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ComputerkeyboardWikipedia

Computerkeyboard
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Incomputing,acomputerkeyboardisatypewriterstyle
devicewhichusesanarrangementofbuttonsorkeystoactas
amechanicalleverorelectronicswitch.Followingthe
declineofpunchcardsandpapertape,interactionvia
teleprinterstylekeyboardsbecamethemaininputdevicefor
computers.
Akeyboardtypicallyhascharactersengravedorprintedon
thekeys(buttons)andeachpressofakeytypically
correspondstoasinglewrittensymbol.However,toproduce
somesymbolsrequirespressingandholdingseveralkeys
simultaneouslyorinsequence.Whilemostkeyboardkeys
produceletters,numbersorsigns(characters),otherkeysor
simultaneouskeypressescanproduceactionsorexecute
computercommands.

Typingonacomputerkeyboard.

Despitethedevelopmentofalternativeinputdevices,suchas
themouse,touchscreen,pendevices,characterrecognition
andvoicerecognition,thekeyboardremainsthemost
commonlyuseddevicefordirect(human)inputof
alphanumericdataintocomputers.
Innormalusage,thekeyboardisusedasatextentryinterface
totypetextandnumbersintoawordprocessor,texteditoror
otherprograms.Inamoderncomputer,theinterpretationof
keypressesisgenerallylefttothesoftware.Acomputer
Backlitkeyboard
keyboarddistinguisheseachphysicalkeyfromeveryother
andreportsallkeypressestothecontrollingsoftware.
Keyboardsarealsousedforcomputergaming,eitherwithregularkeyboardsorbyusingkeyboardswithspecial
gamingfeatures,whichcanexpeditefrequentlyusedkeystrokecombinations.Akeyboardisalsousedtogive
commandstotheoperatingsystemofacomputer,suchasWindows'ControlAltDeletecombination,whichbrings
upataskwindoworshutsdownthemachine.Acommandlineinterfaceisatypeofuserinterfaceoperated
entirelythroughakeyboard,oranotherdevicedoingthejobofone.

Contents
1 History
2 Keyboardtypes
2.1 Standard
2.2 Laptopsize
2.3 Flexiblekeyboards
2.4 Handheld
2.5 Thumbsized
2.6 Multifunctional
3 Nonstandardlayoutandspecialusetypes
3.1 Chorded
3.2 Software
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3.2
3.3
3.4
4 Layout
4.1
4.2

Software
Projection(asbylaser)
Opticalkeyboardtechnology

Alphabetic
Keytypes
4.2.1 Alphanumeric
4.2.2 Modifierkeys
4.2.3 Cursorkeys
4.2.4 Systemcommands
4.2.5 Miscellaneous
4.3 Numerickeys
4.3.1 Multiplelayouts
4.3.2 Layoutchangingsoftware
5 Illumination
6 Technology
6.1 Keyswitches
6.2 Controlprocessor
6.3 Connectiontypes
7 Alternativetextenteringmethods
8 Otherissues
8.1 Keystrokelogging
8.2 Physicalinjury
8.3 Pathogentransmission
9 Seealso
10 References
11 Externallinks

History
Whiletypewritersarethedefinitiveancestorofallkeybasedtextentrydevices,thecomputerkeyboardasadevice
forelectromechanicaldataentryandcommunicationderiveslargelyfromtheutilityoftwodevices:teleprinters(or
teletypes)andkeypunches.Itwasthroughsuchdevicesthatmoderncomputerkeyboardsinheritedtheirlayouts.
Asearlyasthe1870s,teleprinterlikedeviceswereusedtosimultaneouslytypeandtransmitstockmarkettextdata
fromthekeyboardacrosstelegraphlinestostocktickermachinestobeimmediatelycopiedanddisplayedonto
tickertape.Theteleprinter,initsmorecontemporaryform,wasdevelopedfrom1907to1910byAmerican
mechanicalengineerCharlesKrumandhissonHoward,withearlycontributionsbyelectricalengineerFrank
Pearne.EarliermodelsweredevelopedseparatelybyindividualssuchasRoyalEarlHouseandFrederickG.
Creed.
Earlier,HermanHollerithdevelopedthefirstkeypunchdevices,whichsoonevolvedtoincludekeysfortextand
numberentryakintonormaltypewritersbythe1930s.[1]
Thekeyboardontheteleprinterplayedastrongroleinpointtopointandpointtomultipointcommunicationfor
mostofthe20thcentury,whilethekeyboardonthekeypunchdeviceplayedastrongroleindataentryandstorage
forjustaslong.Thedevelopmentoftheearliestcomputersincorporatedelectrictypewriterkeyboards:the
developmentoftheENIACcomputerincorporatedakeypunchdeviceasboththeinputandpaperbasedoutput
device,whiletheBINACcomputeralsomadeuseofanelectromechanicallycontrolledtypewriterforbothdata
entryontomagnetictape(insteadofpaper)anddataoutput.
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Fromthe1940suntilthelate1960s,typewriterswerethemainmeansofdataentryandoutputforcomputing,
becomingintegratedintowhatwereknownascomputerterminals.Becauseofthelimitationsofterminalsbased
uponprintedtextincomparisontothegrowthindatastorage,processingandtransmission,ageneralmovetoward
videobasedcomputerterminalswaseffectedbythe1970s,startingwiththeDatapoint3300in1967.
Thekeyboardremainedtheprimary,mostintegratedcomputerperipheralwellintotheeraofpersonalcomputing
untiltheintroductionofthemouseasaconsumerdevicein1984.Bythistime,textonlyuserinterfaceswith
sparsegraphicsgavewaytocomparativelygraphicsrichiconsonscreen.However,keyboardsremaincentralto
humancomputerinteractiontothepresent,evenasmobilepersonalcomputingdevicessuchassmartphonesand
tabletsadaptthekeyboardasanoptionalvirtual,touchscreenbasedmeansofdataentry.

Keyboardtypes
Onefactordeterminingthesizeofakeyboardisthepresenceofduplicatekeys,suchasaseparatenumeric
keyboard,forconvenience.
Furtherthekeyboardsizedependsontheextenttowhichasystemisusedwhereasingleactionisproducedbya
combinationofsubsequentorsimultaneouskeystrokes(withmodifierkeys,seebelow),ormultiplepressingofa
singlekey.Akeyboardwithfewkeysiscalledakeypad.Seealsotextentryinterface.
Anotherfactordeterminingthesizeofakeyboardisthesizeandspacingofthekeys.Reductionislimitedbythe
practicalconsiderationthatthekeysmustbelargeenoughtobeeasilypressedbyfingers.Alternativelyatoolis
usedforpressingsmallkeys.

