit du fluide
Afin d'assurer la scurit des oprateurs, il est prfrable d'utiliser un fluide nontoxique et non-inflammable.
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Les fluides rfrigrants


Ce sont des fluides habituellement utiliss pour les systmes de rfrigration, et
avec une temprature dbullition trs basse pression ambiante
Les fluides chlors, CFC et HCFC, sont aujourdhui bannis par les pays
dvelopps cause de leur attaque sur la couche dozone (responsables du
trou dans la couche dozone)
Les HFC, fluides fluors, qui les ont remplacs, sont en phase de retrait cause
de leur fort potentiel de rchauffement climatique (GWP).
Des nouveaux fluides de remplacement apparaissent pour remplacer les HFC,
tels les HFO
Les fluides les plus utiliss sont aujourdhui pour les applications ORC sont les
HFC, tels le R245fa frquemment utilis sur des ORC basse temprature
(source chaude de 70 130C)
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Le R245fa
Aussi appell pentafluoropropane
Grand frre du R134a utilis dans les climatiseurs et les voitures
Fluide ininflammable et non toxique, mais fort GWP
Properties
Chemical formula

C3H3F5

Molar mass

134.05 gmol

Appearance

colorless gas

Density

1404.1 kg/m (liquid at 1 bar, 0 C)


3
[2]
5.84 kg/m (vapor at 1 bar, 15 C)

Boiling point

15.3 C (59.5 F; 288.4 K)

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R245fa Diagramme Pression Enthalpie

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R245fa Diagramme Pression Enthalpie

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R245fa Diagramme Pression Enthalpie


Evaporator

Turbine
expander

Feed-pump

Condenser
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Le cycle rgnratif

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Point sur les machines de dtente


Turbine ou machine
volumtrique ?

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Sommaire

Introduction
Histoire des ORC
Applications des ORC
Fonctionnement dun ORC
Dimensionnement dun ORC
Rcupration de Chaleur

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Rendement du cycle thorique


Heat input

Rendement cycle thorique:


Enthalpie de dtente isentropique
--------------------------------------------Enthalpie de chauffe

Cooling

Useful work

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Rendement du cycle rel


Heat input

Rendement cycle rel =


Enthalpie de dtente relle
--------------------------------------------Enthalpie de chauffe

Rendement cycle rel =


Rendement cycle thorique
x rendement turbine

Rendement turbine =
Enthalpie de dtente relle
------------------------------------Enthalpie de dtente isentropique

Cooling

Useful work

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Rcapitulatif
Rendement du cycle thermodynamique =
travail spcifique utile (kJ/kg)
(enthalpie de dcharge isentropique)

---------------------------------------------------chaleur spcifique fournie (kJ/kg)


Rendement cycle rel = Rendement turbine x Rendement
du cycle thermodynamique
Puissance de sortie turbine = Rendement du cycle rel x
puissance thermique
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Exercice n1
Hypothses :
100 kW de chaleur disponible
90/70C en boucle deau chaude
20/30C en boucle de refroidissement

Fluide R245fa dans lORC


Cycle non rgnratif
55% de rendement turbine
2K pincement vaporateur, 3K pincement condenseur

Travaux

tablir la temprature et la pression pour lbullition et la condensation


Calculer lenthalpie de chauffe
Calculer lenthalpie de dtente
Etablir le rendement de cycle thorique
Etablir le rendement de cycle rel
Calculer la puissance lectrique de sortie

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Le Cycle ORC sur le diagramme P.H

Eau chaude

R245fa

Eau froide

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Exemple
Point dbullition :
70C
6 bar
458 kJ/kg enthalpie
Dtente thorique: 21 kJ/kg
Point de condensation:
33C
2 bar
243 kJ/kg enthalpie
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Calcul du cycle thorique et rel


Chaleur spcifique dentre : 456-243 = 213 kJ/kg
Dtente thorique : 21 kJ/kg
Rendement cycle thorique : 10 %
Rendement turbine (is x mec x el) = 55%
Rendement cycle rel : 10% x 55% = 5.5%
Puissance de lORC = 100kW x 5.5% = 5.5 kW electriques

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Sommaire

Introduction
Histoire des ORC
Applications des ORC
Fonctionnement dun ORC
Dimensionnement dun ORC
Rcupration de Chaleur

