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# Neural networks

## Computer vision - discrete convolution

COMPUTER VISION
Topics: parameter sharing
Each

Abst

Jarret
et
al.
2009
Math for my slides Computer vision.

## can be computed with a discrete

convolution
H X ( ) of a kernel matrix kij which is
Bank
- FCSG
: its
therowsinput
of a flipped
filter bank
the hiddenLayer
weights matrix
Wij with
and columns

re

u
at
fe

ilter
r is a 3D array with n1 2D feature maps of size n2 n3 .
h component is denoted xijk , and each feature map
is
xi is the ith channel of input
oted xi . The output is also a 3D array, y composed
of
kij is the convolution kernelFigure 1. A example of fe
eature maps of size m2 m3 . A filter in the
bank
gj isfilter
a learned
scaling factorRabs N PA . An i
yj ismap
the hidden
layer
has size l1 l2 and connects input feature
xi to
through a non-linear fil
ut feature map yj . The module computes: (could have added a bias) contrast normalization an
!
yj = gj tanh(
kij xi )
(1)
layer with 4x4 down-s
m

s
ap

## Figure 1. A example of feature extraction s

i

COMPUTER VISION
Topics: discrete convolution
convolution of an image x with a kernel k is computed
as follows:

The

(x * k)ij =
x
i+p,j+q kr-p,r-q
pq
Example:

~k = k
01 80
0.5 40
20
0.25 400

40

## with rows and columns flipped

0

0.25

0.5

COMPUTER VISION
Topics: discrete convolution
convolution of an image x with a kernel k is computed
as follows:

The

(x * k)ij =
x
i+p,j+q kr-p,r-q
pq
Example:

1 x 0 + 0.5 x 80 + 0.25 x 20 + 0 x 40
01 80
0.5 40
20
0.25 400

40

0.25

0.5

45

COMPUTER VISION
Topics: discrete convolution
convolution of an image x with a kernel k is computed
as follows:

The

(x * k)ij =
x
i+p,j+q kr-p,r-q
pq
Example:

1 x 80 + 0.5 x 40 + 0.25 x 40 + 0 x 0
0

801 40
0.5

20

40
0.25 00

40

0.25

0.5

45

110

COMPUTER VISION
Topics: discrete convolution
convolution of an image x with a kernel k is computed
as follows:

The

(x * k)ij =
x
i+p,j+q kr-p,r-q
pq
Example:
0

80

40

201 40
0.5 0
0
0 0 40
0.25

1 x 20 + 0.5 x 40 + 0.25 x 0 + 0 x 0

0.25

0.5

45
40

110

COMPUTER VISION
Topics: discrete convolution
convolution of an image x with a kernel k is computed
as follows:

The

(x * k)ij =
x
i+p,j+q kr-p,r-q
pq
Example:
0

80

40

20

401

00.5

0 400
0.25

1 x 40 + 0.5 x 0 + 0.25 x 0 + 0 x 40

0.25

0.5

45

110

40

40

COMPUTER VISION
Topics: discrete convolution
Pre-activations

## from channel xi into feature map yj can be

computed by:

getting the convolution kernel where kij =Wij from the connection matrix Wij

This

## is equivalent to computing the discrete correlation

of xi with Wij

COMPUTER VISION

Example
Example
Topics: discrete convolution

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COMPUTER VISION
Example
Topics: discrete convolution
With

## a non-linearity, we get a detector of a feature at any

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10

COMPUTER VISION
Topics: discrete convolution
Example
Can

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## use zero padding to allow going

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