Standard
Standardalphanumerickeyboardshavekeysthatareonthreequarterinchcenters(0.750inches,19.05mm),and
haveakeytravelofatleast0.150inches(3.81mm).Desktopcomputerkeyboards,suchasthe101keyUS
traditionalkeyboardsorthe104keyWindowskeyboards,includealphabeticcharacters,punctuationsymbols,
numbersandavarietyoffunctionkeys.Theinternationallycommon102/104keykeyboardshaveasmallerleft
shiftkeyandanadditionalkeywithsomemoresymbolsbetweenthatandthelettertoitsright(usuallyZorY).
Alsotheenterkeyisusuallyshapeddifferently.Computerkeyboardsaresimilartoelectrictypewriterkeyboards
butcontainadditionalkeys,suchasthecommandorWindowskeys.Thereisnostandardcomputerkeyboard,
althoughmanymanufactureimitatethekeyboardofPCs.ThereareactuallythreedifferentPCkeyboard:the
originalPCkeyboardwith84keys,theATkeyboardalsowith84keysandtheenhancedkeyboardwith101keys.
Thethreediffersomewhatintheplacementoffunctionkeys,thecontrolkeys,thereturnkey,andtheshiftkey.

Laptopsize
Keyboardsonlaptopsandnotebookcomputersusuallyhaveashortertraveldistanceforthekeystroke,shorterover
traveldistance,andareducedsetofkeys.Theymaynothaveanumericalkeypad,andthefunctionkeysmaybe
placedinlocationsthatdifferfromtheirplacementonastandard,fullsizedkeyboard.Theswitchmechanismfora
laptopkeyboardismorelikelytobeascissorswitchthanarubberdomethisisoppositethetrendforfullsize
keyboards.

Flexiblekeyboards
Flexiblekeyboardsareajunctionbetweennormaltypeandlaptoptypekeyboards:normalfromthefull
arrangementofkeys,andlaptopfromtheshortkeydistance.Additionally,theflexibilityallowstheuserto
fold/rollthekeyboardforbetterstorageandtransfer.However,fortypingthekeyboardmustberestingonahard
surface.Thevastmajorityofflexiblekeyboardsinthemarketaremadefromsiliconethismaterialmakesthem
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wateranddustproof,averypleasantfeatureespeciallyinhospitalswhere
keyboardsaresubjectedtofrequentwashing.Forconnectionwiththe
computerthekeyboardsuseaUSBcable,andoperatingsystemsupport
reachesasfarbackasWindows2000.

Handheld
Handheldergonomickeyboardsaredesignedtobeheldlikeagame
controller,andcanbeusedassuch,insteadoflaidoutflatontopofatable
surface.Typicallyhandheldkeyboardsholdallthealphanumerickeysand
symbolsthatastandardkeyboardwouldhave,yetonlybeaccessedby
pressingtwosetsofkeysatonceoneactingasafunctionkeysimilartoa
'Shift'keythatwouldallowforcapitallettersonastandardkeyboard.[2]
Handheldkeyboardsallowtheusertheabilitytomovearoundaroomorto
leanbackonachairwhilealsobeingabletotypeinfrontorawayfromthe
computer.[3]Somevariationsofhandheldergonomickeyboardsalso
includeatrackballmousethatallowmousemovementandtypingincluded
inonehandhelddevice.

Laptopkeyboardwithitskeys(except
thespacebar)removed,revealing
crumbs,pethairandotherdetritusto
becleanedaway.

Thumbsized
Smallerexternalkeyboardshavebeenintroducedfordeviceswithouta
builtinkeyboard,suchasPDAs,andsmartphones.Smallkeyboardsare
alsousefulwherethereisalimitedworkspace.

AnAlphaGriphandheldkeyboard

Achordedkeyboardallowsuserstopressseveralkeyssimultaneously.For
example,theGKOSkeyboardhasbeendesignedforsmallwireless
devices.Othertwohandedalternativesmoreakintoagamecontroller,
suchastheAlphaGrip,arealsousedtoinputdataandtext.
Athumbkeyboard(thumbboard)isusedinsomepersonaldigitalassistants
suchasthePalmTreoandBlackBerryandsomeUltraMobilePCssuchas
theOQO.
Numerickeyboardscontainonlynumbers,mathematicalsymbolsfor
Thekeyboardsonlaptopsusually
addition,subtraction,multiplication,anddivision,adecimalpoint,and
haveashortertraveldistanceanda
severalfunctionkeys.Theyareoftenusedtofacilitatedataentrywith
reducedsetofkeys.
smallerkeyboardsthatdonothaveanumerickeypad,commonlythoseof
laptopcomputers.Thesekeysarecollectivelyknownasanumericpad,
numerickeys,oranumerickeypad,anditcanconsistofthefollowingtypesofkeys:Arithmeticoperators,
numbers,arrowkeys,Navigationkeys,NumLockandEnterkey.

Multifunctional
Multifunctionalkeyboardsprovideadditionalfunctionbeyondthestandardkeyboard.Manyareprogrammable,
configurablecomputerkeyboardsandsomecontrolmultiplePCs,workstations(incl.SUN)andotherinformation
sources(incl.ThomsonReutersFXT/Eikon,Bloomberg,EBS,etc.)usuallyinmultiscreenworkenvironments.
Usershaveadditionalkeyfunctionsaswellasthestandardfunctionsandcantypicallyuseasinglekeyboardand
mousetoaccessmultiplesources.

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Multifunctionalkeyboardsmayfeaturecustomisedkeypads,fully
programmablefunctionorsoftkeysformacros/presets,biometricorsmart
cardreaders,trackballs,etc.Newgenerationmultifunctionalkeyboards
featureatouchscreendisplaytostreamvideo,controlaudiovisualmedia
andalarms,executeapplicationinputs,configureindividualdesktop
environments,etc.Multifunctionalkeyboardsmayalsopermitusersto
shareaccesstoPCsandotherinformationsources.Multipleinterfaces
(serial,USB,audio,Ethernet,etc.)areusedtointegrateexternaldevices.
Somemultifunctionalkeyboardsarealsousedtodirectlyandintuitively
controlvideowalls.

MultifunctionkeyboardwithLCD
functionkeys.

Commonenvironmentsformultifunctionalkeyboardsarecomplex,high
performanceworkplacesforfinancialtradersandcontrolroomoperators
(emergencyservices,security,airtrafficmanagementindustry,utilities
management,etc.).

Nonstandardlayoutandspecialusetypes

Multifunctionkeyboardwithcustom
keysandtouchscreen.

Chorded
Whileotherkeyboardsgenerallyassociateoneactionwitheachkey,chordedkeyboardsassociateactionswith
combinationsofkeypresses.Sincetherearemanycombinationsavailable,chordedkeyboardscaneffectively
producemoreactionsonaboardwithfewerkeys.Courtreporters'stenotypemachinesusechordedkeyboardsto
enablethemtoentertextmuchfasterbytypingasyllablewitheachstrokeinsteadofoneletteratatime.The
fastesttypists(asof2007)useastenograph,akindofchordedkeyboardusedbymostcourtreportersandclosed
captionreporters.Somechordedkeyboardsarealsomadeforuseinsituationswherefewerkeysarepreferable,
suchasondevicesthatcanbeusedwithonlyonehand,andonsmallmobiledevicesthatdon'thaveroomfor
largerkeyboards.Chordedkeyboardsarelessdesirableinmanycasesbecauseitusuallytakespracticeand
memorizationofthecombinationstobecomeproficient.

