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AbacusWikipedia

Abacus
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Theabacus(pluralabaciorabacuses),alsocalledacountingframe,isa
calculatingtoolthatwasinuseinEurope,ChinaandRussia,centuries
beforetheadoptionofthewrittenHinduArabicnumeralsystemandisstill
usedbymerchants,tradersandclerksinsomepartsofEasternEurope,
Russia,ChinaandAfrica.Today,abaciareoftenconstructedasabamboo
framewithbeadsslidingonwires,butoriginallytheywerebeansorstones
movedingroovesinsandorontabletsofwood,stone,ormetal.

Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Mesopotamian
2.2 Egyptian
2.3 Persian
2.4 Greek
2.5 Chinese
2.6 Roman
2.7 Indian
2.8 Japanese
2.9 Korean
2.10 NativeAmerican
2.11 Russian
3 Schoolabacus
4 Renaissanceabacigallery
5 Usesbytheblind
6 Binaryabacus
7 Seealso
8 Notes
9 Footnotes
10 References
11 Furtherreading
12 Externallinks
12.1 Tutorials
12.2 Abacuscuriosities

AChineseabacus

CalculatingTablebyGregorReisch:
MargaritaPhilosophica,1503.The
woodcutshowsArithmetica
instructinganalgoristandanabacist
(inaccuratelyrepresentedasBoethius
andPythagoras).Therewaskeen
competitionbetweenthetwofromthe
introductionoftheAlgebrainto
Europeinthe12thcenturyuntilits
triumphinthe16th. [1]

Etymology
Theuseofthewordabacusdatesbefore1387AD,whenaMiddleEnglishworkborrowedthewordfromLatinto
describeasandboardabacus.TheLatinwordcamefromGreekabaxwhichmeanssomethingwithoutbase,
andimproperly,anypieceofrectangularboardorplank.[2][3][4]Alternatively,withoutreferencetoancienttextson
etymology,ithasbeensuggestedthatitmeans"asquaretabletstrewnwithdust",[5]or"drawingboardcovered
withdust(fortheuseofmathematics)"[6](theexactshapeoftheLatinperhapsreflectsthegenitiveformofthe
Greekword,oabakos).Whereasthetablestrewnwithdustdefinitionispopular,therearethosethatdonot
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placecredenceinthisatallandinfactstatethatitisnotproven.[7][nb1]Greekitselfisprobablyaborrowing
ofaNorthwestSemitic,perhapsPhoenician,wordakintoHebrewbq(),"dust"(orinpostBiblicalsense
meaning"sandusedasawritingsurface").[8]
Thepreferredpluralofabacusisasubjectofdisagreement,withbothabacuses[9]andabaci[9]inuse.Theuserof
anabacusiscalledanabacist.[10]

History
Mesopotamian
Theperiod27002300BCsawthefirstappearanceoftheSumerianabacus,atableofsuccessivecolumnswhich
delimitedthesuccessiveordersofmagnitudeoftheirsexagesimalnumbersystem.[11]
SomescholarspointtoacharacterfromtheBabyloniancuneiformwhichmayhavebeenderivedfroma
representationoftheabacus.[12]ItisthebeliefofOldBabylonian[13]scholarssuchasCarrucciothatOld
Babylonians"mayhaveusedtheabacusfortheoperationsofadditionandsubtractionhowever,thisprimitive
deviceproveddifficulttouseformorecomplexcalculations".[14]

Egyptian
TheuseoftheabacusinAncientEgyptismentionedbytheGreekhistorianHerodotus,whowritesthatthe
Egyptiansmanipulatedthepebblesfromrighttoleft,oppositeindirectiontotheGreeklefttorightmethod.
Archaeologistshavefoundancientdisksofvarioussizesthatarethoughttohavebeenusedascounters.However,
walldepictionsofthisinstrumenthavenotbeendiscovered.[15]

Persian
DuringtheAchaemenidEmpire,around600BCthePersiansfirstbegantousetheabacus.[16]UndertheParthian,
SassanianandIranianempires,scholarsconcentratedonexchangingknowledgeandinventionswiththecountries
aroundthemIndia,China,andtheRomanEmpire,whenitisthoughttohavebeenexportedtoothercountries.

