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2013/03/22

CSA S16-09
S16 09
Design of Steel Structures
Canada
Ed Whalen, P.Eng
CISC President

CSA S16-09
CSA Standard S16-09 Standard,
Design of Steel Structures.
Sets out minimum requirements used
by engineers in the design of a broad
range of steel structures in Canada.
Published by the Canadian Standards
Association in September 2009.
It supersedes S16-01
S16 01 .
Referenced by the National Building
Code of Canada 2010.

2013/03/22

CSA S16-09 Scope and Application

SCOPE AND APPLICATION


S16-09
S16 09 provides requirements for:
Design
Fabrication
Erection
E
ti
of steel structures.

CSA S16-09 Scope and Application

Requirements for steel structures such as:


Bridges
Offshore structures
Cold-formed steel members
are found
f
d in
i other
h CSA Standards.
S
d d

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CSA S16-09 Historical Overview


Limit States Design Editions
Metric Units

2009 S16-09
2001 S16-01
1994 S16.1-94
1989 S16.1-M89
1984 S16.1-M84
1978 S16.1-M78

CSA S16-09 AISC vs CSA S16.1


CSA S16-09

Limit States Design


g only
y
ANSI/AISC 360-10

Load and Resistance Factor


Design (LRFD)
Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

2013/03/22

CSA S16-09 Committee Philosophies


CSA S16-09
Public safety
Steel competiveness
Ease of design

CSA S16-09 Technical Committee


CSA S16-14 (2014)
Now on a 5 year cycle
Steel racking has been added to this standard
Committee is comprised of 30 members
- General Interest
- Producer Interest
- Regulatory Authority
- User Interest

6 Universities and 11 professors active

2013/03/22

CSA S16-09
Advantages of CSA S16
- Committee fast moving quick to implement changes
g g
- Allows Canadian universities/professors to be engaged
Research
Committee Member
Assists in goal of students choosing structural steel

- 5 year cycle
- Considered relatively simple approach for designer
- References other Canadian Standards as well as American where
practical

CISC Support to the Standard and Industry


CSA Handbook of Steel Construction
- CSA S16 Standard
- CISC Commentary on CSA S16
- Tables and guidance for Connections and Tension
Members
- Tables and guidance for Compression Members
- Tables and guidance for Flexural Members
- Properties and Dimensions
- CISC Code of Standard Practice

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CISC Support to the Standard and Industry


Other Publications
- Limit States Design in Structural Steel
- Calcul des charpentes d'acier, Tome I
- Calcul
des charpentes
d'acier,
Tome II
C l ld
h
t d'
i T
- Ductile Design of Steel Structures
- Crane-Supporting Steel Structures: Design Guide
- Guide to Stability Design Criteria For Metal Structures
- Fire Facts for Steel Buildings
- Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity
g Guide
- Hollow Structural Section: Connections and Trusses - A Design
- Moment Connections for Seismic Applications
- High Strength Bolting for Canadian Engineers
- CISC Code of Standard Practice
- CISC Guide for Specifying Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel

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CISC Support to the Standard and Industry


Apple, Android, and BB Apps
Steel Seismic Systems (SSS10)
- assist in identifying permissible structural steel seismic-force-resisting systems
(SFRS) in accordance with NBC 2010 and CSA S16-09 based on the
Location, Importance Category, Site Class and Building height

Lateral Forces (LF10)


- LF Wind - computes wind storey forces
- LF Seismic - computes seismic storey forces

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CISC Support to the Standard and Industry


Courses
- CSA S16-09 Changes & Steel Handbook Highlights
- Bolting and Welding Fundamentals
- Statics
St ti and
d Strength
St
th off Materials
M t i l
- Connections I
- Connections II
- Inspection of Steel Building Structures
- Connections for Design Engineers
- Single Storey Building Design
g Design
g
- Industrial Building
- Commercial Building Design
- Seismic Design of Steel-Framed Buildings
- Seismic Connections for Steel-Framed Buildings
- Steel Bridges Design, Fabrication, Construction

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CISC Support to the Standard and Industry


Webinars
- Budget Pricing of Steel
- Architecturallyy Exposed Structural Steel
- Steel Design for Low Seismicity
- Fire Protection of Structural Steel
- LEED Credits MR 4 + 5

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CSA S16-09

Continual Evolution
Selected Changes to CSA S16-09

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Changes in S16-09
Net Tension Failure Tr = u Ane Fu

where: u = 0.75

Single-angle Members in Compression


- Connected through the same leg

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Changes in S16-09
A new clause the shear resistance of tubular and concretefilled tubular members
Vr = 0.66 f ((A / 2)) Fyy
New Shear resistance for Plastic Members
Vr = 0.8 w d Fs
where: Fs is the shear stress

