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NOVEMBER 2015
VOL. 73 NO. 11
ASNT CREATING A SAFER WORLD!

ELECTROMAGNETIC

TESTING
Electric Field Leakage
EFI Applications
Steel Surface Strain

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING

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NOVEMBER 2015
VOLUME 73 NUMBER 11

FEATURE

1438

1438

Field Test
Electric Field Leakage Nondestructive Testing
Principle and its Simulation
Donglin Li, Yanhua Sun, Zhijian Ye, and Yihua Kang

COMING IN MARCH

1463 25th ASNT Research Symposium

1463

TECHNICAL PAPERS

1479

Electric Potential and Electric Field


Imaging with Applications

1479

E.R. Generazio

1490

Electromagnetic Measurement of
Applied and Residual Surface Strain
in Steel
Otto Henry Zinke

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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departments
PERSPECTIVE

ASNT SCOPE
1413 Presidents Letter

1418 Section News

to ensure our success we


must work much like a strong
team of mountaineers

1419 Society Notes


1420 Awards and Honors

1417 Directors Letter

1422 Presidential Profile

we will see amazing things


come from our members, our
Board, and our officers

20152016 ASNT
President Kevin D. Smith

1426 People

1447

WHATS NEW

1428 Staff News

1446 Product Gallery

1430 Society News

RESOURCES

1447 Spotlight: Visual Testing

1432 New ASNT Certificate


Holders

1450 New Media


Zetec Launches New Website,
Non-destructive Testing
Equipment Market,
Intelligent Pigging
Services Market

1434 Exam Schedule


1436 Editorial Calendar
1464 Corporate Partners
1469 Calendar

1455 NDT Pics


1456 Industry News
GE Inspection Technologies
Opens Second Computed
Tomography Plant, Arctic Slope
Regional Acquires Arctic Pipe
Inspection, Rockwood Service
Acquires Applied Inspection,
3sun Group Launches Asset
Integrity Service

1418

1421 Contact ASNT

1497 Employment Service


1498 Service Directory
1508 Coming Attractions
1508 Ad Index

1461 New Patents

Digital Materials Evaluation content is also available online at


www.asnt.org/materialsevaluation/access.

IN THIS ISSUE

Electromagnetic Testing

1408

Subscription Questions?

Back Issues & Article Copies

Comments & Suggestions

ASNT membership includes a one-year


subscription to Materials Evaluation.
Institutions, or others who wish to have
a subscription without becoming an
ASNT member, may simply subscribe to
the journal through ASNT. To become a
member or subscribe to the journal,
contact ASNT at (800) 222-2768 or
see www.asnt.org/membershipoptions.

Back issues of Materials Evaluation


are available for purchase. See
www.asnt.org/shop/periodicals.ihtml
for details, or call (800) 222-2768.
Copies of individual articles may also
be obtained through ASNT: contact the
librarian at (800) 222-2768 for more
information.

Letters to the editor are welcome at any


time. Letters that are timely and significant may be published in an issue of
Materials Evaluation. Not all letters are
suitable for publication, and ASNT
makes no claim regarding publication
of a given letter. Letters should be
sent to Editor Nathaniel Moes at
nmoes@asnt.org.

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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The American Society for Nondestructive Testing


www.asnt.org
VOLUME 73 NUMBER 11

A S N T M I SS I O N STAT E M E N T

JOURNAL STA FF
PUBLISHER: Dr. Arnold Bereson
PUBLICATIONS MANAGER: Timothy E. Jones
EDITOR: Nathaniel Moes
ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Toni Kervina
ADVERTISING SUPERVISOR: Jessica Miller
PRODUCTION/LAYOUT: Joy Grimm

ASNT exists to create a safer world by promoting the profession and


technologies of nondestructive testing.

REVIEW B OA R D
TECHNICAL EDITOR

Richard H. Bossi, The Boeing Company


(retired)
TECHNICAL EDITOR (emeritus)

Emmanuel P. Papadakis, Quality Systems


Concepts
ASSOCIATE TECHNICAL EDITORS

John C. Aldrin, Computational Tools


Ali Abdul-Aziz, NASA Glenn Research Center
Narendra K. Batra, Naval Research
Laboratory (retired)
William C. Chedister, Chedister Associates
John Chen, Schlumberger
John C. Duke, Jr., Virginia Polytechnic
Trey Gordon, The Boeing Company
Mani Mina, Iowa State University
William E. Mooz, Met-L-Chek Company
Yicheng Peter Pan, Therm-O-Disc/Emerson, Inc.
William H. Prosser, NASA Langley Research
Center
S.I. Rokhlin, The Ohio State University
Donald J. Roth, GE Aviation
Ram P. Samy, NDE Information Consultants
Robert E. Shannon, Siemens Energy, Inc.
Steven M. Shepard, Thermal Wave Imaging
Roderic K. Stanley, NDE Information
Consultants
Mike C. Tsao, University of Connecticut
Avery Point
Lalita Udpa, Michigan State University
Sharon I. Vukelich, University of Dayton
Research Institute
Lianxiang Yang, Oakland University
Reza Zoughi, Missouri University of Science
and Technology
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS

Bruce G. Crouse, Inspection Services


Dietmar Henning, Vector TUB
Frank A. Iddings, Louisiana State University
(emeritus)
Robert E. Shannon, Siemens Energy, Inc.
Ripudaman Singh, Pratt & Whitney
Materials Evaluation (ISSN 0025-5327) is
published monthly by the American Society for
Nondestructive Testing, Inc. Periodical postage
paid at Columbus, Ohio, and additional mailing
offices. Posted under Canadian IPM #0312819.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to

Materials Evaluation, 1711 Arlingate Lane,


PO Box 28518, Columbus, OH 43228-0518.

1410

S O C I E TY O F F I CE R S
CHAIR: L. Terry Clausing, Drysdale & Associates, Inc., 2016
PRESIDENT: Kevin D. Smith, Pratt & Whitney, 2016
VICE PRESIDENT: David R. Bajula, Acuren Group, Inc., 2016
SECRETARY/TREASURER: David A. Mandina, Mandinas Inspection Services, Inc., 2016
D I R EC TOR S
Mohammed A. Abufour, Saudi Aramco, 2018
Marwan Basrawi, Saudi Aramco, 2016
Tsuchin Philip Chu, Southern Illinois University, 2016
Brenda L. Collins, Magnaflux, 2016
B. Boro Djordjevic, Materials and Sensors Technologies, Inc., 2018
Cindy Finley, UTEX Scientific Instruments, Inc., 2016
David O. Hall, ETM, Inc., 2016
Michael V. McGloin, NDT Enterprises, 2018
William Plumstead, Jr., PQT Services, 2016
Robert L. Saunders, Ellwood City Forge Co., 2017
David E. Savoy, Versa Integrity Group, 2016
Flynn Spears, Laser Technology, 2017
John Turner, FlawTech, Inc., 2017
Materials Evaluation is an archival journal in nondestructive testing/evaluation/inspection. The journals
technical articles are refereed by experts in their fields and the papers are abstracted by major technical
abstracting services, including: Acoustic Abstracts; Alloys Index; Aluminum Industry Abstracts; Applied Mechanics
Review; Applied Science and Technology Index; Cadscan; Corrosion Abstracts; Current Contents; Energy Science &
Technology; Engineered Materials Abstracts; Engineering Index; Exploration and Production Health, Safety and
Environment; Gas Processing and Pipelining; Highway Research Info Service; INIS Atomindex; INSPEC, Institution of
Electrical Engineers; ISMEC, Mechanical Engineering Abstracts; Index to Scientific Reviews; International Aerospace
Abstracts; Leadscan; Metals Abstracts; Metals Information; Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center;
Nonferrous Metals Alert; Offshore Technology; PASCAL; PIRA; Petroleum Abstracts; Polymers, Ceramics, Composites
Alert; Science Abstracts (Physics Abstracts, Electrical and Electronics Abstracts and Computer and Control
Abstracts); Science Citation Index; Solid State and Superconductivity Abstracts; Steels Alert; and Zincscan.
Subscriptions to Materials Evaluation (noncommissionable) to other than members of the Society: $135 per
year domestic; $245 (prepaid) per year international, which includes special handling outside the USA. Single
copy price: $9 for members ($12 for nonmembers), except for Buyers Guide issue in June ($21.25 for members,
$26.50 for nonmembers). Claims for replacement of lost or damaged copies must be made in writing, received
within 60 days of the date of publication. No more than two claims for replacement copies will be honored in a
single year. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2015 by the American Society for
Nondestructive Testing, Inc.
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. (ASNT) is not responsible for the authenticity or accuracy of
the information herein. Published opinions and statements do not necessarily reflect the opinions of ASNT.
Products or services that are advertised or mentioned do not carry the endorsement or recommendation of ASNT.
IRRSP, NDT Handbook, The NDT Technician and www.asnt.org are trademarks of the American Society for
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Handbook, Research in Nondestructive Evaluation and RNDE are registered trademarks of the American Society
for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.
Authorization to photocopy fee-coded items for internal or personal use or the internal or personal use of
specific clients, is granted by the American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc., for libraries and other users
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all material to be photocopied beyond that photocopying permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the US Copyright
Law. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works or for resale.

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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letter

PRESIDENTS

We Are ASNT
ID LIKE TO BEGIN by making an honest confession to
you: I embrace challenges. Its true. I take joy in overcoming obstacles and hardship while discovering the
creative diligence it takes to get there. I live by
President John F. Kennedys words, as he announced
the lunar exploration program, that we choose to do
things not because they are easy, but because they
are hard. While there is no doubt that my projects at
Pratt & Whitney present intellectual challenges, I have
throughout my life also sought more external, physical
challenges that test not only the body, but the mind
and spirit as well.
For a time, I was a mountaineer. For those of you
not familiar, it boils down to traveling with a team into
high and treacherous terrain. Not only are you hiking
with a team, but you are roped together. Yes, when
climbing into the face of danger, you are tied to
another person you may not even know and, as the
challenge goes, you must trust him or her with your
survival as you move in tandem toward your goal.
In such a situation, planning, executing, and
adapting are critical to finishing the trip alive. You
must know how to use the tools and skills at your
disposal, plan your route accordingly, and know how
to work with your teammates, listening and trusting, to
change course or adapt to potentially fatal dangers as
they present themselves. Persistence, above all, is the
tie that binds these together.
These same principles apply to our Society today.
ASNT is constantly moving forward into new,
sometimes uncharted territory, and to ensure our
success we must work much like a strong team of
mountaineers. We must move together consistently,
making intelligent decisions based on community
input, as well as our existing knowledge and accomplishments, and persist through difficult times.

This is the text of the speech delivered by ASNT President Kevin D.


Smith at the Annual Awards Banquet at the 2015 ASNT Annual
Conference in Salt Lake City, Utah, as edited for publication.
Opinions stated here are Smiths own and may not reflect ASNT
policy.

to ensure our success we


must work much like a strong
team of mountaineers
In the past several years, we have identified and
acted upon three necessary areas that have set the
stage for our current position and prospects for the
future.
First, there has been a concerted effort to invest in
and encourage volunteer and member engagement
and involvement at all levels of the Society. Our
outgoing chair, Roger Engelbart, had remarked in his
presidential address that, Involvement creates
success and ensures a future for ASNT. Such words
still ring true today as we begin focusing our efforts
towards new challenges. The energy for such success
is palpable. It is inspiring.
Secondly, we have identified the need for a
global nondestructive testing (NDT) community and
how ASNT can lead in that structure while embracing
membership not as domestic or international
members, but as ASNT members. My predecessor,
L. Terry Clausing, along with a number of Board
members and member volunteers, have made
tremendous in-roads with sister societies and organizations with which we have previously let our relationships fade. There is a renewed sense of energy
and enthusiasm for what ASNT has done and what
we can accomplish moving forward.
Thirdly, ASNT now has a tremendous and valuable
asset: our Strategic Plan. This plan, forged through the
tireless work of the Board of Directors, member volunteers, and International Service Center (ISC) staff, will
be the focal point for the decisions that we make as a
Society for the foreseeable future. Where we previously
acted passively, we now have a roadmap with
direction for achieving our goals. We are poised to
be active and engage our challenges.

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Now, with an engaged volunteer base,


healthy relationships developing around
the globe, and comprehensive, powerful
plan, we are in a position to make our
visions and aspirations a reality.
As we move forward on a path that is
forged by growth, cooperation, and mutual
understanding between ASNT and our
partners around the globe, it is critical that
we identify the needs of those who do not
reap the full harvest of our labor and work
our hardest to meet their needs. It is now

other entities, which could in turn weaken


our ability to serve our researchers. The
Research Council is working to regain and
exceed the reputation of ASNT as the
premier organization for the NDT
researcher. Strengthening the Research
Symposium to be the conference of choice
for NDT researchers to present their most
recent findings is the goal.
We must also recognize the NDT
engineer, the third and youngest leg of the
community. We have huge opportunities to

and act on the highest priority items that


will add the most value.
Knowing the needs and desires of our
fellow professionals to bring them into the
Society is the first step. We must in turn
act. We have excellent opportunities in
front of us to actively engage our members
throughout the world to become active in
identifying ways we can add value to the
NDT community and execute on these
initiatives. Currently only a small fraction
of our members are actively engaged in

Together, we are the pioneers of our profession:


inventing, creating, evolving. Together, we are
the future. Together, we are ASNT.
our time to begin working to fully serve all
segments of the NDT communitynot only
those we count as our members, but those
who yet we have not.
We must consider the Level III and
inspector community. We currently serve
this community well with our educational
materials and certification programs.
Members who volunteer their time to work
on these activities are critical in providing
this service to our members and the
industry. We can see the positive impact of
our efforts, as 54% of those who are ASNT
certified are also members. However, that
means 46% are not. We must communicate the value of an ASNT membership to
inspectors worldwide.
We must concern ourselves with The
NDT research community. Currently, this
group is served primarily by our Research
Council, which works to produce the
journal Research in Nondestructive
Evaluation and the spring Research
Symposium. While these have been
valuable assets, we have been losing
participation in the Research Council to

1414

add value to this element of the


community, particularly in the area of
lifelong learning and development. We
have started to provide support for the
NDT engineer through remote participation
in the methods committees; this remote
participation worldwide is a key area that
we must achieve. We also need to expand
lifelong learning opportunities in other
ways. In the near term we need to make
educational materials such as presentations and short courses available to those
who cannot join us at the conferences.
We must identify the needs of those
who have not yet joined ASNT but will
benefit tremendously by the support and
opportunity that this Society provides. In an
effort to understand the global scope of our
profession, we know that ASNT members
comprise but a small fraction of this professional population. When there are a significant number of NDT professionals who are
not members of this Society, it suggests that
we need to challenge ourselves to understand and address the needs of the
worldwide NDT community more thoroughly

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

doing the work of the Society. The officers,


the rest of the Board, and staff at ISC can
carry out some aspects, but we all recognize
that none of this will happen without the
active engagement of the councils, committees, and individual members.
For the coming year and those to
follow, we must embrace our hard challenges as a Society and, like that strong
team of mountaineers, work in rhythm
towards our goals with all of the
knowledge and skills we have at our
disposal. My friends, there is no better
time than now. If we stand still, we fall
behindand we do this together. Because
together, we are the NDT community,
constantly striving to create a safer world.
Together, we are the pioneers of our
profession: inventing, creating, evolving.
Together, we are the future. Together, we
are ASNT.
Thank you.
KEVIN D. SMITH

20152016 ASNT President


president@asnt.org

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letter

DIRECTORS

Changing of the Collar


FIRST, THANK YOU. Thank you for making the 2015 ASNT Annual Conference such an
inspiring event. It was inspiring to see the great number of international members representing their respective countries and organizations taking part in the nondestructive testing
(NDT) industrys largest conference. It was inspiring to see the collaboration and excitement
that filled each meeting and conversation. It was inspiring to see the potential for greatness
that we as a Society have in the years to come.
While at the Annual Conference, I, along with hundreds of members and delegates, had
the opportunity to witness the changing of the collar, a ceremonial act in which the
outgoing president graciously transfers his or her position to the person elected to next serve
the office.
As the ceremony progressed and outgoing President L. Terry Clausing placed the collar
over incoming President Kevin Smiths shoulders, I took note of the past ASNT presidents
who stood to recognize and accept this new officer, not only as the next ASNT president, but
as a new member of their family for having held such a prestigious position. I could not help
but take a moment to admire the importance and respect for dedicated leadership that ASNT
places upon itself. After all, the strength of the Society commands its future in NDT.
Without such respect, we would end up doing things only for the sake of doing them.
Wed go through the motions. We would simply maintain. But we realize our Societys importance. We are moving forward and we are moving forward aggressively and with purpose. I
truly believe in the coming year, we will see amazing things come from our members, our
Board, and our officers. I believe we will see ASNT emerge as a strong leader.
I am excited to work with Kevin as our new president, Terry as our chair of the Board, and
the entire Executive Committee. They have all made clear that their passions are for continuing the work of those before them: strengthening bonds with our international partners,
invigorating and growing an active volunteer base, identifying the needs of those who require
ASNTs service more than ever, and utilizing our new strategic plan to its full capabilities. I
encourage you to also read Kevins message this month to learn more about his vision for the
coming year.
I hope that those of you who attended the Annual Conference felt the same energy and
enthusiasm, and I hope that those of you who could not be there can see the opportunities
for engagement and involvement that are abundantly presenting themselves to you.
I challenge each and every one of you reading this message to find a way to contribute
and help ASNT achieve its goals, to find a committee or council to join, to find a section to
strengthen, and to find colleagues and members to join this awesome Society.
I want to again thank everyone who attended and helped prepare the 2015 ASNT Annual
Conference in Salt Lake City. I am proud to be part of an organization with active members
and staff who work for the good of their colleagues and their profession by creating such
exceptional experiences and opportunities.

we will see
amazing things
come from our
members, our
Board, and our
officers

DR. ARNOLD ARNY BERESON

ASNT Executive Director


abereson@asnt.org

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ASNT Scope

SECTION HIGHLIGHT

provides readers with


updates on ASNT
members, sections and
activities. We depend on
member contributions
for this section. Send
updates, announcements and photos
regarding your Section,
people, awardees,
obituaries, etc., to
presaward@asnt.org.
Please include Scope
News in the subject line,
and your name and
contact information.

1418

section news
North Carolina Student
CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA

The North Carolina Student Section held


its beginning of semester meet and greet
on 20 August in the nondestructive testing
(NDT) lab at the Harper campus of Central
Piedmont Community College. The meeting
allowed the new and continuing students
to get to know one another and gave the
new students the opportunity to become
acquainted with the Section officers and
how the Section operates. Thirty-four

students, faculty, and guests enjoyed


pizza and sandwiches provided by Ivory
Wilson, senior recruiter for the nuclear
power visual inspection section of the NDT
program. The meeting was a huge success
with senior students offering their help
to the newer students and the Section
officers outlining the needs for the
eighth annual George Pherigo Memorial
Golf Tournament that took place on
24 September. The meeting was enjoyed
by all.

The North Carolina


Student Section
discussed the
annual George
Pherigo Memorial
Golf Tournament at
its August meeting.
The importance of
the tournament was
explained as the
proceeds go toward
sending students to
the ASNT Annual
Conference.
North Carolina Student Section meeting attendees included a mix of old and new members
as the autumn semester began.

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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Society
Notes

Mike White, of Met-L-Chek, watched the ball


during the Pacific Northwest Sections
annual golf scramble.

Pacific Northwest
SE ATT L E , WA S H I N GTO N

The traditional Pacific Northwest Section


golf scramble and barbecue banquet event
was the successful kickoff event for the
Section year. This year the scramble was
held on 1 August to raise funds for the
Sections nondestructive testing (NDT)
student scholarship program. It was a
resounding success once again thanks to
a great team. Forty-four golfers enjoyed
beautiful weather and barbecue at the
Golf Club at Hawks Prairie in Lacey,
Washington. There were many awards
given, along with a raffle prize drawing.
The Section board of directors thanks
all of the players who participated and
thereby contributed to the cause of
providing NDT education through the
student scholarship program. This years
scholarship winner was Lakai Fairbanks, of
Clover Park Technical College. He received a
$1000 check at the 14 September meeting.

The Section also thanks the many


generous sponsors who contributed to
making this a fantastic event. Special
thanks goes out to platinum sponsor MPM
Products, Inc., for making it possible for
the Clover Park student team to play for
free. Western Instruments, Inc. and the
ASNT International Service Center provided
raffle items. Western Instruments also
donated a clear magnetic particle yoke to
Clover Park Technical College, as well as a
personalized pit and welding gage for weld
inspection.
A thank you to the event organizing
committee, ASNT Director Flynn Spears,
Jeff Siegel, Trey Gordon, Luke Puckett, and
Emery Roberts, for contributing so much of
their time and energy towards making sure
that this event went smoothly and that
everyone had a good time. Special thanks
go out to the Dylan Thorps wife and
mother-in-law for running the putting
contest and assisting Spears and Siegel
during registration and sign-in.

Saudi Arabian
DHAHRAN, SAUDI ARABIA

The Saudi Arabian Section held its second


technical dinner meeting for the fiscal year
20152016 on 10 August at the Carlton
al Moaibed Hotel in Al Khobar, Saudi
Arabia. The Section-sponsored meeting
was attended by 51 members and guests.
Section Chair Fathi E. Al Qadeeb
welcomed everyone and made announcements, including about the Level III exams
to be held 45 December. Anyone
interested is instructed to contact
M.J. Anjum. Al Qadeeb also spoke on the
7th Middle East Nondestructive Testing
Conference that occurred in Bahrain
1316 September.

Student Travel Grant


ASNT is offering travel reimbursements up to $1000 each for up to
15 students to attend the 25th
Annual Research Symposium
1114 April 2016 in New Orleans,
Louisiana. If you are a researcher or
university professor, please make
your students aware. Students can
download instructions and application for the grant requirements at
www.asnt.org/studenttravelreim
bursement. Applications and brief
essays are due 31 December 2015.
For more information contact
Program Coordinator Jessica
VanDervort at jvandervort@asnt.org.

Submit NDT Pics


Submissions are now being
accepted for NDT Pics, a new department in Materials Evaluation that
allows members of the NDT industry
to share their work and experiences
visually. See p. 1455 in this issue for
an example. Large, high-quality
photos or images (page sized,
300 dpi) or questions about the
process can be submitted to
nmoes@asnt.org.

w
x

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awards &
honors
Each month, M.E. highlights selected
honorees from the most recent ASNT award
programs. The department also features
background on the highlighted award, plus
announcements of award applications,
award winners and deadline information.
Michael McGloin

George L. Pherigo Tutorial


Citation
In view of the important role of education
in advancing the purpose of ASNT, the
George L. Pherigo Tutorial Citation gives
recognition to outstanding contributors to
the field of NDT education. Recipients of
the citation are selected for their accomplishments in, or furtherance of, educational activities designed to increase the
depth and breadth of scientific, engineering, and technical knowledge in the
field of NDT. In 2010, the award was
renamed in honor of George L. Pherigo,
who dedicated his life to NDT education.
Selection is based on originality,
organization, technical content, methods,
and practical usefulness of educational
activities during the period of January
through December of the preceding year.
No more than one such award may be
made in a single year. If, in the opinion of
the Awards Committee, no one qualifies
for the award, the committee has the
privilege of not conferring the citation for
that year. The citation is presented to the
recipient during the ASNT Annual
Conference.

1420

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

2015 winner Michael McGloin is the owner


of NDT Enterprises. Prior to that, he worked
as a Level II for The Boeing Co., Arrowhead
Products, Ultrasonic Field Services, and
Davis Quality Engineering, as well as a
Level III for Prime Wheel. McGloin is a
member of the 75th Anniversary
Committee and Technical and Education
Councils Leak Testing Committee. He has
served on all the officer positions of the
Greater Los Angeles Section and was
elected 20152016 ASNT director at large.
McGloin attended Golden West College
and has earned certificates through his
Section in PT, MT, RT, and UT. He is
certified ASNT NDT, Corporate, and ACCP
Professional Level III in LT, PT, RT, UT, MT,
ET, and VT.

Young NDT Professional Award


The purpose of the Young NDT Professional
Award is to recognize individuals whose
initial career contributions exemplify high
standards of excellence in the areas of
professional achievement and meritorious
service. The award is given to supervisors,
educators, managers, researchers, consultants, developers, and others who are

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Contact ASNT
The ASNT International Service Center is open from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday
through Friday. Voicemail messages can be left 24 hours a day by following the recorded prompts. In
the U.S. and Canada, call toll free (800) 222-2768 or (614) 274-6003; fax (614) 274-6899. E-mail
addresses for individual staff members are given below. If you prefer, write ASNT, 1711 Arlingate Lane,
P.O. Box 28518, Columbus, OH 43228-0518. ASNTs website is available at www.asnt.org.

ASNT members with five to ten years of


involvement in the NDT industry. Award
applicants must be sponsored by a local
ASNT section, council, or national
committee. The Awards Committee has the
option of not conferring an award if it
decides that no individual qualifies in a
given year.
There was no 2015 recipient.

ASNT Fellow Award


Nominations Solicited
ASNT is seeking nominees for the 2016
ASNT Fellow award. The title is awarded to
ASNT members of unusual professional
distinction who have made continued
significant contributions to the advancement of nondestructive testing (NDT) in
areas such as management, engineering,
science, education, or administration.
Fellows must have at least 15 years of
professional NDT experience and 10 years
of ASNT membership with no more than
two interruptions not exceeding a total of
two years.
A person may be nominated by his or
her local ASNT section chair, an ASNT
Fellow or a member of ASNTs national
board of directors. Each nomination
should consist of a Fellow application
form, with required supporting documentation. Completed application forms must be
postmarked by 1 February 2016. Contact
Program Coordinator Jessica VanDervort at
the ASNT International Service Center for
more information at (800) 222-2768 X233;
e-mail awards@asnt.org. Application forms
can also be downloaded from ASNTs
website at www.asnt.org. w
x

Write Us
We Want to Hear from You
ASNT Scope covers events, celebrations and achievements in our NDT
community. Materials Evaluation
welcomes your news and photos.
(Please use the high quality setting
on your digital camera!) Send contributions to nmoes@asnt.org.

AREA OF INQUIRY

CONTACT (EXTENSION)

E-MAIL

Executive Offices
Executive Director
Administrative Assistant
Committee participation

Arny Bereson (201)


Michelle Thomas (223)
Michelle Thomas (223)

abereson@asnt.org
mthomas@asnt.org
mthomas@asnt.org

Accounting Department
Chief Financial Officer
Account balance inquiries
Credit and collections
Dues payment inquiries

Mary Potter (203)


Angie Guzzo (228)
Trina Coakley (220)
Margaret Leonard (229)

mpotter@asnt.org
aguzzo@asnt.org
tcoakley@asnt.org
mleonard@asnt.org

Customer service supervisor

Sandy Simpson (215)


Curtis Smith (214)
Trina Coakley (220)

ssimpson@asnt.org
csmith@asnt.org
tcoakley@asnt.org

Certification Services Department


Senior Manager of Certification Services
Application requests
ASNT NDT Level III examinations (International)
ASNT NDT Level III examinations (U.S.)
ASNT NDT Level III recertification
Certification Specialist
General inquiries
IRRSP/radiation safety

Mike Boggs (218)


Tricia Davis (219)
Tricia Davis (219)
Lisa Law (226)
Tricia Davis (219)
Kimberly Donaldson (242)
Lisa Law (226)
Jennifer Harris (237)

mboggs@asnt.org
tdavis@asnt.org
tdavis@asnt.org
llaw@asnt.org
tdavis@asnt.org
kdonaldson@asnt.org
llaw@asnt.org
jharris@asnt.org

Conference Department
Senior Manager of Conferences
Conference registration
Exhibit and event coordination
Level III refresher courses
CEU program
Program coordination

Christine Schnitzer (202)


Angie Guzzo (228)
Ruth Staat (227)
Alicia LeMasters (213)
Angie Guzzo (228)
Alicia LeMasters (213)

cschnitzer@asnt.org
aguzzo@asnt.org
rstaat@asnt.org
alemasters@asnt.org
aguzzo@asnt.org
alemasters@asnt.org

Internet
ASNT website
Advertising

Stephen Schaefer (222)


Jessica Miller (209)

sschaefer@asnt.org
jmiller@asnt.org

Marketing Communications Department


Senior Manager of Marketing Communications
Advertising Supervisor
Communications Manager
Public Relations and Brand Manager
Corporate design services

Garra Liming (211)


Jessica Miller (209)
Matt Monta (239)
Dana Sims (244)
Paul Conley (232)

gliming@asnt.org
jmiller@asnt.org
mmonta@asnt.org
dsims@asnt.org
pconley@asnt.org

Book Department
Book and catalog orders

Member Relations and Services Department


Senior Manager of Member Relations and Services Heather Cowles (216)
Awards
Jessica VanDervort (233)
Sections Coordinator
Debbie Segor (235)
Program Coordinator
Jessica VanDervort (233)
Presidents Award points
Pat White (217)
Publications Department
Senior Manager of Publications
Library
Materials Evaluation
Advertising
Articles
Buyers Guide
Calendar
Employment Service
Ready Reference Guide
Reprints
Section News
NDT Handbook inquiries
NDTMarketplace inquiries
Advertising
New publications authors

hcowles@asnt.org
awards@asnt.org
dsegor@asnt.org
jvandervort@asnt.org
presaward@asnt.org

Tim Jones (204)


Toni Kervina (205)

tjones@asnt.org
tkervina@asnt.org

RNDE inquiries
The NDT Technician (TNT) inquiries

Jessica Miller (209)


Nat Moes (207)
Jessica Miller (209)
Toni Kervina (205)
Toni Kervina (205)
Nat Moes (207)
Toni Kervina (205)
Pat White (217)
Patrick Moore (224)
Toni Kervina (205)
Jessica Miller (209)
Cynthia Leeman (225)
Bob Conklin (245)
Hollis Humphries (206)
Toni Kervina (205)

jmiller@asnt.org
nmoes@asnt.org
jmiller@asnt.org
tkervina@asnt.org
tkervina@asnt.org
nmoes@asnt.org
tkervina@asnt.org
presaward@asnt.org
pmoore@asnt.org
tkervina@asnt.org
jmiller@asnt.org
cleeman@asnt.org
bconklin@asnt.org
hhumphries@asnt.org
tkervina@asnt.org

Technical Services Department


Senior Manager of Technical Services
Technical Services Supervisor

Jim Houf (212)


Charles Longo (241)

jhouf@asnt.org
clongo@asnt.org

If you are having trouble locating who should handle your inquiry, please ask the operator at extension
200 to direct your call to the appropriate department personnel.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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presidential profile
20152016 ASNT President Kevin D. Smith
by Materials Evaluation Editor Nathaniel Moes

Kevin D. Smith, the 20152016 ASNT


president, has worked in nondestructive
testing (NDT) as an engineer and manager
for his entire career. Along with continuing
ASNTs recent work to build inter-society
and international relationships, Smiths
goal as president is to expand ASNTs
coverage to engineers, providing them
benefits like continuing education and
career support, similar to those provided
for technicians and researchers.