Greek
TheearliestarchaeologicalevidencefortheuseoftheGreekabacusdatestothe5thcenturyBC.[17]Also
Demosthenes(384BC322BC)talkedoftheneedtousepebblesforcalculationstoodifficultforyourhead.[18][19]
AplaybyAlexisfromthe4thcenturyBCmentionsanabacusandpebblesforaccounting,andbothDiogenesand
Polybiusmentionmenthatsometimesstoodformoreandsometimesforless,likethepebblesonanabacus.[19]
TheGreekabacuswasatableofwoodormarble,presetwithsmallcountersinwoodormetalformathematical
calculations.ThisGreekabacussawuseinAchaemenidPersia,theEtruscancivilization,AncientRomeand,until
theFrenchRevolution,theWesternChristianworld.
AtabletfoundontheGreekislandSalamisin1846AD(theSalamisTablet),datesbackto300BC,makingitthe
oldestcountingboarddiscoveredsofar.Itisaslabofwhitemarble149cm(59in)long,75cm(30in)wide,and
4.5cm(2in)thick,onwhichare5groupsofmarkings.Inthecenterofthetabletisasetof5parallellinesequally
dividedbyaverticalline,cappedwithasemicircleattheintersectionofthebottommosthorizontallineandthe
singleverticalline.Belowtheselinesisawidespacewithahorizontalcrackdividingit.Belowthiscrackis
anothergroupofelevenparallellines,againdividedintotwosectionsbyalineperpendiculartothem,butwiththe
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semicircleatthetopoftheintersectionthethird,sixthandninthoftheselinesaremarkedwithacrosswherethey
intersectwiththeverticalline.[20]AlsofromthistimeframetheDariusVasewasunearthedin1851.Itwas
coveredwithpicturesincludinga"treasurer"holdingawaxtabletinonehandwhilemanipulatingcountersona
tablewiththeother.[18]

Chinese
TheearliestknownwrittendocumentationoftheChineseabacusdatesto
the2ndcenturyBC.[21]
TheChineseabacus,knownasthesuanpan(,lit."Countingtray",
Mandarinsunpn,Cantonesesyun3pun4),istypically20cm(8in)tall
andcomesinvariouswidthsdependingontheoperator.Itusuallyhasmore
thansevenrods.Therearetwobeadsoneachrodintheupperdeckandfive
beadseachinthebottomforbothdecimalandhexadecimalcomputation.
Suanpan(thenumberrepresentedin
Thebeadsareusuallyroundedandmadeofahardwood.Thebeadsare
thepictureis6,302,715,408)
countedbymovingthemupordowntowardsthebeam.Ifyoumovethem
towardthebeam,youcounttheirvalue.Ifyoumoveaway,youdon'tcount
theirvalue.[22]Thesuanpancanberesettothestartingpositioninstantlybyaquickmovementalongthehorizontal
axistospinallthebeadsawayfromthehorizontalbeamatthecenter.
Suanpanscanbeusedforfunctionsotherthancounting.Unlikethesimplecountingboardusedinelementary
schools,veryefficientsuanpantechniqueshavebeendevelopedtodomultiplication,division,addition,
subtraction,squarerootandcuberootoperationsathighspeed.Therearecurrentlyschoolsteachingstudentshow
touseit.
InthelongscrollAlongtheRiverDuringtheQingmingFestivalpaintedbyZhangZeduan(10851145AD)during
theSongdynasty(9601297AD),asuanpanisclearlyseenlyingbesideanaccountbookanddoctor's
prescriptionsonthecounterofanapothecary's(Feibao).
ThesimilarityoftheRomanabacustotheChineseonesuggeststhatonecouldhaveinspiredtheother,asthereis
someevidenceofatraderelationshipbetweentheRomanEmpireandChina.However,nodirectconnectioncan
bedemonstrated,andthesimilarityoftheabacimaybecoincidental,bothultimatelyarisingfromcountingwith
fivefingersperhand.WheretheRomanmodel(likemostmodernKoreanandJapanese)has4plus1beadper
decimalplace,thestandardsuanpanhas5plus2.(Incidentally,thisallowsusewithahexadecimalnumeral
system.)InsteadofrunningonwiresasintheChinese,Korean,andJapanesemodels,thebeadsofRomanmodel
runingrooves,presumablymakingarithmeticcalculationsmuchslower.
AnotherpossiblesourceofthesuanpanisChinesecountingrods,whichoperatedwithadecimalsystembutlacked
theconceptofzeroasaplaceholder.ThezerowasprobablyintroducedtotheChineseintheTangdynasty(618
907AD)whentravelintheIndianOceanandtheMiddleEastwouldhaveprovideddirectcontactwithIndia,
allowingthemtoacquiretheconceptofzeroandthedecimalpointfromIndianmerchantsandmathematicians.

