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STBENqTTI

Of' MATERIALS
- --- .,1
:

f.

aL

Betrding stress:

1. Bending stress varies linearly

2.

Bending stress acts perpendicular to plane of Cross section

3.

Bending stress Zero atN.A, Maximum at extreme fibres

4.

Bending Stress Formula (Ste'ture {-<rrmclo)'


v2Y1
?an

M:f,.:E.

:
1 MPa :
1

GPa

Flexural

rigidity: E.I (Units : N/mm2* mm4:

Flexural

stifthess :

lm:

: y/R (Jnits: no units)

rt'3b

modulus for Thin tube

13.

: v,

Z:

10

ei

.\lL

14. E.I

dty:

-- :>

d2y

dx2

3he6v 1bc54
a Shqnr {tE tS
ahe6.r\n$ crrtto,

: x(/mrn>

r'. rr-re l^.Bt'.t'i.' e -i-'q 1


Stored otm o' tro.{f due G etRrna^l

g,\.Lo,/ 5fscdo'
LtnFto-rcr{lanl

d2gr

dx" dx'

17.

dx' dx

-5

tltox',' \crw'

gtrcn i'n n\
(gv ."elttirnr-e

fo

br.g >d<!lecl-io,,

e\er*ft .\irnirrahe ltren4 {,j drre_rtLt,


Prc* go rtitrr.,zr,\ I-t .gtvcr.ir)

*l^tl
':t'ttt 6tr-red in r,o 1or^l
dicrrnetE,iDJ"i..;inrer,.,o,)*-;*':*l&-(o4br"
&

d{'y-e-e.t-

=rr1

: i m. dx

fft,.olr'

CE,.. :n e y1q1l1lrntfrr)
rv ,\L-;tLlE,r \L
t''\LrL' FERESIIIFN

*tr'crin eF'ev$l r*hfch e\h tr .Stcre(t


f'4 o bcrd'1 trlt -pre e\rr6tfe lfrn!1
il pverrt r\iLr't,r(e"

sauiirr dk re{ilir^te=

l)'fhe

dx

lc( d"-t t.,ltr-,irr t6e eiO.S+{q \i n-3 lll knuun ql \egl\iencOt"

ffif{f;##

: 1 . : Curvature of'beam'

.frr'.dt =fw'clrt

Slope

XJD4 - dn)
32D

't+

fr.J, = v

:d[ :w

l-&J: dy :

IId3
32

II d2 t

E.I

dx2

r5.31:dm :v,
dx3 dx

16.d!:

_m

rdd

RES\L t t=*c

,.q- B,rn
V* -e'F'

dx

: JI

bd2

: Z:

: Z:

dv : w,

dx

100 cm
1000 rnm

180

modulus for Hollow Circle

12. Section

dm

I N lyrtry'tz-

N.mm2)

!rt-+,tn'f)

i(N/-iml

-mrol-'

10. Section modulus for Solid Circle : Z:

d,:lul<ction rh

E.I/[(N.mm2lmm: N.mm) e. A, * *^h* Jrtl'v)

Section modulus for Rectan gle :

11. Section

N/m2
106 N/m1=

10e

lrn:

9.

-SUe3r. .
fiirtYtb\rt}"r

r t,

f $"*f.",4r**$a-'ltro's*ri'l
5. Section modulus : Z : I . (Units : mm4/mm : -rnt;.-

Bending strain

r-\

Atrtributicn
t

'tfoe

Stycri

In o. b o"lsf
) \.r,:.r-ran !t {J \uUfecfej
tenrf le- krr) Cornprasgi/e lc41}
()__
LrLe.(e 6- *-streij
B-l

g.t1,./,J

2E'

rnd >yrsdu\r| 6b, ve.Si\iE^te = { sht ftro.ln-, energl -6{a.rreJ !', -T.--;
brsd"X (vrt9\ier.-rcel rdbeh Ff ll 4ubtecre4t
ts 6beo.r atrcr)

6r.r-

-'

- 33xv
aQ

op/ rnodurul

've'rtienre

__-

y=lf4oll,t

= x.
af-

i;

lli

ii

J)

,t

Fo,r S"F

C\)

For

b)

. -1I

tl

-->

B,t4 -+

+va- SF

r1--_5
\ gYl /
+!e

'F.D o B.Sp 1

:'lt*\\r'e

11

qll downlocrd y'-orcg afue qltrnrfi

-\e Bn ( uoggr"tr srt)


'1 ilt q11 lrptrrlrd *vcel Swa q\**tj
a1,z
\ -ve
+{e Bn ( Sc\SCF^t E4)

c.\re

SF

gtoPhf

"

tal rePvelentertl

dt

on{

vavicationS dV

!heotrbsrce And bendt.4 rn(rnant- orl di![-<vcnt


'-e.tE
Alsng n 'e tengtrr 6L -tL* t *11?_,_
DLte

4Ib

e6\btilxei

tD6#renF Q

16 Pslnt- locrd '


Sg-l)--SP"6fc,f

tb g-F tr ?ro, bt'


two Sect[rnl 4 o. beqrn
tacn B.rq urtll bE conSftaal-

6)

bett^leen'S116r Be-cltco

" & el

(f)

wvY
9g

=9p,--O

slope
'a6teg);9!:
degech'anCtst=ld

t"Oae t.uo

, Cectr'ont
b)' Otre lo Point locrdl'
S.F doel nsr var? $
B.n vqciel \i''ea'{l! '
o Sts1o- e" detrttctto"a

arfe ttfo cti b'*ed

3ET

no\.