Starting a Career
Kevin Smith has lived in Oklahoma City,
Oklahoma; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; and
Atlanta, Georgia but was most influenced
by his time spent in Austin, Texas. He
attended the University of Texas at Austin,
graduating with honors in 1980 with a
B.S. in mechanical engineering. He was
hired by Pratt & Whitney immediately
out of college to be a structural analyst;
however, Smith never started in that role,
as he was quickly assigned to the newly
formed nondestructive evaluation (NDE)
research and development group in
engineering
Smith had no direct experience with
NDT coming out of university but pointed
out that mechanical engineering provides
a good background for NDT with classes
and labs in instrumentation, stress
analysis, fracture mechanics, mechanical
design, electrical engineering, heat
transfer, and fluid dynamics. I was going to
be using those skills to calculate the life of
primary structures in aircraft engines.

1422

20152016 ASNT President Kevin D. Smith.

The NDE group that Smith joined was


composed of two technicians, two
engineers, and a supervisor. When one of
the engineers left the group, Smithonly
three months out of collegewas moved
up, taking over the principle investigator
role on an Air Force research and development contract.
As his career progressed, Smith took
advantage of opportunities to learn more
about the science and practice of NDE. At
the time his resources were limited to
technical papers, textbooks, and individual experiments on the weekends, as
well as discussions with experts in the
field. A key mentor was Bruce Thompson,

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

whom Smith met when working on


research with the Center for
Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE) at Iowa
State University. Thompson was not only
very intelligent and highly educated in the
science that underpins NDT, but he was
able to connect the highly varied pieces of
information for unique solutions to
practical problems. Thompsons leadership
in the field was accomplished with subtle
persistence such that he persuaded
people to consider new ways of thinking in
a nonconfrontational manner. Thompson
was not afraid to say so when he did not
know something, though it was seldom
necessary. These are qualities Smith tried
to emulate.
Through promotions and relocation
from West Palm Beach, Florida, Smith
continued his climb, becoming the
manager of the NDE organization within
Pratt & Whitney Engineering, located in
East Hartford, Connecticut.
Im responsible for the development
of NDT methods and their applications to
military and commercial engines, Smith
said. We do research and development as
well as developing and deploying applications starting from problem definition
through deployment, including developing
a technique, tooling, creating procedures,
quantifying probability of detection,
training, and implementation. He
routinely works with electromagnetic
testing, ultrasonic testing, infrared and
thermographic testing, liquid penetrant
testing, and radiographic testing.

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Nondestructive Testing Engineering


Over his career, Smith has achieved
several technology oriented goals to
ensure that anybody who gets into an
airplane that we have anything to do with
doesnt have a bad day. In his work at
Pratt & Whitney he was able to help
develop and implement thermal acoustic
imaging, improve practical detection of
maloriented cracks in turbine disks, and
develop model assisted probability of
detection (POD) technology.
Quantifying POD is important for NDT
engineering since it helps indicate which
new technologies are better than their
predecessors and by how much. We
quantify POD for every inspection we
put out, said Smith, noting that is not
standard practice for everyone. We utilize
mockups that are as realistic as possible
to create a specific quantitative understanding of each inspection. Sometimes
it suggests that the inspection needs
improvement in specific areas to provide
the desired benefit to the customer.
Ideally we want to develop tests
that are fast and reliable with economic
viability, Smith continued. NDT
engineers take the fundamental pieces of
research and figure out how to apply the
new technology. To address specific applications in a timely way, this approach
pulls new research forward and puts it in
the hands of technicians quickly and with
purpose.
Much of the work Smith does is proprietary, but he provided as an example the
work he and the NDE team did on the
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Engine Titanium Consortium.
When an airplane crash in Sioux City,
Iowa in 1989 led to an FAA determination
that failure of rotating engine components
were an aerospace industry problem, Pratt
& Whitney and other major engine manufacturers were brought alongside the CNDE
at Iowa State University to research
potential NDT techniques that could
identify flaws as part of determining the
remaining life for the components.
Smith and his team developed an
eddy current automated scanning device,

which could more reliably detect cracks


in engine turbine disks. Smith said that
the commercially available, low cost,
semi-automated eddy current scanner
developed from this program changed

the way motors are inspected by commercial airlines at overhaul. It replaced manual
scanning with low-cost automation of
critical components at overhaul by
decreasing the cost of scanning hardware

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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presidential profile
by an order of magnitude. Many aircraft
overhaul shops use this device as part of
the routine engine overhaul process.
This kind of work is satisfying to Smith.
Working in aircraft propulsion, the consequences of making a mistakean inspection miss or lack of engineering rigor, for
examplecan cost many people their
lives, he said. I desire the responsibility
for making sure commercial passengers
and military pilots make it home safely
like being the guard on the wall while
everyone else sleeps soundly.

ASNT Involvement
Smith first became involved with ASNT by
presenting at conferences. The Air Force
requested that its contractors present the
results of research and development
contracts. The first presentation I gave at
an ASNT conference was at the Annual
Conference in Boston, Massachusetts in
1982, he said. Over the years we made
many presentations of our work. Smith
sat in on a few committee meetings during
this period but at first could not attend
conferences regularly.
With more time, experience, and availability, soon Smith was chairing sessions,
coordinating speakers, and getting papers.
This led to more involvement in committees, serving on the NDT/NDE Reliability
and Aerospace committees, among others,
and several conference program committees. Later he served as the Technical and

Education Council Chair in 2009 and


the Research Council Chair in 2013.
Joe Mackin served as an ASNT mentor
to Smith. He encouraged me to get
involved at the Board level, said Smith.
I used his experience as a sounding
board for ideas and advice. Smith was
elected to the Board as a director at large
in 2009. He was elected secretary/treasurer
in 2013, beginning his ascent to the ASNT
presidency.
Smith looks at ASNT as more than just
the home Society for the technology Ive
spent my career in, citing the importance
of the Societys certification programs
and involvement in industry leadership.
Getting involved in ASNT leadership
means working for better resources for the
people who want to make a career of
NDT, he said.
Part of this means improving the availability of information for ASNT members
and NDT industry personnel of all kinds.
Smith has a particular focus on improving
support for NDT engineers as well. I have
been an NDT engineer my entire career,
and education resources were largely
nonexistent at the engineering level when I
started, he said. Smith wants to
encourage more distance learning
programs that allow NDT personnel to take
engineering courses and deepen their
knowledge while working. ASNT members
in general should have greater access to
the body of knowledge, with more short

Getting involved in ASNT


leadership means working for
better resources for the
people who want to make a
career of NDT.
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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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As ASNT secretary/treasurer, Kevin Smith presented the treasurers report at the Annual
Business Meeting at the 2014 Annual Conference in Charleston, South Carolina.

courses and better access to conference


presentations, for example.
Smith also wants to continue the work
started by 20142015 ASNT President L.
Terry Clausing with regards to the international NDT community. We need to serve
all members of the NDT community
worldwide including working with other
societies, he said. Working internationally and with engineers makes the pie
bigger. Currently, technicians and
researchers are being served, but there are
additional potential members among
engineers and internationally who look at
ASNT and wonder, Whats in it for me?
We should be answering that with
membership benefits.

Outside the Society


Smith lives in Connecticut, but still has
connections to Texas, where his mother
and sister reside, as well as to South
Florida. In his spare time, he enjoys
physical and challenging activities
like short triathlons and backpacking
as well as cultural activities like reading
Pulitzer Prize winning books and viewing
modern art.
Some of Smiths mountaineering expeditions have taken him to Washington
State and up Mt. Rainier, Mt. Baker, and

Mt. Shuksan in the Cascade Range. He


likened some of the aspects of glacier
climbing to the work of the Society to
advance ASNT and the cause of NDT. He
cited the importance of working together
and considering the varied perspectives
and experiences of team members to
make the best decisions. Smith looks
forward to this kind of challenge and
teamwork as the 20152016 ASNT
president. w
x

Members
Become Involved with ASNT
Committees
All ASNT members are encouraged to
become active in those committees
which are of interest to them.
Committee rosters are published in
the February Ready Reference Guide,
as is contact information for
members of committees. Contact the
committees chair for more information on getting involved and making
your voice heard.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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people
James Hakos Recognized as
Professional of the Year by
Capital Whos Who
James Hakos, of Yatala, QLD, Australia,
was honored by the Capital Whos Who
Branding for his distinguished accomplishments and contributions in the field of
nondestructive testing for Materials
Evaluation and Testing Services Pty., Ltd.
(METS). Hakos is the CEO of METS.
An expert in his field with over 35 years
of experience, Hakos, with his team of
professionals and analysts, is recognized
for delivering the highest technical caliber
of services to clients. METS focuses on
metallurgical failure investigations, routine
quality control tests for the ferrous and
non-ferrous metals industry, consultation,
and material selection, and also specializes in liquid penetrant testing, magnetic
particle testing, radiography, ultrasonic
testing, visual inspections, and welding
inspections in the mining, construction,
and manufacturing sectors.
With an already storied career dealing
with high-rises and bridges, Hakos has
grown to also be recognized as an
authority on high pressure pipe work,
fiberglass reinforced plastic pipes,

pipelines, cranes, aircraft, vessels,


liquefied petroleum gas vessels, tanks,
offshore structures, power stations,
coal handling facilities, and mining
components.
Hakos is accredited by the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO)
and the National Association of Testing
Authorities (NATA). ISO ensures that
products and services are safe, reliable,
and of good quality. NATA provides a
means of determining, formally recognizing, and promoting the competence
of facilities to perform specific types of
testing, inspection, calibration, and other
related activities. NATAs accreditation is
based on a peer-review process made
possible by some 3000 volunteer experts
who assist with the assessment of facilities and sit on NATAs various technical
committees.
Hakos is valued by his professional
peers for his exceptional expertise in all
aspects of safety, quality, and client satisfaction. Throughout his career, he has
consistently demonstrated his dedication
to clients, excellence, innovation, vision,
and interpersonal skills. w
x

Write Us
Back to Basics Articles Needed
Materials Evaluation is soliciting submissions for its Back to Basics department.
Back to Basics are tutorial articles written to introduce the reader to the fundamentals of an NDT method, application or technology, or to act as a refresher for those
already experienced in the subject. Articles or ideas may be sent to: Materials
Evaluation, ASNT, 1711 Arlingate Lane, P.O. Box 28518, Columbus, OH 43228-0518;
(800) 222-2768 X207; fax (614) 274-6899; e-mail nmoes@asnt.org.

1426

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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Participate
Participate in American
National Standards
Development
ASNTs Standards Development
Committee (SDC) develops ASNTs
standards, including proposed ASNT
CP-107: ASNT Standard for
Performance Based Qualification
and Certification of Nondestructive
Testing Personnel, ANSI/ASNT
CP-106: Nondestructive Testing
Qualification and Certification of
Personnel, ANSI/ASNT CP-105:
ASNT Standard Training Outlines of
Nondestructive Testing Personnel,
ANSI/ASNT CP-189: ASNT Standard
for Qualification and Certification of
Nondestructive Testing Personnel,
and ANSI/ASNT ILI-PQ: In-line
Inspection Personnel Qualification
and Certification.
If you wish to join the SDC and
participate in the development of
American National Standards,
contact SDC Secretary Charles
Longo at clongo@asnt.org. More
information is available at
www.asnt.org/publications
/standards/standards.htm.

sta news

Jessica VanDervort

Debbie Segor

ASNT Staff
As part of ASNTs goal of providing and
managing services and programs for
members, Programs Coordinator Jessica
VanDervort and Sections Coordinator
Debbie Segor were added to the staff at
the International Service Center. Their first
day was 14 September 2015. Mary Potter
was also promoted to Chief Financial
Officer for her dedicated work for the
Society.

Programs Coordinator
Jessica VanDervort has a unique background in customer service, having worked
in the field for more than nine years. She
began her career in the hotel industry
where she first worked in the front office,

1428

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

Mary Potter

focusing on guest satisfaction and


retention. Her attention to detail and
organizational skills allowed her to transition to the meeting and events side of
the industry, where she thrived in the
fast-paced, ever-changing coordination
of onsite events. VanDervort attended
Ohio University in Athens, Ohio, where
she earned her B.S. in human and
consumer sciences and was heavily
involved in the coed community service
fraternity Alpha Phi Omega. Her participation in this organization solidified her
decision to seek a career that would
allow her to make a difference in the
world, and what better place to do that
than ASNT? VanDervort is also a Certified
Tourism Ambassador for the City of
Columbus.

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Sections Coordinator
Debbie Segor comes to ASNT with
membership development, marketing, and
relationship management experience.
Recently, she directed membership development and retention programs and cultivated client relationships for a chamber of
commerce and a small law firm. She also
served in a variety of marketing capacities
while working for various technology
consulting firms. Segor attended the
University of Missouri in Columbia,
Missouri, where she earned a B.A. in
English literature. She has served on the
boards of local community organizations in
Columbus, Ohio, including the Pleasure
Guild of Nationwide Childrens Hospital
and the Upper Arlington Womens Club. In
addition, she is a founding member of
Upper Arlington Kids Identified with
Dyslexia and served as a coach for a local
group of Girls on the Run.

Write Us
We Want to Hear from You
ASNT Scope covers events, celebrations and achievements in our NDT community.
Materials Evaluation welcomes your news and photos. (Please use the high quality
setting on your digital camera!) Send contributions to nmoes@asnt.org.

Chief Financial Officer


Mary Potter was promoted to the position
of chief financial officer (CFO) of the organization. Potter, who began her career with
ASNT in 1994, previously served as the
senior manager of finance and accounting.
As CFO, Potter manages the ASNT investment portfolio, valued at $23 million, and
sets the financial policy and direction. In
this position, she will lead the financial
administration, business planning, investments, and budgeting.
This promotion recognizes both
the professionalism that Mary brings to
this position as well as her boundless
energy and enthusiasm, noted Dr. Arny
Bereson, ASNT executive director. She
has helped guide the organization
through some challenging times and
continues to exercise that same diligence
as we move ASNT forward into new and
exciting horizons.
Potter earned a B.A. in business
administration from the Ohio State
University and also holds qualifications as
a Certified Public Accountant and Certified
Global Management Accountant. w
x

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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society news
Certification Management
Council Seeks Applicants

Qualification and Commitment


Requirements

The Certification Management Council


(CMC), which is responsible for the development and management of ASNTs
certification programs, is looking for
qualified individuals to serve three-year
terms as full or associate CMC members
and as task group members. New
members will serve on one or more of
the CMC committees, based on their
qualifications.

Full CMC Member


l Have at least ten (10) years of experience
in NDT and must possess a current ASNT
NDT Level III certificate and have done so
for at least the past five (5) years at the
time his or her application is considered;
l Have experience in managing or
monitoring compliance to an NDT
Qualification/Certification program;
and
l Provide a letter of support from his or
her employer agreeing to support the

member for the required travel to attend


four (4) meetings per year and to allow
reasonable time to complete assignments between meetings.
Associate CMC Member
l Have at least seven (7) years of experience in NDT and must possess a current
ASNT NDT Level III certificate and have
done so for at least the past two (2)
years at the time his or her application
is considered;
l Have current or previous involvement
in an NDT qualification/certification
program; and
l Provide a letter of support from his or
her employer agreeing to support the
member for the required travel to attend
two (2) meetings per year and to allow
reasonable time to complete assignments between meetings.
Task Group Member
l Provide a rsum documenting qualifications that would allow him or her
to be considered a subject matter
expert (SME) in the test method or
technique(s) for which the task group
has been formed. (SMEs are individuals
who, by virtue of education, training, or
experience, exhibit the highest level of
expertise in performing a specialized
job, task, or skill. The SME possesses
greater than normal expertise or insight
relative to a particular technical or operational discipline, system, or process
and has been selected or appointed
to use his or her expertise to solve a
particular problem);
l Provide a letter of support from his or
her employer agreeing to support the
member for the required travel to attend
two (2) meetings per year and to allow
reasonable time to complete assignments between meetings.

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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Fax, mail, or e-mail a rsum, a copy of


your current ASNT NDT Level III certificate,
a signed corporate letter of support, and
your preferred member type to: Jim Houf,
Senior Manager, ASNT Technical Services
Department, 1711 Arlingate Lane, P.O. Box
28518, Columbus, OH 43228-0518; fax
(614) 274-6899; e-mail jhouf@asnt.org.
Applications are accepted continuously.

Committee shall consist of the three (3)


most recent living past presidents, with the
most senior present serving as chair, and
four (4) members at large selected by the

Section Operations Council (SOC). These


members shall serve for a term of one (1)
year and may not serve again until at least
two (2) years have passed. w
x

Secretary/Treasurer Eligibility
Requirements Announcement
In accordance with ASNT Policy G-1F,
4.1, the eligibility requirements for the
position of ASNT secretary/treasurer
must be published in the November
issue of Materials Evaluation. The
minimum requirements for the ASNT
secretary/treasurer position as set out in
the ASNT Bylaws (Article IV, Section 4)
are as follows:
l The candidate must be a current ASNT
member.
l The candidate must have been an ASNT
member for at least ten (10) years.
l The candidate must have at least five (5)
years of ASNT national involvement.
l The candidate must have served as a
Board of Directors member for at least
one full term.
Eligible candidates must submit the
following, in writing, to 2016 Selection
Committee Chair Raymond Morasse and
two additional members of the Selection
Committee, to be submitted online at
www.asnt.org by 1 February 2016:
l A letter of intent indicating desire and
qualifications.
l Employers letter of support for a fouryear commitment.
l Rsum indicating candidates experience in business management, NDT,
and ASNT, including both national and
local ASNT activities and contributions,
with emphasis on executive leadership
experience and accomplishments.
The 2016 Selection Committee membership will be announced on the ASNT
website in late November and will also
appear in the December issue of
Materials Evaluation. The Selection

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

1431

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1432

New ASNT Certificate Holders


Below are personnel who have recently obtained their initial ASNT certifications. This list includes new certificate holders that
were added to the ASNT database through 1 October 2015. Each certificate holders current certification information can be
found on the ASNT website at www.asnt.org/certlist.
ACCP Level II
Nicholas E. Bantz
Janis L. Blakesley
Greg W. Burlingame
Marcelo S. Calmon
Ray S. Chestang
Mariano Concepcin Condori Cosi
Lee Santana Coronado
John E. DeVerter
Glen A. Dragano
Miguel Gutierrez
Timothy D. Hill
Oscar Fernandez Huerta
James A. Irizarry
Kenny G. John
Todd Johnson
Sean Conrad Johnston
Eugene C. Jordan
Terry W. Kemp
Gabriel Kirshberger
Bryan C. MacAskill
Lazaro Magana
Luis Dante Melendez Morales
James Montgomery
Thomas L. Myers
Robert J. Nelson
Oliverson Tita Nji
Daniel Orr
Juan Alvaro Perez Molina
Joel Perez Pina
Eric Phye
Nicholas T. Ponde
Colby H. Powell
Troy A. Raines
Chris Rankin
Alfonso E. Rodriguez
Juan Rodriguez
Nicholas S. Rodriguez
Eric J. Rohrscheib
Lester J. Ross
Jason Lee Shafer
Andrew William Stoever
Zachary H. Taylor
Richard B. Timmins
Freddy Enrique Villalobos Gonzalez
Jose Villarroel Velasco

1432

Donald Weaver
Jim Wemple
Spencer Whynaucht
Michael A. Wright
ACCP Professional Level III
Sugianto Tan
ASNT NDT Level II
Dave E. Husted
ASNT NDT Level III
Hamdy Mohamed Abdelmoneim Arafa
John Howard Atkinson
Daniel Antonio Bella
James Robert Bennett
Jeffery J. Breinling
David M. Campbell
Liangjun Cao
Cihan Yalgin Cazgir
Lianfang Chen
Liu Chi
Timothy A. Colonel
Liu Dafu
Dhinakaran Davis
Tyler L. Deschaine
Corey Dunn
Wang Gen Fa
Edgar Alberto Fajardo Garcia
James Foster
Troy A. Fox
Satheesh Kumar G.
Scott W. Garrett
Stefan Glinski
Larry F. Gochnauer
Daniel Gomez Jimenez
Qi Chao Gu
Liu Haibin
Robert C. Hathorn
Wi Jay C. Heinemann
Wang Hong
Yin Hongqi
Bao Lin Hou
Peter J. Hynes
Bin Jiang
Zhe Lin Jiang

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

Pan Jiejun
Wang Junsheng
Peng Kang
Wenjie Kang
Adam R. Leger
Meng Li
Zhenhui Li
Ji Hong Lin
Ronald Lind
Mingdong Liu
Tuanjie Liu
Zhang Ting Lu
Wanguang Luo
David Markland II
Leandro Silva Melo
Yong Qiang Meng
Huang Chun Ming
Li Ming
Marco Antonio Moreno Roque
James Michael Pack
Christopher J. Plemons
Deon S.G. Randell
Brian M. Rawlings
Ernesto Saldana Bobadilla
Wen-Hwan Shiang
Fung Kwan Shing
Rony Prayitno Simeon
Billy Dustin J. Smith
Alvaro Max Soto Yanqui
Richard Cody Stallter
Lujun Tan
Chan Siu Wa
Guang Ji Wang
Qizhi Wang
Jeffrey M. Wright
Hai Tao Xia
Lifang Xia
Liu Li Xia
Jiawei Yao
Xie Yingkui
He Zhuang Yu
Pan Yunzhong
Haihua Zhang
Jian Zhang

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1433

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1434

shape
your

EXAM SCHEDULE

future

Trust the leader in NDT certificationthe American Society for Nondestructive Testing. Shape your future with ASNT's ANSI/ISO 17024
Accredited Certification Programs. Be certified by ASNT and carry one of the most globally recognized NDT certificates.

DOMESTIC EXAMS

ASNT NDT Level II, ASNT NDT Level III, PdM Level III, and IRRSP

5 November 2015
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 25 September 2015
IRRSP Only, St. Paul, MN

13 February 2016
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 23 December 2015
IRRSP Only, Washington, PA

5 May 2016
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 25 March 2016
IRRSP Only, St. Paul, MN

7 January 2016
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 20 November 2015
IRRSP Only, St. Paul, MN

3 March 2016
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 22 January 2016
IRRSP Only, St. Paul, MN

7, 14, 21 May 2016


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 1 April 2016
Columbus, OH

9 January 2016
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 13 November 2015
IRRSP Only, Somserset, NJ

910 April 2016


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 26 February 2016
ASNT Research Symposium, New Orleans, LA

10, 17, 24 September, 1 October 2016


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 5 August 2016
Columbus, OH

30 January, 6, 13 February 2016


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 18 December 2015
Columbus, OH

16 April 2016
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 4 March 2016
IRRSP Only, Anderson, IN

2223 October 2016


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 9 September 2016
ASNT Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA

6 February 2016
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 18 December 2015
IRRSP Only, Coudersport, PA
DOMESTIC EXAMS: All applications for domestic exams are available only from ASNT. For examination application packages at U.S. sites, contact the Technical Services Department, ASNT, 1711 Arlingate Lane, P.O. Box 28518, Columbus, OH
43228-0518; (800) 222-2768 or (614) 274-6003; fax (614) 274-6899; visit our website at www.asnt.org and click the Certification tab at the top of the page. Applications must be postmarked by deadline. Deadlines are firm. No exceptions are
made. Log onto www.asnt.org for a list of Authorized Exam Centers. For information and applications, contact the sponsor for the exam sessions listed. It is mandatory that all persons applying for international examinations at a National Sponsoring
Organization have applications processed through the NSO or SES. Do not send your application or fees to ASNT International Service Center for processing. They will be returned to you.

INTERNATIONAL EXAMS

ASNT NDT Level II, ASNT NDT Level III, ACCP Level II, PdM Level III

ISNT

NATL

Milano, Italy

Module No. 60 & 61, Garment Complex


Sidco Tiru-Vi-Ka Industrial Estate
Guindy, Chennai 600 032, India
Contact: M.T. Shyamsunder
Phone: 91 44 42038175 Fax: 91 44 52038176
E-mail: mt.shyamsunder@ge.com,
ncbisnt@gmail.com

c/o CNDT 36 Gretton Rd.


Huyton, Merseyside, L14 9NX
United Kingdom
Contact: Eddie Harper
Phone: 44 0 782 813 8295
E-mail: eddie@lavender-ndt.com,
edharper31@aol.com

1011 December 2015


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 17 September 2015

Pune, India

Stockton-on-Tees, England

2729 January 2016


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 4 November 2015

910 November 2015


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 17 August 2015

Mumbai, India

13419 Immanuel Rd.


Pflugerville, TX 78660
Phone: (512) 834-8911 Fax: (512) 834-1266
E-mail: mail@reinhartassoc.com

Cochabamba, Bolivia

2325 May 2016

QCCO

24 December 2015
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 9 September 2015

APPLICATION DEADLINE: 29 February 2016

3 Nablous St., Mohandsein, Cairo, Egypt


Contact: Mohsen Hassanein
Phone: 20 2 33456809 Fax: 20 2 33456037
Cell phone: 20 10 9006040
E-mail: info@qualitycontrol-egypt.com,
mohsen.hassanein@qualitycontrol-egypt.com

SAS

KSNT
635-4, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu
Seoul, 135-703, South Korea
Contact: Hong Joo Chung
Phone: 82 2 5837564 Fax: 82 2 5822743
E-mail: ksnt@unitel.co.kr

Bangkok, Thailand

Changwon, Korea

2425 November 2015


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 1 September 2015

1618 November 2015


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 24 August 2015

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

KS

2122 November 2015


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 29 August 2015

Al Ghanim International General Trading &


Contracting Co. W.L.L.
East Ahmadi, Kuwait
Contact: D.M. Tripathi
Phone: 965 9721 8691 Fax: 965 2391 0306
E-mail: tripathi@falghanim.com

Erbil, Iraq

Fahaheel, Kuwait

2223 December 2015


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 29 September 2015

1718 December 2015


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 1 October 2015
continued next column

3031 December 2015


APPLICATION DEADLINE: 7 October 2015

Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Lahore, Pakistan
1112 November 2015
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 20 August 2015
continued next column

1434

Reinhart & Associates, Inc.

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

P.O. Box 75597, Al Khobar 31952, Saudi Arabia


Contact: Fathi Al-Qadeeb or Mohammad J. Anjum
Phone: 966 505 801 957 Fathi or
966 559 734 648 Jamil Anjum
Fax: 966 13 865 1318
E-mail: fathi.alqadeeb@gmail.com,
anjummj83@gmail.com, anjummj@asntsas.net

Al Khobar, Saudi
45 December 2015
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 11 September 2015
continued on next page

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1435

Maintain a Competitive Edge | Qualify for the Next Career Opportunity | Increase Your Earning Potential
(CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS PAGE)

INTERNATIONAL EXAMS

ASNT NDT Level II, ASNT NDT Level III, ACCP Level II, PdM Level III

Tesco Corp.

The Singapore Welding Society

3-8-11 KDX Shin-Yokohama 381 Bldg.


Shin-Yokohama, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama
Kanagawa 222-0033, Japan
Contact: Junichi Jimbo
Phone: 81 045 475 1081
Fax: 81 045 475 1086
E-mail: exams@tesco-ndt.co.jp

Setsco Services Pte., Ltd.


18 Teban Gardens Crescent, Singapore 608925
Contact: Sze Thiam Siong
Phone: 65 6566777 Fax: 65 65667718
E-mail: szets@setsco.com

Yokohama, Japan

78 December 2015
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 14 September 2015

46 November 2015
APPLICATION DEADLINE: 12 August 2015

can
t
wait
to take an

ASNT exam?

Singapore

Schedule ASNT NDT Level III, ACCP Level II, ACCP Professional Level III, or
IRRSP exams any time at one of ASNTs Authorized Exam Centers (AECs).
For applications, go to the certification section of the ASNT website at www.asnt.org.

DOMESTIC AECs (Applications on ASNT website.) Computer Exams Available.


California

Connecticut

Georgia

Missouri

Texas

Texas

HellierPacific

HellierNortheast

2051 E. Cerritos Ave.


Ste. 8A
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone: (714) 956-2274
Fax: (714) 956-2277
E-mail: infoanaheim
@hellierndt.com
Web: www.hellierndt.com

1 Spar Yard St.


New London, CT 06320
Phone: (860) 437-1003
Fax: (860) 437-1014
E-mail: infonewlondon
@hellierndt.com
Web: www.hellierndt.com

Applied Technical
Services

Quality Testing
Services, Inc.

Reinhart &
Associates, Inc.

Hellier
South Central

1049 Triad Ct.


Marietta, Georgia 30062
Phone: (888) 287-5227
(678) 444-2897
Fax: (770) 514-3299
E-mail: training@atslab.com
Web: www.atslab.com

2305 Millpark Dr.


Maryland Heights, MO 63043
Phone: (314) 770-0607
Fax: (314) 770-0103
E-mail: training@quality
testing.com
Web: www.qualitytesting.com

13419A Immanuel Rd.


Pflugerville, TX 78660
Phone: (512) 834-8911
Fax: (512) 834-1266
E-mail: mail@reinhartassoc.com
Web: www.reinhartassoc.com

16631 West Hardy St.


Houston, TX 77060-6239
Phone: (281) 873-0980
Fax: (281) 873-0981
E-mail: infohouston
@hellierndt.com
Web: www.hellierndt.com

INTERNATIONAL AECs (Contact the international AEC for applications.)


Bahrain

Egypt

Germany

Malaysia

United Kingdom

PICQCCO Bahrain

Quality Control Co.


QCCO

TV NORD Systems,
GmbH & Co. KG

3 Nablous St.
Mohandsein, Cairo
Egypt
Contact: Mohsen Hassanein
Phone: 20 2 345 6809
Fax: 20 2 345 6037
E-mail: mohsen.hassanein
@qualitycontrol-egypt.com
Web: www.qualitycontrol
-egypt.com

Am Technologiepark 1,
Building A6
45307 Essen
Germany
Contact: Bettina Musiol
Phone: 49 201 825 2688
Fax: 49 201 825 2861
E-mail: bmusiol@tuev-nord.de
Web: www.tuv-nord.com

TWI Technology (S.E. Asia)


Sdn. Bhd.