Software
Softwarekeyboardsoronscreenkeyboardsoftentaketheformofcomputerprogramsthatdisplayanimageofa
keyboardonthescreen.Anotherinputdevicesuchasamouseoratouchscreencanbeusedtooperateeachvirtual
keytoentertext.Softwarekeyboardshavebecomeverypopularintouchscreenenabledcellphones,duetothe
additionalcostandspacerequirementsofothertypesofhardwarekeyboards.MicrosoftWindows,MacOSX,and
somevarietiesofLinuxincludeonscreenkeyboardsthatcanbecontrolledwiththemouse.Insoftwarekeyboards,
themousehastobemaneuveredontotheonscreenlettersgivenbythesoftware.Ontheclickofaletter,the
softwarewritestherespectiveletterontherespectivespot.

Projection(asbylaser)
Projectionkeyboardsprojectanimageofkeys,usuallywithalaser,ontoaflatsurface.Thedevicethenusesa
cameraorinfraredsensorto"watch"wheretheuser'sfingersmove,andwillcountakeyasbeingpressedwhenit
"sees"theuser'sfingertouchtheprojectedimage.Projectionkeyboardscansimulateafullsizekeyboardfroma
verysmallprojector.Becausethe"keys"aresimplyprojectedimages,theycannotbefeltwhenpressed.Usersof
projectedkeyboardsoftenexperienceincreaseddiscomfortintheirfingertipsbecauseofthelackof"give"when
typing.Aflat,nonreflectivesurfaceisalsorequiredforthekeystobeprojected.Mostprojectionkeyboardsare
madeforusewithPDAsandsmartphonesduetotheirsmallformfactor.
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Opticalkeyboardtechnology
Alsoknownasphotoopticalkeyboard,lightresponsivekeyboard,photoelectrickeyboardandopticalkey
actuationdetectiontechnology.
Anopticalkeyboardtechnologyutilizeslightemittingdevicesandphotosensorstoopticallydetectactuatedkeys.
Mostcommonlytheemittersandsensorsarelocatedintheperimeter,mountedonasmallPCB.Thelightis
directedfromsidetosideofthekeyboardinterioranditcanonlybeblockedbytheactuatedkeys.Mostoptical
keyboardsrequireatleast2beams(mostcommonlyverticalbeamandhorizontalbeam)todeterminetheactuated
key.Someopticalkeyboardsuseaspecialkeystructurethatblocksthelightinacertainpattern,allowingonlyone
beamperrowofkeys(mostcommonlyhorizontalbeam).

Layout
Alphabetic
Thereareanumberofdifferentarrangementsofalphabetic,numeric,and
punctuationsymbolsonkeys.Thesedifferentkeyboardlayoutsarise
mainlybecausedifferentpeopleneedeasyaccesstodifferentsymbols,
eitherbecausetheyareinputtingtextindifferentlanguages,orbecausethey
needaspecializedlayoutformathematics,accounting,computer
programming,orotherpurposes.TheUnitedStateskeyboardlayoutisused
asdefaultinthecurrentlymostpopularoperatingsystems:Windows,[4]
MacOSX[5]andLinux.[6][7]ThecommonQWERTYbasedlayoutwas
designedearlyintheeraofmechanicaltypewriters,soitsergonomicswere
compromisedtoallowforthemechanicallimitationsofthetypewriter.
Astheletterkeyswereattachedtoleversthatneededtomovefreely,
inventorChristopherSholesdevelopedtheQWERTYlayouttoreducethe
likelihoodofjamming.Withtheadventofcomputers,leverjamsareno
longeranissue,butnevertheless,QWERTYlayoutswereadoptedfor
electronickeyboardsbecausetheywerewidelyused.Alternativelayouts
suchastheDvorakSimplifiedKeyboardarenotinwidespreaduse.
TheQWERTZlayoutiswidelyusedinGermanyandmuchofCentral
Europe.ThemaindifferencebetweenitandQWERTYisthatYandZare
swapped,andmostspecialcharacterssuchasbracketsarereplacedby
diacriticalcharacters.

The104keyPCUSEnglish
QWERTYkeyboardlayoutevolved
fromthestandardtypewriter
keyboard,withextrakeysfor
computing.

TheDvorakSimplifiedKeyboard
layoutarrangeskeyssothat
frequentlyusedkeysareeasiestto
press,whichreducesmusclefatigue
whentypingcommonEnglish.

Anothersituationtakesplacewith"national"layouts.Keyboardsdesigned
fortypinginSpanishhavesomecharactersshifted,toreleasethespaceforsimilarly,thoseforPortuguese,
FrenchandotherEuropeanlanguagesmayhaveaspecialkeyforthecharacter.TheAZERTYlayoutisusedin
France,Belgiumandsomeneighbouringcountries.ItdiffersfromtheQWERTYlayoutinthattheAandQare
swapped,theZandWareswapped,andtheMismovedfromtherightofNtotherightofL(where
colon/semicolonisonaUSkeyboard).Thedigits0to9areonthesamekeys,buttobetypedtheshiftkeymustbe
pressed.Theunshiftedpositionsareusedforaccentedcharacters.
KeyboardsinmanypartsofAsiamayhavespecialkeystoswitchbetweentheLatincharactersetandacompletely
differenttypingsystem.JapaneselayoutkeyboardscanbeswitchedbetweenvariousJapaneseinputmethodsand
theLatinalphabetbysignalingtheoperatingsystem'sinputinterpreterofthechange,andsomeoperatingsystems
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(namelytheWindowsfamily)interpretthecharacter"\"as""fordisplaypurposeswithoutchangingthebytecode
whichhasledsomekeyboardmakerstomark"\"as""orboth.IntheArabworld,keyboardscanoftenbe
switchedbetweenArabicandLatincharacters.
InbilingualregionsofCanadaandintheFrenchspeakingprovinceofQubec,keyboardscanoftenbeswitched
betweenanEnglishandaFrenchlanguagekeyboardwhilebothkeyboardssharethesameQWERTYalphabetic
layout,theFrenchlanguagekeyboardenablestheusertotypeaccentedvowelssuchas""or""withasingle
keystroke.Usingkeyboardsforotherlanguagesleadstoaconflict:theimageonthekeydoesnotcorrespondtothe
character.Insuchcases,eachnewlanguagemayrequireanadditionallabelonthekeys,becausethestandard
keyboardlayoutsdonotshareevensimilarcharactersofdifferentlanguages(seetheexampleinthefigureabove).