S) Dtre l-s u.o.l,9:_F


Yqrts--$:eq$ r ED

^r*f:<
l,/
'v

--^

O*rYl '

btspeQrg=

ffi

ear"tilevar s.rs5echeA t6 cr^tj


-Zt cr<.ar're orotv\e'rr @ &ree- erd
_lq

an&t, Slop, 6}e


,
=Fl
F
ET
tnu(- deftech'oo= tto= d- *
, y^

"v- TEI

Ot the t-tte.)

The reachln of thq


b-ucd encl it nol\ht
buf 3.F ol- tlre tixe-d

Crt

rrcl

s" k""n- er,cl/ 8.r.1. q-d

de_lle_ctfo-a

d4 = _t!_r\e

8qI

ugtroo,td Cr$lecHo.,"

ggf
A4EI

s%
bs=

de$-cHonl

b__e

end.

,VJ

og,B;

, Slopa q.,d

384Er

-Uf
6ET

.t\ I --/
-a,-V

sS.

?e"rd.

n
O

de[lecti"n t'tg):

tWv

cd-,

Fl

?e"JU.

b).

$l

*-----F

beo'rn,Theo

ts)

beh^lcEn

---------==-

SRctievrl

Ilghv'l "tt-r*"o- -1
tL
F_*

Itf
kBP:

!e: \tf9
BreEI.

Eetf"nf - Arecnrn rne'tlnl3d


't the- .t^tla betweea
t.,e r..^ra t^.*ah'r drorrn
{ef' t-e. etAsLit Lrne
lg ?fvcn bt 1r,. qreo, ots
B'iv\'o beFr+ea. t^oae_ ruo
gor-rrl ar"ro* bt et

Stspe,' I =A
EI

t'1e

hylt

ttna o.re^,n

- ?r
"The G? deflection
a poinf o*al trom
-S'e tongent d,,qusb +
lL tnr{.rr io1 the ,no^nenl- cb
Gf,ear Ct B-n"O tet.le+r 'the 1xlnr8 dli\/;dd Ll

EI
d+tcthn'$=

'18=

9L = 1oa(}

3e4Er

3E
?L

ilhtrre rnfi(, BJq il.


"qc*"rfxe*
{nQ bturrnl c\fE 4"\-tled.

i)

Shear stress:
19. Shear Stress Formula

ii) Shear stress variation is parabolic


iii) Shear stress is zero at extreme fibre,

r-is_:C0.

'l--

iR-

actiin the plane of C.S

Shear stress

Maximum at centre

20. C.J: Tdrsional rigidity

26.

v,7T/S

Torque

(T): lt. t

.d3

16
2L

C.J

: Torsional stiffiress

27.

Slope(O)

.{.

,,.|

4,

: T,[ -

-r,crguex .rcr6io^^1

*ie,$tgti!"

'.

C.J

: Torsional flexibility

28.

C.J

Power: Torque x angu.lar velocity= 1.rxg


: Workdone
,'

J : Polar Modulas

29.

Sec

Workdone

R
Shear

Shear

30.

Stress: F.A?

g/\

I-b

x angle g{'twist

l1;U.

N -r.p.m ] P:2
T - Kg-rnJ

Nl*RPID to-zllNT
JINT "I---60
l"t^rn J '

Strain: R.0
L

Polar modulus for Solid Circle

JId3

I6

Polar modulus for Hollow Circle

: JI_(D4 - d4)
I6D

Polarmodulus forThintube

Polar modulus

Torque

(T):

K,cD

Section modulu$0

-_
fsect''on *,oautul * ?]

159

f - frequency

: Id2t

39.

or

37..

3g.

f1:n.'ln cXt.ln"t,
>r5: Hoop
r, {l"XiEF
r"., ttvqqt
oO,*='i U
!{g

I $L,-

I'o^gltcrdinol ,*rta/

:f 1:p d

Hqop s.tres$
fThln^c1lin<lovl

e,,,ilre

15it

+-

Longitudi'al stress(D)
--\--/:

fTh{n

gi,l^

cg

.1rr^a"tf

l}q.lc()

Max. shear stress

:Jid_

p_d

fr

: fl - D.

1000 N-m/Sec

' 40. Hoopstrain(or)circumferentialstrail(er):ffi


-t'\-,C

(01t./ilrftr; itb.

[, *r]
KhoLdn

:O_d

__

cr6

r;**; o{q.,.e"
;
Proclltce, '}re

.(rfo)

"r.**

rhe

tanggle
-'- erl
tte laendfn? a16rnnl-,

co,apre6{V_

gh<-!}

a5

{$

Due

t6 to\nt- loqd qt

Centve-, 3F chon6-eA

Srrddenll qb !',c|t Scctlon.

b)

Ib

eE_ t!_8in
_,+
$.F_ebon*
ots o.n1 Sectr'on / B.n uJf!,

toe rrrox{rnuvn qt tt.at

Ee$o-^-

S4' G6e

tc.

Jlf
48Er

l6Ht

_tvlcrrn

d).

4). orh tne golnl- cb


d*le-ct-ioa, S\eg tS

hne^I."

C^lr^to{!

