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Announcements

1. Mechanism Challenge 2 is due the first class of next week


2. Homework 4 is due the first class of the week, after next
3. EGME 335 Midterm: 11/02 for Section 1 and 11/03 for Section 2
4. Device Analysis Individual Projects: Coming up during the week of 11/07

4.1. PowerPoint Presentations: in class
4.2. Submit presentations in Titanium
4.3. Bring a hard copy of presentations with you

Goal: Disassemble, analyze, evaluate and propose improvements to an


existing real-world mechanism. Each student or team of max 2 students is to
prepare 1-3 slides generated in the format provided.
Slider Crank, Inverted Slider Crank,
Four Bar Linkage, Planar Robots,
Cam and Follower Systems

Individual Projects: Device Analysis

Goal: Description of the


device and its operation.

Principles: Description of
the science and
engineering fundamentals.

Photographs of the
device, assembled
and disassembled.

Calculation: Present the data, an example


calculation, and table or graph of results.
Include labels and units.

Photographs of the
mechanism and its
components.

Improvements: Derive MA and propose possible


ideas for improving the design of the device.

Conclusions: Summarize the engineering
application of the analysis. What additional work
is needed to refine the results and determine
limits.

Goal: Disassemble, analyze, evaluate and propose improvements to an existing real-world


mechanism. Each student/team of 2 is to prepare 1-3 slides generated in the format provided.

Cam and Follower Systems

Cam and Follower Systems

Fishing Reel: Cam and Follower System


Goal: To disassemble a fishing
reel mechanism in order to
locate and identify the cam and
follower components.

Principles: The mechanism inside a


shing reel is a no-dwell cam and
follower system called an eccentric
cam; this means that the loca7on of the
follower is o-center of the circular
cam.

Cam and Follower Systems: From Internal


Combustion Engines to Prosthetic Assistive Devices

Development of a Lower Extremity Device for


Assisting Natural Gait for People with Knee Injuries
Without Device

With Device

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The Cam Joint


A connection between two links that is formed by general surfaces in contact is called a cam-joint.
The input link is called the cam and the output is called the follower.

Contact is defined as (i) a point A1 in the cam and a point A2 on the profiles of the cam and
follower positioned so they have the same coordinates Ac in the world frame W, and such that (ii)
the tangent vectors T1 and T2 of cam and follower profiles are the same Tc at Ac.

The cam joint has two degrees of freedom, because the relative configuration of the cam B1 and
follower B2 are defined by specifying contact of a point A1 on the profile of B1 (one degree of
freedom) with a point A2 on the profile of B2 (the second degree of freedom).

Mobility
Let c be the number of cam joints in a collection of n rigid bodies and j the number of
hinges and sliders, then the mobility formula becomes


M=3(N -1) - 2j1 j2,

where N is the number of links; N=n+1 includes the ground frame; j1 is the number of
single dof joints; j2 is the number of two dof pairs.

This allows us to determine the dof of the Cam and follower system as:


M= 3(3 1) 2(2) 1 = 6 4 1 = 1.

Let C denote the cam-joint, then we have the combinations



RCR--Radial cam and oscillating follower,

RCP--Radial cam and translating (reciprocating) follower,
and

PCP--Translating cam and translating follower.

Followers
The shape of the cam and follower combine to define the displacement function. Followers are usually
selected to have standard shapes so it is the cam that requires careful shaping operations.

The primary follower shapes are (i) knife-edge, (ii) flat-face (iii) roller and (iv)
curved-shoe. The curved shoe is spherical solid that has the circular cross-section
of a roller follower.

The different shapes of these followers require the cam profile to be different in
order to define the same displacement function.

Displacement Functions
Assume the angular velocity of the cam is a constant , then velocity and acceleration of
the follower are seen in the displacement function:

The displacement function also
defines the follower velocity and
acceleration:

Displacement functions consists of three basic


segments: the rise, dwell and the return.

The profiles of the cam and follower are shaped to provide a specific displacement function.

RCR(radial cam, oscillating follower): (out) = f((in)),

RCP(radial cam, translating follower): s(out) = f((in)),

PCP(translating cam, translating follower): t(out) = f(s(in)).

Radial Cam and Translating Followers:


Displacement Diagrams
Displacement function:

s =
{dwell from 0 to 90deg,


3in simple harmonic rise from 90 to 180deg,


3in simple harmonic return form 180 to 360deg.}

Cam Nomenclature: Relation Between the Cam


Profile and the Displacement Diagram
LEFT: ROLLER FOLLOWER RIGHT: FLAT FACE FOLLOWER

1.IDENTIFY STATION NUMBERS AROUND THE PRIME CIRCLE

2.THE CENTER LINE OF THE FOLLOWER IS CONSTRUCTED FOR EACH STATION

3. WE CAN IDENTIFY THE CAM PROFILE FROM A GIVEN DISPLACEMENT DIAGRAM AND VICE VERSA

The cam surface is developed by holding the cam stationary and rotating the follower
from station 0 through stations 1, 2, 3, etc.

Parabolic Rise/Return
Parabolic Rise/Return:

b is the radius of the base circle,

h0 is the radius at the start of the return,

h is the amount of rise,

0 is the starting angle of the rise,

= 1 - 0 is the angular range of the rise.

Accelerating segment:

Decelerating segment:

Simple Harmonic Rise and Return

Simple Harmonic Rise:



b is the radius of the base circle,

h is the amount of rise,

0 is the starting angle of the rise,

= 1 - 0 is the angular range of the rise..