Keytypes
Alphanumeric
Alphabetical,numeric,andpunctuationkeysareusedinthesamefashion
asatypewriterkeyboardtoentertheirrespectivesymbolintoaword
processingprogram,texteditor,dataspreadsheet,orotherprogram.Many
ofthesekeyswillproducedifferentsymbolswhenmodifierkeysorshift
keysarepressed.Thealphabeticcharactersbecomeuppercasewhenthe
shiftkeyorCapsLockkeyisdepressed.Thenumericcharactersbecome
symbolsorpunctuationmarkswhentheshiftkeyisdepressed.The
alphabetical,numeric,andpunctuationkeyscanalsohaveotherfunctions
whentheyarepressedatthesametimeassomemodifierkeys.TheSpace
barisahorizontalbarinthelowermostrow,whichissignificantlywider
thanotherkeys.Likethealphanumericcharacters,itisalsodescendedfrom
themechanicaltypewriter.Itsmainpurposeistoenterthespacebetween
wordsduringtyping.Itislargeenoughsothatathumbfromeitherhand
canuseiteasily.Dependingontheoperatingsystem,whenthespacebaris
usedwithamodifierkeysuchasthecontrolkey,itmayhavefunctions
suchasresizingorclosingthecurrentwindow,halfspacing,or
backspacing.Incomputergamesandotherapplicationsthekeyhasmyriad
usesinadditiontoitsnormalpurposeintyping,suchasjumpingand
addingmarkstocheckboxes.Incertainprogramsforplaybackofdigital
video,thespacebarisusedforpausingandresumingtheplayback.
Modifierkeys

AHebrewkeyboardletstheusertype
inbothHebrewandtheLatin
alphabet.

AGreekkeyboardletstheusertype
inbothGreekandtheLatinalphabet
(MacBookPro).

Modifierkeysarespecialkeysthatmodifythenormalactionofanother
key,whenthetwoarepressedincombination.Forexample,<Alt>+<F4>
inMicrosoftWindowswillclosetheprograminanactivewindow.In
contrast,pressingjust<F4>willprobablydonothing,unlessassigneda
specificfunctioninaparticularprogram.Bythemselves,modifierkeys
usuallydonothing.Themostwidelyusedmodifierkeysincludethe
Controlkey,ShiftkeyandtheAltkey.TheAltGrkeyisusedtoaccess
additionalsymbolsforkeysthathavethreesymbolsprintedonthem.On
theMacintoshandApplekeyboards,themodifierkeysaretheOptionkey
TheControl,Windows,andAltkeys
andCommandkey,respectively.OnMITcomputerkeyboards,theMeta
areimportantmodifierkeys.
keyisusedasamodifierandforWindowskeyboards,thereisaWindows
key.CompactkeyboardlayoutsoftenuseaFnkey."Deadkeys"allow
placementofadiacriticmark,suchasanaccent,onthefollowingletter(e.g.,theComposekey).TheEnter/Return
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keytypicallycausesacommandline,windowformordialogboxtooperate
itsdefaultfunction,whichistypicallytofinishan"entry"andbeginthe
desiredprocess.Inwordprocessingapplications,pressingtheenterkey
endsaparagraphandstartsanewone.
Cursorkeys

ASpacecadetkeyboardhasmany
modifierkeys.

Navigationkeysorcursorkeysincludeavarietyofkeyswhichmovethe
cursortodifferentpositionsonthescreen.Arrowkeysareprogrammedto
movethecursorinaspecifieddirectionpagescrollkeys,suchasthePageUpandPageDownkeys,scrollthe
pageupanddown.TheHomekeyisusedtoreturnthecursortothebeginningofthelinewherethecursoris
locatedtheEndkeyputsthecursorattheendoftheline.TheTabkeyadvancesthecursortothenexttabstop.
TheInsertkeyismainlyusedtoswitchbetweenovertypemode,inwhichthecursoroverwritesanytextthatis
presentonandafteritscurrentlocation,andinsertmode,wherethecursorinsertsacharacteratitscurrentposition,
forcingallcharacterspastitonepositionfurther.TheDeletekeydiscardsthecharacteraheadofthecursor's
position,movingallfollowingcharactersoneposition"back"towardsthefreedplace.Onmanynotebook
computerkeyboardsthekeylabeledDelete(sometimesDeleteandBackspaceareprintedonthesamekey)serves
thesamepurposeasaBackspacekey.TheBackspacekeydeletestheprecedingcharacter.Lockkeyslockpartofa
keyboard,dependingonthesettingsselected.Thelockkeysarescatteredaroundthekeyboard.Moststylesof
keyboardshavethreeLEDsindicatingwhichlocksareenabled,intheupperrightcornerabovethenumericpad.
ThelockkeysincludeScrolllock,Numlock(whichallowstheuseofthenumerickeypad),andCapslock.
Systemcommands
TheSysRqandPrintscreencommandsoftensharethesamekey.SysRq
wasusedinearliercomputersasa"panic"buttontorecoverfromcrashes
(anditisstillusedinthissensetosomeextentbytheLinuxkernelsee
MagicSysRqkey).ThePrintscreencommandusedtocapturetheentire
screenandsendittotheprinter,butinthepresentitusuallyputsa
screenshotintheclipboard.TheBreakkey/Pausekeynolongerhasawell
480052mainframe/dumbterminal
definedpurpose.Itsoriginsgobacktoteleprinterusers,whowantedakey
keyboard,circamid1980s.Notethe
thatwouldtemporarilyinterruptthecommunicationsline.TheBreakkey
obscureconfigurationofmodifierand
canbeusedbysoftwareinseveraldifferentways,suchastoswitch
arrowkeys,linefeedkey,breakkey,
betweenmultipleloginsessions,toterminateaprogram,ortointerrupta
blankkeys,andrepeatkey.
modemconnection.Inprogramming,especiallyoldDOSstyleBASIC,
PascalandC,Breakisused(inconjunctionwithCtrl)tostopprogram
execution.Inadditiontothis,Linuxandvariants,aswellasmanyDOSprograms,treatthiscombinationthesame
asCtrl+C.Onmodernkeyboards,thebreakkeyisusuallylabeledPause/Break.InmostWindowsenvironments,
thekeycombinationWindowskey+Pausebringsupthesystemproperties.TheEscapekey(oftenabbreviatedEsc)
isusedtoinitiateanescapesequence.Asmostcomputerusersnolongerareconcernedwiththedetailsof
controllingtheircomputer'speripherals,thetaskforwhichtheescapesequenceswereoriginallydesigned,the
escapekeywasappropriatedbyapplicationprogrammers,mostoftento"escape"orbackoutofamistaken
command.ThisusecontinuestodayinMicrosoftWindows'suseofescapeasashortcutindialogboxesforNo,
Quit,Exit,Cancel,orAbort.AcommonapplicationtodayoftheEsckeyisasashortcutkeyfortheStopbuttonin
manywebbrowsers.OnmachinesrunningMicrosoftWindows,priortotheimplementationoftheWindowskey
onkeyboards,thetypicalpracticeforinvokingthe"start"buttonwastoholddownthecontrolkeyandpress
escape.ThisprocessstillworksinWindows2000,XP,Vista,7,8,and10.TheEnterkeyislocated:Oneinthe
alphanumerickeysandtheotheroneisinthenumerickeys.Whenoneworkedsomethingontheircomputerand
wantedtodosomethingwiththeirwork,pressingtheenterkeywoulddothecommandtheyordered.Another
functionistocreateaspacefornextparagraph.Whenonetypedandfinishedtypingaparagraphandtheywanted
tohaveasecondparagraph,theycouldpressenteranditwoulddospacing.Shiftkey:whenonepressesshiftanda
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letter,itwillcapitalizetheletterpressedwiththeshiftkey.Anotheruseistotypemoresymbolsthanappeartobe
available,forinstancetheapostrophekeyisaccompaniedwithaquotationmarkonthetop.Ifonewantstotype
thequotationmarkbutpressedthatkeyalone,thesymbolthatwouldappearwouldbetheapostrophe.The
quotationmarkwillonlyappearifboththerequiredkeyandtheShiftkeyarepressed.TheMenukeyor
ApplicationkeyisakeyfoundonWindowsorientedcomputerkeyboards.Itisusedtolaunchacontextmenuwith
thekeyboardratherthanwiththeusualrightmousebutton.Thekey'ssymbolisusuallyasmallicondepictinga
cursorhoveringaboveamenu.OnsomeSamsungkeyboardsthecursorintheiconisnotpresent,showingthe
menuonly.ThiskeywascreatedatthesametimeastheWindowskey.Thiskeyisnormallyusedwhentheright
mousebuttonisnotpresentonthemouse.SomeWindowspublicterminalsdonothaveaMenukeyontheir
keyboardtopreventusersfromrightclicking(however,inmanyWindowsapplications,asimilarfunctionalitycan
beinvokedwiththeShift+F10keyboardshortcut).
Miscellaneous
Many,butnotall,computerkeyboardshaveanumerickeypadtotheright
ofthealphabetickeyboardwhichcontainsnumbers,basicmathematical
symbols(e.g.,addition,subtraction,etc.),andafewfunctionkeys.On
Japanese/Koreankeyboards,theremaybeLanguageinputkeysfor
changingthelanguagetouse.Somekeyboardshavepowermanagement
keys(e.g.,powerkey,sleepkeyandwakekey)Internetkeystoaccessa
webbrowserorEmailand/ormultimediakeys,suchasvolumecontrolsor
keysthatcanbeprogrammedbytheusertolaunchaspecifiedsoftwareor
commandlikelaunchingagameorminimizeallwindows.