^re

rilA

X\9.

flre

<entre Sloge

il |ffo.

g) Due 6 qccerotrlc loctdP k

J",

3*l

kolcblon aF lelr svTP'tttD)=


P,O.c. otcL\Yt P 4 fuon (eg'F BugPorl-

tlar. B.onr ggf

e). El{nF.6. 1p a}'e locrd },


SgmroetrtC, 3\oge il eiuo.l
at bO'tn 'ltr 'e auplaxtr,
rnorxlrnum qt qehFE'

ke{$.

ruffi

At-

{B

c). "ILre Ahoge 6G B.r'\


d$clqtarn lr ltBe gcel!

sf

Oq=O

#rye
VA

tn$R. B.yT)

lccqr! b'@*
[ro'+r lelf hryf.tf

B'rn'

m Pgf,$)ct"!1t
'aesrer 'bloPa]6tll
bq
fht'r
raqt- ctt -thol- SuPPart'
10,^4

SrrpPotl-,

rrrb

rlg b). Dnra l-o <rtntv,\ lecrcl.;


.Ireq mcrrt" dellech\n doel
t
noF 66qx uoctqr 'tte- Polot

locddceuq}
mc\f- B'n
-t"" 6qunl!
Poinr lsotd'
"iJ*
AF CS ehzlt. Brt drt^t6.lll'
SF chongel Tt! Qln, e.qt.

la4$.

U"'*

:Pt*?f

).1-. F

B.rn

VAeBW

:c
I

rnt^("

trJ

11-

nvtlrrt

dels ggf
38hEX

fEFv,,a5\rpy
:*:
r4s.(. aebt<-ct'ong

no@
9t
fb-----z- t

m.Urt,

9J5ert

b!-Jg
../(,o-

---_

r.l -l

O,q"9e"g4

sr\

%EE'

xrnqr=

It

d=

r9E! gR

U.}T?P

ahEr

c\e$ect\:n:.[r,qr=

2-R

aa--

' !r

#;
o) T}'e Sharle

*$hl

m\

f>n

-v\)r/l

A-8ry=Og =

JlL

ongle

o1ng.m'P $

{fr

mq't. B.vn or(urrl

n
A

wlL'

t"longle.

?lFo#. =tft6ffif

q)

tb sbvrrgl- vo.rlotr,*oo Ia
gtn9 e lt tndicoFes tl'qt-

tnere,

il

e^.

Souflg

.tlnat- SatJn.

o$-

{E

h
FIA
V6:Vgc 3"ll

Felp" yeQltroor!:

B.n:'**Zr-

'6kll

41.

L'

(ez)-

I-,ongitudinal strain

*r"f,

42.

*l

L)

i::

Volumentric strain (eu)

43.

,aa.
sUq6"L t""gl
cdr
[ao.St ro,Aiur,

55 -J--

g\=

It-

rfil

: f. x A (For Short columns)

Slenderness ratio

(r.)

:l_

;'
Rankine load

.--

I -lP" P,
1

r2.E.A

A.r2

VA

(P) :

load :
' :
Pe - Euler load
- Crushing

: P..P. :

Rankine Constant (a)

P =Pc"

r2.E.A

Sbo.,b\E egul\f\x"uro

P7 Pcr
.

uJ..erc -

Xeubrat e4flf$rfurrl

\ nthqb\c '
P- Cu.r$af-'q loctd
Pcr- ctft{tst lrs,(d

gyration:f _P_-

V E.r

IIT.E

'

fc.A

lfAPcv

fcxA

Radius of

-f.

oxinincr\ vo Jurne

I+a(llr)2

Pc+Pe

(Ih)2

47.

(llr)z

t h^,^o_ e\* eornklne" Conttrcrn\-"

Pc

I > 80 - Long columns


}" < 80 - Short columns

II

(fn.,1n)

a\

Pd I s - 4 l-Str"-rq_t"i]y&e

e fr-L\
l['
Yn4

:P

Radius of gyration

or'fg{nr.r\ le"r6Th;

4.t.E

Crushing load

fmin

46.

u"b.E L'

2e1*e2

$\$abt'on'

45.

:6v

in tg'$b

cho.ne

: Pd (s-z-l
ztpl z ;l

t)t3,

ey:

:61

"

The hna at

formula for 1ou&qo_1-u!0ns only

48.

E&r

49.

Rankine column formula fbt bq]!*L&!g,qa4

50.

Long columns fail due to.buskllgg

51.

Short
columns fail due to crushiqg
.-

fr:fe,r3eebr'cro al--tl"c

hQt^tfql lqse-r wftr, ong no{mal


Qe e# c,r berrrn )b knorrlr' e!
'neul-rql ox.tt dr that- SeeFlon

tho{ columns

't

,r.

52.

Rankine constant for

Tirnbe* -

1ff0

Mildsteel

- 117500 ,

Lct>

53.

Cast iron

l,/1600

Wrough Iron -

1/9000

il

60

- Short columns
100 - Medium columns
100 - t9rt columns

Slenderness ratio

-r\e \piellion \/r-lTir- il


t

kr -lonq Coluvranl tsnty


ont;.
Br,dlno 6t"ora
tser,dln*
6trq{t irluaiae6d o,nt5
prllmct*r'e
ir'rt cc't.rrtt ri Struiglll-a

ii)

crpgltCoble

l(irotrln a! ag.utVOlEnt twlttin? rneirnrnl- CTeJ


The tt^tlf{r61 mo"ntnl- blh,{c\ tuhen o,ttre-,r6 O'!CI-,e,
P.reelrr"sc5 -lr-,e- 6qrne 4*nt
6b,/agq (f) 615 are o,Ch.rql
{.ststt'rc} im6.n.nt.

wW

csvuhqnt

!l't'll

bqqrha

H%t
I

= i. 4g tnot, Sve t?'nl UJO


No.