Simple Harmonic Return:



h0 is the radius at the start of the return,

h is the amount of return,

1 is the starting angle of the return,

= 2 - 1 is the angular range of the return..

Cycloidal Rise and Return

Cycloidal Rise:

b is the radius of the base circle,

h is the amount of rise,

0 is the starting angle of the rise,

= 1 - 0 is the angular range of the rise.

Cycloidal Return:

h0 is the radius at the start of the return,

h is the amount of return,

1 is the starting angle of the return,

= 2 - 1 is the angular range of the return.

Cam Profile for a Knife Edge Follower


The Cam Profile

The cam profile is a plane curve of the form A = R cos i + R sin j,

where i and j are the unit vectors in the x and y directions of the frame B attached to the cam.

Let Ai be the points of contact between the cam and follower
at different angular positions i of the follower relative to the
cam.

The coordinates of the points of contact define the cam:

Ai = R cosi i + R sini j.

The functions R and that define the cam profile are derived
from the follower geometry and the displacement function
s=f().

For a knife-edge follower these functions are particularly
simple.

Summary

A cam-follower mechanism has a two degrees of freedom cam joint that connects
the input and output links. The relative shape of the cam and follower define the
displacement function of the mechanism.

Displacement functions for radial cams are periodic functions consisting of
sequences of dwell, rise and return segments.

The geometry of the follower is usually simplified to a point, line or circle, and
combines with the displacement function to define the cam profile.

Class Example 1
Problem : Cam Design

A knife-edge cam-follower is to:

1. dwell for 30,

2. rise 2 inches with cycloidal motion from 30 to 100,

3. dwell from 100 to 180,

4. return 1 inch with simple harmonic motion from 180 to 230,

5. dwell from 230 to 270, and then

6. return 1 inch with simple harmonic motion from 270 to 330,

7. dwell for the remaining 30 of cam rotation.

The cam's base radius is 2 inches and the angular velocity is constant at 1 rad/s.

1.Formulate and sketch the displacement function for

the follower as a function of the cam rotation angle .

2. Formulate and sketch the velocity of the follower

versus .

3. Formulate and sketch the acceleration of the follower

versus .

4. Sketch the cam profile.

Example
Problem : Cam Design

A knife-edge cam-follower is to:

1. dwell for 30,

2. rise 2 inches with cycloidal motion from 30 to 100,

3. dwell from 100 to 180,

4. return 1 inch with simple harmonic motion from 180 to 230,

5. dwell from 230 to 270, and then

6. return 1 inch with simple harmonic motion from 270 to 330,

7. dwell for the remaining 30 of cam rotation.

The cam's base radius is 2 inches and the angular velocity is constant at 1 rad/s.

1.Formulate and sketch the displacement function for

the follower as a function of the cam rotation angle .

2. Formulate and sketch the velocity of the follower

versus .

3. Formulate and sketch the acceleration of the follower

versus .

4. Sketch the cam profile.

1. dwell for 30,



2. rise 2 inches with cycloidal motion from
30 to 100,

3. dwell from 100 to 180,

4. return 1 inch with simple harmonic motion
from 180 to 230,

5. dwell from 230 to 270, and then

6. return 1 inch with simple harmonic motion
from 270 to 330,

7. dwell for the remaining 30.

The cam's base radius is 2 inches.

Simple Harmonic

h0 =4 is the radius at the start of the return,

h=1 is the amount of return,

1 =180 is the starting angle of the return,

= 2 - 1 = 230-180 is the angular range of the return.

Cycloidal

b=do=2 is the radius of the base circle,

h=2 is the amount of rise,

0 = 30 is the starting angle of the rise,

= 1 - 0 = 100-30 is the angular range of the rise

6-

1. dwell for 30,



2. rise 2 inches with cycloidal motion from
30 to 100,

3. dwell from 100 to 180,

4. return 1 inch with simple harmonic motion
from 180 to 230,

5. dwell from 230 to 270, and then

6. return 1 inch with simple harmonic motion
from 270 to 330,

7. dwell for the remaining 30.

The cam's base radius is 2 inches.

Cam Profile

1. dwell for 30,

2. rise 2 inches with cycloidal motion
from 30 to 100,

3. dwell from 100 to 180,

4. return 1 inch with simple harmonic
motion from 180 to 230,

5. dwell from 230 to 270, and then

6. return 1 inch with simple harmonic
motion from 270 to 330,

7. dwell for the remaining 30.

The cam's base radius is 2 inches.

6-

Class Example 2
Design a cam-follower system to drive a

knife-edge follower with the following

displacement requirements:

1. Cycloidal rise of 1in for 90 of cam rotation,

2. Dwell from 90 to 200,

3. Cycloidal return of 1in from 200 to 360.

The cam's base radius is 2 inches.

1.Formulate and sketch the displacement function for

the follower as a function of the cam rotation angle .

2. Formulate and sketch the velocity and acceleration

of the follower versus .

3. Sketch the cam profile.

Cycloidal Return:

h0 is the radius at the start of the return,

h is the amount of return,

1 is the starting angle of the return,

= 2 - 1 is the angular range of the return.

Cycloidal Rise:

b=do is the radius of the base circle,

h is the amount of rise,

0 is the starting angle of the rise,

= 1 - 0 is the angular range of the rise.

Displacement Diagram

Cycloidal

b=do is the radius of the base circle,

h is the amount of rise,

0 is the starting angle of the rise,

= 1 - 0 is the angular range of the rise.

h0 is the radius at the start of the return,



h is the amount of return,

1 is the starting angle of the return,

= 2 - 1 is the angular range of the return.

Velocity and Acceleration Diagrams


Cam Profile