The Welding Institute*


TWI

No. 1 Jalan Utarid U5 13


Section U5 Shah Alam
Selangor Darul Ehsan, 40150
Malaysia
Contact: Michael Trinidad
Phone: 603 7848 1000
Fax: 603 7848 1010
E-mail: michael.trinidad@twisea.com
Web: www.twitraining.com

Granta Park
Great Abington
Cambridge CB21 6AL, UK
Contact: Jane Orchard
Phone: 44 0 1223 891162
Fax: 44 0 1223 891630
E-mail: trainexam@twi.co.uk
Web: www.twi.co.uk
*ACCP exams only in U.K.

Road 1910, Block 319,


Building: 322
Al Hoora District
Manama, Bahrain
Contact: Mohsen Hassanein
Phone: 973 3637 8450
E-mail: mohsen@picbh.com,r
info@picbh.com
Web: www.picbh.com

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

1435

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1436

Editorial Calendar
Month

Issue Topic

Spotlight

Other Notes

December 2015

Liquid Penetrant and

Liquid Penetrant and Magnetic

NDTMarketplace

Magnetic Particle Testing

Particle Testing

January 2016

Tech Focus: Microwave Testing

Microwave Testing

Closed submissions

February 2016

Ready Reference

Electromagnetic Testing

Open topic

March 2016

Research Symposium

Infrared and Thermal Testing

Open topic

April 2016

Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Testing

May 2016

Acoustic Emission Testing

Acoustic Emission Testing

NDTMarketplace

June 2016

Buyers Guide

Pipeline NDT

Open topic

July 2016

Tech Focus: Computed Tomography

Radiographic Testing

Closed submissions

August 2016

Infrared and Thermal Testing

Laser Methods

September 2016

NDT Education

NDT Software

November 2016

Aerospace NDT

Visual Testing

Design and layout for issues of Materials Evaluation (M.E.) begin two months before the publication date, and because manuscripts need to go through a review and acceptance procedure, they should be submitted well in advance of these deadlines.
Technical papers aiming for a particular issue should be submitted at least four months in advance; feature papers should be
submitted at least three months in advance. M.E. makes no guarantees that a paper will be reviewed and accepted before a particular issue, but we will work with authors as is reasonable. Papers that miss their targeted issue will be published in the next
available appropriate issue.
Currently, we are looking ahead to 2016 topics for features and technical papers. In particular, we are asking for papers on visual
testing, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, and infrared and thermal testing, as well as Back to Basics features in
all methods. If you have an idea or any questions about submitting content for any of these upcoming issues, please contact M.E.
editor Nat Moes at nmoes@asnt.org for more information.

1436

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

1437

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FIELD

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1439

w
x ME FEATURE

TEST

Electric Field Leakage


Nondestructive Testing
Principle and its Simulation
by Donglin Li, Yanhua Sun, Zhijian Ye, and Yihua Kang

owadays, nondestructive testing (NDT) plays an increasingly important


role in ensuring safety, improving production quality, and reducing cost.
Although more than 70 NDT techniques have been developed so far,
only some of them have great practical value and are widely used for discontinuity detection because most of them have limitations in certain circumstances.
Among the conventional NDT methods, ultrasonic testing is one of the most
widely used in civil, aerospace, and medical applications. However, the use of
water or gel as a couplant may not always be suitable for certain inspection situations (Hinsley, 1959; Kang et al., 2011). Radiographic testing has always been
popular for difficult materials, but this method uses ionizing radiation and so
requires proper screening to protect the users. In addition, its equipment is
comparatively expensive and often not portable (Cartz, 1995; Hinsley, 1959).
Eddy current testing (ECT) makes use of the skin effect connected with eddy
currents, so any discontinuities in the surface of the conducting material can be
detected by measuring the impedance of the exciting coil. Although this
technique is capable of noncontact inspection for all conducting materials by
portable equipment, it is limited to detecting surface discontinuities because of
the skin effect (Hedegren et al., 1988; McNab and Thomson, 1990). Magnetic
flux leakage testing (ML) can detect external and internal discontinuities because
of its powerful magnetic refraction in saturated conditions; this method is appropriate only for ferrous materials instead of nonferrous metals (Sun and Kang,
2010a; Sun and Kang, 2010b).
In recent years, many new electromagnetic NDT techniques have been
developed, such as alternating current field measurement, direct current
potential drop (DCPD), alternating current potential drop (ACPD), and capacitive

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

1439

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1440

ME FEATURE w
x electric field leakage

the principle of EFL testing is


illustrated based on the boundary
conditions of an electric field
imaging. However, like the aforementioned ECT, alternating current field measurement is suitable only for
the inspection of surface discontinuities (Knight et al.,
2004). DCPD and ACPD are based on the principle of
using a type of contact probe to touch the tested
object and form an electric circuit, leading to a
measured value of the potential difference between
the two touch points. Therefore, it becomes invalid in
the case where the tested object is covered by insulating materials or the electric contacts are not very
stable (Lee et al., 1997; Yu et al., 1993). Capacitive
imaging is useful in detecting both surface and hidden
features in insulators and materials with very low
conductivity, such as composites and concrete, while
this technique is focused on the detection of surface
features on conductors (Yin and Hutchins, 2012; Yin et
al., 2012).
Considering the drawbacks and limitations of
existing NDT techniques for the inspection of
conducting materials, a new electric field leakage (EFL)
testing principle is presented. The aim of this paper is
to theoretically demonstrate its potential for inspection of external and internal discontinuities in
conducting materials (particularly for nonferrous
metals) by injecting a direct current into the tested
object and measuring the electric field leaking from
the discontinuity. Firstly, the principle of EFL testing is
illustrated based on the boundary conditions of an
electric field. Then, the electric field characteristics
outside a direct current carrying conductor are
described. Last, simulations are carried out to further
discuss the possibility of the EFL testing principle.

(Guru and Hiziroglu, 2004; Sun and Kang, 2013).


Although the ML method has the capability of
detecting external and internal discontinuities, it is
invalid for nonferrous materials, such as stainless
steel, copper, and aluminum. Herein, supposing a
conducting metal is injected with a direct current, EFL
will theoretically be produced by any external or
internal discontinuities, combined with the fair
analogy between electricity and magnetism.
On the basis of the boundary conditions of electric
fields, the principle of EFL generation from a discontinuity is indicated in Figure 1, where the subscripts 1
and 2 stand for two media of conductivities, g1 and g2;
q is the angle with the normal to the interface; j is the
current density; E is the electric field intensity; and t
and n imply the tangential and normal components of
the field quantity, respectively.
It is known that a steady current generates a
steady electric field (Guru and Hiziroglu, 2004).
According to the continuity feature of the steady
electric field at the interface, the boundary conditions
can be written as the equations E2t = E1t and j2n = j1n.
In accordance with Ohms law of j = gE, the equation
g2E2n = g2E2n can be given. For the equations

The Principle of Electric Field Leakage Testing


It is well known that the magnetic flux will leak from a
discontinuous surface if a ferrous material is saturated
with magnetization. According to this physical
phenomenon, the magnetic flux leakage principle is
proposed. Based on the boundary conditions of
magnetic fields, the magnetic mechanism of magnetic
flux leakage is analyzed deeply and the magnetic
refraction theory is elaborated in an outside work

1440

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

Figure 1. The principle of electric field leakage generation.

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1441

Et = E sin q and En = E cos q, the boundary continuous


condition can be described as follows.

(1)

tan 1 1
=
tan 2 2

Then, the refraction angle of the electric field line


in the second medium is obtained as follows.

(2)

2 = arctan 2 tan 1
1

Considering the second medium to be air and the


first medium to be the conductor, thereafter g1 >> g2 is
assumed. When a discontinuous interface appears, there
is the condition of q1 < 90. In terms of Equation 2, there
exists Equation 3.

(3)

1 ? 2

It is apparent that the electric field line trends to


the air region and finally forms an EFL, which implies
a discontinuity. As a consequence, it can be theoretically concluded that a discontinuity will produce its
EFL in its vicinity. Furthermore, this principle can be
used as the basis for a new NDT technique, namely,
EFL testing using a noncontact electric field sensor to
identify the EFL signals of discontinuities in
conducting materials.

The Electric Field Characteristics Outside a


Conductor Carrying Direct Current
When a conductor without discontinuities carries a
direct current, I, the current density, j1, and the electric
field, E1, in the conductor are uniform because the
interface between the conductor and air is continuous,
as shown in Figure 2. Where the first medium is the
conductor and the second medium is air, t and n
imply the tangential and normal components of the
field quantity, respectively. Since the conductivity of
air, g2, is 0, there is no current flowing in the air
region, and the equation j2 = j2t = j2n = 0 is given.
For the boundary continuous condition of j2n = j1n,
the equation j1n = 0 is obtained. In accordance with
Ohms law, it is easy to obtain the equation E1n =
j1n / g1 = 0 because the conductor conductivity, g1,
does not equal 0. Then, the equation E1t = E1 = j1/ g1
can be deduced. Therefore, there is only a constant
tangential electric field in the conductor. Using a
boundary continuous condition of E2t = E1t, the
equation E2t = j1/ g1 is obtained, which indicates that

Figure 2. The current density and electric field intensity


at the interface.

the tangential electric field outside the conductor is


constant. The normal electric field outside the
conductor, E2n, has a relationship with the distribution
of the surface charge on the conductor and its formula
derivation is complicated, which is given in literature
(Assis et al., 1999). Because the surface charge distribution is a linear function of current flowing length,
the normal electric field outside the conductor linearly
declines in the current direction. Generally, the normal
electric field is larger than the tangential one;
therefore, the electric field outside the conductor is
almost perpendicular to the interface and linearly
declines in the current direction. Electric field characteristics inside and outside the conductor were
verified by outside theoretical analysis and experimental results (Assis et al., 1999; Assis et al., 2001;
Jefimenko, 1962).

Electric Field Leakage Simulations


To further investigate the potential of EFL, simulations
were performed using finite element software. In simulation models, the specimens were three aluminum
pipes with the same dimensions: 30 mm (1.18 in.)
diameter; 4 mm (0.16 in.) thickness; and 100 mm
(3.94 in.) length. The discontinuities in the pipe
surface were circumferential notches of the same
2 mm (0.08 in.) width and 2 mm (0.08 in.) depth.
Figure 3 shows three types of simulation models,
where Figure 3a is the pipe model without notches,
and Figure 3b and Figure 3c are the pipe model with
a notch in the outer surface and inner surface, respectively. A direct current, I, of 200 A was injected from
one end of the pipes and the zero potential was set

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

1441

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ME FEATURE w
x electric field leakage

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3. Three types of aluminum pipe model: (a) no notches; (b) a notch in the outer surface; and (c) a notch in the
inner surface.

up at the other end. In this work, 2D axial symmetry


models were used to simplify the finite element
model.
Figure 4 shows the simulation results of the
electric field distributions when the pipe has no
notches. The electric field in the pipe is uniform and
its constant value is 0.0173 V/m, as illustrated in
Figure 4a. The electric field in air and its normal
component are not uniform and changes gradually in
both axial and radial directions, as shown in Figure 4b
and Figure 4c. The tangential component of the
electric field in air shown in Figure 4d is nearly

(a)

(b)

(c)

uniform in the axial direction and gradually changes in


the radial direction. The normal component at the same
point is larger than the tangential one in Figure 4c and
Figure 4d. Consequently, the normal electric field
distribution is the same as the resultant one, and its
direction is almost vertical to the pipe surface. These
simulation results are consistent with the previous
theoretical analysis and experiments, which verifies
that the simulation of the electric field inside and
outside a direct current carrying conductor is reliable
using the finite element software and the 2D axial
symmetry model (Jefimenko, 1962). In addition,

(d)

Figure 4. The electric field distributions of an aluminum pipe with no notches: (a) the electric field in the pipe; (b) the resultant electric field in
air; (c) the normal component; and (d) the tangential component of the electric field in air.

1442

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1443

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 5. The electric field distributions of an aluminum pipe with an outer notch: (a) the electric field in the pipe; (b) the resultant electric field
in air; (c) the normal component; and (d) the tangential component of the electric field in air.

the results indicate that EFL does not occur, as a


current carrying conductor has no discontinuities.
In the case of the notch in the pipe outer surface,
the simulation results of the electric field distribution
are illustrated in Figure 5. Compared with Figure 4, the
electric field both in the pipe and in air scarcely
changes except for its prominent variation in the
vicinity of the notch. The electric field in the pipe is
approximately uniform, while it is not uniform only in
the vicinity of the notch as seen from Figure 5a. The
resultant electric field, and its normal and tangential
componentsas shown in Figure 5b, Figure 5c, and

(a)

(b)

Figure 5d, respectivelyare nearly the same as the


case of no notches in pipe, and they change only in
the spatial region near the notch. The variations of
electric field distribution induced by the outer notch
imply that EFL occurs when a direct current carrying
conductor has outer surface discontinuities.
In the case of the notch in the pipe inner surface,
the simulation results of the electric field distribution
are indicated in Figure 6. Resembling the case of the
notch in the pipe outer surface, the electric field distributions both in the pipe and air scarcely change
except for their prominent variations in the vicinity of

(c)

(d)

Figure 6. The electric field distributions of an aluminum pipe with an inner notch: (a) the electric field in the pipe; (b) the resultant electric field
in air; (c) the normal component; and (d) the tangential component of the electric field in air.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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ME FEATURE w
x electric field leakage

because the scan distance from the inner notch is


greater than that of the outer notch. The variations of
the electric field outside the pipe induced by both the
outer notch and inner notch indicate that EFL would
occur when the direct current carrying conductor has
not only an external discontinuity but also an internal
one. Therefore, the EFL testing principle has the
potential of inspecting both external and internal
discontinuities in conducting materials by using
noncontact electric field sensors.

Conclusions
(a)

(b)

Figure 7. The variation curves of the electric field: (a) the normal component; and
(b) the tangential component.

the notch. The variations of electric field distribution


induced by the inner notch imply that EFL occurs when
a direct current carrying conductor has inner surface
discontinuities.
In order to analyze EFL deeply, scan paths were set
up outside the pipe models at distances of 0.5 mm
(0.02 in.) from the pipe outer surface, as shown in
Figure 4, such that the notches in the outer surface
and inner surface could be represent an external flaw
and internal flaw, respectively. According to the extraction data of the electric field intensity along the scan
paths, the variation curves of the electric field are
plotted in Figure 7. It can be seen that the normal
electric field increases linearly and the tangential one
has remained constant except for its prominent variations in the spatial regions near the notches. The
variation shape of the normal electric field is bipolar,
and that of the tangential electric field is unipolar.
Although the curved shape of the outer notch and
inner notch are similar, the peak values of the inner
notch are smaller than those of the outer notch

1444

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

This paper presents a new EFL NDT principle, with


which it is possible to detect both external and
internal discontinuities in conducting materials by
measuring the variation of electric field outside the
conductor. In order to theoretically investigate the
potential of EFL, simulations were performed using
three pipe models, one with no notches, one with an
outer notch, and one with an inner notch, respectively.
Variations of the electric field distribution in the
spatial region near the notches imply that EFL occurs
when a direct current carrying conductor has outer or
inner surface discontinuities. The prominent variations
of the electric field outside the pipe induced by both
outer notches and inner notches indicate that EFL has
the ability to identify not only external flaws but
internal flaws as well.
Although the simulations of EFL are theoretical
analysis, the simulation results are helpful for future
experimental research, such as estimating the sensor
sensitivity, determining the probe liftoff values, and
identifying discontinuity signals with more information
about size and location. In addition, the presentation
of the EFL testing principle offers a new way for
conducting NDT research, especially for electromagnetic testing.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank the support of the National Natural
Science Foundation of China (grant no. 51475194), the
National Key Basic Research Program of China (grant
no. 2014CB046706), and the Natural Science Foundation
of Hubei Province (grant no. 2012FFB0063).
AUTHORS
Donglin Li: M.E., School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan, 430074 China; and School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, 430068
China.
Yanhua Sun: Ph.D., School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan, 430074 China; e-mail yhsun@hust.edu.cn.
Zhijian Ye: Ph.D., School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan, 430074 China.

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Yihua Kang: Ph.D., School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan, 430074 China.
REFERENCES
Assis, A.K.T., J.A. Hernandes, and J.E. Lamesa, Surface
Charges in Conductor Plates Carrying Constant Currents,
Foundations of Physics, Vol. 31, No. 10, 2001, pp. 15011511.
Assis, A.K.T., W.A. Rodrigues, Jr., and A.J. Mania, The
Electric Field Outside a Stationary Resistive Wire Carrying a
Constant Current, Foundations of Physics, Vol. 29, No. 5,
1999, pp. 729753.
Cartz, L., Nondestructive Testing, ASM International Press,
New York, New York, 1995.
Guru, B.S., and H. R. Hiziroglu, Electromagnetic Field Theory
Fundamentals, second edition, Cambridge University Press,
New York, New York, 2004.
Hedengren, K.H., J.D. Young, and R.O. McCary, Use of
Imaging Techniques for Eddy Current NDE, Review of
Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 7A,
1988, pp. 357365.
Hinsley, J.F., Non-destructive Testing, Macdonald & Evans,
Ltd., London, England, 1959.
Jefimenko, O., Demonstration of the Electric Fields of
Current-carrying Conductors, American Journal of Physics,
Vol. 30, No. 1, 1962, pp. 1921.
Kang, Y.H., J. Tu, J.B. Wu, and Y.H. Sun, The High-speed
Ultrasonic Testing Method for Steel Pipes Based on Linear
Reciprocating Probes, Advanced Materials Research,
Vol. 301, No. 303, 2011, pp. 919923.
Knight, M.J., F.P. Brennan, and W.D. Dover, Effect of
Residual Stress on ACFM Crack Measurements in Drill Collar
Threaded Connections, NDT&E International, Vol. 37,
No. 5, 2004, pp. 337343.
Lee, J.H., M. Saka, and H. Ab, Loading Effect on ACPD of a
Crack in Ferromagnetic Material, Experimental Mechanics,
Vol. 37, No. 2, 1997, pp. 132136.
McNab, A., and J. Thomson, Measurement Technique for
Eddy-current Arrays, IEEE Proceedings A: Physical Science,
Measurement, and Instrumentation, Vol. 137, No. 3, 1990,
pp. 147154.
Sun, Y., and Y. Kang, Magnetic Compression Effect in
Present MFL Testing Sensor, Sensors and Actuators A:
Physical, Vol. 160, Nos. 12, 2010a, pp. 5459.
Sun, Y., and Y. Kang, Magnetic Mechanisms of Magnetic
Flux Leakage Nondestructive Testing, Applied Physics
Letters, Vol. 103, 2013.
Sun, Y., and Y. Kang, A New MFL Principle and Method
Based on Near-zero Background Magnetic Field, NDT&E
International, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2010b, pp. 348353.
Yin, X., and D.A. Hutchins, Non-destructive Evaluation of
Composite Materials using a Capacitive Imaging Technique, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 3,
2012, pp. 12821292.
Yin, X., D.A. Hutchins, and G. Chen, Detecting Surface
Features on Conducting Specimens through an Insulation
Layer using a Capacitive Imaging Technique, NDT&E International, Vol. 52, November 2012, pp. 157166.
Yu, J., J.C. Barker, and R. Brook, Optimization of Crack
Length Measurement by DCPD in DCB Specimens,
Proceedings of the Third International Offshore and Polar
Engineering Conference, Singapore, 611 June 1993.

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gallery

PRODUCT

Basic Spatial Resolution


Advancement
The more delicate a work piece is and the
higher the testing requirements for
intricate components (especially from the
aerospace sector), the higher the required

1446

resolution of the overall system. To date,


the highest achievable scan resolution
was 40 m, but as of June, Drr NDT
has started providing a BAM certificate
confirming a basic spatial resolution of
30 m. The combination of the proprietary
TreFoc technology in the HD-CR 35 NDT
with new ultra-high resolution image
plates (UH-IPs) is responsible for this
distinct difference. Now, for the first time,
the HD-CR 35 NDT provides an image plate
scanner that can satisfy the highest testing
requirements, using UH-IPs. All HD-CR 35
NDT devices are supplied on the basis of
the new certificate. Because of its sophisticated design, the HD-CR 35 NDT has the

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

ability to reliably scan image plates with


an even higher resolution, when they
become available, without requiring any
retrofitting work. This ensures compatibility
for future advancements.
Drr NDT, GmbH & Co. KG, BietigheimBissingen, Germany
www.duerr-ndt.com

Metal Alloy Sorters


Oxford Instruments has introduced a new
model to its range of ultra-fast handheld
metal alloy sorters. The mPulse and
mPulse+ enable users to identify a wide
variety of metal alloys at the press of the
trigger and quickly measure light and

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SPOTLIGHT w
x Visual Testing

Line Scan Camera


Teledyne DALSA, a Teledyne Technologies company, has announced its high
resolution 8 k line scan camerathe latest addition to its Linea series of low-cost,
high-value cameras. The feature-rich Linea cameras address the mainstream
market for machine vision applications and deliver high speed and responsivity at
an exceptional price point. Like the 2 and 4 k models, the Linea 8 k monochrome
model is built on the same powerful platform and acquires images at incredibly
fast line rates of up to 80 kHz. Features of the Linea single line camera series
include: high responsivity in the visible and near infrared wavelengths; multiple
user coefficient and flat-field calibration sets; programmable and flexible
triggering; and support of Camera Link cables up to 10 m (32.8 ft).
Teledyne DALSA, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
www.teledynedalsa.com

Push Camera
The Kombi push camera system includes two separate push rods with different diameter
camera heads. Interchangeable camera heads can be 16, 18, 23, and 32 mm (0.63, 0.71,
0.91, and 1.26 in.) depending on the requirements. The Kombi has a portable and industrial
design that is perfect for a variety of inspections such as heat exchanger/boiler tubes,
process lines, steam lines, and oil lines. The system includes video and still image
recording, a removable SD card, distance counter, and a high-resolution 142 mm (5.6 in.)
thin film transistor display. The Kombi push camera includes a stainless steel tubular frame
with powder coated cable cage and a 30 m/4.5 mm (98.43 ft/0.18 in.) fiberglass cable for a
23 or 32 mm (0.91 or 1.26 in.) camera head. An outer reel contains a 20 m (65.62 ft)
Varioflex cable for a 16 or 18 mm (0.63 or 0.71 in.) camera head. Additional camera heads
can be fitted easily. Available on the Varioflex cable is a 16 mm (0.63 in.) complementary
metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and an 18 mm (0.71 in.) CMOS color camera.
Advanced Inspection Technologies, Melbourne, Florida
www.aitproducts.com

High-speed Camera System


Photron, Inc. has announced the Fastcam Multi flexible, multi-head camera system,
which is tethered to a remote processorcurrent cable lengths are 5 and 10 m
(16 and 33 ft). The small, sealed camera heads and unique configuration allow the
user to capture images in confined spaces with megapixel resolution up to 6000 fps.
Full, high-resolution at 1280 1024 pixels is provided at 4800 fps, and 720 HD
(1280 720 pixels) to 6000 fps. Other frame rates are available up to 750 000 fps
at reduced resolution. The Fastcam Multi permits high resolution, excellent frame rate
performance, and high-speed imaging in limited spaces that are not large enough to
use a traditional one-piece, standalone high-speed camera. Fastcam Multis camera
processor is separate from the camera heads. This ensures that data are safely retained
in the processor in the event the camera heads or cables are damaged or destroyed
during the capture of an explosive high-speed event. Photrons camera system is ideal
for applications such as off-board automotive safety testing, detonation and explosives
testing, and for any high-speed image capture in confined, yet demanding environments.
Photron, Inc., San Diego, California
www.photron.com

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PRODUCT

SPOTLIGHT w
x Visual Testing

Three-chip Video Camera


Toshiba Imaging Systems Division has announced the
IK-4K, UltraHD 4K three-chip video camera with an 8 MP,
3840 2160 pixel output. The versatile camera delivers
extraordinary detail with up to 1600 television lines of
resolution and switchable formats, from 4K at 50/59.94 Hz,
to 1080p and 1080i. The improved sharpness and fine
edge details when compared with 1080p systems is
astonishing and has applications anywhere increased
resolution is important. Even when operated in 1080p
mode the resolution is improved over dedicated 1080p
camera systems. The ultra-compact and lightweight
camera head can be easily integrated into new or existing
imaging systems for applications such as scientific
imaging, defense/military, process and quality control,
live tissue imaging, and broadcast. The UltraHD 4K twopiece system design combines Toshibas proprietary
prism block technology and advanced image processing
capabilities to deliver unprecedented color accuracy and
exceptional resolution with 12-channel color adjustment
for optimal control. The 4 3G/HD-SDI output offers
maximum signal fidelity. Five user-configurable settings
files are available to support various operating modes and
ambient conditions. The camera incorporates Toshiba
Imagings advanced three-complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor sensor technology with an image flip and
mirror function, freeze frame, and gen-lock for 3D and
multi-camera use. Other features include remote control
via RS232 and a C-mount lens mount for added
convenience and versatility.
Toshiba America Information Systems, Inc.,
Irvine, California
www.toshibacameras.com

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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heavy elements. With no costly detector or


limited-lifetime X-ray tube to replace, maintenance and repair costs are low. The
mPulse analyzer has been designed for
the rapid identification and sorting of
heavier alloys such as stainless steels and
nickel, copper, cobalt, and titanium alloys.
The mPulse makes measurements in just
one second regardless of alloy type. The
mPulse+ is able to separate even the close
grades such as aluminum 6061 and 6063
in just one second. Likewise, the mPulse+
is designed for ultra-fast sorting of a wide
range of metal alloys including magnesium
and aluminum alloys, stainless steels, and
nickel, copper, cobalt, and titanium alloys.
The mPulse and mPulse+ are powered by
induced breakdown spectroscopy technology, which means that costly and timeconsuming radiation safety training
classes and user certifications are not
required. Both models feature a strong
sapphire window in the analyzers nose,
protecting the analysis head, safeguarding
against the need for costly repairs, and
preventing contamination of the optics.
The mPulse analyzers are ready to use
with no setup required; skilled or unskilled
staff can be up and running in minutes.
Minimal training is required for optimal
use and maximum throughput.
Oxford Instruments, Abingdon,
United Kingdom
www.oxford-instruments.com

Automated Ultrasonic Testing


Instrument
Based on its patented tire material technology, Sonatest has introduced the
WheelProbe 2 (WP2), which allows faster
and more efficient scan mapping of large

composite, aluminum, and other metal


surfaces. As the best alternative to
immersion inspection, the WP2 offers a
1 mm (0.04 in.) near surface resolution in
the latest composite materials using a
5 MHz array. Available also with 10, 3.5,
and 2 MHz versions, the WP2 is capable of
measuring discontinuities in other more
attenuating materials. Weighing only 1 kg
(2.2 lb) and 45% lighter than the earlier
generation, this more versatile model
offers distinct advantages for the operator,
especially when scanning large areas
upside down. The WP2 is configurable and
flexible, offering unique features such as
adaptable handles, adjustable laser
guidance, light-emitting diodes for alarm
feedback, remote control with start/stop,
and indexing and reset buttons as well as
the on-probe remote display. The WP2 also
has a detachable connection making

cabling an economic and convenient


spare part that can be replaced in
seconds, reducing downtime and
increasing equipment utilization. This also
makes it easy to select the best cable
length to suit the inspection task at hand.
Designed for both manufacturing and
maintenance applications and environments, the WP2 makes exhaustive
scanning of large areas more efficient,
saving time and providing comfort and
confidence to its operator.
Sonatest, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom
www.sonatest.com

Modular Tool Microscope System


Titan Tool Supply, Inc. has introduced
the AME-5M angle model measuring
goniometer eyepiece. The AME-5M
measures over 360 to an accuracy of 5
(minutes) using a rotary vernier caliper
and crosshair eyepiece. It features an
easy-to-read white scale on a black
background and can be enlarged by a
10 magnifier. It is ideal for checking
cutting tool geometry and angular measurement. An optimal use for the new
AME-5M eyepiece is in conjunction with the
Titan Tool modular tool microscope system.
The modular concept enables the user
to attain magnifications from 3 to 800
using a choice of three body styles, three
mounting brackets, two illuminators,
and two video adapters. All images are
optically correct, and parts may be used
individually or assembled together to create
an inexpensive measuring microscope.
Three basic microscope frames (straight
inline, 90 and 45) are offered with variable
magnifications from 10 and 20 at 20.24 cm
(7.97 in.) working distance to 800. Three
different rack-and-pinion mounting fixtures
feature X-Y-Z adjustments. Two styles of illuminators, including a cold light, fiber optic
ring model that eliminates shadows and
blind spots are available. In addition,
either of the two video adapters can be
used to allow convenient viewing of the
image on a video monitor. These sturdy,
well-designed components permit the user
to build a microscope-video system as
simple or sophisticated as needed. The
toolscope building block concept allows
complete alignment capabilities for many
fixturing adaptations and in microelectronics for assembly and alignment on
grinders.
Titan Tool Supply, Inc., Buffalo, New York
www.titantoolsupply.com w
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media

NEW

Zetec Launches New Website


Zetec released a new look, still anchored
with the companys traditional blue brand
name, with a new tagline, The Inspection
Advantage, and a new graphic image as
part of the logo. The new branding was
part of the project that completely
redesigned the company websites look,
content, and structure. Zetecs redesigned
website represents the companys broad
products, services, and global manufacturing capabilities.
www.zetec.com

Non-destructive Testing
Equipment Market Global
Industry Analysis, Size, Share,
Growth, Trends, and Forecast
20152021
Nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment is
used to evaluate or inspect materials,
assemblies, or components for discontinuities in their characteristics without
affecting the serviceability of the part or
system. NDT equipment is also used to
determine the physical properties of
materials such as ultimate tensile
strength, ductility, impact resistance,
fatigue strength, and fracture toughness.
In addition, NDT equipment lowers the
cost of production and sustains a uniform
quality level. Furthermore, stringent
government safety regulations for quality
control, safety, and reliable performance of
the machines, and increasing demand to
improve quality and longevity of the
machines are the major factors that drive
the NDT equipment market globally.