P.o.c

3; rnt^K- + vc* S.fn* ."3UlLo^o)L

+-*a
rg

v--+-:---'.
i.t

tffi

5P.j
no,ut- de[lcch'o n, o oo r4l

O.renrt.

Ctr

-1",

ET

cieb 6ctuo ol- o

116]'rat

6^aQrJ

Ff(ed

ir,ltl
Deblection grl- rnld 9po"=
"Lhe

J\Q-

l.lart$

--eF-

# mqr. t3.tnr TF')e Val\rC


\o) s O.hl4l \o{) O.A$9L'

Beqt.rj

fut
\;rn
Yg

- F

dlEtescC'

+ g,i"qt [vom PaoPYed end'

+-

3'FD

B.rry'D

+Ne-l'

B 'Y"r'D

rhhK *vq b'rT


8.
{nsx.' $ve )b .Yn : utl
T-

fi1$: rDl3: w{

6*t9g =Et =

*l+= Ytl

rn(l(- d.eflceHoo = .t^lt3

l9e-FX

no.

1 lL Lzz*
r

VA: Vg
P.o.

iI

l*
h

iu

t\

ctrf' q ctirtomte ,l+ +wq


/ 6ecu"r
the- g.rPlorft'

bono

\^Jf\:

-qi

rtn

9.0. q= 2-

*{

,*

'4"

at

fk

\N (

ltira/)

c- bvovn cqr"t

et:/r?4*-

ru.orn

l>24, n P,o.c =
IA2&r rrhJ.4- p*6c=
I :2.cv a ll0

m$Y..

tve

Lm

c't P.O' C: O

yfagggq>

L - .rLR-D == L$$"_tr.rl
-Ve R'D
a6.
tt-,1 l1l"'
To qol- mfn. Va,lrra&
otv
ntotr.grD,
+ " ;"{" "'td'AE" -h;;l;;r'
6o

Rdno
-ndno

.^llc

r-'

\t-

=\lg= \!l
fDq>IDg= *Vg B,nr^: }$
ho.$9.o'c'l
tre- 8.vn: j!:

Supgott YQncb'on:

60" Ag--6c-: \g:9g .&\

VA

'.

--

^ (Qnrv
'- =
-fi^rQ- Ynttr.. delle.pJtrn otcUrvl @

tr\llt

sfrf,

54.

Bulk modulus

55.

PoiSson's

(K) :

oD
Pel'Lorel'*.e-cl
ttur. a*'1ff15-1;:t
o,rl.,

Notmal stress
Volumetric Strain

ratio (1/m):

"'l''Lriii"@!r'

Lateral strain
Linear strain (Longitudinal strain)

tl

56.

Modulus of elasticity (E)

57.

Modulus of rigidity

(C) :

.'

58.

Factor

Linear Stress
Linear Strain
Shear stress
Shear strain

ofsafety

rncrinl1 SubSea|- fi [-lcxure(terrclt-N)


AO {>enrr.Svede toqcl

lglovg$-q -Lagdi'4n5 loo.c,l rbe.r'.doet not act- cltp^1 rile <r<15 6LIhe
rnern6e'r il Cnl[ cd 'it.trl.-ostrri tdtc"Cl

clit>lr;
yierdstress ho.,
\orr
*9r??
"11!:f:tS
{tre-l{.
ktorxinttr

Wprking stress

ss.

r"" autiru i^g'11;


* ntitul' *4;Prrtrr D
.$i"i:
poisson's ratio ror cork: n X$:::'; ;11'l'i-':1" 4i [o"co^ere, ijot'cpic
=e,t-5

E:2c[r* t-]

60.

$
tt- -^)

n::c[t-2-l

n)
t ;)

^X.ie*l^tf

E: eKC l-;^E--

3K+c2'lr\rr+c)'ir\-q65
s{wr+.)
section. f' s-

6I.

A beam of unifonn strength ' Pgqdl4g JUql$ is same at every

62.

In Cantilever, at fixed end, slope & deflection are zero

63.

Statically determinate

64.

Staticallyindeterminatebeams

65.

Propped cantilever beam is staticalypeterminate to 1 iesree

66.

a) Fixed beam is staticalllr indeterminate to 3 degrees (general loading)

beams -

rn ' F
2,

(rn+ L)

[,

T-

Cantilever beam]Simply supported &


Overhang beams
Propped cantilever beam, fixed beam
& continuous bean

b) Fixed beam is statically indeterminate to 2 degrees (vertical loading)

tt\Hv,rerhe

Rreoxl'^'g

67.

Continuous beam is statibally indeterminate to 2 degrees

68.

In Propped cantilever beam,at fixed end

69.

In a Fixed beam, slope is always zero, deflection at fixed ends is zero,


Maximum deflection occurs at centre only

ll0.

Shear Force : If a force u.t, purilB'1to the C/S of a member \cn), olgeb

- Slopes & deflections are Zero


at propped end - Deflection & B'M are Zero

{3nqg.rt'lo'l

l$re.\f,5

ulLtv'lafe

loe'.e)

orfg-fnol clA'

$tre,i5 F B'lec"krng to'.d'


ortq&ra'.1 olS-

Pe{centc\Sr yadutcHon in
Perqerrta-$a

lcvr

gg$r'c-rr^'

crrent-Fthql c\fe-&11u0
o,ftqr: 9r'"$fna)
'
0'1 iQitxa) G$P
R"nc,,l lendr-.,J on*ttna.l^'ttncflh' lloo-- rea)"lerr$lh

raic

Butn

ck

t*.ce-i 0n Sl'tr
'e tro'tiO,.',

-t

(l\)
*lcle eb

Toinll
r) L6p lo inf-l -fn whlch
&{vaFed

er,nd

.nn$rr4B

F:$
Al. -Butt

Scfr,h

Fu

Plole overlaP4 TI''e

OnE

bthQ!