Numerickeys
Whenwecalculate,weusethesenumerickeystotypenumbers.Symbols
concernedwithcalculationssuchasaddition,subtraction,multiplication
anddivisionsymbolsarelocatedinthisgroupofkeys.Theenterkeyinthis
keysindicatetheequalsign.

Multimediabuttonsonsome
keyboardsgivequickaccesstothe
Internetorcontrolthevolumeofthe
speakers.

Multiplelayouts
Itispossibletoinstallmultiplekeyboardlayoutswithinanoperatingsystemandswitchbetweenthem,either
throughfeaturesimplementedwithintheOS,orthroughanexternalapplication.MicrosoftWindows,[8]Linux,[9]
andMac[10]providesupporttoaddkeyboardlayoutsandchoosefromthem.
Layoutchangingsoftware
Thecharactercodeproducedbyanykeypressisdeterminedbythekeyboarddriversoftware.Akeypress
generatesascancodewhichisinterpretedasanalphanumericcharacterorcontrolfunction.Dependingon
operatingsystems,variousapplicationprogramsareavailabletocreate,addandswitchamongkeyboardlayouts.
Manyprogramsareavailable,someofwhicharelanguagespecific.
Thearrangementofsymbolsofspecificlanguagecanbecustomized.Anexistingkeyboardlayoutcanbeedited,
andanewlayoutcanbecreatedusingthistypeofsoftware.
Forexample,Ukelele[sic]forMac,[11]TheMicrosoftKeyboardLayoutCreator[12]andopensourceAvro
KeyboardforWindowsprovidetheabilitytocustomizethekeyboardlayoutasdesired.
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Illumination
Keyboardsandkeypadsmaybeilluminatedfrominside,especiallyonequipmentformobileuse.Illumination
facilitatestheuseofthekeyboardorkeypadindarkenvironments.Somegamingkeyboardshavelightedkeys,to
makeiteasierforgamerstofindcommandkeyswhileplayinginadarkroom.Somekeyboardsmayhavesmall
LEDlightsinafewimportantfunctionkeys,toremindusersthatthefunctionisactivated(seephoto).

Technology
Keyswitches
Inthefirstelectronickeyboardsintheearly1970s,thekeyswitcheswere
individualswitchesinsertedintoholesinmetalframes.Thesekeyboards
costfromUSD$80to$120andwereusedinmainframedataterminals.
Themostpopularswitchtypeswerereedswitches(contactsenclosedina
vacuuminaglasscapsule,affectedbyamagnetmountedontheswitch
plunger).

KeyswithintegratedLEDindicator
lights.

Inthemid1970s,lowercostdirectcontactkeyswitcheswereintroduced,
buttheirlifeinswitchcycleswasmuchshorter(ratedtenmillioncycles)becausetheywereopentothe
environment.Thisbecamemoreacceptable,however,foruseincomputerterminalsatthetime,whichbeganto
seeincreasinglyshortermodellifespansastheyadvanced.
In1978,KeyTronicCorporationintroducedkeyboardswithcapacitivebasedswitches,oneofthefirstkeyboard
technologiestonotuseselfcontainedswitches.TherewassimplyaspongepadwithaconductivecoatedMylar
plasticsheetontheswitchplunger,andtwohalfmoontracepatternsontheprintedcircuitboardbelow.Asthekey
wasdepressed,thecapacitancebetweentheplungerpadandthepatternsonthePCBbelowchanged,whichwas
detectedbyintegratedcircuits(IC).Thesekeyboardswereclaimedtohavethesamereliabilityastheother"solid
stateswitch"keyboardssuchasinductiveandHallEffect,butcompetitivewithdirectcontactkeyboards.Pricesof
$60forkeyboardswereachievedandKeyTronicrapidlybecamethelargestindependentkeyboardmanufacturer.
Meanwhile,IBMmadetheirownkeyboards,usingtheirownpatentedtechnology:KeysonolderIBMkeyboards
weremadewitha"bucklingspring"mechanism,inwhichacoilspringunderthekeybucklesunderpressurefrom
theuser'sfinger,triggeringahammerthatpressestwoplasticsheets(membranes)withconductivetracestogether,
completingacircuit.Thisproducesaclickingsound,andgivesphysicalfeedbackforthetypistindicatingthatthe
keyhasbeendepressed.[13]
Thefirstelectronickeyboardshadatypewriterkeytraveldistanceof0.187inches(4.75mm),keytopswereahalf
inch(12.7mm)high,andkeyboardswereabouttwoinches(5cm)thick.Overtime,lesskeytravelwasaccepted
inthemarket,finallylandingon0.110inches(2.79mm).Coincidentwiththis,KeyTronicwasthefirstcompany
tointroduceakeyboardwhichwasonlyaboutoneinchthick.Andnowkeyboardsmeasureonlyaboutahalfinch
thick.
Keytopsareanimportantelementofkeyboards.Inthebeginning,keyboardkeytopshada"dishshape"ontop,like
typewritersbeforethem.Keyboardkeylegendsmustbeextremelydurableovertensofmillionsofdepressions,
sincetheyaresubjectedtoextrememechanicalwearfromfingersandfingernails,andsubjecttohandoilsand
creams,soengravingandfillingkeylegendswithpaint,aswasdonepreviouslyforindividualswitches,wasnever
acceptable.So,forthefirstelectronickeyboards,thekeylegendswereproducedbytwoshot(ordoubleshot,or