1450

Among all end-use industry segments,


the power generation industry holds the
largest market share at present in the NDT
equipment market. The main factors
driving this growth of the power generation
industry are an increasing number of
nuclear power plants and the subsequent
demand for machines used in power
generation plants. In 2014, the oil and gas
industry was the second largest end-use
industry in the NDT equipment market
globally. NDT equipment is utilized in oil
and gas operations on critical assets such
as tanks, vessels, heat exchangers and
condensers, and piping and rotating
equipment to identify potential damage
mechanisms. The increasing number of
failures of oil and gas equipment and tools,
especially of pipes, spur the need for NDT
equipment in this industry.
This market research study analyzes the
NDT equipment market on a global level
and provides estimates in terms of revenue
(USD billion) from 2015 to 2021. The report
identifies the drivers and restraints affecting
the industry and analyzes their impact over
the forecast period. Moreover, it identifies
the significant opportunities for market
growth in the coming years.
The report segments the market on the
basis of geography as North America,
Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World,
and these have been estimated in terms of
revenue. Furthermore, the report segments
the market based on technology as ultrasonic testing, radiographic testing, electromagnetic testing, visual testing, and others
(including magnetic particle testing and
liquid penetrant testing). In addition, the
market is segmented on the basis of enduse industry, which includes power generation, oil and gas, aerospace and defense,
automotive, and others (including plastic
and polymer, and medical). All these
segments have also been estimated on the
basis of geography in terms of revenue.
North America represents the largest
market share of the NDT equipment
market. In 2014, North America accounted

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

for largest revenue share in the global NDT


equipment market. Large investments in
energy verticals such as oil and gas are
chief drivers of market growth in North
America. Europe holds the second largest
market share in the NDT equipment
market followed by Asia Pacific and Rest of
World, respectively.
For better understanding of the NDT
equipment market, the study also includes
competitive landscape and market attractiveness analysis, wherein applications are
benchmarked based on their market scope,
growth rate, and market attractiveness.
www.researchandmarkets.com

Intelligent Pigging Services


Market: Global Industry Analysis
and Opportunity Assessment
2015 2025
Future Market Insights (FMI) delivers key
insights on the global intelligent pigging
services market in its latest report, titled
Intelligent Pigging Services Market:
Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity
Assessment 20152025. According to
the report, the global intelligent pigging
services market is expected to register
a compound annual growth rate (CAGR)
of 6.3% during the forecast period
(20152025). Pipeline inspection gages,
also known as pigs, are devices used for
inspection and maintenance operations of
oil and gas pipelines. Intelligent pigs have
an onboard electronic chip, which is used
to record the data about the condition of
the pipeline. Intelligent pigs are widely
used for corrosion and cracks detection.
Assessing various factors driving
market growth, an FMI analyst said,
Stringent government and industry regulations, expected economic revival, and
technological advancements in pigging
services are surging demand for global
intelligent pigging services market. The
analyst added that increasing awareness
among pipeline operators about the
benefits of regular inspection and maintenance of pipelines is expected to further fuel

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1451

market growth. This is also expected to


prompt original equipment manufacturers
(OEMs) and vendors of intelligent pigs to
introduce innovation in inspection technologies such as magnetic flux leakage
testing (ML) and ultrasonic testing (UT) to
improve efficiency of services.
The global intelligent pigging services
market is segmented on the basis of technology into ML and UT. Among these,
demand for ML is significant, accounting
for 66.6% share of the global intelligent
pigging segment market in 2014. As per
FMI estimates, this segment is projected to
register a CAGR of 6.5% during the
forecast period.
On the basis of end-use industry, the
global intelligent pigging service market is
segmented into gas industry and oil
industry. The gas industry segment in the
global intelligent pigging services
accounted for 80.4% market share in
2014. FMI estimates the gas industry

segment expected to register a CAGR of


6.2% between 2015 and 2025, to account
for $657 million by 2025. The oil industry
segment is estimated to account for 19.8%
share by the end of 2015 and is forecast
to increase at a CAGR of 6.7% through
2025. Currently, the gas pipeline network
is larger than that of oil, and this trend is
expected to continue during the forecast
period as well. Thus, the gas industry
segment is projected to dominate the
global intelligent pigging services market
over the forecast period.
Increasing consumption of petroleum
products and natural gas is expected to
fuel demand for intelligent pigging services
globally. In addition, economic revival in
regions such as Eastern Europe, Western
Europe, and North America, as well as
economic growth in regions such as
Asia/Pacific Excluding Japan (APEJ) and
Latin America, are expected to propel
growth of the global intelligent pigging

services market over the forecast


period.
The global intelligent pigging services
market is segmented on the basis of regions
into North America, Eastern Europe,
Middle East and Africa, Western Europe,
Latin America, and Japan. North America
accounted for 48.9% revenue share in the
global intelligent pigging services market in
2014, and is expected to continue to
dominate the global market over the
forecast period. One of the smaller intelligent pigging services markets, Latin
America is expected to register the highest
CAGR during the forecast period. The APEJ
market is projected to register a CAGR of
7.1% over the forecast period.
Key players across the supply chain in
the global intelligent pigging services
market include OEMs and vendors of intelligent pigging services, as well as and oil
and gas explorers and producers. Major
OEMs and vendors operating in the global

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media

NEW

market are focused on adopting advanced


inspection technologies to enhance efficiency
of services. Pipeline operators are entering
into long-term supply contracts with OEMs
and vendors to minimize effect of increasing
costs of intelligent pigging services.
In the future, OEMs and vendors should
continue investing in the North America and
Eastern Europe market. At the same time,
APEJ and Latin America are expected to
generate significant demand for intelligent
pigging services. OEMs and vendors should
focus on improving combinational technologies, as these are more effective and
advanced that individual technologies
currently used for pigging services.
www.futuremarketinsights.com

ARSA Launches AeroJobs.org


On 26 August, the Aeronautical Repair
Station Association (ARSA) announced
the launch of AeroJobs.org, a web-based
recruitment tool that will help the
aviation community find technically

1452

skilled applicants to keep the world


safely in flight.
The site is the product of a new partnership between ARSA and RealMatch, an
online-recruiting services provider. Through
TheJobNetwork, North Americas largest
network of job sites, AeroJobs.org will allow
aviation businesses to reach millions of job
seekers on the web and through social
media. Unlike many other job sites,
AeroJobs.org matches jobs and candidates
based on their technical skills, which will
open the door for technicians from other
industries to find and begin careers in
aviation.
ARSAs members have consistently
cited the skilled worker shortage as the
greatest strategic threat to the maintenance industry, ARSA Executive Vice
President Christian Klein said. As the
aviation market keeps expanding
Boeings 2015 outlook forecasts more
than one million new jobs to fill in the next
20 yearsAeroJobs.org will help repair

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

stations and other aviation employers


compete for technical talent.
In addition to broader advocacy for
improving workforce policyincluding
collaboration with the Aviation Technician
Education Council and membership on the
STEM [science, technology, engineering,
and mathematics] Education Coalitions
Leadership CouncilARSA is providing
AeroJobs.org as a service to both employers
and aspiring aviation professionals.
Whenever you board a plane or pick
up a loved one at the airport, you depend
on the good work of countless men and
women, said Brett Levanto, ARSAs vice
president of communications. Many of us
will never meet the aviation professionals
in whom we place our trust, but ARSA is
launching this site for them. AeroJobs.org
will help aviation businesses and applicants spend less time searching for a job
and more time doing one. Its a worthy
cause, because we cant fly without them.
www.arsa.org w
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pics

NDT

Structural Health Monitoring of Composites

Photo credit: Baiyang Ren, Pennsylvania State University

Structural health monitoring (SHM) is often based on nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. However, NDT instrumentation must be
tailored to meet the needs of stay-in-place sensory systems. This photo shows the laboratory setup for a project focused on SHM of
adhesively bonded composites, using permanent array sensors to generate and receive ultrasonic guided waves. In order to be sensitive
to discontinuities in the adhesive, wave modes with a large portion of their energy in the adhesive are selected and preferentially
generated with a phased array (top and bottom of left edge of plate). Array sensors (middle of left edge of plate) enable determination of
the energy spectrum to assess modal content, which indicates the presence of defects that cause mode conversions. This SHM approach
is relatively insensitive to changing environmental and operating conditions, and the multi-element sensors are low profile, lightweight,
flexible, and inexpensive. No human intervention is necessary during data acquisition, freeing the analyst for interpretation of results
and prognostics for maintenance decision making. w
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news

INDUSTRY

Arctic Slope Regional Acquires


Arctic Pipe Inspection

Radiography General Manager Juan Mario Gomez spoke at the opening of the second GE
production plant in Wunstorf.

GE Inspection Technologies Opens


Second Computed Tomography
Plant
GEs Measurement & Control business has
opened a second GE manufacturing plant
in Wunstorf, Germany. Founded in 1999,
the phoenix|x-ray business of GE
Inspection Technologies has evolved into
an industrial computed tomography technology leader, providing inspection
solutions for quality labs as well as for
process optimization on the production
floor, including automotive and aerospace
production. The inauguration of the
second production plant allows GE to
increase productivity, optimize logistics
and training capabilities, and accommodate the fast growing service department.
The opening of this new industrial
computed tomography plant demonstrates
GEs investment in both infrastructure and
human resources, explained Omar Castillo,
Wunstorf site leader. This facility allows us
to continue developing and delivering
advanced 2D and 3D inspection solutions
to thousands of our current system users

1456

and future customers to help them ensure


quality and drive productivity.
Because of the continued growth of
GEs industrial phoenix|x-ray computed
tomography portfolio and sales quantity,
the former production plant reached its
capacity at 1.3 ha (0.005 mi2). With the
addition of the 0.6 ha (0.002 mi2) plant,
the facility will increase capacity, potentially doubling GEs production space and
leaving room for future growth. Since all
core components, such as X-ray tubes,
generators, detectors, and computed
tomography software are proprietary GE
technology, the new plant combines
modern logistics and material stock with
component manufacturing of micro- and
nanofocus tubes and generators, among
others. It also houses 45 employees and
includes new test and repair facilities, and
a new service training center, allowing the
old plant to dedicate several thousand
square meters to final X-ray inspection and
computed tomography system cabinet
assembly and delivery.

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

Arctic Slope Regional Corp. (ASRC) has


acquired Arctic Pipe Inspection, Inc. of
Houston and Arctic Pipe Inspection, Inc.
(collectively, API). Headquartered in
Houston, Texas, API was founded more
than 40 years ago by Royce Roberts to
provide nondestructive testing of oil
country tubular goods. API currently
operates facilities in Houston, Texas and
Deadhorse, Alaska, providing electromagnetic, ultrasonic, weldline, and mill inspection services to oil and gas producers and
service providers.
Concurrent with the retirement of
Royce Roberts, Jim Hildebrandt, APIs
longtime vice president of operations,
assumed the role of API president and
general manager.

Rockwood Service Acquires Applied


Inspection
Rockwood Service Corp. has acquired
Applied Inspection, Ltd., which was
founded in 1984 and operates from four
laboratories in Burton, Chesterfield,
Ossett, and Glasgow, United Kingdom.
Ted Peake will continue to oversee
Applied as managing director, and Pat
Slater will continue to serve as technical
director.
Premier M&A Services acted as
financial advisor, and hlw Keeble Hawson
acted as legal advisor to Applied in the
transaction. McGuireWoods served as legal
advisor to Rockwood.

3sun Group Launches Asset


Integrity Service
3sun Group has further enhanced its
offerings by launching a fully comprehensive asset integrity service. The Groups inhouse capabilities for working at height

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support the repair, maintenance, and


decommissioning of all on- and offshore
structures, both in oil and gas and renewables sectors. Skilled Industrial Rope
Access Trade Association approved rope
access technicians are utilized for work
including welding, pipe and plate nondestructive testing, painting, crane inspection, blade repair, and fabric maintenance.
The service also covers detailed
offshore surveys, risk assessments, and
design, through to the implementation of
structural and piping modifications and
the decommissioning of redundant
equipment.
Commenting on the importance of
asset integrity, Graham Hacon, CEO, said:
Safe operation of aging assets is one of
the biggest challenges facing the energy
industry, particularly in the North Sea, and
even more so in the current climate when
identifying streamlined and cost effective
solutions is key. A well-managed asset
integrity program can play a major role in
extending the life cycle of fundamental
assets.
Hacon added: Assets can deteriorate
in many ways through corrosion, structural
fatigue, impact damage, and general wear
and tear. Our integrity management team
works with operators to ensure assets are
effectively maintained to be safe, reliable,
and efficient across their lifecycle.
With our recent acquisition of AID
Industrial, we can now offer complementary capabilities to the renewable energy
and oil and gas sectors, allowing us to
provide a full turnkey solution to our
customers. Our services are adaptable as
well as comprehensive and allow us to
offer bespoke solutions for projects of
any scale and specification.
The acquisition of AID Industrial
(specialist personal protective equipment
provider and expert in industrial rope
access, work at height, and Global Wind
Organisation safety courses) marked a
successful first quarter of the year for the
Group. This follows major contract wins,
a top-20 position on The Sunday Times
HSBC International Track 200 league table,
and a 10 million investment from the
Business Growth Fund last year.

Sonomatic Breaks Ground on New


Facility in Aberdeen
Clearbell has announced that Sonomatic
is the latest occupier to join The Core,
Aberdeen, Scotland.
Global organization Sonomatic, which
provides services to customers in the oil

and gas industry, will create a brand-new


multidiscipline facility that will allow it to
cover its entire range of nondestructive
testing inspections. The state-of-the-art
premises, comprising a 929 m2 (10 000 ft2)
office and a 1301 m2 (14 000 ft2)
workshop with associated parking and

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news

INDUSTRY

yard space, will house radiography and


hydro testing bays and will have the ability
to perform heat-treatment on its
customers equipment.
Construction is expected to commence
by November 2015, with Sonomatic likely
to relocate from its current site in Bridge of
Don in April 2016. The Core is a business
park that offers bespoke office, industrial,
workshop, warehouse, and leisure facilities located in a coastal setting in the
Bridge of Don. It aims to be one of the
most energy efficient, low carbon business
communities in the U.K.
Tracy Anderson, Rope Access and
Inspection Services division manager and
Sonomatic U.K. business development
manager, said: The location has been
very carefully selected with consideration
given to our customers logistical requirements. We want to be situated in close

1458

proximity to our customers, to reduce the


time taken to turnaround inspections and
ensure we meet environmental commitments. Consequently we have chosen to
invest in a new site at The Core.
Another very important factor in the
decision to move to The Core is the
planned location of the Aberdeen Western
Peripheral Route (AWPR). In addition to
serving customers in Aberdeen, we are
hoping to meet customers requirements
from all over Scotland by taking full
advantage of the A90 and the AWPR.

Versa Integrity Group Acquires CW


Technical Services
Versa Integrity Group, Inc. has announced
that on 31 July, it completed a transaction
to acquire CW Technical Services, Inc.
(CWT) of Lafayette, Louisiana. CWT specializes in project management, coating and

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

corrosion surveys, and inspection during


coating preparation and application. Many
of CWTs projects support customers
offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, but its
services will be extended to Versas
refining, chemical, and manufacturing
customers.
Brian Walley and Martin Narido have
joined Versa from CWT and will be responsible for the daily operations of these
services. Walley and Narido are both NACE
International Coating Inspector Program
Level 2 certified, and combined they bring
more than 30 years of experience in
planning, management, and inspection
of coating programs. Christine White will
support them and Versa in an administrative
role. Their offices will be based in the
Lafayette Division of Versa, under the
direction of Vice President Theron Vincent.

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patents

NEW

ROBERT E. SHANNON

Associate Technical Editor

US 8907665
Magnetostrictive sensor array for
active or synthetic phased array
focusing of guided waves
(J. Rose, J.K. Van Velsor, S.E. Owens, and R.L.
Royer, Jr.)

Nondestructive testing (NDT) and structural


health monitoring (SHM) techniques are
frequently used to test or inspect a
material without causing damage. For
example, such NDT/SHM techniques may
be used to inspect welds or identify
discontinuities in pipes, airplane components, and other devices or materials in
which maintaining the integrity of (that is,
not damaging) the device or material is
desirable. For the purposes of the present
technology, NDT refers to the noninvasive
inspection of a structure or component,
usually in regular time intervals, and SHM
refers to the permanent installation of a
sensor for long-term monitoring of the
structure or component.
Guided wave testing is a specific
method for the NDT/SHM of structures
or components in which low frequency
(generally <1 MHz) ultrasonic waves are
introduced into the structure and subsequently interact with the local boundaries
of the structure to form a coherent propagating wave packet that then follows the
structure. Such boundaries may be the
external surfaces of a particular material or
an interface between two materials. The
propagation characteristics of the wave
packet are dictated by the dimensions and
material properties of the structure. Unlike
traditional ultrasonic waves that may be
used to perform localized testing or
inspection, guided waves may be used to
perform remote testing or inspection of a
material through various NDT/SHM techniques. In the pulse-echo guided wave
technique, appurtenances such as welds,
structural attachments, cracks, or metal

loss reflect portions of the wave packet


back toward the generating sensor,
where they are received by the generating sensor or by a separate receiving
sensor and then amplified, digitized,
processed, and displayed. These reflections may be analyzed to determine the
extent and location of the abnormality
or discontinuity.
Magnetostrictive guided wave techniques refer to the utilization of the
magnetostrictive effect to generate guided
waves or the inverse magnetostrictive
effect to receive them directly in the
structure being inspected or in a piece
of magnetostrictive material temporarily
or permanently attached to the structure
being inspected. The magnetostrictive
effect refers to the tendency of a ferromagnetic material to change shape when
subjected to a magnetic field. By controlling the time-varying properties of the
magnetic field, the magnetostrictive
material can be made to oscillate so as
to generate a propagating guided wave.
Current magnetostrictive techniques used
for pipe inspection generally consist of
a non-segmented dual-element sensor
capable of directional control only.
Conventional magnetostrictive pipe
inspection techniques suffer from several
significant disadvantages. For example,
conventional magnetostrictive techniques
do not allow separation of wave modes
distributed evenly around the pipe circumference (axisymmetric modes) from those
that are unequally distributed around the
pipe circumference (flexural modes). Many
structural features, such as welds and
clamps, produce axisymmetric wave
reflections, while metal-loss discontinuities generally produce flexural wave
reflections. Consequently, the inability to
distinguish between axisymmetric modes
and flexural modes render these structural
features indistinguishable from corrosion
and other metal-loss discontinuities.

Another significant drawback of


conventional techniques is that they do
not enable information regarding the
circumferential extent or location of a
metal-loss discontinuity to be determined.
For example, it is impossible to determine
whether a 15% loss in the cross-sectional
area of a pipe at a specific axial location
occurs over 25% of the pipe circumference
or over 80% of the pipe circumference
two different conditions that would lead to
two entirely different integrity states. The
improved NDT systems and techniques
described in this patent enable the generation and reception of flexural guided wave
modes using segmented magnetostrictive
sensors for the inspection of hollow cylindrical structures as well as plate and platelike structures. These plate-like structures
may include, but are not limited to, structures with some curvature, for example,
where the ratio of inner curvature to that
of the outer curvature is less than 0.8.
The segmentation of the magnetostrictive
sensors makes it possible to distinguish
reflections generated by structural
features, such as welds, from reflections
generated by material discontinuities,
such as metal loss. Phased array and
synthetic guided wave focusing concepts
can be employed using the segmented
magnetostrictive sensor to determine the
approximate circumferential location and
extent of a reflection source thereby
providing significantly improved sizing
capabilities compared to conventional
magnetostrictive sensors. By employing
the described focusing concepts with
the segmented magnetostrictive sensor,
improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can
be achieved through constructive interference of the wave energy generated or
received by the individual segments of the
sensor. This improvement in SNR can lead
to improved sensitivity and penetration
power.

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patents

NEW
US 8919202

System and technique for


monitoring health of stator vanes
(B.R. Keely, A. Bhattacharya, R.Y. Babu, and
N. Tralshawala)

This patent generally relates to systems


and techniques for monitoring health of
stationary blades or stator vanes. A gas
turbine may include an axial compressor at
the front, one or more combustors around
the middle, and a turbine at the rear.
Typically, an axial compressor has a series of
stages with each stage comprising a row of
rotor blades or airfoils followed by a row of
static blades or static airfoils. Accordingly,
each stage comprises a pair of rotor blades
or airfoils and static airfoils. Typically, the
rotor blades or airfoils increase the kinetic
energy of a fluid that enters the axial
compressor through an inlet. Furthermore,
the static blades or static airfoils generally
convert the increased kinetic energy of the
fluid into static pressure through diffusion.
Thus, the rotor blades or airfoils and static
airfoils play a vital role to increase the
pressure of the fluid.
Furthermore, the rotor blades or airfoils
and the static airfoils are vital for the wide
and varied applications of the axial
compressors that include the airfoils. Axial
compressors, for example, may be used in a
number of devices, such as land-based gas
turbines, jet engines, high-speed ship
engines, small-scale power stations, or
other similar applications. In addition, axial
compressors alone may be used in varied
applications, such as large volume air separation plants, blast furnace air, fluid catalytic
cracking air, propane dehydrogenation, or
other important industrial uses.
Moisture or humidity, high temperatures, and other properties of the inlet
gases lead to corrosion of various airfoils
and other structures inside the gas
turbine. These, in combination with low
cycle fatigue and high cycle fatigue during
operation of the turbine, lead to stresscorrosion cracking especially if extreme
stress is experienced due to abnormal
resonances or impact of foreign objects.
Additionally, the airfoils operate for long
hours under extreme and varied operating
conditions, such as high speed, pressure,

1462

and temperature, which affect the health


of the airfoils. In addition to the extreme
and varied conditions, certain other factors
lead to fatigue and stress of the airfoils.
The factors may include inertial forces,
pressure, excitation of the resonant
frequencies of the airfoils, vibrations in the
airfoils, vibratory stresses, temperature
stresses, reseating of the airfoils, load of
the gas or other fluid, or the like. A
prolonged increase in stress and fatigue
over a period of time leads to cracks and
other discontinuities in the airfoils. One or
more of the cracks may widen with time to
result in liberation of all or a part of an
airfoil. The liberation may be hazardous for
the device and may lead to enormous
economic losses. In addition, it may create
an unsafe environment for people near the
device. Conventional systems and techniques exist to monitor the performance and
operation of compressors and the airfoils.
For example, vibration sensors may be used
to monitor vibrations from the compressors
and the airfoils during operations. A change
in the frequency or magnitude of existing
vibrations may indicate excessive wear or
crack formation. However, vibration sensors
may detect only cracks and other anomalies
large enough to cause an imbalance and
vibration in the compressor. They may not
detect small cracks that do not result in a
detectable vibration. Accordingly, it is
desirable to develop the present systems
and techniques that monitor the health of
the airfoils.
This patent describes a nondestructive
testing system including a number of sensing
devices configured to generate acoustic
emission signals that represent acoustic
emission waves propagating through a
number of stator vanes. The system further
includes a processing subsystem that is in
operational communication with the multiple
sensing devices, and the processing
subsystem is configured to generate a
dynamic threshold based on an initial
threshold and the acoustic emission signals,
determine whether multiple signals of
interest exist based on the dynamic
threshold, extract the signals of interest
based upon the dynamic threshold,
determine one or more features corresponding to the signals interest, and analyze a

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

variety of the features of the signal to monitor


and validate the health of the stator vanes.
The processing of the acoustic signals
described in the patent includes steps of
determining both time-domain features and
frequency-domain features. The time-domain
features include ring down count (RDC),
amplitude, event duration, peak amplitude,
rise time, and energy. RDC is used to refer
to a number of times an acoustic emission
signal crosses a dynamic threshold. Event
duration is used to refer to duration
between the first time an acoustic emission
signal crosses a dynamic threshold and the
last time. Rise time is used to refer to the
time taken by an acoustic emission wave to
travel from its first threshold crossing till peak
amplitude in a given waveform. Similarly,
frequency-domain features may include
frequency distribution of the power spectral
density of the signals, the variations in these
distributions, wavelets, and the like. Also,
the determination of the features is
followed by analysis of the features. The
analysis of the features may be performed
using cumulative data analysis techniques
and other processes explained in detail in
the detailed description of the patent. w
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Patents
Have you been awarded a
patent?
If you have recently been granted a
new patent by a government patent
office, we invite you to let us know
about it. We are looking for patents
that describe innovations in the
science and practice of nondestructive testing. You can send a few
paragraphs describing the invention
and its range of applications, and a
copy of the patent document (or if it
was issued by the United States
Patent and Trademark Office, you
can just give us the patent number).
E-mail to robert.shannon@siemens
.com with ASNT M.E. New Patents
in the subject line.
For more information on the
patents, go to the U.S. Patent and
Trademark Office website at
www.uspto.gov.

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partners

CORPORATE
3angles, Inc. (Albany, NY)
3D Engineering Solutions
(Cincinnati, OH)
3E NDT, LLC (La Porte, TX)

A
Abdallah I Al Tamimi Industrial
Services (Khobar, Saudi Arabia)
ABM Franchising Group
(Canonsburg, PA)
Access Plug Flange, Inc.
(Houston, TX)
ACNDT, Inc. (Middleburg, FL)
Acoustic Technology Group
(Grandville, MI)
AcousticEye, Ltd. (Tel Aviv, Israel)
Acuren Group, Inc. (Edmonton, Canada)
Ademinsa (Lima, Peru)
Advanced Corrosion Technologies &
Training, LLC (Sulphur, LA)
Advanced Inspection Technologies
(Melbourne, FL)
Advanced Material Solutions
(Phoenix, AZ)
Advanced NDT Solutions, Inc.
(Sunset, LA)
Advanced OEM Solutions
(Cincinnati, OH)
Advanced Test Equipment Rentals
(San Diego, CA)
Advantest (Princeton, NJ)
AEIS (Rahway, NJ)
Aerocentro De Servicios, C.A.
(Doral, FL)
Aerofab NDT, LLC (Kent, WA)
Aerojet Rocketdyne (Rancho
Cordova, CA)
Aerotest Operations, Inc. (San
Ramon, CA)
AES Destructive & NDT, Ltd. (Kwai
Chung, Hong Kong)
African NDT Centre Pty., Ltd.
(Centurion, South Africa)
AGD Inspection Services, LLC
(Stafford, TX)
AGR Inspection, Inc. (Burleson, TX)
AIP (Houston, TX)
AIP Global Strategies (Pelham, NH)
Air Force NDI Program Office (Tinker
AFB, OK)
Air Services (Middleburg Heights, OH)
Aircraft Inspection Services (Grand
Rapids, MI)
Aircraft X-Ray Labs, Inc. (Huntington
Park, CA)
Akura Bina Citra (Bekasi, Indonesia)
Al Mansoori Inspection Services
(Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)
Al Othman Trading & Contracting
Co. (Dammam, Saudi Arabia)
AllPro NDT (Melville, NY)
Alpha NDT (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam)
Alpha Star Aviation Services
(Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Alta Vista Solutions (Richmond, CA)
AMA Consultants Corp. (Braselton, GA)
AME International (Singapore)
Amerapex Corp. (Houston, TX)
American Inspection Services, Inc.
(Grand Bay, AL)
American Institute of Nondestructive
Testing (Baxter, MN)

1464

Thank You
ASNT is proud to present these NDT manufacturers, users
and suppliers who support the Society. This list is current
as of 1 October 2015.
American Marine Corp.
(Anchorage, AK)
American NDT, Inc. (Lancaster, OH)
American Piping Inspection (Tulsa, OK)
American Testing Services
(Miamisburg, OH)
Amo & Partners Engineering Co.
(Khobar, Saudi Arabia)
AMOSCO (Eastleigh, United Kingdom)
Amotus Solutions, Inc. (Qubec,
Canada)
AMS Store and Shred, LLC (Lake in
the Hills, IL)
Analisis END (Antofagasta, Chile)
Andire and Co., Ltd. (Port Harcourt,
Nigeria)
Apex NDT Training Services
(Lafayette, LA)
Applied Technical Services
(Marietta, GA)
Applus RTD (Edmonton, Canada)
Applus RTD Valley Industrial X-ray &
Inspection Services, Inc.
(Bakersfield, CA)
Aqua Communications, Inc.
(Waltham, MA)
Aqualified, LLC (Atlanta, GA)
Aral General Trading, LLC (Dubai,
United Arab Emirates)
Arcadia Aerospace Industries (Punta
Gorda, FL)
Arcmart Indonesia (Bandung,
Indonesia)
Arditec Ingenieria, S.A. de C.V.
(Mexico City, Mexico)
Argyll Ruane, Ltd. (South Yorkshire,
United Kingdom)
Aria Azmoon Sanat Co. (Tehran, Iran)
Arrow-Tech, Inc. (Rolla, ND)
Artis NDT (Pasig City, Philippines)
Arya Fould Gharn (Ahwaz, Iran)
Asian Institute of Petroleum and
Construction Technology (Cochin,
India)
Aspire Institute of Technology
(Calicut, India)
Associated X-Ray Corp. (East
Haven, CT)
Atlantic Inspection Services
(St. Johns, Canada)
Atlas Inspection Technologies
(Clinton, LA)
Aurora Institute & Inspection
Services (Coimbatore, India)
AUT Solutions (Fulshear, TX)
Automated Inspection Systems
(Martinez, CA)
Avonix Imaging (Plymouth, MN)
Axionz Petroleum Institute
(Kozhikode, India)
Aycan Data Management
(Rochester, NY)
AZTech Training & Consultancy
(Dubai, United Arab Emirates)

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

B
Baker Testing Services, Inc.
(Rockland, MA)
Balteau NDT (Hermalle sous
Argenteau, Belgium)
Base Line Data, Inc. (Portland, TX)
BCI Morocco (Casablanca, Morocco)
Beijing Dragon Electronics Co.
(Beijing, China)
Bercli Corp. (Berkeley, CA)
Best NDT (Springfield, VA)
Betz Engineering & Technology Zone
(Chennai, India)
BG Detection Services/LA X-Ray, Inc.
(Sun Valley, CA)
Bighorn Inspection, Inc. (Laurel, MT)
Biomet, Inc. (Fair Lawn, NJ)
BKS Consulting & Training Institute
(Tehran, Iran)
Blastline Institute of Surface
Preparation & Painting (Kochi,
India)
Blatek, Inc. (State College, PA)
Blueveld Nigeria, Ltd. (Port Harcourt,
Nigeria)
Boeing (Seattle, WA)
Bosello High Technology (Warsaw, IN)
Bossier Parish Community College
(Bossier City, LA)
BP America (Houston, TX)
Branch Radiographic Labs, Inc.
(Cranford, NJ)
BRL Consultants, Inc. (San Antonio, TX)
Bruker Elemental (Kennewick, WA)
BTEC, LLC (Pueblo, CO)
Bureau Veritas (Bunkapi, Thailand)

C
Cadillac Casting, Inc. (Cadillac, MI)
Cadorath Aerospace (Broussard, LA)
Callington Haven Pty., Ltd.
(Rydalmere, Australia)
Can USA, Inc. (Harvey, LA)
Canadian Engineering & Inspection,
Ltd. (Edmonton, Canada)
Canyon State Inspection (Tucson, AZ)
Carbon Steel Inspection, Inc.
(Pittsburgh, PA)
Carestream NDT (Rochester, NY)
Carl Zeiss Industrial Metrology
(Maple Grove, MN)
Caterpillar, Inc. (Peoria, IL)
CATSI, Inc. (Valparaiso, IN)
CDA Technical Institute
(Jacksonville, FL)
CDI Marine (Virginia Beach, VA)
Cenergy International Services, LLC
(Houston, TX)
Central Flying Service (Little Rock, AR)
CentroTest Asia, Inc. (Mandaluyong,
Philippines)
Centura X-Ray NDT (Cleveland, OH)
CFS Inspections (Searcy, AR)