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Changes in S16-09
Laterally unsupported beams
a) Rational (accurate) method of analysis, or
b)) Use 2 = 1.0 and
effective length = 1.2 L for pin-ended beams
= 1.4 L for other cases

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Changes in S16-09
Laterally unsupported beams - Coefficient for
Moment Gradient, 2

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Changes in S16-09
Bearing resistance for bolt holes
- br = 0.80

- Approx.
pp
20% increase in strength
g

Block Shear
Tr = u [Ut An Fu + 0.6 Agv (Fy + Fu) / 2]
=

[ Tension + Shear contributions ]

Bolt
bea
ring
,Br

Ut = efficiency factor. Value depends on connection type

10

2013/03/22

Changes in S16-09

Block Shear
Flange-Connected Tees

Ut =0.9Ut =1.0Ut =1.0

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Changes in S16-09

Block Shear

Anglesconnectedbyonelegandstemconnectedtees:

Ut =0.6

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2013/03/22

Changes in S16-09

Block Shear

Ut =0.9

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Changes in S16-09

Block Shear

sUt =0.3

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Changes in S16-09
Multiple Orientation Fillet Welds
- New Strength reduction factor Mw
Vr = 0.67 w Aw Xu ((1.00 + 0.50 sin1.5 )) Mw
Mw = 1.0 for single weld orientation
0.85 Mw 1.0 for multi-orientation welds

longitudinal welds are penalized by the less ductile


transverse welds

Changes in S16-09
Fillet Welds
Strength reduction for multi-orientation welds, Mw

1 =90o

1 =0o

2 =90o

2 =0o

Mw =1.0
=10

Mw =1.0
=10

25

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2013/03/22

Changes in S16-09
Fillet Welds
Strength reduction for multi-orientation welds, Mw

1 =0o
2 =90o

Mw =0.85

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Changes in S16-09
Welds and Bolts in Combination
Case 1: Bolts + Transverse welds
The capacity is the maximum between
(a) the bolt and (b) the weld strengths taken separately.
The component strengths are not additive.

Case 2: Bolts + Longitudinal welds


The capacity is the maximum between:
(a) Welds + 0.5 Bolts
(b) Bolts

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Changes in S16-09
Welds and Bolts in Combination
Case 3: Bolts + Transverse welds + Longitudinal welds
The capacity is the maximum between:
(a) Transverse welds + 0.85 Longitudinal welds
(b) Longitudinal welds + 0.5 Bolts
(c) Bolts only
Note: For pretensioned bolts, 25% of the slip resistance is added
when only part of the bolt resistance is used.

Changes in S16-09

ChangestoS1609
Clause27
SeismicDesign

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2013/03/22

Changes in S16-09

Gravity Column Splices


There is now a minimum shear resistance for gravity
columns that are not part of the seismic-forceresisting system (SFRS).
Vr 0.2 Z Fy / hs in both orthogonal directions

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Changes in S16-09
Seismic Design

Traditional construction

New Provision
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2013/03/22

Changes in S16-09
Seismic Design

Hollow Structural Sections


The minimum probable yield stress for HSS, RyFy,
has been increased to 460 MPa (from 385 MPa) to
account for their inherently higher characteristic-toratios
specified yield ratios.

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Changes in S16-09
Seismic Design
Protected Zones
Protected zones are areas that undergo large
inelastic strains due to seismic loading. They must be
indicated on the structural drawings and shop details.
yp of structural or other attachments ((e.g.
g
Some types
lifting hitches, cladding, etc.) are prohibited within
protected zones.

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2013/03/22

Changes in S16-09
Seismic Design

For moment frames, protected zones are associated


with the critical yielding zones around plastic hinges.
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Changes in S16-09
Seismic Design

For braced frames, the entire brace is protected.


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2013/03/22

Changes in S16-09
Seismic Design

Bucklingrestrained
braces

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Opportunity for South Africa


Participate in the CSA S16 Committee
Dialogue with CSA on options to modify S16 to needs of SA
Possible CISC SAISC Collaboration
- Commentary for CSA S16
- Training material, courses and webinars
- Technical resources
- Design apps
- On-Line forums
- Other?

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2013/03/22

CSA S16-09
S16 09
Design of Steel Structures
Canada
Ed Whalen, P.Eng
CISC President

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