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3 types de rcupration de chaleur


Chaleur sensible
To recover sensible heat to a fluid that is open circuit (an exhaust gas for
example, or condensate water from steam)

Chaleur latente
To recover condensing latent heat, (steam condensing for example)

Circuit ferm
To recover heat from a closed loop circuit (jacket water of engine for example)

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3 types de rcupration de chaleur


Chaleur sensible
To recover sensible heat to a fluid that is open circuit (an exhaust gas for
example, or condensate water from steam)

Chaleur latente
To recover condensing latent heat, (steam condensing for example)

Circuit ferm
To recover heat from a closed loop circuit (jacket water of engine for example)

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Exemples

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Rcupration sur chaleur sensible


Recovered thermal power is calculated as follows :
Pth = n * Cp * Qm * (Tin-Tout)
n is exchanger efficiency
Cp is thermal capacity of fluid (4,2 kJ/kg for water, 1,05-1,15 kJ/kg for exhaust
gases)
Tin is exchanger inlet temperature
Tout is exchanger outlet temperature
Qm is massflow of fluid

T out can be chosen in order to enhance the system


efficiency

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Calculation of ORC performance for wasted hot


water
Example 80C, 10 l/s
Calculation of available
thermal power for ORC
Pth = Qm Cp DeltaT

Computation of ORC
cycle efficiency
ENOGIA ORC efficiency map

Calculation of electrical
output
(Pel = Pth x nORC)
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Bell power curve


The opposite behaviour of ORC efficiency which wants the highest return
temperature (and thus the lowest Delta T) and of the thermal power wich is
proportionnal to Delta T gives a bell power curve for ORC electrical output :

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Economics of ORC
The price of the ORC system can be modelled as :
ORC Price : f(Pel, Pth)
Indeed : turbine price is mostly f(Pel) and exchangers price is mostly f(Pth)

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Economic optimum
The economic optimum for the ORC system is the lowest
specific cost.
The economic optimum is always lower or equal to the
maximum electrical power (technical optimum)

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3 types de rcupration de chaleur


Chaleur sensible
To recover sensible heat to a fluid that is open circuit (an exhaust gas for
example, or condensate water from steam)

Chaleur latente
To recover condensing latent heat, (steam condensing for example)

Circuit ferm
To recover heat from a closed loop circuit (jacket water of engine for example)

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Chaleur latente
Utilise la condensation dun fluide comme la vapeur deau
conomiseur condensation galement
Computation is simple :
Pth = n * Cl * Qm
n is exchanger efficiency
Cl is latent heat coefficient
Qm is massflow rate

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3 types de rcupration de chaleur


Chaleur sensible
To recover sensible heat to a fluid that is open circuit (an exhaust gas for
example, or condensate water from steam)

Chaleur latente
To recover condensing latent heat, (steam condensing for example)

Circuit ferm
To recover heat from a closed loop circuit (jacket water of engine for example)

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Sur boucle ferme


Circuits ferms comme eau chaude moteur, .
Tout type de chaudire ou dchangeur .
Pth = n * Cp * Qm * (Tin-Tout)
n is exchanger efficiency
Cp is thermal capacity of fluid (4,2 kJ/kg for water, 1,05-1,15 kJ/kg for exhaust
gases)
Tin is exchanger inlet temperature
Tout is exchanger outlet temperature
Qm is massflow of fluid

Tout is fixed by the engine in case of the genset. (70-80C)


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Exercice n2
Hypothses :
Une chemine industrielle gnre 30 000 m3/h de fumes 300C
Ces fumes ont un point de condensation acide 120C et donc on limite la
rcupration 140C (marge de scurit)

1- En supposant un pincement dchangeur de 20C et une vaporation en


direct du fluide rfrigrant sur les fumes :

calculer la temprature dbullition,


la pression dbullition et
la puissance rcupre sur les fumes.

2- Une boucle deau 20/40C est disponible avec suffisament de puissance.


Calculer :
la temprature et pression de condensation,
le rendement du cycle thorique ORC et
la puissance produite avec une turbine de 70% de rendement.
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Contact information

Arthur Leroux
CEO
Arthur.leroux@enogia.com
+33 6 43 34 94 21
+33 4 84 25 60 17

Headquarters
ENOGIA SAS
19 Avenue Paul Hroult
13015 Marseilles
France
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