Chemetall US, Inc. (New


Providence, NJ)
Chesapeake Testing (Belcamp, MD)
Chevron (Picayune, MS)
Churchill Steel Plate, Ltd.
(Twinsburg, OH)
Cimetrix, Ltd. (Seattle, WA)
Circle Systems, Inc. (Hinckley, IL)
Clover Park Technical College
(Lakewood, WA)
CNS Pantex (Amarillo, TX)
Coast to Coast Inspection Services,
Inc. (Portland, OR)
College of the North Atlantic
(Stephenville, Canada)
Comet Technologies USA, Inc.
(Shelton, CT)
Comibassal (Alexandria, Egypt)
Commodity Resource &
Environmental, Inc. (Burbank, CA)
Computerised Information
Technology, Ltd. (Milton Keynes,
United Kingdom)
Condition Monitoring &
Maintenance Institute (Vega Baja,
Puerto Rico)
Connect NDT, Ltd. (Aberdeenshire,
United Kingdom)
Cooperativa Metalurgica e
Inspecciones ND, R.L.
(Barquisimeto, Venezuela)
Cooperheat Saudi Arabia Co., Ltd.
(Jubail, Saudi Arabia)
CoreStar International Corp. (Irwin, PA)
Cotech IRM Services, Inc. (Houston, TX)
Creaform, Inc. (Lvis, Canada)
Crosby Group McKissick Products
Division (Tulsa, OK)
Crossroads Institute (Oklahoma
City, OK)
Curtis Industries, Inc. (Cowansville, PA)
Curtiss Wright Anatec-LMT (Irvine, CA)
Cutech Group (Singapore)
Cuyahoga Community College
(Cleveland, OH)
CWB Group (Milton, Canada)
CXR Corp. (Kure, Japan)
Cygnus Instruments, Inc.
(Annapolis, MD)

D
Dakota Ultrasonics (Scotts Valley, CA)
Danatronics (Danvers, MA)
Danco Inspection Service, Inc.
(Oklahoma City, OK)
Dantec Dynamics, GmbH (Ulm,
Germany)
Dantec Dynamics, Inc. (Holtsville, NY)
Dares, Srl. (Casamarciano, Italy)
DBI, Inc. (Lincoln, NE)
Decibel NDE Inspections & Training
Institute (Patambi, India)
Demmer Corp. (Lansing, MI)
Detection Technology, Inc.
(Billerica, MA)
Detek, Inc. (Temple Hills, MD)
Diamond Technical Services, Inc.
(Blairsville, PA)
Dixon Hard Chrome (Sun Valley, CA)
DJA Inspection Services, Inc. (Reno, PA)
DK Shah NDT Training Institute
(Baroda, India)

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1465

DolphiTech (Raufoss, Norway)


Dominion NDT Services, Inc.
(Chesterfield, VA)
Doppler Electronic Technologies Co.,
Ltd. (Guangzhou, China)
Drr NDT, GmbH & Co. KG
(Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany)

E
Echo Ultrasonics (Bellingham, WA)
Eclipse Scientific Products, Inc.
(Ontario, Canada)
ECS, Inc. (Kennesaw, GA)
Eddyfi (Qubec, Canada)
Edison Welding Institute
(Columbus, OH)
Edwards, Inc. (Spring Hope, NC)
Eishin Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Minato-Ku,
Japan)
Elcometer NDT (Rochester Hills, MI)
Elmag NDT, Ltd. (Santiago, Chile)
Enerfab, Inc. (Cincinnati, OH)
EQV Technologies (Granite Falls, NC)
ETher NDE, Ltd. (St. Albans, United
Kingdom)
ETM, Inc. (Newark, CA)
Euroteck Systems U.K., Ltd.
(Tamworth, United Kingdom)
Evraz North America (Portland, OR)
EXEL North America, Inc.
(Streamwood, IL)
Exodrill (Keswick, Australia)
Exova (Linkoping, Sweden)
Extende (Ballston Spa, NY)
ExxonMobil (Baytown, TX)

F
First Alert Sling Testing, LLC
(Lafayette, LA)
First College (West Kelowna, Canada)
First Due Training & Safety
Consultants, LLC (Brielle, NJ)
Fish & Associates, Inc. (Middleton, WI)
Flathead Valley Community College
(Kalispell, MT)
FlawSpec Manufacturing, Inc.
(Edmonton, Canada)
FlawTech, Inc. (Concord, NC)
Foerster Instruments, Inc.
(Pittsburgh, PA)
Fongs National Engineering Co.,
Ltd. (Guangdong, China)
Force Inspection Services, Inc.
(Nisku, Canada)
Force Technology (Broendby, Denmark)
Formweld Fitting, Inc. (Milton, FL)
Frontics America, Inc. (Schaumburg, IL)
FujiFilm NDT Systems (North
Kingstown, RI)
Full Service NDT, S.A. de C.V.
(Monterrey, Mexico)

G
G&G Technical Services, Ltd.
(London, United Kingdom)
Gamesa Innovation & Technology
(Sarriguren, Spain)
Gamma Petroleum Services (Basra,
Iraq)
Gamma Rad (Tehran, Iran)
Gammatec Middle East General
Trading, LLC (Dubai, United Arab
Emirates)

GE Measurement & Control


(Lewistown, PA)
GE Power Generation Services
(Niskayuna, NY)
Gems Technologies (Hyderabad, India)
General Dynamics NASSCO Norfolk
(Norfolk, VA)
Genesis Systems Group (Davenport, IA)
Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc.
(Nashua, NH)
George Consulting Services, Inc.
(Monaca, PA)
Gilardoni, SpA. (Mandello Del Lario,
Italy)
Gladd Solutions (Plymouth, MI)
Global Academy of Quality
Controlling (Kochi, India)
Global Diving & Salvage, Inc.
(Anchorage, AK)
Global Engineering Documents
(Englewood, CO)
Global Inspections NDT, Inc.
(Kelowna, Canada)
Global Lifting Services, Ltd. (Port
Harcourt, Nigeria)
Global Pipe Co. (Jubail, Saudi
Arabia)
Global X-Ray & Testing Corp.
(Morgan City, LA)
Globe X-Ray Services, Inc. (Tulsa, OK)
Glomacs Fz, LLC (Dubai, United Arab
Emirates)
Golden Engineering, Inc. (Richmond, IN)
Goolsby Testing Laboratories
(Humble, TX)
Gradient Lens Corp. (Rochester, NY)
Gravitech Inspection Services
(Ernakulam, India)
Grupo Simples Oil, Lda. (Luanda,
Angola)
Guangdong Goworld Co., Ltd.
(Shantou, China)
Guided Ultrasonics, Ltd. (Brentford,
United Kingdom)
Guided Wave Analysis, LLC (San
Antonio, TX)
Gulf Quality Control Co., Ltd.
(Khobar, Saudi Arabia)
Gulf X-Ray Services, Inc. (Gretna, LA)
Gulmay (Suwanee, GA)

H
H Scan International, Inc. (Torrance, CA)
Haks Engineers Architects & Land
Surveyors (New York, NY)
Halifax International, Fze. (Erbil, Iraq)
Hamamatsu Corp. (Bridgewater, NJ)
Heli-One Colorado (Fort Collins, CO)
Helium Leak Testing, Inc.
(Northridge, CA)
Hellier (Houston, TX)
Herzog Services, Inc. (St. Joseph, MO)
High Technology Sources, Ltd.
(Didcot, United Kingdom)
Hi-Spec Systems, Ltd. (Nantwich,
United Kingdom)
Hi-Tech NDT Training Consultancy
and Services (Nashik, India)
HMT Inspection (Houston, TX)
Hobart Institute of Welding
Technology (Troy, OH)
Hocker, Inc. (Houston, TX)
Hodges Transportation, Inc. (Carson
City, NV)

Honeywell Aerospace Servicios


(Chihuahua, Mexico)
Honeywell Federal Manufacturing &
Technologies (Kansas City, MO)
Houston Community College System
(Houston, TX)
Hull Inspection Services, Ltd. (Ijaiye
Ojokoro, Nigeria)

I
I&T Nardoni Institute, Srl. (Brescia,
Italy)
Idaho National Laboratory (Idaho
Falls, ID)
Ideh Azma Iranian International Co.
(Roswell, GA)
Imperium, Inc. (Beltsville, MD)
IMS Cochin (Eranakulam, India)
Industrial Inspection Systems, Ltd.
(Vaughan, Canada)
Industrial Testing Laboratory
Services, LLC (Pittsburgh, PA)
Innerspec Technologies, Inc.
(Forest, VA)
Inquest, Inc. (Houston, TX)
Insight, K.K. (Tokyo, Japan)
Inspec Testing, Inc. (National City, CA)
Inspectest Pvt., Ltd. (Lahore,
Pakistan)
Inspection Plug Strategies, LLC
(Houston, TX)
Inspection Point Seals, LLC
(Prairieville, LA)
Inspection Technologies, Inc.
(Pomona, CA)
Inspection Technology, WLL (Doha,
Qatar)
Inspectioneering (The Woodlands, TX)
Institute of Nondestructive Testing
and Training (Mumbai, India)
Integrated Inspection & Surveying
(Dubai, United Arab Emirates)
Integrated Petroleum Services, Ltd.
(Khobar, Saudi Arabia)
Integrated Quality Services
(Ontario, CA)
Integrity & NDT Solutions (Cajica,
Colombia)
Integrity Scientific Laboratory
(Dubai, United Arab Emirates)
Integrity Smart Services, LLC
(Muscat, Oman)
International Corp. of Safety in
Drilling (Quito, Ecuador)
International Inspection (Santa Fe
Springs, CA)
International Leak Detection, LLC
(Des Plaines, IL)
International Quality Systems
(Concepcion, Chile)
International Testing & Inspection,
LLC (Onaway, MI)
Intertek (Amelia, LA)
Intertek Industry Services Japan,
Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan)
Intron Plus (Moscow, Russia)
Inuktun Services, Ltd. (Nanaimo,
Canada)
IPSI (Courbevoie Cedex, France)
Iranian Engineering Inspection
(Tehran, Iran)
Iranian Society of Nondestructive
Testing (Tehran, Iran)
IRED Thermal Group, Ltd.
(Edmonton, Canada)

Iris Inspection Services, Inc.


(Baytown, TX)
IRISNDT (Houston, TX)
IRM Services, Ltda. (Macae, Brazil)
Ironscan Institute of
Non-Destructive Testing and
Services (Madurai, India)
IS Industrie Thailand, Ltd. (Bangkok,
Thailand)
IVC Technologies (Lebanon, OH)
IveyCooper Services, LLC (Soddy
Daisy, TN)

J
Jan Kens Co., Inc. (Monrovia, CA)
JANX (Parma, MI)
JB Testing, Inc. (Blaine, MN)
JC International, Ltd. (Port Harcourt,
Nigeria)
Jentek Sensors, Inc. (Waltham, MA)
JES Pipelines, Ltd. (Willemstad,
Netherlands Antilles)
JETS, Inc. (Carrollton, TX)
JG&A Metrology Center (Windsor,
Canada)
Jindal Tubular USA, LLC (Bay St.
Louis, MS)
Jireh Industries, Ltd. (Ardrossan,
Canada)
Joemarine Nautical Co., Ltd.
(Effurun, Nigeria)
Johnghama International Services,
Ltd. (Warri, Nigeria)
Joint Technology Pakistan Pvt., Ltd.
(Karachi, Pakistan)
Jubail Industrial College (Jubail,
Saudi Arabia)
Juva-Oil Services, Ltd. (Port
Harcourt, Nigeria)
JZ Russell Industries, Inc.
(Nederland, TX)

K
Kakivik Asset Management, LLC
(Anchorage, AK)
Kalva Engineers Pvt., Ltd.
(Hyderabad, India)
Karl Storz Industrial Group
(El Segundo, CA)
KB Inspection Services (Elkton, FL)
Keiyu NDT Supply (Taipei, Taiwan)
Keltron Kerala State Electronics
Development Corp., Ltd.
(Trivandrum, India)
Keville Enterprises, Inc. (Boston, MA)
Kheeran Inspection Services, Inc.
(Edmonton, Canada)
Kimtron, Inc. (Oxford, CT)
Kinetic Solutions, LLC (Fort Ripley, MN)
Kunkel Oilfield Inspection, LLC
(Victoria, TX)
Kuwait Pipe Industries & Oil
Services Co. (Kuwait City, Kuwait)
KXR Inspection, Inc. (Barker, TX)

L
Labino AB (Solna, Sweden)
Laboratory Testing, Inc. (Hatfield, PA)
LACO Technologies (Salt Lake City, UT)
Landmark Aviation (Greensboro, NC)
Laser Technology, Inc. (Norristown, PA)
Lavender International NDT
Consultants (Sheffield, United
Kingdom)

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

1465

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1466

partners

CORPORATE
Leland Saylor & Associates, Inc.
(San Francisco, CA)
Lion Inspection Services, Inc.
(Houston, TX)
Lloyds British (Cairo, Egypt)
Loadcraft Industries, Ltd. (Brady, TX)
Loenbro, Inc. (Great Falls, MT)

M
M2M (Les Ulis, France)
MAC NDT Services, LLC
(Montgomery, TX)
Magnaflux (Glenview, IL)
Magnetic Analysis Corp. (Elmsford, NY)
Magwerks Corp. (Danville, IN)
Maintenance & Inspection Services,
Inc. (Morganton, NC)
Mandinas Inspection Services, Inc.
(Belle Chasse, LA)
Marietta Nondestructive Testing,
Inc. (Marietta, GA)
Marktec Corp. (Tokyo, Japan)
Martin Testing Laboratories, Inc.
(McClellan, CA)
Matcom Inspection Services, Ltd.
(Port Harcourt, Nigeria)
Matec Instrument Cos., Inc.
(Northborough, MA)
Material Inspection Technology, Inc.
(Houston, TX)
Mayo Consulting Services, LLC
(Opelousas, LA)
Merrick Group, Inc. (West Hazleton, PA)
Merrill Technologies Group
(Saginaw, MI)
Metalcare Group, Inc. (Fort
McMurray, Canada)
Metals Testing Co. (South Windsor, CT)
Metalscan Inspection Services
(Chennai, India)
Met-L-Chek (Santa Monica, CA)
Meyer Tool, Inc. (Cincinnati, OH)
MFE Enterprises, Inc. (Dripping
Springs, TX)
MFE Rentals (Pasadena, TX)
Middle East Industrial Training Institute
(Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)
Milan Tool Corp. (Cleveland, OH)
MIR Engineering (Tangerang, Indonesia)
Mistras Group, Inc. (Princeton
Junction, NJ)
Mitchell Laboratories (Pico Rivera, CA)
Modal Shop, Inc. (Cincinnati, OH)
Moraine Valley Community College
(Palos Hills, IL)
Morex 71, Ltd. (Even Yehuda, Israel)
Motabaqah Brand of Saudi
Specialized Laboratories Co.
(Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Mountain Pressure Testing
(Longview, TX)
moviTherm (Irvine, CA)
Mozzat Enterprise, Sdn. Bhd. (Kuala
Belait, Brunei)
MPM Products, Inc. (Ontario, CA)
MR Chemie, GmbH (Unna, Germany)
MSPEC (Abu Dhabi, United Arab
Emirates)

National University Polytechnic


Institute (San Diego, CA)
Naya Engineering Services (Basra, Iraq)
NDE Center Indonesia (Surabaya,
Indonesia)
NDE Professionals, Inc. (Portland, OR)
NDE Solutions, LLC (Bryan, TX)
NDT & Corrosion Control Services
(Dammam, Saudi Arabia)
NDT Academy Pte., Ltd. (Chennai, India)
NDT Classroom, Inc. (Buffalo, NY)
NDT Italiana, Srl. (Concorezzo, Italy)
NDT Seals, Inc. (Houston, TX)
NDT Solutions, Inc. (New Richmond, WI)
NDT Solutions, Inc. (Hollywood, FL)
NDT Supply.com, Inc. (Shawnee
Mission, KS)
NDT Systems, Inc. (Huntington
Beach, CA)
NDT Technical Solutions (San Jose,
Costa Rica)
NDT Testing, Srl. (Odobesti, Romania)
NDT Training & Testing Center
(Houston, TX)
NDT-PRO Services (Houston, TX)
Nersten Services, Ltd. (Port
Harcourt, Nigeria)
New Horizons Oilfield Services
(Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Newco, Inc. (Florence, SC)
Newport News Shipbuilding
(Newport News, VA)
Non Destructive Testing
Professionals, LLC (Pueblo, CO)
Nondestructive Inspection Service,
Inc. (Hurricane, WV)
Nordco Rail Services & Inspection
Technologies (Beacon Falls, CT)
Nordsee Petroleum Service (Cairo,
Egypt)
Norfolk Naval Shipyard
(Portsmouth, VA)
North Idaho College/Aerospace
Technology (Hayden, ID)
North Star Imaging, Inc. (Rogers, MN)
Northeast Testing & Manufacturing,
LLC (Beverly, MA)
NOVO DR, Ltd. (Yehud, Israel)
Novostroy Control, Ltd. (Sofia,
Bulgaria)
NQS Inspection, Ltd. (Corpus Christi, TX)

O
Ocean Corp. (Houston, TX)
Oceaneering (Panama City, FL)
Ogden Weber Applied Technology
College (Ogden, UT)
OKOS Solutions, LLC (Manassas, VA)
Olympus Scientific Solutions
Americas (Waltham, MA)
Omni Energy, Ltd. (Accra North, Ghana)
Omni Metal Finishing, Inc. (Fountain
Valley, CA)
Optim, LLC (Sturbridge, MA)
Orbit Industries, Inc. (Cleveland, OH)
OSG Testing Pty., Ltd. (Alberton,
South Africa)

P
N
NASSCO (Jacksonville, FL)
National Marine Consultants, Inc.
(Parlin, NJ)
National Oilwell Varco Pte., Ltd.
(Singapore)

1466

Pac Testing Services, Ltd. (Port


Harcourt, Nigeria)
Pacific Island Inspection (Kapolei, HI)
Pacsess (Seattle, WA)
PaneraTech, Inc. (Chantilly, VA)
Paragon Industries, Inc. (Sapulpa, OK)

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

Parker Research Corp. (Dunedin, FL)


PCA Engineering, Inc. (Pompton
Lakes, NJ)
PdM Consultores Internacional, Srl.
(El Tejar, Costa Rica)
Pearls Institute of Petroleum
(Ernakulam, India)
Pegasus Inspections & Consulting,
LLC (Houston, TX)
Perennity EMEA (Brussels, Belgium)
Performance Review Institute
(Warrendale, PA)
Petro Base, Ltd. (Richmond, TX)
PetroKnowledge (Dubai Media City,
United Arab Emirates)
PetroScanalog International, Ltd.
(Port Harcourt, Nigeria)
Petrotech Calicut (Calicut, India)
Pfinder KG (Boeblingen, Germany)
PFL Engineering Services, Ltd.
(Lekki, Nigeria)
PH Tool Reference Standards
(Pipersville, PA)
Phased Array Co. (West Chester, OH)
Phasors Tech, Sdn. Bhd. (Shah
Alam, Malaysia)
Phateco Technical Services Joint
Stock Co. (Haiphong, Vietnam)
Phoenix Inspection Systems, Ltd.
(Warrington, United Kingdom)
Phoenix Nuclear Labs (Monona, WI)
Pine (Windsor, NJ)
Pinnacle X-Ray Solutions (Suwanee, GA)
Pipe & Well O&M Services Est.
(Dammam, Saudi Arabia)
Plant Integrity, Ltd. (Cambridge,
United Kingdom)
PM Testing Laboratory, Inc. (Fife, WA)
Poco Graphite (Decatur, TX)
Pooya Sanat Moshaver Espadan
(Isfahan, Iran)
Portsmouth Naval Shipyard
(Portsmouth, NH)
Power Plant Institute (Kollam, India)
PPL Susquehanna, LLC (Berwick, PA)
PQNDT, Inc. (Arlington, MA)
Pragma (Qubec, Canada)
Precise NDT Pte., Ltd. (Taxila, Pakistan)
Precision Flange & Machine, Inc.
(Houston, TX)
Premier NDT Services, Inc.
(Farmington, NM)
Premier Tubular Inspection Services
Pte., Ltd. (Karachi, Pakistan)
Premium Inspection & Testing
(Houston, TX)
Premium Inspection Co.
(Bakersfield, CA)
Prime NDT Services, Inc. (Whitehall, PA)
PRINDT Corp. (Toa Baja, Puerto Rico)
PRL Industries, Inc. (Cornwall, PA)
Pro Mag Inspection, LLC (Houma, LA)
Proceq (Gurnee, IL)
Professional Inspection Services,
Ltd. (Couva, Trinidad and Tobago)
Professional NDT Services
(Broussard, LA)
Promotora de Servicios en
Ingenieria, S.A. de C.V. (Distrito
Federal, Mexico)
PSSI NDT (Houston, TX)
PT Karsa Kencana Indonesia
(Tangerang, Indonesia)
PT Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk.
(Jakarta, Indonesia)

Q
QA Systems Pte., Ltd. (Singapore)
Qatar Engineering & Construction
Co., WLL (Doha, Qatar)
QC Square (Trichy, India)
QinetiQ NDT Pty., Ltd. (South
Melbourne, Australia)
QNDT Services, LLC (Signal Hill, CA)
QTech (Khobar, Saudi Arabia)
QTI, LLC (Lindon, UT)
Qualimation (Ernakulam, India)
Qualitek, LLC (Houston, TX)
Quality Control Co. (Cairo, Egypt)
Quality Control Council U.S. (Kansas
City, KS)
Quality Control Iraq (Cairo, Egypt)
Quality Control Services Co., Ltd.
(Khobar, Saudi Arabia)
Quality Equipment Distributors, Inc.
(Orchard Park, NY)
Quality Material Inspection, Inc.
(Huntington Beach, CA)
Quality NDE, Ltd. (Mercier, Canada)
Quality Network, Inc. (Sparta, NJ)
Quality Systems International, Inc.
(Russellville, AR)
Quality Testing Services, Inc.
(Maryland Hts., MO)
Quality Testing Services, Inc.
(Linden, NJ)
QualSpec (Torrance, CA)
Quest Integrity Group, LLC (Kent, WA)

R
RadiaBeam Technologies (Santa
Monica, CA)
Ram Design (Broussard, LA)
Ray-Check Manufacturing, Inc.
(Clovis, CA)
R-CON NDT, Inc. (Menomonie, WI)
Real Educational Services, Inc.
(Ellijay, GA)
Regional Utility Services
(Spartanburg, SC)
Reinhart & Associates, Inc. (Austin, TX)
Resplendence Technology, Ltd.
(Tainan, Taiwan)
RF System Lab (Traverse City, MI)
Riccardelli Consulting Services, Inc.
(Lehi, UT)
Ridgewater College (Hutchinson, MN)
Ritec, Inc. (Warwick, RI)
Rohmann Eddy Current Instruments
& Systems (Spartanburg, SC)
Rokaysan Engineering, Ltd. Co.
(Bursa, Turkey)
Rolls-Royce (Williamson, NY)
Rosen (Stans, Switzerland)
RTW Roentgen-Technik
(Neuenhagen, Germany)
Russell NDE Systems, Inc.
(Edmonton, Canada)
RusselSmith Nigeria, Ltd. (Lagos,
Nigeria)
Rusyal Institute, LLC (Muscat, Oman)

S
Safe Inspection Technology
(Dammam, Saudi Arabia)
Safe Ocean Service, Inc. (Houston, TX)
SAI Global (Paramus, NJ)
Salt Lake Community College (Salt
Lake City, UT)

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1467

Sarl 3MECS Engineering &


Consulting Services (Laghouat,
Algeria)
SB Enterprises Pvt., Ltd. (Karachi,
Pakistan)
ScanMaster IRT, Inc. (Greenville, SC)
ScanTech Instruments, Inc.
(Longview, TX)
Schlumberger (Houston, TX)
School of Applied Non Destructive
Examination (Boksburg, South Africa)
SCI Control & Inspeccion (Ajalvir, Spain)
SE International, Inc.
(Summertown, TN)
SeaReach Engineering (Scituate, MA)
Second Adams International, Ltd.
(Sabo Yaba, Nigeria)
Secu-Chek, GmbH (Kleinblittersdorf,
Germany)
Senne Technical Services (Sunland, CA)
Sense of Siam International Trading
Co., Ltd. (Sattahip, Thailand)
Sensor Networks (Boalsburg, PA)
Sensors & Software, Inc.
(Mississauga, Canada)
Sentinel QSA Global, Inc. (Baton
Rouge, LA)
Setcore Arabia Petroleum Services
(Dammam, Saudi Arabia)
SGS Group Industrial Services
(Geneva, Switzerland)
Shale Flow Specialties (Kilgore, TX)
Shanghai CHiNDT Systems and
Services (Shanghai, China)
Shanghai Fengjie Valve Service Co.,
Ltd. (Shanghai, China)
Sherwin, Inc. (South Gate, CA)
Siemens Energy, Inc. (Pittsburgh, PA)
Siemens Sensors (Rubbestadneset,
Norway)
Sigma NDT Services Pvt., Ltd.
(Chennai, India)
Sikorsky Aircraft (Stratford, CT)
SILA Kalite (Bursa, Turkey)
Silean (Tremonton, UT)
Silverwing (Swansea, United Kingdom)
SIS Institute of NDT (Chennai, India)
SIUI (Shantou, China)
SKF Latin America, Ltda. (Bogota,
Colombia)
Sletten Construction Co. (Great
Falls, MT)
Snell Group (Barre, VT)
Soaring High, Inc. (Islamabad, Pakistan)
SODIP, Sarl. (Douala, Cameroon)
Son Set Consultants, LLC (Owasso, OK)
Sonartech (Kempton Park, South Africa)
Sonaspection International, Inc.
(Concord, NC)
Sonatest, Ltd. (San Antonio, TX)
Sonic Systems International
(Houston, TX)
Sonomatic, Inc. (Mooresville, NC)
Soundwel Technology Corp., Ltd.
(Monterey Park, CA)
Source Production & Equipment Co.,
Inc. (St. Rose, LA)
Southern Inspection Services
(Chennai, India)
Southwest Research Institute (San
Antonio, TX)
Sowsco Inspection Services, Ltd.
(Port Harcourt, Nigeria)
Sparrows (Bridge of Don Aberdeen,
United Kingdom)

Join Us
Being a part of the Society links your business to the worldwide
NDT community and puts your business on the front lines of the
industry. To learn more about becoming a Corporate Partner, see
the Membership section of the ASNT website at www.asnt.org.
Spartan College of Aeronautics &
Technology (Tulsa, OK)
Special Oilfield Services Co., LLC
(Ruwi, Oman)
Specpro (Santiago, Chile)
Spectronics Corp. (Westbury, NY)
Spellman High Voltage Electronics
Corp. (Hauppauge, NY)
Springleaf Integrated Links, Ltd.
(Port Harcourt, Nigeria)
ST Aerospace Engineering Pte., Ltd.
(Singapore)
St. Johns NDT Training & Services
(Pathanamthitta, India)
Stalion-Primi (Port Harcourt, Nigeria)
Standard Testing and Inspection
Services, Ltd. (Port Harcourt, Nigeria)
Stanley Inspection (Houston, TX)
Star Pipe Service, Inc. (Moore, OK)
State Energy Inspection Services,
Inc. (Crosby, TX)
Stroud Systems, Inc. (Houston, TX)
Structural Diagnostics, Inc.
(Camarillo, CA)
Structural Integrity Associates
(Huntersville, NC)
Sullivan & Associates, Inc.
(Ladson, SC)
Superior Inspection Services, LLC
(Broussard, LA)
System One Services (Cheswick, PA)

T
TCA Ingenieros, Ltda. (Medellin,
Colombia)
TCR Arabia Co., Ltd. (Dammam,
Saudi Arabia)
Team Industrial Services (Alvin, TX)
Tech Service Products, Inc.
(Harahan, LA)
Tech Team Associates (Carate
Brianza, Italy)
Techinco (Tehran, Iran)
Techna NDT (Kent, WA)
Technical Loadarm, Ltd. (Guelph,
Canada)
Technisonic Research, Inc.
(Fairfield, CT)
Technology Design Ltd. (Winsford,
United Kingdom)
Technoscan Inspection Services
(Pathanamthitta, India)
Techshore Inspection Services
(Cochin, India)
Techstreet (Ann Arbor, MI)
Tecnatom, S.A. (Madrid, Spain)
Teledyne ICM (Andrimont, Belgium)
Tesco Corp. (Yokohama, Japan)
Test Equipment Distributors, LLC
(Troy, MI)
Test NDT, LLC (Brea, CA)
Testek (Bogota, Colombia)
Testex, Inc. (Pittsburgh, PA)
Testing Service Group SAC (Lima, Peru)

Texas Research International


(Austin, TX)
Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc.
(Ferndale, MI)
Thermographie GG, Inc. (Granby,
Canada)
TIBA Oil Tools (Cairo, Egypt)
Tilt Inspection and Consulting, Inc.
(Sherwood Park, Canada)
Total NDT, LLC (Longview, TX)
TP Group, S.A. (Bogota, Colombia)
Trainee World Institute (Baghdad, Iraq)
Triade Industries (Houston, TX)
Trident Refit Facility (Kings Bay, GA)
Trinity NDT Engineers (Bangalore, India)
Trisakti Protektama Dits (Batam,
Indonesia)
Tru Amp Corp. (Jackson, MS)
TTAsia Co., Ltd. (Ho Chi Minh City,
Vietnam)
Tulsa Tech (Tulsa, OK)
Tulsa Welding School (Tulsa, OK)
Turbo Nondestructive Testing, Inc.
(Kemah, TX)
Turnco, LLC (Houston, TX)
Turner Specialty Services, LLC
(Pasadena, TX)
TWI, Ltd. (Cambridge, United Kingdom)

U
Ultracon Service, LLC (Kiev, Ukraine)
Ultrasonics & Magnetics Corp.
(Harvey, LA)
Uniclimb Services Pte., Ltd.
(Singapore)
UNICO (Cairo, Egypt)
United NDT Training and Inspection
Centre (Cochin, India)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia)
University of Alaska Anchorage
(Anchorage, AK)
UniWest (Pasco, WA)
URS Energy & Construction, Inc.
(Princeton, NJ)
U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground
(Yuma, AZ)
U.S. Photon Service (Hayward, CA)
U.S. Underwater Services, LLC
(Mansfield, TX)
UT Technology (Edmonton, Canada)
Utex Scientific Instruments, Inc.
(Mississauga, Canada)

V
V2 Consulting, Ltd. (Tuen Mun, Hong
Kong)
VAAL University of Technology
(Vanderbijlpark, South Africa)
Valley Inspection Service, Inc.
(Allentown, PA)
Vandergriff Technologies NDT
Services (Haltom City, TX)
Varian Security & Industrial Imaging
Components (Las Vegas, NV)
Vector TUB, GmbH (Hattingen, Germany)

Velosi, Sdn. Bhd. (Kuala Belait, Brunei)


Venture Inspection, Ltd. (Derby,
United Kingdom)
Verichek Technical Services, Inc.
(Bethel Park, PA)
Veri-tech International (New Cairo,
Egypt)
Vibspectrum International, LLC
Trading & Electromechanical
(Dubai, United Arab Emirates)
Vidisco, Ltd. (Or Yehuda, Israel)
Vincotte International Algeria (Alger,
Algeria)
Virtual Media Integration
(Pensacola, FL)
VisiConsult X-ray Systems & Solutions,
GmbH (Stockelsdorf, Germany)
Vision Financial Group, Inc.
(Pittsburgh, PA)
Vizaar Industrial Imaging (Gibsonia, PA)
VJ Technologies, Inc. (Bohemia, NY)
VMX Confiabilidad Integrada, S.A.
de C.V. (Monterrey, Mexico)
Volkswagen Group of America, LLC
(Chattanooga, TN)
Volume Graphics, Inc. (Charlotte, NC)
Volunteer NDT Corp. (Chattanooga, TN)

W
Walt Disney World Co. (Lake Buena
Vista, FL)
Warren Associates (Pittsburgh, PA)
Washita Valley Enterprises, Inc.
(Oklahoma City, OK)
Welding Technology & NDT Research
Application Center (Ankara, Turkey)
Weldtest (Bir Khadem, Algeria)
WENS Quality Assurance Pvt., Ltd.
(Singapore)
WesDyne Amdata (Windsor, CT)
West Penn Testing Group (New
Kensington, PA)
Whertec Boiler Inspection Services,
LLC (Jacksonville, FL)
Williams Bridge Co. (Richmond, VA)
Willick Engineering Co., Inc. (Santa
Fe Springs, CA)
Wohler USA, Inc. (Danvers, MA)
World Testing, Inc. (Mt. Juliet, TN)
WorldSpec Group (Houston, TX)
Wyle (Dayton, OH)

X
X-Ray Associates, LLC (San Dimas, CA)
X-Ray Industries, Inc. (Troy, MI)
X-Scan Imaging Corp. (San Jose, CA)

Y
Yxlon (Hudson, OH)

Z
Zagros Tatbigh Kala Engineering and
Technical Inspection Co. (Tehran, Iran)
Zamil Lifting & Industrial Supports
(Dammam, Saudi Arabia)
Zeppelin Systems Gulf Co. Industrial
Services (Jubail, Saudi Arabia)
Zetec, Inc. (Snoqualmie, WA)
Zhengzhou Runde Dellonscope Co.,
Ltd. (Zhengzhou, China)
Zuuk International, Inc. (Charleston, SC)

w
x

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1469

meetings

Meetings are events at which


paper and/or poster presentations
are made and recent developments
in technology, research and development are discussed by those in
attendance. These are generally
sponsored by academic or professional technical associations. The
sponsor is the same as the contact
except where noted.
For ASNT meetings and events
(highlighted in red) contact the
ASNT Conference Department,
1711 Arlingate Lane, P.O. Box
28518, Columbus, OH 432280518; (800) 222-2768 or (614)
274-6003; fax (614) 274-6899;
e-mail conf@asnt.org.