Ptqra) crtre Uirret-e-d togThgY'

qll5nt'tbt- btrtttrg
P\oh! qte Nelt- l')
9\qf (t,ettvaP)
tr'e *o.grrn$) Qcr.cb ot/tat c\nd a covqf
gldet
6b- nnoln Plafg"
\E 9lated on one- $ld e Qr) boTb
So

rohtth

molo

q) (inqle

gtvop 5trg
tha edtrel g {re nnio platal lsuft qgolinaY eat4
onll ona Co\rgr rrlqt-e, ll plcrcecl 6.r orre {lde + tha tn<rfr.t
Plsfu ond fren rfveFe.l tcqefier'

f9'Il"rev 6ncl

t9
D,

4f
No. 6b ?,0'c,eR.*:r\B: -e\e9*B-raors
txo r ,rl,u*2 onB= I!!f
--T->-

Deltecbbn

loqd=

n4f^{. deb-ltn-Filun:

&

rfvctel r"}nfi fn trhlcb 'there ir a (inqlq 76t^r


& rt,rsr-r
. l
qnd 'D^e-t'c- fE cr. Binxre :cu: 4 o"-r-"i, -oi""..x'
flrfnr
-lcrpq buttTofnt.
&fde ,?,.,

Sln$\a
f

l'?

Lsnaet

rnefrl plal-e3 butb


-'rhe Utet .* ft"crye.
{we
Plal.et
boTlr
.Covv
>,d yivet-e"d tsgel'rer. Florcer\ ".,

ydgl

3ET19
{^Jc^3 br-

pouble q{vet-el Ttsiotl Jn ulhlcb 't rere qte two youj6


+ v?Veta f n cr
I OP Tofnl' And there erfe trrro rowl
4r yfvebJ en errch Side fn ct

5 q{bt} Et

butL Yo;r,t-.

Pifcbl th t,r rhe- dltban,ce [vo,n t]re- eQrrtre.


tneaBeAte^d pcrrqttel fo .[!na_ lsrrn.

oL 5'oe-- xivaf ,

Gotve dr

15

lrnc.-

nert

r.fvef-

eentY ttne' 9F tFre lucceglf yq

pb.gno\ Pltcry gF -ls ,tre


dlrtcr,rrcc

?.6

.rfuerea

Tofnt"

t4argfn (ryj rco,r*ino\l pftcb:

o*.."W"*.*

rf i\ the dtBle,rnre ,aeh*r


,+ 1r.e gto,;*.e-"

3q ff\t

?-'

$fuert fn o.e varfow vow, qf,e


Ithen
fl ge"idIh!t6 be cAcrfn Tfi,efcl.

r'vere'

'f"rli

..:'"fl:

oppo8slfe

':rmrft:',#T*?ro ffi.a"r",
*t xv"r'a
'

xdur)

"t V?

each ot-er lagn


u,o.,,

-tbe_

ioint-

*J,TAx'J"s,y",

d-4tc^rnerer

4urreLhote'
';:*::-u
tb tes"s ot'b ue
- 'u Fe6ittc-\Dcg @r) pun y*irep)
t*" * perr pftcl tang$r.
pr
= (p_d F, oE_ rdhrrc
- p_ wrcl ak $,e rivqf"

3) shqnrin$ 6 gvall,

p,=

p.

,o

fn e\dTcrcenf

crrtTa eF vrevgf \ole 16 ore nec\rer, l-

"AVe
cherfn rfvetsedi

thL xiveB

YouJt"

crvrbfin$

&n\ref),

nxrrdlxr

n.l.r.

(aMrE r\Enr)

(
1

?d"*r" Er"rEr- ,n,


,{rx'1dh.t'

if_;1,..ilXi;ir.*""rr*"
teonere srrc{3

i:tffitble
ct* ne*rran rl"?,*?yre'$l
*

P'er'r!$$e clst'.*}ir"rgbtye$'

'' 'qttotionol
Bencling Moment: fheGia+ion effect of a force
.: Force:x perpendicular distance
(or)
Algebraie sum of momentsdsfusas acting either L.H.S (or)
R.H.S of a section

71.

bQ-crnrr ll guLsecl-ed fr Prueb{-t"dtug ,.F+ Lel.,cb tBKt- o\n t\r'Q

the

72.Pure bending : If a beam is subjected to only B.M.


,

c-$rc\e

73.The beam is failed, where bending moment is maximum.


74. S.F changes its sign

at

any sectionrB.M

will maximum

at that section.

75.In Simply supported beam, B. M always zero at supports

Ttra

561

lrllnl5 c,t"rcl

no,sF

ltee fuhal nu.q- flernb<rr' It


a {v\^t4 @) = zJ- 3

76.In cantilever beam, B.M always zero at free end.

artfrAra

77. Point

78.

A.E

79.

Modular

Axial rigidity

ratio: E5_

Ew

80.

ryl: bo . qr rrery"6ctl
Tc rxs- rF SoffoD

of contraflexure : where B.M changes its sign

E.I-Flexuralrigidity , C$- frnoArrlu\ tigidi15

Fr:m.f*

F.-Steel

'

m-modular ratio

F*-Wood

Shear stress distributfon due to shear force over a rectangular of beam


is
parabolic path. i Shec',. Etra-Ea "k!to' q1- e.<tr-<.-eio
#a
, *orr_ oorrfrql

81. Due to twisting moment shear stress varies linearly for N.A
to outer
circumference with 'zero'at N.A and maximum at outer circumference.
82.