Roman
ThenormalmethodofcalculationinancientRome,asinGreece,wasbymovingcountersonasmoothtable.
Originallypebbles(calculi)wereused.Later,andinmedievalEurope,jetonsweremanufactured.Markedlines
indicatedunits,fives,tensetc.asintheRomannumeralsystem.Thissystemof'countercasting'continuedintothe
lateRomanempireandinmedievalEurope,andpersistedinlimiteduseintothenineteenthcentury.[23]Dueto
PopeSylvesterII'sreintroductionoftheabacuswithveryusefulmodifications,itbecamewidelyusedinEurope
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onceagainduringthe11thcentury[24][25]Thisabacususedbeadsonwires,
unlikethetraditionalRomancountingboards,whichmeanttheabacus
couldbeusedmuchfaster.[26]
Writinginthe1stcenturyBC,Horacereferstothewaxabacus,aboard
coveredwithathinlayerofblackwaxonwhichcolumnsandfigureswere
inscribedusingastylus.[27]
OneexampleofarchaeologicalevidenceoftheRomanabacus,shownhere
inreconstruction,datestothe1stcenturyAD.Ithaseightlonggrooves
CopyofaRomanabacus
containinguptofivebeadsineachandeightshortergrooveshavingeither
oneornobeadsineach.ThegroovemarkedIindicatesunits,Xtens,and
soonuptomillions.Thebeadsintheshortergroovesdenotefivesfiveunits,fivetensetc.,essentiallyinabi
quinarycodeddecimalsystem,obviouslyrelatedtotheRomannumerals.Theshortgroovesontherightmayhave
beenusedformarkingRoman"ounces"(i.e.fractions).

Indian
ThereisnoclearevidenceforuseoftheabacusinIndia.ThedecimalnumbersysteminventedinIndiareplaced
theabacusinWesternEurope.[28]
TheAbhidharmakoabhyaofVasubandhu(316396),aSanskritworkonBuddhistphilosophy,saysthatthe
secondcenturyCEphilosopherVasumitrasaidthat"placingawick(Sanskritvartik)onthenumberone(ekka)
meansitisaone,whileplacingthewickonthenumberhundredmeansitiscalledahundred,andonthenumber
onethousandmeansitiscalledathousand".Itisunclearexactlywhatthisarrangementmayhavebeen.Around
the5thcentury,IndianclerkswerealreadyfindingnewwaysofrecordingthecontentsoftheAbacus.[29]Hindu
textsusedthetermnya(zero)toindicatetheemptycolumnontheabacus.[30]

Japanese
InJapanese,theabacusiscalledsoroban(,,lit."Counting
tray"),importedfromChinainthe14thcentury.[31]Itwasprobablyinuse
bytheworkingclassacenturyormorebeforetherulingclassstarted,asthe
classstructuredidnotallowfordevicesusedbythelowerclasstobe
Japanesesoroban
adoptedorusedbytherulingclass.[32]The1/4abacus,whichissuitedto
decimalcalculation,appearedcirca1930,andbecamewidespreadasthe
JapaneseabandonedhexadecimalweightcalculationwhichwasstillcommoninChina.Theabacusisstill
manufacturedinJapantodayevenwiththeproliferation,practicality,andaffordabilityofpocketelectronic
calculators.TheuseofthesorobanisstilltaughtinJapaneseprimaryschoolsaspartofmathematics,primarilyas
anaidtofastermentalcalculation.Usingvisualimageryofasoroban,onecanarriveattheanswerinthesame
timeas,orevenfasterthan,ispossiblewithaphysicalinstrument.[33]

Korean
TheChineseabacusmigratedfromChinatoKoreaaround1400AD.[18][34][35]Koreanscallitjupan(),supan
()orjusan().[36]