2015
1013 NOV

World Conference on Acoustic


Emission 2015, Hilton
Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach
Resort, Waikiki, Oahu, Hawaii.
Contact: Zhanwen Wu, China
Special Equipment Inspection
and Research Institute;
86 10 59068313, fax 86 10
59068023; e-mail wcae2015
@163.com; website
www.wcacousticemission.org.
1319 NOV

ASME 2015 International


Mechanical Engineering
Congress & Exposition, Hilton
of the Americas and George
R. Brown Convention Center,
Houston, Texas. Contact:
Jimmy Le; (212) 591-7116,
fax: 212-591-7856; e-mail
lej2@asme.org; website
www.asmeconferences.org.

PLEASE NOTE: Materials Evaluations Calendar department is

derived from information sent to our offices by the sponsoring


organizations. ASNT staff is not responsible for collecting or
verifying the information contained herein: for more information
on meetings or courses, please contact the sponsoring organization. The Calendar copy deadline is the first of the month,
two months prior to the issue date: for example, 1 December
for the February journal. Send your organizations information
by e-mail, fax or mail to the Associate Editor, Materials
Evaluation, 1711 Arlingate Lane, P.O. Box 28518, Columbus, OH
43228-0518; fax (614) 274-6899; e-mail tkervina@asnt.org.
Information in the Calendar runs for four months at a time.
ASNT reserves the right to reject event listings for any reason.
Listings will be edited to conform to ASNTs editorial style.

2016
912 FEB

6th Conference on Industrial


Computed Tomography,
University of Applied Sciences
Upper Austria, Wels, Austria.
Contact: Elena Sell; 43 50804
44452; fax 43 50804 944452;
e-mail elena.sell@fh-wels.at;
website www.3dct.at/ict2016.

67 JUN

Nondestructive Evaluation of
Aerospace Materials &
Structures IV, Crowne Plaza
Hotel St. Louis Airport, St,
Louis, Missouri. Contact: ASNT.
2526 JUL

Digital Imaging XIX, Foxwoods


Resort and Casino,
Mashantucket, Connecticut.
Contact: ASNT.
2729 JUL

Ultrasonics for Nondestructive


Testing, Foxwoods Resort and
Casino, Mashantucket,
Connecticut. Contact: ASNT.

1012 NOV

PACwin Suite, Princeton


Junction, New Jersey. Mistras.
711 DEC

Level II, Princeton Junction,


New Jersey. Mistras.

Electromagnetic Testing
26 NOV

Level I, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.


913 NOV

Level I, Sulphur, Louisiana. ACTT.


Level II, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.

2931 AUG

1620 NOV

NDE/NDT For Highways and


Bridges: Structural Materials
Technology, DoubleTree by
Hilton Hotel Portland, Portland,
Oregon. Contact: ASNT.

Eddy Current Level I, Wexford,


Pennsylvania. Odyssey.
Level II, Sulphur, Louisiana.
ACTT.

2427 OCT

Eddy Current Level II, Dubai,


United Arab Emirates. GE.

75th ASNT Annual Conference


2016, Long Beach Convention
Center, Long Beach, California.
Contact: ASNT.

1114 APR

25th ASNT Research


Symposium, Astor Crowne
Plaza, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Contact: ASNT.

Acoustic Emission Testing

courses

Courses are events where participants are instructed in the technologies and methodologies of a
particular technical area and which
generally conclude with the student
being evaluated to determine the
student's retention of the material
presented. These events often offer
some form of course credit or
continuing education units to
those participants successfully
completing the course. For ASNT
refresher courses, see page 1476.
ASNT neither approves nor
disapproves of any program or
training course claiming to meet
the recommendations of ASNTs
Recommended Practice No.
SNT-TC-1A. The following are
contacts for only those organizations that offer public courses
listed in this months Calendar.
The following courses are listed
without necessarily giving their full
titles.

2227 NOV

2130 NOV

Level II, Kerala, India. Decibel.


Level II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.
2630 NOV

Eddy Current Level II,


Bangalore, India. Trinity.
30 NOV4 DEC

Eddy Current Level I, Anaheim,


California. Hellier Pacific.
Eddy Current Level I, New
London, Connecticut. Hellier
Northeast.
710 DEC

Eddy Current Level II, New


London, Connecticut. Hellier
Northeast.
711 DEC

Eddy Current Level II (Aero),


Anaheim, California. Hellier
Pacific.
1318 DEC

Eddy Current DIN 54161,


Huerth, Germany. GE.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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calendar
Electromagnetic Testing, cont.

31 DEC4 JAN

15 FEB

Level II, Houston, Texas. GE.

Infrared and Thermal


Testing

1419 DEC

Eddy Current Level II,


Bangalore, India. Trinity.

2529 FEB

Eddy Current Level I, Delhi,


India. Satyakiran.

2529 JAN

Eddy Current Level II,


Bangalore, India. Trinity.

25 NOV

1425 DEC

28 JAN1 FEB

Eddy Current Level II, Delhi,


India. Satyakiran.

Eddy Current Level II,


Bangalore, India. Trinity.

Level I, Houston, Texas. GE.

Level I, Phoenix, Arizona. ITC.


26 NOV

Level I Thermographic
Applications, San Antonio,
Texas. Snell.

Course Contacts
The following are contacts for only those organizations that offer public courses listed in this months Calendar.
ACTT: Advanced Corrosion Technologies
and Training, LLC; 75 Center Cir.,
Sulphur, LA; (337) 313-6038; website
www.advancedcorrosion.com.
Atlantic: Atlantic NDT Training; Gary L.
Chapman; 24 Flat Rock Rd., Branford, CT
06405; (203) 481-4041; website
www.atlanticndttraining.com.
ATS: Applied Technical Services; Lisa
Henry; 1049 Triad Ct., Marietta, GA
30062; (888) 287-5227; (678) 4442897; fax (770) 514-3299; e-mail
lhenry@atslab.com; website
www.atslab.com/training.
BRL: BRL Consultants, Inc.; 219 W.
Rhapsody Dr., San Antonio, TX 78216;
(210) 341-3442; fax (210) 341-2844;
e-mail info@brlconsultants.com; website
www.brlconsultants.com.
CINDE: Canadian Institute for NDE; 135
W. Fennell Ave., Hamilton, ON L8N 3T2,
Canada; (800) 964-9488; fax (905) 5746080; e-mail info@cinde.ca; website
www.cinde.ca.
Decibel: Decibel NDE Training Institute;
1st Floor Plainfield, Pattambi, Palakkad,
Kerala, India 679303; 91 93 87674153,
91 93 49122467, or 91 98 95027721;
e-mail info@decibelnde.com; website
www.decibelnde.com.
Decibel Remote: Decibel Remote
Training Center; TC No. 1/1374(12), 2nd
Floor, Kottakath Bldg., Poonthi Rd.,
Kumarapuram, Trivandrum, India; 0091
8129508881; e-mail decibeltvm
@decibelnde.com; website www.deci
belnde.com.
Extende: Extende, Inc.; P.O. Box 461,
Ballston Spa, NY 12020; (518) 4902376; fax (518) 602-1367; e-mail
contactus@extende.com; website
www.extende.com.

1470

Extende France: Extende, Inc.; Le


Bergson, 15 Ave. Emile Baudot, 91300
Massy, France; 33 1 78 90 02 21; fax 33
09 72 13 42 68; e-mail contact@extende
.com; website www.extende.com.

Kraft: Kraft Technology Resources; Karl E.


Kraft; 1377 Timshel St., Dayton, OH
45440; (405) 819-7786; fax (405) 6914342; e-mail kraftndt@aol.com; website
www.ndtbootcamp.com.

GE: GE Inspection Academy, General


Electric, Oil & Gas: Measurement &
Control; 50 Industrial Park Rd.,
Lewistown, PA 17044; (855) 232-7470;
e-mail inspection.academy@ge.com;
website www.geinspectionacademy.com.

Lavender USA: Lavender International


NDT USA, LLC; University Business Park,
Ste. F, 15200 Middlebrook Dr., Houston,
TX 77058; (281) 913-9064; e-mail
michelle@lavender-ndt.com; website
www.lavender-ndt.com.

Guidedwave: Guidedwave; Cody Borigo;


450 Rolling Ridge Dr., Bellefonte, PA
16823; (814) 234-3437; e-mail
cborigo@gwultrasonics.com; website
www.gwultrasonics.com.

LTS: Leak Testing Specialists, Inc.; Cyndi


Reid; 5776 Hoffner Ave., Ste. 304,
Orlando, FL 32822; (407) 737-6415;
fax (407) 737-6416; e-mail cyndi.reid
@leaktestingspec.com; website www
.leaktestingspec.com.

Hellier Northeast: Hellier; 1 Spar Yard St.,


New London, CT 06320; (860) 437-1003;
fax (860) 437-1014; e-mail infonew
london@hellierndt.com; website
www.hellierndt.com.
Hellier Pacific: Hellier; 2051 E. Cerritos
Ave., Ste. 8A, Anaheim, CA 92806; (714)
956-2274; fax (714) 956-2277; e-mail
infoanaheim@hellierndt.com; website
www.hellierndt.com.
Hellier South Central: Hellier; 16631 W.
Hardy St., Houston, TX 77060; (888) 2823887; fax (281) 873-0981; e-mail info
houston@hellierndt.com; website
www.hellierndt.com.
Infraspection: Infraspection Institute;
425 Ellis St., Burlington, NJ 08016;
(609) 239-4788; fax (609) 239-4766;
e-mail support@infraspection.com;
website www.infraspection.com.
ITC: Infrared Training Center; Karen
Tierney; 9 Townsend W., Nashua, NH
03063; (866) 872-4647; (603) 3247883; fax (603) 324-7791; e-mail
karen.tierney@flir.com; website
www.infraredtraining.com.

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

Mistras: Mistras Group, Inc.; Christina


Librandy; 195 Clarksville Rd., Princeton
Junction, NJ 08550; (609) 716-4020;
fax (609) 716-0706; e-mail christina
.librandy@mistrasgroup.com; website
www.mistrasgroup.com.
Moraine: Moraine Valley Community
College; 9000 W. College Pkwy., Palos
Hills, IL 60465; (708) 974-5498; e-mail
murphym272@morainevalley.edu;
website www.morainevalley.edu/ccce
/ndt.htm.
NDT Connect: NDT Connect, Inc.; Jeri
Matza; 9902 E. 99th St., Tulsa, OK
74133; (918) 740-0290; fax (267) 6308805; e-mail jerimatza@ndtconnect.com;
website www.ndtconnect.com.
NPI: NDE Professionals, Inc.; 13339 NE
Airport Way, Ste. 100, Portland, OR
97230; (503) 287-5255; fax (503) 2875992; e-mail training@qnpi.com; website
www.qnpi.com.

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1471

Level II Advanced
Thermographic Applications,
San Antonio, Texas. Snell.
36 NOV

Level I Electrical, Nashua, New


Hampshire. ITC.
Level II, Orlando, Florida. ITC.

913 NOV

Level I Thermographic
Applications, Johannesburg,
Gauteng, South Africa. Snell.
Level I Thermographic
Applications, Orlando, Florida.
Snell.
Level II Advanced
Thermographic Applications,
Orlando, Florida. Snell.

Odyssey: Odyssey Technology Corp.; Carol


Sansieri; 3000 Village Run Rd., Unit 103, #149,
Wexford, PA 15090; (724) 759-7784; e-mail
carols@odysseytest.com.
PQT: PQT Services, Inc.; Kim Rosa; 806 Botany
Rd., Greenville, SC 29615; (864) 292-1115;
fax (864) 236-5127; e-mail kim@pqt.net.
QCTL: QCTL, Inc.; Rod Reinholdt or Stephen
Black; 21112 Scott Park Rd., Davenport, IA
52804; (800) 391-8500; fax (563) 391-0112;
e-mail testlab1@att.net; website
www.testlab1.com.
Quality: Quality Testing Services; Melissa Rankin;
2305 Millpark Dr., Maryland Heights, MO 63043;
(314) 770-0607; (888) 770-0607; fax (314) 7700103; e-mail training@qualitytesting.com;
website www.qualitytesting.com.
Satyakiran: Satyakiran School of Nondestructive
Testing; 487/76 Outer Ring Rd., Peeragarhi,
Delhi, India 110087; 91 11 25278008 or 91 11
25283030; e-mail training@satyakiran.com;
website www.ndttraining.in.

Advertise Now
Dont Miss Your Opportunity to
Advertise in TNT
Make plans today to take

Snell: The Snell Group; 322 N. Main St., Ste. 8,


Barre, VT 05641; (802) 479-7100; fax (802) 4797171; e-mail info@thesnellgroup.com; website
www.thesnellgroup.com.

part in the next issue of

Trinity: Trinity Institute of NDT Technology; Ravi


Kumar T. or Shiva Kumar R.; Plot No. V-22a, 2nd
Stage, Peenya Industrial Estate, Bangalore, India
560058; 91 99009 29439 or 91 98441 29439;
e-mail training@trinityndt.com; website www
.trinityndt.com.

program. TNT is published

WTTI: Welder Training and Testing Institute; Tracy


Wiswesser; 1144 N. Graham St., Allentown, PA
18109; (800) 223-9884; e-mail tracy@welder
institute.com; website www.wtti.edu.

The NDT Technician (TNT)


newsletter advertising
quarterly in January, April,
July, and October. For
more information on the next issue, published
in January, contact Advertising Supervisor
Jessica Miller:

(800) 222-2768 X209 (U.S./Canada)


E-mail jmiller@asnt.org.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

1471

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calendar
Infrared and Thermal Testing, cont.

Level I, Seattle, Washington.


ITC.

1619 NOV

Level I/II (NAS-410), Anaheim,


California. Hellier Pacific.

Level I/II, New London,


Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.

1013 NOV

1418 DEC

Level I Building Applications


(French), Montreal, Quebec,
Canada. Snell.

Level II, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.

1620 NOV

Leak Testing

Level I/II (NAS-410), Branford,


Connecticut. Atlantic.

1619 NOV

913 NOV

1720 NOV

Mass Spectrometer Level I/II,


Orlando, Florida. LTS.

Level II, Heath, Ohio. Mistras.

2324 DEC

1819 NOV

1520 NOV

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.

Level I, Nashville, Tennessee.


ITC.
Level I, Fort Walton Beach,
Florida. ITC.
Level I, Beaverton, Oregon. ITC.
Level II, Fairfax, Virginia. ITC.
1620 NOV

Level II, Kerala, India. Decibel.


Level II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.

1820 NOV

Level I/II, Jacksonville, Florida.


PQT.

Level II Advanced
Thermographic Applications,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Snell.

711 DEC

Pressure Change
Measurement Level I/II,
Orlando, Florida. LTS.

1920 NOV

1718 NOV

1520 DEC

2125 NOV

Level II, Kerala, India. Decibel.


Level II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.

Building Applications, Ann


Arbor, Michigan. Snell.
30 NOV4 DEC

Level I Thermographic
Applications, Edmonton,
Alberta, Canada. Snell.

21 DEC

14 DEC

Liquid Penetrant Testing

Level I, Nashua, New


Hampshire. ITC.
Level I, Fairfax, Virginia. ITC.
Level I, Austin, Texas. ITC.
Level I, Phoenix, Arizona. ITC.
Level II, Las Vegas, Nevada.
ITC.
710 DEC

Level I, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.


711 DEC

Level I Certified Infrared


Thermographer, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. Infraspection.
Level I Thermographic
Applications, Phoenix, Arizona.
Snell.
Level I Thermographic
Applications (French),
Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Snell.
Level II Advanced
Thermographic Applications,
Phoenix, Arizona. Snell.
810 DEC

Optical Gas Imaging, Houston,


Texas. ITC.
811 DEC

Level I, Las Vegas, Nevada. ITC.


Level I, Secaucus, New Jersey.
ITC.

1472

Bubble, Anaheim, California.


Hellier Pacific.

24 NOV

Level II, Delhi, India.


Satyakiran.
36 NOV

Level I/II, Houston, Texas.


Hellier South Central.

30 NOV3 DEC

Level I/II (NAS-410), Houston,


Texas. Hellier South Central.

Level I/II, Greenville, South


Carolina. PQT.

Level I/II, San Antonio, Texas.


BRL.

714 NOV

811 DEC

Level I/II, Palos Hills, Illinois.


Moraine.

Level I/II (NAS-410),


Greenville, South Carolina.
PQT.

1213 NOV

Level I/II, New London,


Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
1617 NOV

Level I/II, Atlanta, Georgia.


ATS.
Level I/II, Allentown,
Pennsylvania. WTTI.

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

1718 FEB

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.

Magnetic Particle and


Liquid Penetrant Testing
26 NOV

Level I/II, Greenville, South


Carolina. PQT.
Level I/II, Atlanta, Georgia.
ATS.
Level I/II, Jacksonville, Florida.
PQT.
Level I/II, Allentown,
Pennsylvania. WTTI.

78 DEC

Level I/II, Hamilton, Ontario,


Canada. CINDE.

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.

1620 NOV

46 NOV

913 NOV

2021 JAN

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.

12 DEC

Level I/II, St. Louis, Missouri.


Quality.

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.

2630 NOV

Level I/II (NAS-410),


Greenville, South Carolina.
PQT.

912 NOV

2125 DEC

Level I/II, Palos Hills, Illinois.


Moraine.

911 DEC

Level I/II, Greenville, South


Carolina. PQT.
1415 DEC

Level I/II, Atlanta, Georgia.


ATS.
1417 DEC

Level I/II, St. Louis, Missouri.


Quality.
1618 DEC

Level I/II, Jacksonville, Florida.


PQT.
1718 DEC

Level I/II, Houston, Texas.


Hellier South Central.

711 DEC

Level I/II, Greenville, South


Carolina. PQT.
1418 DEC

Level I/II, Atlanta, Georgia.


ATS.
Level I/II, Jacksonville, Florida.
PQT.

Magnetic Particle Testing


24 NOV

Level I/II, Greenville, South


Carolina. PQT.
25 NOV

Level I/II (NAS-410),


Greenville, South Carolina.
PQT.
26 NOV

Level I/II, St. Louis, Missouri.


Quality.
911 NOV

Level I/II, New London,


Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
912 NOV

Level I/II (NAS-410), Anaheim,


California. Hellier Pacific.

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1473

1013 NOV

10 DEC

Level II, Heath, Ohio. Mistras.

Level II, Davenport, Iowa.


QCTL.

1617 NOV

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
1618 NOV

Level I/II, Houston, Texas.


Hellier South Central.
Level I/II, Jacksonville, Florida.
PQT.
Level I/II, Palos Hills, Illinois.
Moraine.
1620 NOV

Level I/II, Hamilton, Ontario,


Canada. CINDE.
1719 NOV

Level I/II, Palos Hills, Illinois.


Moraine.
1820 NOV

Level I/II, Atlanta, Georgia.


ATS.
Level I/II, Allentown,
Pennsylvania. WTTI.
2125 NOV

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.
2630 NOV

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.
30 NOV4 DEC

Level I/II, Edmonton, Alberta,


Canada. CINDE.
79 DEC

Level I/II, Greenville, South


Carolina. PQT.
710 DEC

Level I/II (NAS-410), Houston,


Texas. Hellier South Central.
Level I/II (NAS-410), New
London, Connecticut. Hellier
Northeast.
Level I/II (NAS-410),
Greenville, South Carolina.
PQT.
711 DEC

Level I/II (NAS-410), Branford,


Connecticut. Atlantic.
89 DEC

Level I, Davenport, Iowa. QCTL.

1416 DEC

Level I/II, Houston, Texas.


Hellier South Central.
Level I/II, New London,
Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
Level I/II, Jacksonville, Florida.
PQT.
1618 DEC

Level I/II, Atlanta, Georgia.


ATS.
2122 DEC

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
1819 JAN

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
1516 FEB

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.

Radiographic Testing
17 NOV

Film Interpretation, Kerala,


India. Decibel.
Film Interpretation,
Trivandrum, India. Decibel
Remote.
19 NOV

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.
26 NOV

Direct Radiography, Houston,


Texas. GE.
Digital Radiography Level I,
New London, Connecticut.
Hellier Northeast.
Film Interpretation, San
Antonio, Texas. BRL.
Level I, Jacksonville, Florida.
PQT.
Level II, New London,
Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
Level II, Jacksonville, Florida.
PQT.
Radiation Principles, Palos
Hills, Illinois. Moraine.
Radiation Safety, Anaheim,
California. Hellier Pacific.
Radiation Safety, Houston,
Texas. Hellier South Central.

911 DEC

Level I/II, San Antonio, Texas.


BRL.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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calendar
Radiographic Testing, cont.

30 NOV4 DEC

1115 JAN

1020 NOV

813 NOV

Film Interpretation, Houston,


Texas. Hellier South Central.
Level II, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.

Computed Radiography,
Houston, Texas. GE.

30 NOV11 DEC

Direct Radiography, Houston,


Texas. GE.

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.

Level II, Abu Dhabi, United


Arab Emirates. GE.
Level II, Houston, Texas. GE.
911 NOV

Radiation Safety Worker,


Greenville, South Carolina.
PQT.
913 NOV

Computed Radiography,
Houston, Texas. GE.
Film Interpretation, New
London, Connecticut. Hellier
Northeast.
Level I, Houston, Texas. Hellier
South Central.
Radiation Safety
Radiographer, Greenville,
South Carolina. PQT.
1113 NOV

Radiation Safety Officer,


Greenville, South Carolina.
PQT.
1617 NOV

IRRSP Refresher, Atlanta,


Georgia. ATS.
1220 NOV

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.
1620 NOV

Digital Radiography Level I,


Houston, Texas. Hellier South
Central.
Intermediate Digital X-ray
Level I, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.
Level II, Davenport, Iowa.
QCTL.
Level II, Houston, Texas. Hellier
South Central.
Radiation Safety, San Antonio,
Texas. BRL.
Radiation Safety, St. Louis,
Missouri. Quality.
Radiation Safety, New London,
Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
X-ray Computed Tomography,
Lewistown, Pennsylvania. GE.
2022 NOV

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
2325 NOV

Radiation Safety Officer,


Anaheim, California. Hellier
Pacific.
1474

Film Interpretation and


Evaluation, Delhi, India.
Satyakiran.
17 DEC

Film Interpretation, Kerala,


India. Decibel.
Film Interpretation,
Trivandrum, India. Decibel
Remote.
711 DEC

Digital Radiography Level I,


Anaheim, California. Hellier
Pacific.
Level I, St. Louis, Missouri.
Quality.
Radiation Safety, Houston,
Texas. Hellier South Central.
Radiation Safety, Tulsa,
Oklahoma. NDT Connect.
Radiation Safety and CEDO
Prep, Edmonton, Alberta,
Canada. CINDE.
1220 DEC

1822 JAN

2224 JAN

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
15 FEB

X-ray Computed Tomography,


Lewistown, Pennsylvania. GE.
2226 FEB

Intermediate Digital X-ray


Level II, Lewistown,
Pennsylvania. GE.
29 FEB2 MAR

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
2829 DEC

IRRSP Refresher, Atlanta,


Georgia. ATS.

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

1526 NOV

Time of Flight Diffraction


Level II, Kerala, India. Decibel.
Time of Flight Diffraction
Level II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.
1620 NOV

1621 NOV

Level I, Cincinnati, Ohio. GE.


Level II (ISO 9712), Huerth,
Germany. GE.

Level I, Delhi, India.


Satyakiran.
1627 NOV

110 NOV

112 NOV

2527 DEC

Level II (ISO 9712), Huerth,


Germany. GE.

16 NOV

1418 DEC

Radiation Safety Officer,


Anaheim, California. Hellier
Pacific.

1520 NOV

Ultrasonic Testing

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.

2123 DEC

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.

Level II, New London,


Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
Phased Array Level II, Houston,
Texas. Hellier South Central.

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.
Digital Film Interpretation,
Houston, Texas. GE.
Level I, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.
Level I, Houston, Texas. Hellier
South Central.
Level I, Greenville, South
Carolina. PQT.
Level II, Greenville, South
Carolina. PQT.
Level II, St. Louis, Missouri.
Quality.
Radiation Safety, Anaheim,
California. Hellier Pacific.

1115 NOV

Phased Array Level II, Kerala,


India. Decibel.
Phased Array Level II,
Trivandrum, India. Decibel
Remote.
26 NOV

Level I, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.


Level I, Houston, Texas. Hellier
South Central.
Level II, Portland, Oregon. NPI.
813 NOV

Level II, Cincinnati, Ohio. GE.


Level II (ISO 9712), Huerth,
Germany. GE.
913 NOV

Level I, New London,


Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
Level I, Palos Hills, Illinois.
Moraine.
Level II, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.
Phased Array Level I, Houston,
Texas. Hellier South Central.

Level II, Delhi, India.


Satyakiran.
2325 NOV

Thickness, Houston, Texas.


Hellier South Central.
2327 NOV

Level I, Hamilton, Ontario,


Canada. CINDE.
29 NOV4 DEC

Exam Level II (ISO 9712),


Huerth, Germany. GE.
Phased Array Level II
(ISO 9712), Huerth, Germany.
GE.
30 NOV4 DEC

Level I, Houston, Texas. GE.


Level I, St. Louis, Missouri.
Quality.
Level I, Salt Lake City, Utah.
GE.
Level II, Houston, Texas. Hellier
South Central.
Phased Array Level I, Houston,
Texas. Hellier South Central.
30 NOV11 DEC

Level II, Hamilton, Ontario,


Canada. CINDE.
30 NOV12 DEC

Phased Array Level II, Houston,


Texas. Lavender USA.

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:34 PM Page 1475

110 DEC

2125 DEC

Level I/II Kerala, India. Decibel.


Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.

Time of Flight Diffraction,


Kerala, India. Decibel.
Time of Flight Diffraction,
Trivandrum, India. Decibel
Remote.

112 DEC

Phased Array Level II, Kerala,


India. Decibel.
Phased Array Level II,
Trivandrum, India. Decibel
Remote.
24 DEC

D1.1 Annex S, Allentown,


Pennsylvania. WTTI.
611 DEC

Phased Array Week 1, Abu


Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
GE.
711 DEC

Level I, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.


Level I, Heath, Ohio. Mistras.
Level II, Salt Lake City, Utah.
GE.
Level II, Houston, Texas. GE.
Level II, Palos Hills, Illinois.
Moraine.
Level II, St. Louis, Missouri.
Quality.
Phased Array Level II, Houston,
Texas. Hellier South Central.
Thickness, New London,
Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.

2630 DEC

Time of Flight Diffraction,


Kerala, India. Decibel.
Time of Flight Diffraction,
Trivandrum, India. Decibel
Remote.
1115 JAN

Level I, Lewistown,
Pennsylvania. GE.
1317 JAN

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
1822 JAN

Level II, Lewistown,


Pennsylvania. GE.
912 FEB

Level I/II Hands On,


Lewistown, Pennsylvania. GE.
1014 FEB

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
1519 FEB

Level I, Houston, Texas. GE.


2226 FEB

1112 DEC

Phased Array for Beginners,


Delhi, India. Satyakiran.
1318 DEC

Level I, Huerth, Germany. GE.