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twocolor)molding,whereeitherthekeyshellortheinsideofthekeywiththekeylegendwasmoldedfirst,and
thentheothercolormoldedsecond.But,tosavecost,othermethodswereexplored,suchassublimationprinting
andlaserengraving,bothmethodswhichcouldbeusedtoprintawholekeyboardatthesametime.
Initially,sublimationprinting,whereaspecialinkisprintedontothekeycapsurfaceandtheapplicationofheat
causestheinkmoleculestopenetrateandcomminglewiththeplasticmodules,hadaproblembecausefingeroils
causedthemoleculestodisperse,butthenanecessarilyveryhardclearcoatingwasappliedtopreventthis.
Coincidentwithsublimationprinting,whichwasfirstusedinhighvolumebyIBMontheirkeyboards,wasthe
introductionbyIBMofsinglecurveddishkeycapstofacilitatequalityprintingofkeylegendsbyhavinga
consistentlycurvedsurfaceinsteadofadish.Butoneproblemwithsublimationorlaserprintingwasthatthe
processestooktoolongandonlydarklegendscouldbeprintedonlightcoloredkeys.Onanothernote,IBMwas
uniqueinusingseparateshells,or"keycaps",onkeytopbases.Thismighthavemadetheirmanufacturingof
differentkeyboardlayoutsmoreflexible,butthereasonfordoingthiswasthattheplasticmaterialthatneededto
beusedforsublimationprintingwasdifferentfromstandardABSkeytopplasticmaterial.
Threefinalmechanicaltechnologiesbroughtkeyboardstowheretheyaretoday,drivingthecostwellunder$10:
1."Monoblock"keyboarddesignsweredevelopedwhereindividualswitchhousingswereeliminatedanda
onepiece"monoblock"housingusedinstead.Thiswaspossiblebecauseofmoldingtechniquesthatcould
provideverytighttolerancesfortheswitchplungerholesandguidesacrossthewidthofthekeyboardsothat
thekeyplungertohousingclearanceswerenottootightortooloose,eitherofwhichcouldcausethekeysto
bind.
2.Theuseofcontactswitchmembranesheetsunderthemonoblock.Thistechnologycamefromflatpanel
switchmembranes,wheretheswitchcontactsareprintedinsideofatopandbottomlayer,withaspacer
layerinbetween,sothatwhenpressureisappliedtotheareaabove,adirectelectricalcontactismade.The
membranelayerscanbeprintedbyveryhighvolume,lowcost"reeltoreel"printingmachines,witheach
keyboardmembranecutandpunchedoutafterwards.
Plasticmaterialsplayedaveryimportantpartinthedevelopmentandprogressofelectronickeyboards.Until
"monoblocks"camealong,GE's"selflubricating"Delrinwastheonlyplasticmaterialforkeyboardswitch
plungersthatcouldwithstandthebeatingovertensofmillionsofcyclesoflifetimeuse.Greasingoroilingswitch
plungerswasundesirablebecauseitwouldattractdirtovertimewhichwouldeventuallyaffectthefeelandeven
bindthekeyswitches(althoughkeyboardmanufacturerswouldsometimessneakthisintotheirkeyboards,
especiallyiftheycouldnotcontrolthetolerancesofthekeyplungersandhousingswellenoughtohaveasmooth
keydepressionfeelorpreventbinding).ButDelrinwasonlyavailableinblackandwhite,andwasnotsuitablefor
keytops(toosoft),sokeytopsuseABSplastic.However,asplasticmoldingadvancedinmaintainingtight
tolerances,andaskeytravellengthreducedfrom0.187inchto0.110inch(4.75mmto2.79mm),singlepart
keytop/plungerscouldbemadeofABS,withthekeyboardmonolocksalsomadeofABS.

Controlprocessor
Computerkeyboardsincludecontrolcircuitrytoconvertkeypressesinto
keycodes(usuallyscancodes)thatthecomputer'selectronicscan
understand.Thekeyswitchesareconnectedviatheprintedcircuitboardin
anelectricalXYmatrixwhereavoltageisprovidedsequentiallytotheY
linesand,whenakeyisdepressed,detectedsequentiallybyscanningtheX
lines.
Thefirstcomputerkeyboardswereformainframecomputerdataterminals
anduseddiscreteelectronicparts.Thefirstkeyboardmicroprocessorwas
introducedin1972byGeneralInstruments,butkeyboardshavebeenusing
thesinglechip8048microcontrollervariantsinceitbecameavailablein
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1978.Thekeyboardswitchmatrixiswiredtoitsinputs,itconvertsthekeystrokestokeycodes,and,foradetached
keyboard,sendsthecodesdownaserialcable(thekeyboardcord)tothemainprocessoronthecomputer
motherboard.Thisserialkeyboardcablecommunicationisonlybidirectionaltotheextentthatthecomputer's
electronicscontrolstheilluminationofthecapslock,numlockandscrolllocklights.
Onetestforwhetherthecomputerhascrashedispressingthecapslockkey.Thekeyboardsendsthekeycodeto
thekeyboarddriverrunninginthemaincomputerifthemaincomputerisoperating,itcommandsthelighttoturn
on.Alltheotherindicatorlightsworkinasimilarway.ThekeyboarddriveralsotrackstheShift,altandcontrol
stateofthekeyboard.
Somelowerqualitykeyboardshavemultipleorfalsekeyentriesduetoinadequateelectricaldesigns.Theseare
causedbyinadequatekeyswitch"debouncing"orinadequatekeyswitchmatrixlayoutthatdon'tallowmultiple
keystobedepressedatthesametime,bothcircumstanceswhichareexplainedbelow:
Whenpressingakeyboardkey,thekeycontactsmay"bounce"againsteachotherforseveralmillisecondsbefore
theysettleintofirmcontact.Whenreleased,theybouncesomemoreuntiltheyreverttotheuncontactedstate.If
thecomputerwerewatchingforeachpulse,itwouldseemanykeystrokesforwhattheuserthoughtwasjustone.
Toresolvethisproblem,theprocessorinakeyboard(orcomputer)"debounces"thekeystrokes,byaggregating
themacrosstimetoproduceone"confirmed"keystroke.
Somelowqualitykeyboardsalsosufferproblemswithrollover(thatis,whenmultiplekeyspressedatthesame
time,orwhenkeysarepressedsofastthatmultiplekeysaredownwithinthesamemilliseconds).Early"solid
state"keyswitchkeyboardsdidnothavethisproblembecausethekeyswitchesareelectricallyisolatedfromeach
other,andearly"directcontact"keyswitchkeyboardsavoidedthisproblembyhavingisolationdiodesforevery
keyswitch.Theseearlykeyboardshad"nkey"rollover,whichmeansanynumberofkeyscanbedepressedandthe
keyboardwillstillrecognizethenextkeydepressed.Butwhenthreekeysarepressed(electricallyclosed)atthe
sametimeina"directcontact"keyswitchmatrixthatdoesn'thaveisolationdiodes,thekeyboardelectronicscan
seeafourth"phantom"keywhichistheintersectionoftheXandYlinesofthethreekeys.Sometypesof
keyboardcircuitrywillregisteramaximumnumberofkeysatonetime."Threekey"rollover,alsocalled
"phantomkeyblocking"or"phantomkeylockout",willonlyregisterthreekeysandignoreallothersuntiloneof
thethreekeysislifted.Thisisundesirable,especiallyforfasttyping(hittingnewkeysbeforethefingerscan
releasepreviouskeys),andgames(designedformultiplekeypresses).
Asdirectcontactmembranekeyboardsbecamepopular,theavailablerolloverofkeyswasoptimizedbyanalyzing
themostcommonkeysequencesandplacingthesekeyssothattheydonotpotentiallyproducephantomkeysin
theelectricalkeymatrix(forexample,simplyplacingthreeorfourkeysthatmightbedepressedsimultaneouslyon
thesameXorsameYline,sothataphantomkeyintersection/shortcannothappen),sothatblockingathirdkey
usuallyisn'taproblem.Butlowerqualitykeyboarddesignsandunknowledgeableengineersmaynotknowthese
tricks,anditcanstillbeaproblemingamesduetowildlydifferentorconfigurablelayoutsindifferentgames.