NativeAmerican
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Somesourcesmentiontheuseofanabacuscalledanepohualtzintzinin
ancientAztecculture.[37]ThisMesoamericanabacususeda5digitbase20
system.[38]ThewordNephualtzintzin[nepowatsintsin]comesfrom
NahuatlanditisformedbytherootsNepersonalphualorphualli
[powali]theaccountandtzintzin[tsintsin]smallsimilarelements.
Itscompletemeaningwastakenas:countingwithsmallsimilarelements
bysomebody.ItsusewastaughtintheCalmecactothetemalpouhqueh
[temapoke],whowerestudentsdedicatedtotaketheaccountsofskies,
fromchildhood.
TheNephualtzintzinwasdividedintwomainpartsseparatedbyabaror
intermediatecord.Intheleftparttherewerefourbeads,whichinthefirst
rowhaveunitaryvalues(1,2,3,and4),andintherightsidetherearethree
beadswithvaluesof5,10,and15respectively.Inordertoknowthevalue
oftherespectivebeadsoftheupperrows,itisenoughtomultiplyby20(by
eachrow),thevalueofthecorrespondingaccountinthefirstrow.
Altogether,therewere13rowswith7beadsineachone,whichmadeup91
beadsineachNephualtzintzin.Thiswasabasicnumbertounderstand,7
times13,acloserelationconceivedbetweennaturalphenomena,the
underworldandthecyclesoftheheavens.OneNephualtzintzin(91)
representedthenumberofdaysthataseasonoftheyearlasts,two
Nephualtzitzin(182)isthenumberofdaysofthecorn'scycle,fromits
sowingtoitsharvest,threeNephualtzintzin(273)isthenumberofdaysof
ababy'sgestation,andfourNephualtzintzin(364)completedacycleand
approximateayear(1 14 daysshort).Whentranslatedintomoderncomputer

RepresentationofanIncaquipu

arithmetic,theNephualtzintzinamountedtotherankfrom10tothe18in
floatingpoint,whichcalculatedstellaraswellasinfinitesimalamounts
withabsoluteprecision,meantthatnoroundoffwasallowed.

AyupanaasusedbytheIncas.

TherediscoveryoftheNephualtzintzinwasduetotheMexicanengineer
DavidEsparzaHidalgo,[39]whoinhiswanderingsthroughoutMexico
founddiverseengravingsandpaintingsofthisinstrumentandreconstructedseveralofthemmadeingold,jade,
encrustationsofshell,etc.[40]TherehavealsobeenfoundveryoldNephualtzintzinattributedtotheOlmec
culture,andevensomebraceletsofMayanorigin,aswellasadiversityofformsandmaterialsinothercultures.
GeorgeI.Sanchez,"ArithmeticinMaya",AustinTexas,1961foundanotherbase5,base4abacusintheYucatn
peninsulathatalsocomputedcalendardata.Thiswasafingerabacus,ononehand0,1,2,3,and4wereusedand
ontheotherhand0,1,2and3wereused.Notetheuseofzeroatthebeginningandendofthetwocycles.Sanchez
workedwithSylvanusMorley,anotedMayanist.
ThequipuoftheIncaswasasystemofcoloredknottedcordsusedtorecordnumericaldata,[41]likeadvancedtally
sticksbutnotusedtoperformcalculations.Calculationswerecarriedoutusingayupana(Quechuafor"counting
tool"seefigure)whichwasstillinuseaftertheconquestofPeru.Theworkingprincipleofayupanaisunknown,
butin2001anexplanationofthemathematicalbasisoftheseinstrumentswasproposedbyItalianmathematician
NicolinoDePasquale.Bycomparingtheformofseveralyupanas,researchersfoundthatcalculationswerebased
usingtheFibonaccisequence1,1,2,3,5andpowersof10,20and40asplacevaluesforthedifferentfieldsinthe
instrument.UsingtheFibonaccisequencewouldkeepthenumberofgrainswithinanyonefieldataminimum.[42]