Bending stress varies linearly over the depth of


maximum at extreme, fibres.

c/s

rJ(.i

83.&in Cy'udeu
84. Sp.weight

S5

are subiected to Bi-axial stresses.

Bendinc
tl.ra0

k,

lf$

of water: 10 KN/m3

is called curvature of the beam: -M : -1.


4
dxE.I R

87.a)

b)

6hcl)-.!,U-qSqt
,hec-r
_--__-b

gke-gl crctl

4o

atrql{

pe/rprlc{irultarr

c/S

cctJ

cro6, Section
Jh4 rr{rrrenl crcf} o\o^q '1tr"A-.lr,!-ot-l
!L,o[t. 'Then lf u:!ll +.^.:ilt \a 3l-6*t,
9O, -n"'e vnornnt il Cotied -ttr:lr{;4n rnornrrf

LOt

t < r/10
t>r/10

86.

with ,Zero' at N.A and

'Tb,rqJ.re

Thin cylinder (dlt>20 - thin cylinder) +


Thick cylinder ldlt<2O - thick ivlindei)

/rr,+
\ 2- l'

Core for a rectangular section is Rhombus


Having rliaenoh b73 x d/3,
Core for a Circular section is Circle.rofy-y d-lag = d/4 , rnox-ecc{r,trie gd[g
Having diameter Dt+dz, max eccentric load: D2+d2
fitoUor^r cfrcte)
4D
8D
l------'l

-+

'f

.l.qrq.5

Aiqbribqhlg *l']l P'or var.l.lep\ ob cr^oai Se-qti(rrrr ft- tl -unlttwn crvqrr


Le !ftigg-l&" But- tne ctctrtal -9i'rear atre{) dtrtr'"buHorr
[d-ttc\""bc1,"c arJal5 ue .{ffi
tna-

averqqfe

g\+rr
=

? 'The @ejl
dl(ront

'$s-tlt!

aLi\!v\Lu\:tr'1

sbcll
101.

In I

t02.

In H- Section max. shear furce at the junction of the web and flanges.

103.

Flexure formula is valid only for Static loads with no residual stress.

section,max.shear feree at Web.


StrQ}D

r04. Twisting moment is a moment applied in the plane of cross-section acting


about longitudinal axis.

105. By increasing the carbon content in steel, the ultimate tensile strength will
increase, the ductility of steel

106.

Tenacity

will

decrease.

Ultimate strength in tension.

-rl-- mcrtivnuvn Sh4c\t ttn-e4E


eeUql t-O tbe y61dir,rl ck t"lohttl circt
..Jf ,", plan) oF 46" fo se Pti.cfi)ol
P

107. Creep of material


loading

lcrhe

I'

Continued deformation with time under sustained

108.

Elastic limit is directly proportional to temperature

109.

Young's modulus is directly proportional to temperature

I 10.

The number of basic elements of a force:4 ,

111.

The compression test is used for testing brittle materials.l

ttz.

The impact tests are used to determine toughness.

13.

114.

'r-4t

Jeorite

*U,

**,5|*ffi*.

In a 9-L,gpsdgilhslisal_spring, the material is subjected to ghg3lgl1qq!.

In a gpelf

9=o-i1

_hql,isalsuiug, the material is subjected to .both bending

lqomeq! &_lyfqling gigrnqn

115. The M.I of rectangular section about the base:4 x M.I about centroid axis
1

Factor of safety: Crippling load


Safe Load.

16.

Ltl. .lh gdltsgl ryt.(!c{ qntr db c\ Jeeti6n 1r toaecl on .rr,r


q!"ti
A"r-

pcinciple 'ncr.f

lt Sittroteol o^t TF, Crr,+re cL qvo\vflJ + cr g*,ren' Settirrn,


It$. *The atttlqt neutr4 Ortl c;[- c\ bQc-ti'un . lb bortecl 6D 'the pyincrblC tt qf
tre po'rre_1t, e[ _ctrgonl _{1__gfUfg:llg: *.{ !-e1rfr.n '}o-er olre -fltAorl'
-trne- {tre.ll
r19. I! tha
*nfb"ol c.s cryeov l'l trt<cl in eolculo.tfng &e Stre4l, Ii-1en
lS cqltacl lEtfnol rstre-6?, b{) E--rgineeg*:S_$tg
l&o
Tk A-'e :fedu(ed e"g o\reJ,/ it uCd frr Co,l ctttcrt$r1 T-ra Btrel*r?t'"' *trta
nerr,.ttro\

gtveoi

t&t.
loo

fb

aqileel tvtte- 6tYe5,


The rctio aL true "ttvst, b. r.or4ioo'f $tre8J = I.c\'3.
-pae- t^fer',sf$ + St::eol D poporUonot yo Sbttdn upto

1?5.

r[ *re tn,o,rfrnV''n _ aen.ti$- -6tI-9t ]t Bc^]v-]e ob eve,rl gl sb -trne beq,'.r)


{rerr *ra b<c'rvn iE (qlled :|e,eprrr + tt,rlt"t'nl ":t'e"qTh

iqh"

Fcyr cr t{s,rr db- l.rn3!o'rrn ytveng1r1, Bencling Sb,tg


momnl- f) ft.)orn s'tr-al1

fi

Cen\krvrb,rbqbs"rot

Bt^ding

'l)'Strq6qrvl Gt rivel-e_d

4) E$rtcf tne"6- +

3)