Connectiontypes
Thereareseveralwaysofconnectingakeyboardtoasystemunit(moreprecisely,toitskeyboardcontroller)using
cables,includingthestandardATconnectorcommonlyfoundonmotherboards,whichwaseventuallyreplacedby
thePS/2andtheUSBconnection.PriortotheiMaclineofsystems,AppleusedtheproprietaryAppleDesktopBus
foritskeyboardconnector.
Wirelesskeyboardshavebecomepopularfortheirincreaseduserfreedom.Awirelesskeyboardoftenincludesa
requiredcombinationtransmitterandreceiverunitthatattachestothecomputer'skeyboardport.Thewireless
aspectisachievedeitherbyradiofrequency(RF)orbyinfrared(IR)signalssentandreceivedfromboththe
keyboardandtheunitattachedtothecomputer.AwirelesskeyboardmayuseanindustrystandardRF,called
Bluetooth.WithBluetooth,thetransceivermaybebuiltintothecomputer.However,awirelesskeyboardneeds
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batteriestoworkandmayposeasecurityproblemduetotheriskofdata"eavesdropping"byhackers.Wireless
solarkeyboardschargetheirbatteriesfromsmallsolarpanelsusingsunlightorstandardartificiallighting.Anearly
exampleofaconsumerwirelesskeyboardisthatoftheOlivettiEnvision.

Alternativetextenteringmethods
Opticalcharacterrecognition(OCR)ispreferabletorekeyingfor
convertingexistingtextthatisalreadywrittendownbutnotinmachine
readableformat(forexample,aLinotypecomposedbookfromthe1940s).
Inotherwords,toconvertthetextfromanimagetoeditabletext(thatis,a
stringofcharactercodes),apersoncouldretypeit,oracomputercould
lookattheimageanddeducewhateachcharacteris.OCRtechnologyhas
alreadyreachedanimpressivestate(forexample,GoogleBookSearch)and
promisesmoreforthefuture.

Anonscreenkeyboardcontrolled
withthemousecanbeusedbyusers
withlimitedmobility.

Speechrecognitionconvertsspeechintomachinereadabletext(thatis,a
stringofcharactercodes).Thistechnologyhasalsoreachedanadvancedstateandisimplementedinvarious
softwareproducts.Forcertainuses(e.g.,transcriptionofmedicalorlegaldictationjournalismwritingessaysor
novels)speechrecognitionisstartingtoreplacethekeyboard.However,thelackofprivacywhenissuingvoice
commandsanddictationmakesthiskindofinputunsuitableformanyenvironments.
Pointingdevicescanbeusedtoentertextorcharactersincontextswhereusingaphysicalkeyboardwouldbe
inappropriateorimpossible.Theseaccessoriestypicallypresentcharactersonadisplay,inalayoutthatprovides
fastaccesstothemorefrequentlyusedcharactersorcharactercombinations.Popularexamplesofthiskindof
inputareGraffiti,Dasherandonscreenvirtualkeyboards.

Otherissues
Keystrokelogging
Unencryptedwirelessbluetoothkeyboardsareknowntobevulnerabletosignaltheftbyplacingacovertlistening
devicesinthesameroomasthekeyboardtosniffandrecordbluetoothpacketsforthepurposeofloggingkeys
typedbytheuser.Microsoftwirelesskeyboards2011andearlieraredocumentedtohavethisvulnerability.[14]
Keystrokelogging(oftencalledkeylogging)isamethodofcapturingandrecordinguserkeystrokes.Whileitis
usedlegallytomeasureemployeeproductivityoncertainclericaltasks,orbylawenforcementagenciestofindout
aboutillegalactivities,itisalsousedbyhackersforvariousillegalormaliciousacts.Hackersusekeyloggersasa
meanstoobtainpasswordsorencryptionkeysandthusbypassothersecuritymeasures.
Keystrokeloggingcanbeachievedbybothhardwareandsoftwaremeans.Hardwarekeyloggersareattachedto
thekeyboardcableorinstalledinsidestandardkeyboards.Softwarekeyloggersworkonthetargetcomputer's
operatingsystemandgainunauthorizedaccesstothehardware,hookintothekeyboardwithfunctionsprovidedby
theOS,oruseremoteaccesssoftwaretotransmitrecordeddataoutofthetargetcomputertoaremotelocation.
Somehackersalsousewirelesskeyloggersnifferstocollectpacketsofdatabeingtransferredfromawireless
keyboardanditsreceiver,andthentheycracktheencryptionkeybeingusedtosecurewirelesscommunications
betweenthetwodevices.
Antispywareapplicationsareabletodetectmanykeyloggersandcleansethem.Responsiblevendorsof
monitoringsoftwaresupportdetectionbyantispywareprograms,thuspreventingabuseofthesoftware.Enabling
afirewalldoesnotstopkeyloggersperse,butcanpossiblypreventtransmissionoftheloggedmaterialoverthenet
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ifproperlyconfigured.Networkmonitors(alsoknownasreversefirewalls)canbeusedtoalerttheuserwhenever
anapplicationattemptstomakeanetworkconnection.Thisgivestheuserthechancetopreventthekeylogger
from"phoninghome"withhisorhertypedinformation.Automaticformfillingprogramscanpreventkeylogging
entirelybynotusingthekeyboardatall.Mostkeyloggerscanbefooledbyalternatingbetweentypingthelogin
credentialsandtypingcharacterssomewhereelseinthefocuswindow.[15]
Keyboardsarealsoknowntoemitelectromagneticsignaturesthatcanbedetectedusingspecialspyingequipment
toreconstructthekeyspressedonthekeyboard.NealO'Farrell,executivedirectoroftheIdentityTheftCouncil,
revealedtoInformationWeekthat"Morethan25yearsago,acoupleofformerspooksshowedmehowtheycould
captureauser'sATMPIN,fromavanparkedacrossthestreet,simplybycapturinganddecodingthe
electromagneticsignalsgeneratedbyeverykeystroke,"O'Farrellsaid."Theycouldevencapturekeystrokesfrom
computersinnearbyoffices,butthetechnologywasn'tsophisticatedenoughtofocusinonanyspecific
computer."[16]