Russian
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TheRussianabacus,theschoty(),usuallyhasasingleslanteddeck,
withtenbeadsoneachwire(exceptonewire,usuallypositionednearthe
user,withfourbeadsforquarterrublefractions).Oldermodelshave
another4beadwireforquarterkopeks,whichwereminteduntil1916.The
Russianabacusisoftenusedvertically,withwiresfromlefttorightinthe
mannerofabook.Thewiresareusuallybowedtobulgeupwardinthe
center,tokeepthebeadspinnedtoeitherofthetwosides.Itiscleared
whenallthebeadsaremovedtotheright.Duringmanipulation,beadsare
movedtotheleft.Foreasyviewing,themiddle2beadsoneachwire(the
5thand6thbead)usuallyareofadifferentcolorfromtheothereightbeads.
Likewise,theleftbeadofthethousandswire(andthemillionwire,if
present)mayhaveadifferentcolor.
Asasimple,cheapandreliabledevice,theRussianabacuswasinuseinall
shopsandmarketsthroughouttheformerSovietUnion,andtheusageofit
Russianabacus
wastaughtinmostschoolsuntilthe1990s.[43][44]Eventhe1874invention
ofmechanicalcalculator,Odhnerarithmometer,hadnotreplacedthemin
RussiaandlikewisethemassproductionofFelixarithmometerssince1924didnotsignificantlyreducetheirusein
theSovietUnion.[45]TheRussianabacusbegantolosepopularityonlyafterthemassproductionof
microcalculatorshadstartedintheSovietUnionin1974.Todayitisregardedasanarchaismandreplacedbythe
handheldcalculator.
TheRussianabacuswasbroughttoFrancearound1820bythemathematicianJeanVictorPoncelet,whoservedin
Napoleon'sarmyandhadbeenaprisonerofwarinRussia.[46]TheabacushadfallenoutofuseinwesternEurope
inthe16thcenturywiththeriseofdecimalnotationandalgorismicmethods.ToPoncelet'sFrenchcontemporaries,
itwassomethingnew.Ponceletusedit,notforanyappliedpurpose,butasateachinganddemonstrationaid.[47]
TheTurksandtheArmenianpeoplealsousedabacisimilartotheRussianschoty.Itwasnamedacoulbabythe
TurksandachorebbytheArmenians.[48]

Schoolabacus
Aroundtheworld,abacihavebeenusedinpre
schoolsandelementaryschoolsasanaidin
teachingthenumeralsystemandarithmetic.
InWesterncountries,abeadframesimilarto
theRussianabacusbutwithstraightwiresand
averticalframehasbeencommon(seeimage).
Itisstilloftenseenasaplasticorwoodentoy.

Atwentybeadrekenrek

Thewireframemaybeusedeitherwithpositionalnotationlikeotherabaci(thusthe
10wireversionmayrepresentnumbersupto9,999,999,999),oreachbeadmay
representoneunit(sothate.g.74canberepresentedbyshiftingallbeadson7wires
and4beadsonthe8thwire,sonumbersupto100mayberepresented).Inthebead
frameshown,thegapbetweenthe5thand6thwire,correspondingtothecolorchange
betweenthe5thandthe6thbeadoneachwire,suggeststhelatteruse.
Early20thcentury
abacususedinDanish
elementaryschool.

Theredandwhiteabacusisusedincontemporaryprimaryschoolsforawiderangeofnumberrelatedlessons.
Thetwentybeadversion,referredtobyitsDutchnamerekenrek,isoftenused,sometimesonastringofbeads,
sometimesonarigidframework.[49]
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Renaissanceabacigallery

Usesbytheblind
Anadaptedabacus,inventedbyTimCranmer,calledaCranmerabacusisstillcommonlyusedbyindividuals
whoareblind.Apieceofsoftfabricorrubberisplacedbehindthebeadssothattheydonotmoveinadvertently.
Thiskeepsthebeadsinplacewhiletheusersfeelormanipulatethem.Theyuseanabacustoperformthe
mathematicalfunctionsmultiplication,division,addition,subtraction,squarerootandcuberoot.[50]
Althoughblindstudentshavebenefitedfromtalkingcalculators,theabacusisstillveryoftentaughttothese
studentsinearlygrades,bothinpublicschoolsandstateschoolsfortheblind.Theabacusteachesmathematical
skillsthatcanneverbereplacedwithtalkingcalculatorsandisanimportantlearningtoolforblindstudents.[51]
BlindstudentsalsocompletemathematicalassignmentsusingabraillewriterandNemethcode(atypeofbraille
codeformathematics)butlargemultiplicationandlongdivisionproblemscanbelonganddifficult.Theabacus
givesblindandvisuallyimpairedstudentsatooltocomputemathematicalproblemsthatequalsthespeedand
mathematicalknowledgerequiredbytheirsightedpeersusingpencilandpaper.Manyblindpeoplefindthis
numbermachineaveryusefultoolthroughoutlife.[50]