Phased Array Week 2, Abu
Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
GE.
1418 DEC

Level I, Houston, Texas. Hellier


South Central.
Level I, Palos Hills, Illinois.
Moraine.
Level II, Atlanta, Georgia. ATS.
Level II, Heath, Ohio. Mistras.

Level II, Houston, Texas. GE.

Visual Testing
24 NOV

Level I/II, Houston, Texas.


Hellier South Central.
59 NOV

Level II, Delhi, India.


Satyakiran.
814 NOV

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.

1526 DEC

10 NOV

Time of Flight Diffraction


Level II, Kerala, India. Decibel.

Level I, Davenport, Iowa. QCTL.

1620 DEC

Level II, Davenport, Iowa.


QCTL.

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
17 DEC

Thickness, Digital Level II, San


Antonio, Texas. BRL.

1112 NOV

1618 NOV

Level I/II, St. Louis, Missouri.


Quality.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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calendar
Visual Testing, cont.

1013 NOV

2325 NOV

CIVA NDE Simulation Software:


Intro & Applications (UT, ET),
Malta, New York. Extende.

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.

1120 NOV

Level I/II, New London,


Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.

API 510 Prep, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Welding Engineering, Kerala,
India. Decibel.

24 DEC

13 NOV

30 NOV2 DEC

Level I/II, Greenville, South


Carolina. PQT.
79 DEC

Level I/II, Anaheim, California.


Hellier Pacific.
814 DEC

Level I/II, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Level I/II, Trivandrum, India.
Decibel Remote.
1416 DEC

Level I/II, San Antonio, Texas.


BRL.
2830 DEC

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
2527 JAN

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.
2224 FEB

Level II, Bangalore, India.


Trinity.

Short Courses/Topical
Seminars
110 NOV

API 653 Prep, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
ISO Lead Auditor, Kerala,
India. Decibel.
26 NOV

De-energized Motor and Motor


Circuit Analysis, San Antonio,
Texas. Snell.
213 NOV

Weld Inspection and Quality


Control Level I, Hamilton,
Ontario, Canada. CINDE.
913 NOV

Energized Motor and Motor


Circuit Analysis, San Antonio,
Texas. Snell.

1476

Level III Examination


Preparation/Refreshers
23 NOV

MT Level III, Anaheim,


California. Hellier Pacific.
MT Level III, New London,
Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
26 NOV

NDT 101, St. Louis, Missouri.


Quality.

Basic Level III, St. Louis,


Missouri. Quality.
UT Level III, Houston, Texas.
Kraft.

1620 NOV

45 NOV

Auditing NDT Systems,


Houston, Texas. Hellier South
Central.
2130 NOV

API 570 Prep, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Piping Inspector, Kerala, India.
Decibel.
2327 NOV

CIVA NDE Simulation Software:


Intro & Applications (UT, GWT),
Massy, France. Extende France.
110 DEC

API 653 Prep, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
ISO Lead Auditor, Kerala,
India. Decibel.
711 DEC

Introductory Course in
Ultrasonic Guided Waves for
NDE and SHM, Bellefonte,
Pennsylvania. Guidedwave.
1011 DEC

Bolting Inspection, Allentown,


Pennsylvania. WTTI.
1120 DEC

API 510 Prep, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Welding Engineering, Kerala,
India. Decibel.
1718 DEC

CIVA NDE Simulation Software:


Intro & Applications (ET),
Grenoble, France. Extende
France.
2130 DEC

API 570 Prep, Kerala, India.


Decibel.
Piping Inspector, Kerala, India.
Decibel.

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

PT Level III, Anaheim,


California. Hellier Pacific.
PT Level III, New London,
Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
79 NOV

VT Level III, Houston, Texas.


Kraft.
911 NOV

Basic Level III, New London,


Connecticut. Hellier Northeast.
913 NOV

Basic Level III, Anaheim,


California. Hellier Pacific.
Basic Level III, Houston, Texas.
Hellier South Central.
RT Level III, St. Louis, Missouri.
Quality.
UT Level III, Houston, Texas.
Hellier South Central.
1620 NOV

Basic Level III, Houston, Texas.


Kraft.
UT Level III, Anaheim,
California. Hellier Pacific.

34 DEC

PT Level III, Houston, Texas.


Kraft.
710 DEC

Advanced Digital X-ray


Level III, Houston, Texas. GE.
IR Level III, Nashua, New
Hampshire. ITC.
711 DEC

Basic Level III, Houston, Texas.


Hellier South Central.
Basic Level III, Houston, Texas.
Kraft.
RT Level III, Houston, Texas.
Hellier South Central.
1418 DEC

ET Level III, Anaheim,


California. Hellier Pacific.
UT Level III, Houston, Texas.
Hellier South Central.
UT Level III, Houston, Texas.
Kraft.
2123 DEC

VT Level III, Anaheim,


California. Hellier Pacific.
2829 DEC

MT Level III, Houston, Texas.


Hellier South Central.
3031 DEC

PT Level III, Houston, Texas.


Hellier South Central.
1112 JAN

PT Level III, Branford,


Connecticut. Atlantic.
1213 JAN

MT Level III, Branford,


Connecticut. Atlantic.

2325 NOV

1415 JAN

VT Level III, Anaheim,


California. Hellier Pacific.
VT Level III, Houston, Texas.
Hellier South Central.

Basic Level III, Branford,


Connecticut. Atlantic.

30 NOV4 DEC

ET Level III, St. Louis, Missouri.


Quality.
RT Level III, Anaheim,
California. Hellier Pacific.
12 DEC

MT Level III, Houston, Texas.


Kraft.

29 FEB4 MAR

Advanced Digital X-ray


Level III, Lewistown,
x
Pennsylvania. GE. w

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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ME TECHNICAL PAPER w
x

Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with


Applications
by E.R. Generazio*

ABSTRACT

The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free
space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or
existing electric potentials and electric fields, or
an externally generated electrostatic field may be
used for illuminating volumes to be inspected with
EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field
sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional
electric field generation (quasi-static generator),
and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral
e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications
are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated
to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces
areas of interest including electrostatic discharge
mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and
materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric
morphology of structures, inspection of containers,
inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity,
organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic
and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac
polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.
KEYWORDS: nondestructive evaluation, nondestructive testing, electric potential, electric field,
charge distribution, triboelectric, electrostatic
discharge.
* Ph.D., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, Virginia
23681.

Introduction

Direct imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic


fields eluded researchers for many years. Prior general applications used a series of potential measurements over a path of
resistance supporting a current (Sothcott, 1984; Yang and
Macnae, 2002). One popular example uses conductive electrodes drawn on a resistive sheet that are held at some potential difference. The voltage potential between points is
mapped from which electric field lines may be drawn in a
plane. Even for this simple case, the actual current path over
the resistive sheet is unknown, and the electric field exists in
three dimensions so the true electrostatic field is not quantified. These techniques estimate the apparent resistivity rather
than specifying the electrostatic field.
A basic problem when attempting to image electrostatic
fields is that the measurement sensor is composed of materials
that distort the electric field to be measured. Dielectric,
conductive, semi-conductive, insulating, and triboelectric
materials all distort the original true electric field to be
measured. An earlier work discusses the complexities of measuring scalar potentials and electric fields and provides an
optical technique based on optical phase shift for determining
electric field distributions (Zahn, 1994). Researchers have
demonstrated quantitative techniques to measure electronic
signatures of electrostatic fields (Blum, 2012; Dower, 1995;
Hassanzadeh et al., 1990). However, measurement of the
electronic signature is not a quantitative metric of the true
electric field, so correlations are made to identify objects of
interest and so on. Inaccuracies in prior measurements arose
due to the lack in attention to detail describing the construction of the sensor, the electronic components, and the
supporting structures.
This work describes techniques to measure the electrostatic
potential and electrostatic field emanating from an object or
existing in free space using the electric field sensor (e-sensor)
design described elsewhere (Generazio, 2011). Subsequent
work describes the construction of a quasi-static electric field
generator that illuminates large volumes with a uniform
electrostatic field, including in U.S. patent application
No. 13/800379, titled Quasi-static Electric Field Generator,
filed by the author in 2013 (Melcher, 1981; NASA, 2014).
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ME TECHNICAL PAPER w
x electric field imaging

Specifically, these two inventions allow for the quantitative


determination of the true metric of the electrostatic field
emanating from or passing through or around objects and
volumes. The inventions provide quantitative metrics of the
electrostatic potential, electrostatic field strength, spatial
direction of the electrostatic field, and spatial components of
the electrostatic field.

V1
Resistance load
L
Field effect
transistor

L
L
L

To data
acquisition
system

L
L
L

A field effect transistor (FET)-based e-sensor is described


that uses a non-specified FET configuration, that is, an
FET-based e-sensor circuit that uses a floating gate configuration, which is contrary to all good circuit designs
(Generazio, 2011). Good circuit designs that use FETs
require a properly supported, but small, electrical current
to exist in the gate for the FET to function per manufacturer specifications. There are three basic electronic FET
configurations: common source, common drain, and
common gate. FETs may be calibrated for common source
and common drain configurations where the gate is physically connected to a voltage source. In the common gate
configuration, the gate is physically connected to ground.
In all configurations, the electrical connections to the gate
are at an electrical potential that is a direct physical electrical path for charged carriers. The e-sensor described here
does not provide the required physical connection for the
specified gate current.
When an FET is used in a floating gate configuration, gain
stability difficulties arise that inhibit calibration. Floating gatebased designs require unique calibration protocols. Two
aspects to this calibration are the voltage gain and time
response of the e-sensor circuit in the presence of a non-direct
static and quasi-static electric potential. The manufacturing
tolerance of FET characteristics is well known, making
uniform calibration of multiple FET floating gate-based
sensors for array-based configurations even more challenging
(Horowitz and Hill, 1989).

1480

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

L
L
L

Each gate (G) is a


measurement
electrode

Drain
Source
V2

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of an array of electric field sensor circuit


elements.

Figure 2 shows the measurement response of a 16-element


e-sensor array. Note that the measurement voltage is not the
electrostatic potential. The electrostatic potential is obtained
via calibration, and calibration parameters vary for each
e-sensor. In practice, all e-sensors are calibrated before every
scan by generating a slowly oscillating uniform potential
across the e-sensor array. Typical electrical potentials
measured are a few volts with a noise level of 5 mV, yielding
high signal-to-noise ratios that exceed 700. Here, the electrostatic potential at the e-sensor gates is slowly varied at a 2 Hz
rate by a remote rotating electrostatic dipole. If the potential
is held fixed at any point in time, the measured potential at
the e-sensor slowly drifts to an e-sensor equilibrium voltage.
Each e-sensor has a different equilibrium voltage and a

E-sensor Construction

Figure 1 shows the basic e-sensor circuit elements. Other


floating gate-based circuits may be used. In addition to the
electronic elements of the circuit, attention must be given to
all materials used in the construction of the sensor for the
production of a useful measurement system. It is preferable
to avoid the occurrence of all surface charges (bound and
free) and image charges near the sensing gate of the FET,
electronic connections, and supporting structures. The
e-sensor components need to be triboelectrically neutral,
have low electric susceptibility, and be non-conducting to
minimize sensor distortions of the true electric field due to
charging, dielectric polarization, and free carrier polarization. Further details of e-sensor design are available elsewhere (Generazio, 2011).

Inductor (L)

E-sensor Circuit Challenges

Dipole rotation rate = 120 RPM


Quasi-static electric field frequency = 2 Hz

Volts

Equilibrium potential

Data acquisition at minimums

Time (s)
Figure 2. Example measured output from 16 electric field sensors in
the presences of a reference quasi-static electric field.

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different characteristic time to reach an equilibrium voltage.


Typical times to reach equilibrium are a few to several
seconds and are dependant on how well the e-sensor design
meets the requirements identified earlier. The best designs
will exhibit minimal drift. It is important to note here that the
equilibrium potential value is independent of any external
potential on the floating gate. The equilibrium potential for
the topmost signal in Figure 2 is shown. The effect of leakage
currents may be recognized by the non-sinusoidal potential
response at the peaks of the e-sensor outputs. Each peak
shape is different, where some are rounded and others are flattened or sloped. These slight variations are due to leakage
currents making calibration efforts challenging. The origin of
this effect is broadly described to be charging of the gate of
the FET due to leakage currents. A more detailed discussion
on leakage effects requires an evaluation of parasitic capacitances, inductances, and resistances of the entire e-sensor and
structural support system. It is defined here that the phrase
effects due to leakage currents refers to all effects related to
intrinsic electronic properties, including leakage of free
carriers across electronically insulated boundaries, free carrier
buildup, free carrier charging, and all parasitic capacitances,
inductances, and impedances. Intrinsic refers to dimensionally
changing volumes of coverage. The volume of coverage starts
at the solid state level, goes through the solid state mounting
to reach the support structure levels, and advances to describe
an electrostatic potential and field sensor for general applications. For example, the structural supports of the solid-state
elements have dielectric properties and therefore have
intrinsic parasitic capacitance, similarly for the structural
support of the structure supporting the solid-state element,
and so on.
The quasi-static electric field generator is designed to
provide a controlled source or reference quasi-static electric
field for illumination of objects and volumes and to reverse
and minimize the effects of sensor and support structure parasitic leakage currents. At a quasi-static frequency of 3 Hz, the
minimization is adequate so that gain is controlled and the
calibration of gain of the e-sensor in a quasi-static electric field
is straightforward.
The quasi-static frequency range is defined where the
electric field is present at the gate electrode of the FET for a
long enough time for the e-sensor response to reach a steady
state for potential measurement, but not long enough for
intrinsic and extrinsic leakage or oscillating currents to
dominate the measurement of the true static potential. In the
defined quasi-static frequency range, accurate metric measurements of the true static potentials are made from which the
true static electric field is obtained.
The generator consists of a rotating electrostatic dipole
(Figure 3) to generate a slowly varying electrostatic potential.
The dipole is charged using a triboelectric process similar to a
van de graaff generator. The dipole charging system is battery
powered and wirelessly controlled. All power, wireless

Positive
electrode

Triboelectrically
neutral rotation
shaft

Negative
electrode

Insulating
assembly
components

Rotation stage
(stepper monitor)

Figure 3. Photograph of the rotating quasi-static dipole element.

receiver, and speed controllers are contained within the structure of the dipole element. A dry wood construction approach
is used to maintain the uniformity of the electric field in the
vicinity of the dipole. Wood having neutral triboelectric
affinity and low dielectric properties is used to limit stray
charging and polarization of the structure of the generator and
for the rotational support of the dipole. A large conducting
plate (see Figure 4) is used to establish an equipotential
surface and uniform electrostatic field when used in a near
field approximation configuration. The dipole is rotated by a
computer controlled stepper motor at quasi-static frequencies
to provide a slowly varying uniform electrostatic field. Other
approaches may also be used to generate an electrostatic field.
However, the approach described here is human safe operating at 100 000 V while providing only microamperes of
current and is isolated from building power supply systems.
Electric Field Imaging System

The electric field imaging (EFI) system configuration for


inspections is shown in Figure 4. In this configuration, the
object being inspected is moved, via a conveyor, to pass
between the quasi-static generator and a linear array of
e-sensors. During movement of the object, the dipole may
be rotating at any desired speed. Speeds below the quasi-static
range may be used to explore leakage effects of material and
structural configurations. Speeds just above the quasi-static
range are extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic
waves (ITU, 2000). ELF and higher frequencies exhibit radiative electromagnetic propagation effects that need to be
included in the analysis. Data acquisition of the e-sensor
response may be performed when a preselected voltage,
Vsurface, occurs on the conducting surface, or throughout the
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ME TECHNICAL PAPER w
x electric field imaging

Maximum
(black) = 0.97 V/cm
Minimum
(white) = 0.58 V/cm

Conducting
equipotential
surface, Vsurface

Quasi-static electric field generator


Triboelectrically
neutral casing

Equipotential
contours, Vn
Uniform electric
field, E

X-component of
electric field

Infinite plate
approximation

Image processing

V2
V1
V0

Data acquisition,
rotation, and
wireless dipole
voltage control
systems

Electric field lines


(lines of force)

Conveyor
e-sensor
array

Dipole
element

Electrical insulator
Object being
inspected

Figure 4. Diagram of the setup for the electric field imaging (EFI) system. The EFI system consists of a linear array of electric field sensors
(e-sensors), a quasi-static electric field generator, a conveyor, a data acquisition and image processing system, and an object to be inspected.

cycle of the dipole rotation. Data acquired at a preselected


voltage correspond to a constant interrogation electric field
strength. Data acquired during the rotational period of the
dipole correspond to a varying interrogating electric field
magnitude. For the image data shown here, the potential
data are acquired at the times when the dipole is at the same
orientation so that Vsurface is at a constant value during measurements. The orientation at data acquisition corresponds to
the voltage minimums shown in Figure 2.
A 914 mm long vertical linear array of 192 e-sensors is
placed 457 mm from the conducting plate of the quasi-static
generator providing a uniform electric field. Plates having
dimensions of 60.96 121.92 cm and 121.92 243.84 cm are
adequate to generate uniform electric fields of the inspection
region. During inspection, the object, at a fixed position along
the Z axis, is moved by the conveyor along the X axis. The
acquired data from the e-sensor array oriented along the
Y axis may be processed to generate images of the electric
field from the object being inspected (Generazio, 2011). The
e-sensor array may be moved along the Z axis by computer
control. Data obtained with the e-sensor array at two or more
positions along the Z axis provide sufficient information to
generate images of the electric field. Each scan measures the
electrostatic potential in the X-Y plane to generate an electrostatic potential image. EFI reconstructions are produced using
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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

the electrostatic potential images. Many other scanning and


e-sensor array configurations are possible.
Examples of Electric Field Imaging Images
The capability to image the electrical potential and electrical
fields emanating from objects opens a wide range of possible
applications. In some EFI evaluations, only the electric potential is needed, while other applications will benefit from determining the electric field. The following describes the first EFI
application on a human and the detailed analyses technique
for determining the electric field. Representative EFI applications are presented for evaluating complex structural components, construction materials, and for supporting crime scene
forensics, electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, and for
the development of a molecular memory.
Human in a Uniform Electrostatic Field

Figure 5a shows the electrostatic potential of a human in a


uniform electrostatic field. The image linear gray scale represents the electrostatic potential ranges from 0 V (dark shade)
to 3.75 V (light shade). This is one of the first images
obtained with the EFI system. It was originally thought that
the dipole would need to be constantly triboelectrically
charged to maintain a constant potential on the electrodes of
the dipole. The effect of that constant charging is shown as

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Shoulders

Vertical
banding

Chest
Waist

914 cm

Horizontal
banding
Knee

Calf

(a)

(b)

Figure 5. Image of a human: (a) electrical potential image in a uniform electric field; and (b) commercially available graphics filter applied to
the potential data shown in Figure 5a.

vertical banding in this image. It is now known that, for this


structural design, the dipole will hold a constant charge for
several hours so constant charging is not needed, and these
vertical bands do not appear in subsequent images. The
horizontal lines are due to variations in the individual
e-sensor responses that are not fully removed by calibration
procedures. The sensor-to-sensor variations are due to
residual gate charging and work to address this charging has
led to the development of a more accurate ephemeral e-sensor
that is presented later.
Figure 5a is presented here as the first image obtained
showing the electrostatic potential of a human in a uniform
electrostatic field. A detailed physics-based imaging
processing procedure was developed and subsequently used
for the data to follow. A commercially available graphic filter
is applied to the potential data (Figure 5a) and reveals
(Figure 5b) a striking amount of information suggesting the
presence of a straight cut cotton shirt, cotton pants, legs, and
stretchy (containing polymer materials) socks. The graphic
filter routine highlights image intensity and intensity gradients
and is not meant to be representative of an electric field image.
Hybrid Composite in a Uniform Electrostatic Field

The electric potential of a hybrid composite compression test


specimen is shown in Figure 6. The test specimen has top and
bottom support brackets and has a 3.0 cm thick crushed
metallic honeycomb core and cracked and buckled composite
faceplates. The EFI system reveals that the test sample is redirecting the uniform electric field to change the original
uniform electrostatic potential (light gray shade in the upper
edge of Figure 6c) so that electric potential is raised (dark
shade) in the free space around the test specimen. In literal
contrast, the electric potential is raised (darker shade) over
the test object with some decreased (lighter shade) potential

variations existing horizontally across the central region of the


test specimen. The top and bottom support brackets have the
largest decrement in electrostatic potential (light shade). The
image has a linear gray scale representing the electrostatic
potential ranges from 0.0 V (dark shade) to 3.73 V (light
shade). Polarization of the specimen is also revealed as
decrements (light shades in Figure 6c) and increments
(dark shades in Figure 6c). The 3D graphical representations
(Figure 6d and 6e) of the gray scale plot of electrostatic
potential (Figure 6c) highlights how the object distorts the
equipotential in which it is placed. The large horizontal bands
represent the electrostatic potential of the upper and lower
specimen brackets. Figure 6e shows the 3D representation of
the electric potential as viewed at a 45 angle.
Electrostatic Field Imaging

The generation of electric field images from the electrostatic


potential data is described. The electrostatic potentials of the
hybrid composite test specimen at two different Z axis locations spaced 1 cm apart (labeled near and away from the
e-sensor array) are shown on the left hand side of Figure 7.

The electric field, E , and electric field spatial components,


E x, E y, and E z, are obtained using the relation:


r
r
E ( X , Y , Z) = V ( X , Y , Z) =
(1)

V X , Y , Z V X , Y , Z


j + V X , Y , Z k
i +

x
y
z

where
V(X,Y,Z) is the measured electrostatic potential with X, Y,
and Z coordinates,
^i , ^j , and ^k are unit vectors in the X, Y, and Z directions,
respectively.
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Back

Front

Specimen
bracket

Discontinuity
15.24 cm

Discontinuity

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Figure 6. Hybrid composite compression test specimen: (a) front image; (b) back image; (c) electrostatic potential of a hybrid composite in a
uniform electric field; (d) electrostatic potential 3D graphical representation; and (e) electrostatic potential 3D graphical representation
rotated 45.

Electric field
component images
X
Electric potential

Electric field magnitutde


Positive

Near specimen

Discontinuities

Away from specimen

Inverse

Figure 7. The electrostatic potential of a hybrid composite specimen in a uniform electric field. The electrostatic potentials are measured at two
different distances from the specimen. Images of the X, Y, and Z components of the electric field and of the electric field magnitude are shown.

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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Equation 1 is approximated for any point Xi, Yi, or Zi.

(2)

V (X , Y , Z ) V (X , Y , Z )
i+1
i
i
i
i
i

i +
Xi+1 Xi

r
V (Xi , Yi+1 , Zi ) V (Xi , Yi , Zi )
j +
E (Xi , Yi , Zi )
Yi+1 Yi

V X , Y , Z V X , Y , Z
( i i i ) k
( i i i+1 )

Z
Z


i+1
i

It is instructive to show images of the electric field components as an interim analysis step in Figure 7. Figure 7 shows
plots on a gray scale of the components of the electric field
along the X, Y, and Z directions. The Y-component of the
electric field exhibits discrete horizontal banding that crosses
the entire image and is due to the incomplete sensor-to-sensor
calibration made more apparent by the approximation of the
equation. The electric field is given by the vector sum of the

components, E = E x + E y + E z, and has an electric field

magnitude, |E | shown in Figure 7. The electrostatic field


magnitude positive image has a linear gray scale and ranges
from 0 V/cm (dark shade) to 2.275 V/cm (light shade). The
positive and inverse labels in Figure 7 refer to the image
reproduction for display visualization. It can be seen from
the electric field magnitude positive image in Figure 7 that
there are high electrostatic fields (light shade) present at
the perimeter of the test specimen brackets as well as
between the brackets. The black areas of the electrostatic
field magnitude positive image represent low electrostatic
field intensity; there remains an electrostatic potential in
these areas, but the electrostatic gradients are minimal.
High electrostatic fields are expected to occur at potential
arcing sites.

changes in the potential. The apparent shading in this image is


due to surface charge on the insulation from handling and is
discussed later. When developing advanced remote sensors,
for example, those used in medical applications, the impact of
all the components of the sensor needs to be addressed.

Representation of 50
cable showing orientation and
0.256 cm outer jacket diameter

Amplifier location

(a)

(b)

100 cm

20 cm

#38 magnet wire

Polyvinyl chloride

Cotton

61 cm

V0

#38 magnet wire


Rayon

Insulated Connection Cabling and Integrated Circuit Component


in a Uniform Electrostatic Field

Next, the EFI capability on other systems is explored to show


the utility in other applications and for guidance in sensor
designs. The effect of cabling and shielding on measurements
is well known; however, little attention is paid to the effect on
sensor capability. The electrostatic potential distortions of a
coaxial cable and an integrated circuit are shown in Figures 8a
and 8b. The range of linear gray scale shading is listed in
Figure 8. Both of these standard circuit components dramatically distort electrostatic fields for large distances. The cable
increases the electrostatic potential while the integrated
circuit decreases the electrostatic potential. A comparison of
insulation materials is shown in Figure 8c, where an
ungrounded #38 magnet wire does not distort the applied
electrostatic potential, V0, to a measurable amount. In
contrast, polyvinyl chloride, cotton, rayon, and polyethylene
insulation around the magnet wire all produce significant

Polyethylene

(c)

V0 0.55 V

V0 + 0.55 V

Figure 8. Electrostatic potential image: (a) coaxial cable; (b) integrated


circuit in a uniform electric field; and (c) wire, having different insulation materials, in a uniform electric field. In Figure 8a the cable is
carrying no current and creates electrostatic potential distortions at
extremely large spatial distances, compared to the cable diameter,
from the cable. The electrostatic potential around the cable ranges
from 3 V (lightest areas) to 2 V (darkest areas). In Figure 8b, the
dual inline package (DIP) operational amplifier is oriented so that the
DIPs 10 20 mm top surface is normal to the reference electric field
direction. The operational amplifier creates electrostatic potential
distortions at extremely large spatial distances, compared to the
amplifier dimensions. The electrostatic potential around the amplifier
ranges from 3 V (darkest areas) to 4 V (lightest areas).

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Construction Materials in a Uniform Electrostatic Field

ESD is a well-known field and there are substantial industrial


investments in addressing and mitigating ESD issues in manufacturing and product use. Electrostatic potential images
generated by EFI of selected materials are shown in Figure 9
and Table 1 along with the companion dielectric constants
and triboelectric affinities. Figure 9a shows the electrostatic
potential image for 25.4 mm diameter as received rods of
different materials. Here again the strong effect that
conducting materials have on the electrostatic potential is
recognized by the increase in potential (large dark shaded
area on the right side of the image) near the copper rod. The
linear gray scale ranges from 0.0 V (dark shade) to 4.79 V
(light shade). The effect is so strong that the other rods are
embedded in an electrostatic potential modified by the
copper rod.

(a)

The same rods were brushed once with a silk cloth. The
electrostatic potential image in Figure 9b shows the electrostatic potential image for the rods after being brushed by the
silk cloth. Here the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), acrylic,
nylon, and polyester rods are charged by the triboelectric
interaction with the silk cloth. The triboelectric charging is of
sufficient magnitude that the resulting electrostatic potential
saturates the e-sensors. The charged gates of the e-sensors
recover slowly during the scan and leave a record of this
recovery by producing both an increased potential (dark
shadow) and decreased potential (light shadow) adjacent to
the affected rods. Similar shadowing is observed in Figure 8c.
Electrostatic Field Imaging for the Development of Organic
Memory

The preceding results are quite interesting where it is


observed that the triboelectric charges on the rods lingered
for long periods of time. PTFE had the largest magnitude
charge on the potential field as expected since PTFE has the
largest triboelectric affinity. During the setup of the rod
sample set, it was noticed that the PTFE rod had a bright spot
(decreased electrostatic potential) on the top on the rods
electrostatic potential image. Given the observed long latency
or memory times of charges on PTFE, it became clear that the
previously bright spot on the PTFE rod was from triboelectric

60.96 cm

Polytetrafluoroethylene panel

(b)

Figure 9. Electrostatic potential image of solid rods of different


materials in a uniform electric field: (a) as received; and (b) after
being brushed once with a silk cloth. The materials shown cover
a wide range of dielectric constants and triboelectric affinities.

(b)

(a)
Wood frame

TABLE 1

Dielectric constants of samples shown in Figure 9*


Dielectric constant

2.02.1
2.7
1.22.1
3
4.55
49
3.8

2.84.1

Material

Triboelectric affinity

PTFE
Acrylic
Wood
Nylon
Fiberglass-epoxy laminate
Mica ceramic
Borosilicate glass
Copper
Polyester

190
10
+7
+30
+30

+25
~0
40

* Samples are in order from left; PTFE = polytetrafluoroethylene.

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

(c)

30.38 cm

(d)

Figure 10. Evaluating the memory storage capability of organic


polymers: (a) photograph of the setup; (b) triboelectrically drawn
letters, NASA, are revealed in the electrostatic potential image;
(c) the electrostatic potential of the letter N triboelectrically
hand-drawn, on two sides on a polymer sheet; and (d) schematic
of the image in Figure 10c. The sheet measured 0.64 30.38
30.38 cm.

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charging, which occurred during handling and placement of


the rod into the sample holder.
A memory storage device was constructed by mounting a
PTFE panel in a wooden frame (Figure 10a). The letters
NASA were drawn on the surface of the PTFE panel using a
finger. The EFI potential image is shown in Figure 10b, where
the letters NASA are visible. The last A had a large magnitude potential and almost fully saturated the e-sensors. Several
techniques were used to erase the charges from the panel;
however, in a comic moment the author found himself generating double and triple exposures over the same original
writing. This image demonstrates that EFI is useful in characterizing charge distribution and EFI may also be used to
monitor changes in charge distribution. This memory storage
approach is an area of study that is opposite of that addressed
for ESD.
EFI methodology is able to measure the electric potential
from charges that are subsurface and not on the exposed
surface being imaged by the e-sensor. The electrostatic potential of the letter N triboelectrically hand-drawn, using a finger
on a polymer sheet, is shown in Figure 10c. The drawing of the
letter N leaves residual induced charges on the surface
drawn. There are two N letters shown in Figure 10d. One
letter N is drawn on the upper half of the front surface and
the second letter N is drawn on the lower half of the back

subsurface of the polymer sheet. The electrostatic potential


image reveals both the N letters on the front and back sides
of the polymer sheet. This is an important result. Even though
there are no triboelectric surface charges on the front lower
half of the polymer sheet, an image of the electrostatic potential of the letter N on the back surface is clearly observed.
That is, subsurface charges may exist, and their electrostatic
potential can be measured by both single- and double-sided
EFI, even when the surface exposed to the e-sensor is
uncharged.
The capability of EFI to characterize subsurface electric
potential variations has important implications. Figure 11
shows an optical image of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS) gun simulator in a container. The ABS gun simulator
has no conducting metallic content or conducting components. The ABS gun simulator is packed, using typical foam
packing materials, in a non-conducting container. The EFI
electrostatic potential image is shown as a gray scale plot
overlaid onto the optical image of the container. The gun
simulator is identified in the electrostatic potential image
(Figure 11c). The body and the barrel of the gun are clearly
discernable. The simple act of packing the gun simulator
changes the electrostatic potential of the gun for an extended
period of time. The EFI shown in Figure 11c was obtained
24 h after packing.