Str

gu\nt-

O) 'the @
eglfndrfeol shel lnl6 lsl

be,r!

n"e te'de',c) fs

o trouqh].

tcthen e-rn

@'upon
qre

Fldl$__{tfglagE

Wdttf

= qlx

tr

.t

Lc(rneb

Thin csltr'dfje\) (hell 1, gubr-eafed Tr


lnt-e.rnql pregrrrye, fg e^roll! t^rftl be-

SplfF up the

gplrt-

q,

the

$ubSccFed

cfrcurnLerc-atial (oJ) g6oo ttrert

o r"crcgrtorn uq_dfuggl

fnclured.
g{'/ear, tnen tne
cro,u seetrfi

dtqnaeter
tt Lto ro Jl5 x
4 tr* *
*"dlcrrneler,
r'

tl^rfctr ahert

rh\ct< 6gutt

t[ lol-erol ghofn

VerS hlgh p6ea3\,rer,

"il're cvit,ca,l neutrql


ar-is o[ o, kctroo
t-t bosed on -one p";r)@l
Oxlt D 9ftuerted at- the
F+re + qrcNfE

3_

+ o gfvrn Soetion

bc pffi
FT''rect t<(66 a Bencl{n$ Etve-4r, lrren uea
rtregg witt
otrur fn ane lebt hqnb portfiso c+ rF,e ten,t{te
s.ch."", 6nel
"fri_
csynPvqBtive atre89 on {nQ vight hcrnd portion
Gt xn c6d.1r !edl(r4
shor

+
i,-

tongftudlnql StrelE

fr

rlF"g.t.t'

te!1der'c.{

$. 'the

-0rln gnerl

p---t_S.e"f

deuble porcrltet Lfllek

b).

1+-

$tte} wald *

SPn$e perra{cl

Lessi Vo,Ilte 6F h"pd.?.


?.L.dr

e trronlvEtEe &fltet- wetcled ilofr,t3


c$e deltgnqd Loy trnqfla etreng'lg
poroltel h*ttel- .utelded Sefr,tb -ore de8$neJ
hor shAr gtrersh

gt'e^$C
Fov

9tver,gilh Gt Qrfi/efed Trfnl- stiehs\ ctr unrtuered plqfe

y."vefed fnsfnt=

Fo{

Leo\al- Value oF Pt.,P5 ondPe

Fb{ Arng\e kttlef b,old * p '- ! S.l.ct


{t
Fov double bfllef t*ld= p= r6.g.t,gF

ll

fuial-

Th4. qctuol neutra,l qus


eb a Seetion
l> b6led crn traO py(nciple
thcrt- -the
c."rEol c'b_toruIglqiqn cn(t
J19t3rr

#
=g$:59r91 oie 6+.uc^t

-.--:==1---.

!.=.!_:--

ts {elid

ffi.|tr

ro

be- bolonced beerm, trhen tse-refn}or@menr


iD guter

-l dgTh .'k u"A = crrfb'qca.t x\.4l1e


2 *n"
t6t t Fr.F = !_t#L" cd-) Qr)
. [Zvae

e)

=6

" )

' Lst*tt

utheh sn, reJn[orc_nt{nl-

it

ftl vnqrtmurr.l
Tlqrr Une- pycsp4/

rqn ehEs
te69.

&ePlt^4Y N.A L eribiot N"A.


N.A Acpl.' + 8 ,?h"AeF Ccl*h)
.L

I4.R

(eb, Asr.la_!|c;

Prgrr,jr>sible 65yE6t t_tflf


z:e-flrrr:fvgr"qvn7,

t og;. AsF ( d-g)

beoly"l f Cerretere re_c\chel il-l


rnc,,xtmurn ?ecrotlg?Ule g+rag,
f,frft]
?Hlngn tne arrnovunL & r4nbo,cgrnent* il m6!-e U.'e\n tlne
pTdPef
re_qzu_(rcnenf
+
dY
dePt}r
r{.A ) Crftf U^1 N.A
''
N'A depth 4
il.R.

9vf

.re-in l-cwced

Le,vt

+5!yr,AstLd*n),

bfdeLCd_t)

c\rrn

Lerrer cr,nyrt laolor=

[-U _ nCtrtra\ arlt5 dgillh= hc,


5r

hl ''- ne^rtvql erxll dept" h*rctev: o,3S to


cr.l1

n1Xd.

f-o

tri66gtq proFrq cF cr dqm ll


etonrtnto,r6 Fyo$fle 4 qdam
88.

pu:

called

Elevnento,rl

dclr

rnin. bo.re widlhq)" g


L,\4tr/C H= t+ejgbF 6L Aj;
9= 9P, gr.$ do'n a'ot

Co-efficient of earth pressure

b)

Co-efficient of Active earth pressure(pu) : l-SinrD

Horizontal stress
Vertical stress

1+SinO

c)

a1r d,

The.

a)

pv

Frolile

co-efficient of Passive earth pressure(po)

tcnr.,L

(qn"_ t_)

: tan2(450+@/2)

l*Sino
t_SinO

d)

Co-efficient of earth pressure at rest (po)

e)

Active earth pressure: Back fill moves ,rr1"-#,ui.,irr;-f,]f,t?rr"y


from
the back

0
g)
a)
b)
g0
89.

Passive earth pressure

F : tan

Retaining wall moves towards back fill.

Earth pressure at rest - Retaining wall does not move in any


direction.