Binaryabacus

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Thebinaryabacusisusedtoexplainhowcomputersmanipulatenumbers.[52]The
abacusshowshownumbers,letters,andsignscanbestoredinabinarysystemona
computer,orviaASCII.Thedeviceconsistsofaseriesofbeadsonparallelwires
arrangedinthreeseparaterows.Thebeadsrepresentaswitchonthecomputerin
eitheran'on'or'off'position.
Twobinaryabaci
constructedbyDr.
RobertC.Good,Jr.,
madefromtwoChinese
abaci

Seealso
Abacuslogic
Chisanbop
ChineseZhusuan
Mentalabacus
Napier'sbones
Sandtable
Sliderule
Soroban
Suanpan

Notes
1.BothC.J.Gadd,akeeperoftheEgyptianandAssyrianAntiquitiesattheBritishMuseum,andJacobLevy,aJewish
HistorianwhowroteNeuhebrischesundchaldischeswrterbuchberdieTalmudimundMidraschim[Neuhebrisches
andChaldeandictionaryontheTalmudsandMidrashi]disagreewiththe"dusttable"theory.[7]

Footnotes
1.Boyer&Merzbach
1991,pp.252253
2.deStefani1909,p.2
3.Gaisford1962,p.2
4.Lasserre&Livadaras
1976,p.4
5.Klein1966,p.1
6.Onions,Friedrichsen
&Burchfield1967,
p.2
7.Pullan1968,p.17
8.Huehnergard2011,p.2
9.Brown1993,p.2
10.Gove1976,p.1
11.Ifrah2001,p.11
12.Crump1992,p.188
13.Melville2001
14.Carruccio2006,p.14
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abacus

15.Smith1958,pp.157
160
16.Carr2014
17.Ifrah2001,p.15
18.Williams1997,p.55
19.Pullan1968,p.16
20.Williams1997,
pp.5556
21.Ifrah2001,p.17
22.Fernandes2003
23.Pullan1968,p.18
24.Brown2010,pp.81
82
25.Brown2011
26.Huff1993,p.50
27.Ifrah2001,p.18

28.Rowlett,Russ(2004
0704),Romanand
"Arabic"Numerals,
UniversityofNorth
CarolinaatChapel
Hill,retrieved
20090622
29.Krner1996,p.232
30.Mollin1998,p.3
31.Gullberg1997,p.169
32.Williams1997,p.65
33.Murray1982
34.Anon2002
35.Jami1998,p.4
36.Anon2013
37.Sanyal2008
38.Anon2004
39.Hidalgo1977,p.94

40.Hidalgo1977,pp.94
101
41.Albree2000,p.42
42.Aimi&DePasquale
2005
43.Burnett&Ryan1998,
p.7
44.Hudgins2004,p.219
45.Leushina1991,p.427
46.Trogeman&Ernst
2001,p.24
47.Flegg1983,p.72
48.Williams1997,p.64
49.West2011,p.49
50.Terlau&Gissoni2006
51.Presley&D'Andrea
2009
52.GoodJr.1985,p.34
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Furtherreading
Fernandes,Luis(2013)."TheAbacus:ABriefHistory".ee.ryerson.ca.ArchivedfromtheoriginalonJuly31,2014.
RetrievedJuly31,2014.
Menninger,KarlW.(1969),NumberWordsandNumberSymbols:ACulturalHistoryofNumbers,MITPress,ISBN0
262130408
Kojima,Takashi(1954),TheJapaneseAbacus:itsUseandTheory,Tokyo:CharlesE.TuttleCo.,Inc.,ISBN08048
02785
Kojima,Takashi(1963),AdvancedAbacus:JapaneseTheoryandPractice,Tokyo:CharlesE.TuttleCo.,Inc.,ISBN0
804800030
Stephenson,StephenKent(July7,2010),AncientComputers,IEEEGlobalHistoryNetwork,arXiv:1206.4349 ,
retrieved20110702
Stephenson,StephenKent(2013),AncientComputers,PartIRediscovery,Edition2,ISBN1490964371

Externallinks
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abacus

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TextsonWikisource:
"Abacus".EncyclopdiaBritannica(11thed.).1911.
"Abacus",fromADictionaryofGreekandRomanAntiquities,
3rded.,1890.

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