Packing material

ABS gun simulator inside

(a)

(b)
Container

Electrical potential
image of container

Electric
potential of gun

(c)

Figure 11. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) gun simulator in a container: (a) exterior photograph of the setup; (b) interior photograph
showing the ABS gun; and (c) electrostatic potential image.

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Electrical potential (V)

Subsequent modifications to the e-sensor design have


removed the shadowing due to saturated charging and leakage
effects. The modified e-sensor functions in an ephemeral

Position on X axis

Electrical potential (V)

(a)

(b)

Equilibrium electrical potential

Equilibrium electrical potential

Position on X axis

Figure 12. Electrostatic potential of a cylindrically symmetric object


charged to saturate the electric field sensor (e-sensor) by: (a) an
e-sensor; and (b) an ephemeral e-sensor.

mode (Generazio, 2015). The difference between the


e-sensor and the ephemeral e-sensor is that the ephemeral
e-sensor is intrinsically forced to return to an uncharged state
between measurements. The construction of an ephemeral
e-sensor has been described in detail (Generazio, 2015).
Preliminary data from an ephemeral e-sensor are presented
here. Figure 12 shows the electrostatic potential, measured
simultaneously by both an e-sensor and an ephemeral
e-sensor, of a cylindrically symmetric object that has been
charged to saturate the e-sensor. Effects due to leakage
currents are absent in the potential measurements from
the ephemeral e-sensor.
A solid-state ephemeral e-sensor was developed for
enhanced single sided measurements and will reported in later
research. Forensic evaluations of surfaces may be performed
using ephemeral e-sensors. The electric potential of an office
rug changes with footfalls. Figure 13 shows electrostatic
potential plots on a gray scale due to residual charges left by
footsteps on an anti-static rug. The rug potential varies by
4.46 V (lightest shade in Figure 13b) after being walked on.
The individual left and right footsteps are clearly identified,
indicating the travel direction, as well as the manufactured
tread patterns on the bottom of the shoes. Footfall imaging
was done up to 30 min after travel. However, it is expected
that undisturbed paths may be imaged days later depending
on the materials in contact. Footfalls are only one example of
forensic interest, and other forensic applications are possible.
Future work in this area is needed to establish the residual
charge distribution as a function of time.
Conclusion
It is important to summarize the preceding results to form a
complete picture of what was learned. The construction of an
e-sensor system that provides a true metric of the electric
potential needed for the generation of electrostatic potential

1.219 m

Optical image of
rug surface

0.28 cm

(a)
Electric field image
(electrical potential)

(b)

5 min

V = 4.46 V

Optical image of
bottom of right shoe

Figure 13. Forensic electrostatic potential image of footfalls on a static protection office rug: (a) photograph of rug surface; and (b) electric
field image.

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

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and EFI was presented. The construction materials of the EFI


system are critical. Attention must be given to the dielectric,
triboelectric, and conductivity properties of all elements used
in the EFI system where low dielectric, neutral triboelectric,
and non-conductive materials are required. A slowly varying
electrostatic reference field may be used to reverse and
minimize effects of floating gate charging of the FET and
leakage currents to facilitate accurate measurements and to
provide a very useful illumination source for the inspection
of objects and volumes.
EFI images reveal the topological nature of electric potentials and a demonstration on locating areas with high electric
field magnitudes was provided. EFI images of selected materials provide guidance on materials selection for sensor applications including circuitry, wiring, and structural support
systems. EFI imaging of humans was demonstrated and EFI
technology was demonstrated showing the feasibility of
molecular memory storage. EFI capability extends to subsurface imaging for container inspections and for imaging of
hidden objects. Data from an ephemeral e-sensor were
presented highlighting its ability to minimize effects due to
charging and leakage.
This new EFI capability was demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution creating a new field
of study embracing areas of interest including ESD mitigation,
crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for
advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether
integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic
and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

REFERENCES

Blum, D.W., Electric Field Signature Detection, U.S. Patent US20120092019,


19 April 2012.
Dower, R.G., Apparatus for Electrostatically Imaging the Surface of an Object
Located Nearby, U.S. Patent US5430381, 4 July1995.
Generazio, E.R., Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method,
U.S. Patent 20120199755, 4 February2011.
Generazio, E.R., Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor,
U.S. Patent US20150137825, 21 May 2015.
Hassanzadeh, R., D.G. Funderburk, S.A. Schwartz, and E.T. Rock, Electrostatic Field Gradient Sensor, U.S. Patent US4931740, 5 June 1990.
Horowitz, P., and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, second ed., Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1989.
ITU, Recommendation B.15: International Telecommunications Union
Nomenclature of the Frequency and Wavelength Bands Used in Telecommunications, International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, Switzerland,
2000.
Melcher, J.R., Continuum Electromechanics, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1981, p. 1.4.
NASA, Quasi-static Electric Field Generator, NASA Tech Briefs, ed.
T. Selinsky, Tech Briefs Media Group, New York, New York, 1 November
2014.
Sothcott, P., Buried Object Location, U.K. Patent GB 2132357, 4 July 1984.
Yang, Y.P., and J. Macnae, An Apparatus and Method for Detecting an Object
in a Medium, World Intellectual Property Organization Patent
WO2002067015, 29 August 2002.
Zahn, M., Transform Relationship Between Kerr-effect Optical Phase
Shift and Nonuniform Electric Field Distributions, IEEE Transactions on
Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1994, pp. 235246.

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ME TECHNICAL PAPER w
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Electromagnetic Measurement of Applied and


Residual Surface Strain in Steel
By Otto Henry Zinke*

ABSTRACT

Complex-reluctance bridges are electromagnetic


devices that are shown to be able to detect both
the angle of strain in steel and changes in the
magnitude of applied strain with some sensitivity.
Evidence is presented that they can also detect the
magnitude of residual strain. Further research is
suggested in this area. The residual strain
detection technique is simple to use and easy to
understand. Two new terms are introduced for
complex-reluctance circuits: impermance, to
parallel the impedance in alternating current electrical circuits; and reductance, to parallel reactance
in alternating current electrical circuits.
KEYWORDS: measurement, strain, steel, electromagnetic.

* Ph.D., Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,


Arkansas; and International Validators, Inc., 817 N. Jackson Dr., Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701; (479) 443-3682; e-mail ohz@swbell.net.

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

Introduction
Complex-reluctance bridges (CRBs) offer an improvement
over resistive strain gages in strain measurements in steel
because they are more sensitive and do not need to be
bonded to a surface (and, for that matter, do not even need to
touch the surface). Nor do they require surface preparation.
They can be used to measure both the direction and magnitude of surface strain intrinsically in a steel sample, or they can
be used to measure changes produced by stress applied to the
sample. For example, they could be used to determine
whether the magnitude and direction of strain in a civil structure meets the design specifications of the structure. They
indicate both transitory and oscillatory strain so use of a single
CRB replaces the present practice of using a combination of a
resistive strain gage and an accelerometer.
An example in the present work is given of the response of
the CRB in the applied range of 0 to 10 e. This range is
much smaller than that used in normal engineering, but it was
found useful in thomson effect experiments and measurements of transient heat in metals at distances from 5 to 7 cm
from the heat source (Canada and Zinke, 1978; Jacovelli and
Zinke, 1978). As a practical application of this sensitivity, the
strain pattern of two automobiles traversing a span of a
freeway bridge was presented. In that measurement, the sensitivity of the CRB was found to be critically related to its orientation to the expected strain. The same effect was then noted
in strain measurements made on tensile testers and on
cantilevered beams. It is shown in the present work that an
analysis of this effect led to an understanding of how CRBs
could be used to measure residual surface strain in steel.
Examples are given of residual strain measurements on three
geometrically similar steel samples: hot-rolled, cold-rolled,
and mild steel. The residual strain determination requires the
CRB to be calibrated for the particular type of steel, and when
the calibration is known, only two measurements, axial and
lateral to the strain direction, need to be made on a sample.
Calibration measurements were made by applied strain
(stress).
There are a number of well-known techniques for measuring residual surface strain in steel. Among these techniques
are the following: hole drilling with the inspection of subsequent cracks, X-rays, barkhausen noise, and ultrasonics. CRBs
offer an additional tool for this arsenal. The technique is inexpensive, safe, easy to understand, and easy to use.

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The assumptions associated with residual strain measurement are discussed in the following together with suggestions
for future research.
Applied Strain Measurements
Two examples are given in this paper to show the sensitivity
of the CRB to strain. In the first example, the strain is nontransient. In the second example, the strain is transient. Both
of these techniques involve using the CRB in the off-null
mode where a voltage proportional to the strain is produced.
Orientation of the CRB with respect to the strain is important, and the reason for this is shown in the present work. In
all measurements here, the electromagnetic frequency at
which the CRB was operated was approximately 40 kHz so
that the skin depth in the steel samples was approximately
0.05 mm into the surface of 3 mm thick samples. The output
of the CRB can be adjusted to null by a combination of a
resistor and a capacitor (Zinke et al., 2001).
Data from the first off-null example are shown here as
Figure 1 and are a reaction to applied strain on a cantilevered
beam. The measurement was made on a cold-rolled steel
sample, which was approximately 50 mm wide, 3 mm thick,
and approximately 40 cm long. The strain was produced by
grounding one end and hanging weights on the free end. The
CRB was placed in the center of the 50 mm width, approximately 3 cm from the grounded end. The liftoff was 0.27 mm.
All subsequent measurements on all samples were made at
this point. Raw data appear in Figure 1 and are the unamplified root-mean-squared voltage outputs of the bridge together
with a linear curve fit. The 40 kHz signal was processed to
remove harmonics. Strain was calculated by the usual equations for a cantilevered beam. Each data point was the average
of three readings, and the standard deviations were too small
to represent on the graph. The linear least-squares fit has a
slope of approximately 18 V per microstrain (e). These

short-range data are presented to illustrate sensitivity. The


slope could easily have been doubled by increasing input
ampere-turns to the bridge. No data from other types of strain
transducers could be found that operate in this range. The
linear range observed in Figure 1 was found in other experiments to extend to approximately 200 e. However, there
was creep in the zero loading at larger values of microstrain.
Thus, the CRB had to be re-zeroed at each point. This creep
could be minimized (but not eliminated) by cycling the
sample approximately 10 times at microstrains greater than
200 before data were obtained. A practical effect of the sensitivity exhibited in Figure 1 can be seen in transient measurements of the effect of automobiles on a freeway bridge.
The output of the CRB transitions smoothly from transient to oscillatory, thus eliminating the need to have two
transducers (resistive strain gages and accelerometers) to
measure the behavior of such structures as freeway bridges.
An illustration of this can be seen in an experiment where a
CRB was placed on the bottom of one of five I-beams
supporting the exit span. The placement was approximately
6 m from the grounded part of the exit span. The bridge had
five such spans. Each I-beam was approximately 1.22 m tall.
The liftoff of the CRB was 0.27 mm from the rusted surface of
the beam. A trace of the CRB output was initiated at the time
at which the first of two automobiles entered the second span.
Figure 2 shows the transient signals produced by two automobiles, one following the other by approximately 3 s. The effect
of the natural bridge oscillations can also be seen in Figure 2,
although the amplitudes observed here were decreased by an
averaging technique used to bring the automobile signals out
of the bridge-oscillation signals. Signals produced by trucks
and busses were much larger than the unprocessed bridge
oscillations. The off-null data were gathered with the CRB in
the axial position (to be described). Attempts to gather data
in the lateral position produced greatly reduced voltages.

120

0.15

100

Strain (a.u.)

Microvolts (mV)

0.10
80
60
40

0.05
0.00

20
0.05

0
20
0

Microstrain ()
Figure 1. Output voltage of complex-reluctance bridge with microstrain of a cold-rolled steel sample.

0.10
2

10

11

12

Time (s)
Figure 2. Amplified output voltage of a complex-reluctance bridge
responding to two automobiles crossing a freeway bridge.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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ME TECHNICAL PAPER w
x measurement of applied and residual surface strain

While use of the CRB in the off-null mode is convenient for


detection of transient and oscillatory strains, use of the device
in the renull mode can yield information about the magnitude
and direction of strain in steel. This information is pertinent
to the integrity of civil structures, for example.
Two tests were carried out in the renull mode on a hotrolled sample of steel of the same dimensions as those of the
cold-rolled sample previously discussed. The renull mode
produces what were previously known as real and imaginary
reluctance. The first tests were to calibrate the CRB in terms
of reluctance versus strain. The second test was a rotational
test to show directional response. The purpose of these tests
was to show the ability to detect the magnitude and direction
of applied and residual strain in steel. A prior work showed
that the equation to be used for the renull mode of operation
gives the change in complex reluctance, Dz%, as a function of
changes in the values of capacitance, C, and resistance, R,
coupled to the null coils and of the changes in real reluctance,
DRe, and imaginary reluctance, Dx, of the sample (Zinke and
Schmidt, 1993). That equation is as follows.

(1)

% = N 2 2 (C C0 ) + jN 2 (1 R 1 R0 )
= Re + j

In the renull mode, the values C0 and R0 are measured


and recorded for the unperturbed state, and C and R are
recorded for each value of the perturbed state. In this case the
perturbation is strain.
Here there is a need to digress for language. The theory
that produced this equation was formulated so that the alternating electrical current theory could be converted to alternating magnetic flux theory by simple substitution. When
magnetic flux is substituted for electrical current, magnetomotive force for voltage, complex reluctance for impedance,
real reluctance for capacitive or inductive reactance, and
imaginary reluctance for resistance, the equations of alternating electrical current theory convert to alternating
magnetic flux theory. Only j(sqr[1]) has to be reversed.
However, the language that has been previously used for flux
circuits is clumsy, and the term imaginary reluctance has been
frequently misunderstood. Therefore, the following name
substitutions are made: impermance is substituted for impedance, reluctance for real reluctance, and reductance for imaginary reluctance. Reluctance depends primarily on the relative
permeability of the non-discrete circuit elements. Reductance
depends primarily on the conductance of the non-discrete
circuit elements, hence the term reductance. Others may find
more descriptive terms for the magnetic-circuit variables, but
impermance, reluctance, and reductance are used here. In
quadrature, impermance equals reluctance plus reductance.
These terms are compared to those of electrical circuits in
Table 1.
1492

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

TABLE 1

Comparison of variables of transient electric current to transient


magnetic flux circuits
Transient electric

Transient magnetic

Voltage, V
Current, I
Resistance, R
Reactance, X
Impedance, Z
Z% = R + jX

Magnetomotive force, mmf


Magnetic flux,
Reductance,
Reluctance, Re
Impermance,
% = Re + j

Before Equation 1 is applied, the ability of the CRB to


make a directional response should be discussed. The drawing
of Figure 3 shows the footprint of the compound pole of the
CRB that faces the surface of the sample. Two ferrite poles
are separated by a copper piece that is called an insert. From
a very simple point of view, the oscillating magnetic flux goes
externally through the sample and the liftoff space from one
pole to the other. The more complicated explanation has
been discussed at some length in prior work (Zinke, 2013).
The arrow indicates the unidirectional magnetic field, B, (or
of the flux) produced by the copper/ferrite configuration,
although the field oscillates in parallel or anti-parallel to B. In
all the samples used here, the direction of strain whether
applied or residual is the long (or axial) dimension of the
sample, which was also the direction of rolling of the sample.
When the long dimension of the insert is perpendicular to the
axial dimension of the sample (which was also the direction of
the expected tensile strain), B is parallel (or anti-parallel) to
the tensile strain. Using Lenzs law it can be seen that the
current loop in the sample (which is a distorted mirror image
of the current loop in the insert) is then perpendicular to the
tensile strain. This position of the CRB is called the axial
position. The reductance changes associated with the strain
are primarily affected by the interaction of the conductance of
the sample with the current loop. When the sensor is rotated
90 to the above position, the same argument holds for the
compressive (or lateral) strain, the magnitude of which is

10 mm

Copper

Ferrite

Figure 3. Footprint of a complex-reluctance bridge showing direction


of electromagnetic field B, which intersects the sample.

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:35 PM Page 1493

predicted by the Poissons ratio. This position of the CRB is


called the lateral position.
Calibration data were obtained in the axial position using
the cantilever geometry in the renull mode and using applied
strain (weights on the end of the cantilevered beam). When
the CRB is on top of the sample, applied strain is tensile;
when the CRB is on the bottom, the applied strain is
compressive. Both strains add in a plus-minus sense to the
residual tensile strain in the sample. The CRB was fastened to
the sample, and the sample was simply rotated about its horizontal axis to produce the over and under positions. The
reduced off-null voltage sensitivities seen in the lateral positions, which were previously mentioned, were predictable by
the Poissons ratio.
It is clear that conductance (associated with the reductance) changes with strain. That is the principle of the resistive strain gage. Lesser known is that permeability (associated
with reluctance here) also changes with strain (Jiles, 1991).
Equation 1 was used for the renull calibration tests. Because
reluctance develops creep over large strain values, C, C0, R,
and R0 were recorded for each weight added at the end of
the cantilevered beam. The hot-rolled sample previously
mentioned was used. As it developed, reluctance results
demonstrated nonlinearity as well as creep. Therefore,
only the reductance data were processed and the results are
shown in Figure 4. The compressive data are represented
by xs and the tensile data are represented by dots. Both
were axial. The straight lines are least-fit calculations, and
their slopes, kC and kT, respectively, fall into the range
2.79 0.03 104 MA/(e Wb). Thus, for the reductance
of hot-rolled steel:
C = C 0 C = kC C
(2)
and
T = T 0T = kT T

(3)

In these experiments, the two unperturbed values, x0C and


x0T, were obtained on the same spot of the sample, but the
two values differ slightly because of the tensile strain introduced by the weight of the sample itself, which adds to the
strain of the tensile curve and subtracts from the data of the
compressive curve. These two equations can be used to
quantify both applied and residual strain within the steel.
However, to quantify residual strain, more information is
needed and directional measurements are involved.
Residual Strain Measurements
The hot-rolled sample used for directional measurements was
the same sample used in the preceding section. It was not
loaded. The CRB was in exactly the same position with the
same liftoff used for the renull calibration curves, which was
0.27 mm. Equation 1 was used, except that now C0 and 1 / R0
were not used, those data not being applicable to this experiment. Thus, DRe and Dx become Re and x, the latter being
the intrinsic strain in the sample. The CRB was rotated in 10
increments and renulled at each position. The values of C and
R were recorded, and the reluctance and reductance were
calculated from Equation 1. The 0 designation was used for
the axial position, that is, when the copper insert was perpendicular to the rolled dimension of the sample. The lateral
positions occur at 90. An angular sweep was conducted
from 120 to +120. The reductances at 0 and 90 (the axial
and lateral positions) were designated respectively as xT and
xC, indicating tensile and compressive. Since there was a slight
discrepancy in the lateral (compressive) data at 90, they
were averaged to yield xC.
The reluctance variations with angle are recorded in
Figure 5, where ReT and ReC indicate the reluctance in the
axial and lateral directions. The fact that ReT does not occur at
the maximum is yet another reason to discard the reluctance
data. Additionally, there seems to be a sort of angular modulation on the reluctance curve. The reductance data of Figure 6

0.20

5.4
ReT

Reluctance (MA/Wb)

Reductance (MA/Wb)

0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15

Compressive

0.20
800 600 400 200

Tensile

200

400

600

Applied microstrain ()
Figure 4. Reductance changes of hot-rolled steel sample with
compression and tension produced by a cantilevered beam.

800

5.3

5.2
5.1
5.0

ReC

4.9
140

100

60

20

20

60

100

140

Angle ()
Figure 5. Reluctance changes with angle measured by a complexreluctance bridge rotated on a hot-rolled steel sample.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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ME TECHNICAL PAPER w
x measurement of applied and residual surface strain

1.60

Reductance (MA/Wb)

1.65
C

1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95

2.00
140 100

60

20 0 20

60

100

140

strain, which is 50 to 650 e for the tensile data and 50 to


650 e for the compressive data, gives a residual strain range
for the applied calibration curve of 782 to 1437 e and a range
of 82 to 682 e for the compressive calibration curve. Both of
these axial ranges are tensile.
To obtain a compressive range for the compressive curve,
lateral data must be obtained. Since the applied stress is axial,
the data range now yields a compressive range of (1 / n)(650
to 50 e). This applied strain will be negative when the bridge
is above the sample and positive when the bridge is below the
sample. However, before these results are presented, Equation
5 will be modified for the situation where (kC / nkT) = 1.
Under these circumstances:

Angle ()
Figure 6. Reductance changes with angle measured by a complexreluctance bridge rotated on a hot-rolled steel sample.

both minimizes at the expected point and shows a smooth


curve with rotation. The minimum xT is in the direction of
the intrinsic tensile strain and the maxima at 90 are in the
direction of the intrinsic compressive strain. This rotation
technique could be used to demonstrate the direction of
strain within steel incorporated in standing civil structures to
see if subsequent strain met initial design specifications.
However, there is another use for it.
The Poissons ratio, n, which relates the tensile strain,
DeT, to the accompanying compressive strain, DeC, is as
follows.
(4)

= T C

The Poissons ratio for steel is probably within the limits


2.8 0.2 and is positive since DeC is negative. If Equations 2,
3, and 4 are combined and solved for DeT, it produces
Equation 5.

T =
(5)

(T C )

k
kT 1 + C
kT

The intrinsic quantity (DxT DxC) can be obtained from


Figure 6. With this information and the values of kT and kC
from Equations 2 and 3, it is now possible to determine the
magnitude of the residual tensile strain, DeT.
Incorporating k = kT = kC = 2.79 0.03 104 MA/(e Wb),
the difference xT xC = 0.271 from the graph, and n = 2.8
into Equation 5 yields a value of 732 residual, tensile microstrain for hot-rolled steel. However, there is a problem: the
value of kC is wrong because the strain is applied axial strain
and not the strain within the sample, the intrinsic strain. If the
value of residual, tensile microstrain is correct, that is, 732 e,
both the tensile and compressive curves were obtained in the
tensile region of the intrinsic strain. Thus, adding the applied
1494

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

(6)

C 1 kC
T T

kT kT

where
kC / nkT is very small (which will be seen to be the situation here), and
(7)

T C
kT

The value of microstrain calculated through Equation 7 is


(0.271 / 2.79 104) = 971 e. If the approximation that
produces Equation 7 holds, the measurement of residual
strain will be particularly easy since it would involve two
measurements with a CRB and one calibration series of measurements with a tensile tester (or cantilevered bridge) for the
type of steel involved. The Poissons ratio would not enter the
calculation at all.
The experiment was repeated with the cold-rolled sample
and mild steel sample of the same dimension. The values of
tensile microstrain obtained are summarized in Table 2.
Directional scans were not carried out for the mild steel
and cold-rolled steel samples. Only the data at 0 and 90
were read. Ten readings of the data were obtained for each
axial and lateral position for each of the two samples. The
observed variation for the difference (xT xC) for each of the
two samples was 5%. If the rolling direction of samples is
known, only the axial and lateral measurements need be
made. Otherwise, directional data must be taken. If the reductance strain calibration of the particular steel and the rolling
direction of the sample is known, only two simple measurements have to be made to determine residual strain.
TABLE 2

Measured residual microstrain for three types of steel


Sample
Hot-rolled steel A36
Mild steel 1018
Cold-rolled steel 1008

Residual microstrain
732
959
2794

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:35 PM Page 1495

For the mild steel sample, Equation 5 was used with both
kT and kC, which were 1.66 104 and 1.93 104, respectively. For cold-rolled steel, the value kC was used for kT since
the tensile curve showed marked nonlinearity. The reason for
the nonlinearity can be understood from inspection of
Figure 4 for hot-rolled steel. This figure shows plots against
applied strain. The intrinsic range of the tensile curve is the
applied plus the residual microstrain, which is approximately
732 + 50 to 732 + 650 e for the hot-rolled sample. For the
compression curve this range is approximately 732 50 to
731 650 e. In fact, intrinsically, the entire applied,
compressive curve is in the intrinsic tensile range as were
similar compressive curves for mild steel and cold-rolled steel.
Thus, the intrinsic tensile curve of cold-rolled steel is between
the ranges of 2794 + 50 and 2794 + 650 e. It would be
remarkable if a tensile curve in this strain range were linear,
and it definitely is not. The mean-square deviation of the
applied-compression curve from a straight line is only 4%,
which also seems remarkable.
Discussion
CRBs are shown here to be very sensitive to changes in strain
produced in steel by external stress. Further, they are shown
here to detect transient and oscillatory strain and thus could
replace the combination of resistive strain gages and
accelerometers, which are presently used. They detect strain
within the steel samples so they react more rapidly to oscillatory strain than accelerometers, which are driven systems and
take time to come to their final state. They operate at large
liftoff values and thus can be used through paint and rust
without disturbing such surfaces. No bonding to the surface is
necessary. Their ability, as demonstrated, to detect the direction of strain in steel that is already incorporated in existing
structures such as buildings and bridges should add another
tool to the trade of nondestructive testing (NDT).
As for using CRBs for the detection of magnitude of
residual strain, the author could find no residual strain results
in the literature for direct comparison to those presented in
Table 2. However, assuming that the results presented here
are consistent with those of other techniques, they present a
way to measure residual strain that is both easy to carry out
and easy to understand. However, steel is a mixture and
uniformity is not a given. Fifteen measurements of (xT xC)
on the same hot-rolled sample at 2 cm intervals showed a 16%
standard deviation. It would have been gratifying to develop

similar information on kT and kC values, the slopes of the


reductance versus strain curves. This would have been difficult if not impossible to do with cantilevered samples of the
size used here. Also, other techniques will have to be
employed to determine the linear calibration range for harder
steels. There is an implicit assumption here that compressive
calibration constants determined in intrinsic tensile regions
(as they were here) hold in compressive regions. This
assumption will have to be tested.
Conclusion
For use in in-place structures, the use of CRBs can presently
further the art of NDT of strain in steel with their increased
sensitivity, ability to determine direction of strain, and ability
to detect transient and oscillatory strain. They can be used on
painted or rusted surfaces without surface preparation at relatively large values of liftoff.
The use of such devices for determining magnitude of
residual strain in steel shows promise and should be further
investigated because of the ease of application and ease of
understanding and safety. However, there are a number of
caveats that should be investigated before the technique is
widely accepted. The relation between the reductance strain
calibration constants for compression and tension has to be
established. Whether these calibration constants are ostensibly the same for the same type of steel within an acceptable
error should also be established. The effects of variations of
the measured quantities from place to place in the same steel
samples should be investigated. Much of this work would be
eased by correlation with measurements made by other techniques. While there is a great deal of work yet to be done, this
technique shows promise of being more universally available
to NDT laboratories than previous techniques.
REFERENCES

Canada, C.E., and O.H. Zinke, Transient Determinations of Thermal


Diffusivities and Emissivities of Metal Foils, Journal of Applied Physics,
Vol. 49, 1978, pp. 289296.
Jacovelli, P.B., and O.H. Zinke, Evidence of an Anomalous Thomson
Effect, Thermoelectricity in Metal Conductors, edited by F.J. Blatt and
P.A. Schroeder, Plenum Press, New York, New York, 1978.
Jiles, D., Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Chapman and
Hall, London, United Kingdom, 1991, pp. 171172.
Zinke, O.H., and W.F. Schmidt, Linear AC Magnetic Circuit Theory,
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 29, No. 5, 1993, pp. 22072212.
Zinke, O.H., W.F. Schmidt, and J.T. Lovett, Thickness, Alloy Content and
Cracks in Aluminum Measured by an Alternating Current Magnetic
Bridge, Materials Evaluation, Vol. 59, No. 4, 2001, pp. 537542.

NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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Technical Paper
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NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

1501

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

1405_1508_104pgs.qxp_ME redesign 10/22/15 12:35 PM Page 1503

X-RAY Sales & Service

New & Reconditioned Equipment


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1503

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directory

SERVICE

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MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

X-RAY NDT

Real Time & Digital Imaging Systems


Portable & Stationary Equipment
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Radiation safe rooms and cabinets
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Room alarms/portable warning units
Automatic film processors
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NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

1505

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directory

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NOVEMBER 2015 MATERIALS EVALUATION

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index

AD

November 2015

coming
attractons

Bolded listings in the ad index below indicate platinum and gold advertisers.

Advanced OEM Solutions

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1451

AllPro NDT

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1459

In December, Materials
Evaluation will feature papers
on Radiographic Testing. Find
out how your company can be
included by contacting the
advertising supervisor. This
issue will also include the
semi-annual NDTMarketplace
product guide!

Curtis Industries

www.curtis-test.com

1458

CWB Group

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1448

Drr NDT, GmbH & Co. KG

www.duerr-ndt.com

Eclipse Scientific, Inc.

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1446

Eddyfi

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1427

FEI

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1415

Fuji

www.fujindt.com

GE Measurement & Control

www.gemeasurement.com

1423

The January issue of


Materials Evaluation will be a
Technical Focus Issue on
Microwave Testing. Several
papers have already been
collected looking at this
advancing technology. Contact
the advertising supervisor to
be part of the issue!

Guangzhou Doppler

www.cndoppler.cn

1406

Hellier

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1412

Labino AB

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1409

Lavender

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1452

Matec

www.matec.com

1471

MFE Enterprises

www.mfescan.com

1463

MFE Rentals

www.mferentals.com

Mistras Group, Inc.

www.mistrasgroup.com

IBC

NDT Boot Camp

www.ndtbootcamp.com

1468

NDT Classroom

www.ndtclassroom.com

1437

NDT Mart

www.ndtmart.com

1452

Olympus

www.olympus-ims.com

SE International

www.seintl.com

1430

Sentinel/QSA Global

www.sentinelndt.com

1453

Sonatest

www.sonatest.com

1416

Spectronics

www.spectroline.com

1454

TecScan

www.tecscan.ca

1437

Test NDT

www.testndt.com

1420

TesTex

www.testex-ndt.com

1405

University of Ultrasonics

www.universityofultrasonics.com

1426

UniWest

www.uniwest.com

1433

Virtual Media Integration

www.starrview.com

1411

Zetec

www.zetec.com

1445

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1508

MATERIALS EVALUATION NOVEMBER 2015

1429, 1431

IFC

1445, 1448, 1468

BC

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