Physicalinjury
Theuseofanykeyboardmaycauseseriousinjury(thatis,carpaltunnel
syndromeorotherrepetitivestraininjury)tohands,wrists,arms,neckor
back.Therisksofinjuriescanbereducedbytakingfrequentshortbreaksto
getupandwalkaroundacoupleoftimeseveryhour.Aswell,usersshould
varytasksthroughouttheday,toavoidoveruseofthehandsandwrists.
Wheninputtingatthekeyboard,apersonshouldkeeptheshouldersrelaxed
withtheelbowsattheside,withthekeyboardandmousepositionedsothat
reachingisnotnecessary.Thechairheightandkeyboardtrayshouldbe
adjustedsothatthewristsarestraight,andthewristsshouldnotberested
onsharptableedges.Wristorpalmrestsshouldnotbeusedwhiletyping.
Someadaptivetechnologyrangingfromspecialkeyboards,mouse
replacementsandpentabletinterfacestospeechrecognitionsoftwarecan
reducetheriskofinjury.Pausesoftwareremindstheusertopause
frequently.Switchingtoamuchmoreergonomicmouse,suchasavertical
mouseorjoystickmousemayproviderelief.Switchingfromusingamouse
tousingastyluspenwithgraphictabletoratrackpadcanlessenthe
repetitivestrainonthearmsandhands.

Pathogentransmission
Somekeyboardswerefoundtocontainfivetimesmorepotentiallyharmful
germsthanatoiletseat.[19]Thiscanbeaconcernwhenusingshared
keyboardsthekeyboardscanserveasvectorsforpathogensthatcausethe
cold,flu,andothercommunicablediseaseseasilyspreadbyindirect
contact.

Seealso

Properergonomicdesignofcomputer
keyboarddesksisnecessaryto
preventrepetitivestraininjuries,
whichcandevelopovertimeandcan
leadtolongtermdisability. [17]
Researchsuggeststhattheupright
positionformerlyadvocatedcanlead
todegenerativediscdisease,andthat
a45degreereclinedpositionis
healthier. [18]

Bluetoothkeyboard
Digitalpen
Enhancedkeyboard
Ergonomickeyboard
SpaceCadetKeyboard
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Keypunch
Keyboardcomputer
Keyboardprotector
Overlaykeyboard
Rollover(key)
Tableofkeyboardshortcuts
USBOTG
Wirelesskeyboard
Keyboardtechnology

References
1.Smith,Andy(15June2011)."Gallery:IBM:100YearsofTHINKingBig".ZDNet.Retrieved20October2015.
2.AlphaGripProgrammingandProductivityImprovementWhitePaper(http://alphagrips.com/WhitePaper.html).
Alphagrips.com.Retrievedon9December2013.
3.TheAlphagripTheWorld'smostComfortableErgonomicKeyboardforTypingandProgramming(http://alphagrips.co
m/comfort.html).Alphagrips.com.Retrievedon9December2013.
4.ThedefaultkeyboardlayoutchangeswhenyouuseRemoteDesktopConnectiontoconnecttoaWindowsXPbased
computer(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/906693/enus)(Microsoft)
5.MacOSX:Changingorresettinganaccountpassword(http://support.apple.com/kb/ht1274)(Apple)
6.MEPIS8.5user'smanual(http://www.mepislovers.org/forums/user_manual8.5/)(MEPISlovers.org)
7.AnintroductiontoLinuxMint8MainEdition(Helena)(http://www.liberiangeek.net/2009/12/introductionlinuxmint8
maineditionhelena/)(LiberianGeek)
8."Useakeyboardlayoutforaspecificlanguage".Retrieved7October2010.
9."ChangingTheLanguage&KeyboardLayoutOnVariousDistributions".Retrieved7October2010.
10."Changethedefaultkeyboardlayout".Retrieved7October2010.
11.Brownie,John(8March2014)."Ukelele[sic]".NRSI:Computers&WritingSystems.SILInternational.Retrieved
8December2014.
12."TheMicrosoftKeyboardLayoutCreator".msdn.microsoft.com.
13.APassionfortheKeys:ParticularAboutWhatYouTypeOn?RelaxYou'reNotAlone.(http://online.wsj.com/article/S
B119578337324301744.html?mod=moj_columnists)LOOSEWIRE,ByJEREMYWAGSTAFF,WallStreetJournal,23
November2007
14."ThisFakePhoneChargerIsActuallyRecordingEveryKeyYouType".TechCrunch.AOL.14January2015.
15.Herley,CormacandFlorencio,Dinei(2006)."HowToLoginFromanInternetCafeWithoutWorryingAbout
Keyloggers"(PDF).MicrosoftResearch,Redmond.
16."6TipsToSecureWebcams,StopKeyloggers".DarkReading.
17.BerkeleyLab.IntegratedSafetyManagement:Ergonomics(http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/pub811/hazards/ergonomics.html).
Website.Retrieved9July2008.
18.RadiologySocietyofNorthAmericaTheWayYouSitWillNeverBetheSame!AlterationsofLumbosacralCurvature
andIntervertebralDiscMorphologyinNormalSubjectsinVariableSittingPositionsUsingWholebodyPositionalMRI
(http://archive.rsna.org/2006/4435870.html).
19."Keyboard:DirtierThanaToiletABCNews".Abcnews.go.com.5May2008.Retrieved28March2012.

Externallinks
HowComputerKeyboardsWork(http://www.howstuffworks.com/ke
WikimediaCommonshas
yboard.htm)atHowStuffWorks
mediarelatedtoKeyboard.
"ArtofAssemblyLanguage:ChapterTwenty":ThePCKeyboard(ht
tp://maven.smith.edu/~thiebaut/ArtOfAssembly/CH20/CH201.html)
Keyboardmatrixcircuits(http://www.dribin.org/dave/keyboard/one_html/)
PCWorld."The10worstPCKeyboardsofAllTime(http://www.pcworld.com/article/139100/the_10_worst
_pc_keyboards_of_all_time.html)".

IBMPCkeyboard(Windows,USlayout)

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IBMPCkeyboard(Windows,USlayout)
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