Factor of safety against sliding 1.50


Factor of safety against overtuhing :2.00

tho *enrfle *p-aF lr pe"tr-o"-J


oh ducfile rnqt-er"lo,b

In prismatic baltotal_eloneation

Tha

92.
93.

Strut

On

ecr-rpred6ton te*t
lgS.t-tte rnqlerlalg

.trnit
lon pev
e dbvrrrcrtlon
rrv trnib

(ner,sn

ol

Maximum shear stress

& minimum normal

crirecrilo,

the area of s.F

97. The difference between S.F values at any two sections


loading diagram between those two sections.

the area of the

98. In T-section, maximum bending stress occurs at


extreme

99. In Rectangle, Maximum shear

stress:

2
100. In circle, Maximum

shear

stress:

F
b.d

4F

fibre in werr

,avg.shear stress
,avg.shear stress

*" nor,^il*.:l?h,:, (o'npyerriorr


en c&ocer,1 <oiiur;",."""tJ;*iti.
erop.d r"

-)

eft gbn<*

en)

ll

sprf

-X (6 )

rrr q9n
= 6h
-11q_-

Spr-inX q6,q1tou.t-=

p
"

*,a riiiifrrtr"

fr.i1?::,j"".Ir,bi'ffte*:5tr{[G*
Fl:i
Lqterat
St ycrtrr
I
f

]::--"T:.,y-

ter^nlbr

slress at any point is

13,*-.1l}:l .hfri ot:n

: rr = p.
2

') Tt^,e Ac$r_ctioo cb

perbrrea

(gr) S{Vnplir
atyctfo (grl
unf
nf t atyqfO
S
ftrtr?A

The difference between B.M varues at any two sections


diagram between those two sections.

96.

- Axial compression member

94' rn a stressed body the maximum


alr,vays a principal stress
e5.

fill.

"l#, 4
In conical bar, total
of bar: t
"tongution
Tie - Axial tension member @6E

gl.

il

= ftar.
:-&-

+Sr.

i.{rt\erve..

H+

R* Re.ltut o$- o{'ing

d _ e\\c,v,njll.= c.,\\
6l+ R3 n

cb_ w1 re

F
b.d

t-

B6o,ri-q sttgr-$-9*

ffi;d;u"r ro"t+'?{H, -"?r=:*:""3"H:

oh

c^^

irr
gii
Gg i
Tl-,a
v)e

l) Botb aoct! bi^9ad

C:r\r6h3'q ttrtebti

rH"l

6tY0Et'
er.lllinq
er.tlLt''$ 6trglr'
Te|^rt'
ti{etc} T<gintir eott-Y 3rslnFl2 t(r,ucq,ebetr'ree-rl
conto'ct
qt
'0.,e
+
Srrrlcrce
b+retE
$hlef ond trre Plole,

J
af

6l.f ; p.ro1o-ct-ed

.qt

Tl't-Er

colurnn bt'

611eir-

"fiit

P,bry

e-gi 4rc^rn

e/

loacl

lrL

'-F'

os

.eetr,_.g:_hagd

t't * -Pd,t.n

e-s Q,)

F --ev;'gPtlcg

too! rorr loor'

L=\f+
ac tl4
ccltrnon '

btruetrrvt

c$- tr,e

PslnctPo'l Strelll

the mojnituele c! c{rve-cr -ttre


6gfi)l! G grfncipo\ plor,o tb KbourD o1 prinelpol SFe
f$tre)5 on c\o olcttque SecHon + er god* Subse'
-Cted tro DltQ_ct- EtreUat fn 6F,e plane
o) NOrvnc,r'l

p?gE

St{ett : r- CoSa

L6F-)
> r;.lg\i(llTrqn Cr1.geo"

-qt Eler-t'via

+c\r,ten!r^l \ot Sheolv g+Ye-8E


rlrnclr t
E gioa-G.
45'q*t t65o
tnctlirnqr an*

S Fre$(irnu#\

J
9,2

tr

?+t

d)

D p.rinciyo,l

Cd;)

" 3;:l

= 3Aq
L}

aoe&e

(o'J Checur stvau[ry1=


Ra6uttonk rtrea5 (c1)= ./@

T-angenh'a1

no,(. sheov

sbrt-r!, (YDno,r)

qt !4e}--_9:_g1_obt,'que
-Fn

6be plc\be-crffi
../

e; rnox{murn

rncrq )

*f

+ a(t' 1)o
gtreal Ccatnfn>

rtttoir,u- novrnca\
r7' -t^./
I
(o'aro

S}^tAf ahre6;

3incr_6

db

cr tcoJol

eeofton"r

e)rnati'num not.nerl SkeD (q;

* **

3;4

- *;4

S'.ec^i-{LYA'--

b)

o/)

9t-tcnit'r

{Nerrnal 3t-rar,
iy

B - uPPet 5fa\d uvn?r


C- t-trurev Uf e'l<! tfrw1f
f)- glHrnc,rlre $tY4l'
E- BreAK,{^t dbre}t"

\|G-6JTT?")

Tlre rr\cu.. te.,.,SnHal qn2 tbssd*-4!J3tq


Ohe-half the r\O\ximurr' nrslrnorl rltrgfl

Pole.

A * rlergtfc tr'^ir

"=

c.l Reluthxnt sLre6! ec-Al:

4(fx.1)%

t.fmcut):

*J (air-+ 4('frr)L

p)croa

tsyxiQ) on\b j l^(rc.f .btrq!8c) 6r.r\

qnd ho

Shes.v

*1cr<>5