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# BASIC ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS

## Syamsul Bahri Hs, Nurmeliana, Karmilah. Kurnia Adiati Putri,

ICP A OF BIOLOGY COURSES 2014
Abstract: Have done experiment with title Basic Electrical Measurements with objectives to
investigate the relationship between voltage and current in a simple circuit and calculate the
barriers a resistor. Tools and materials used in this activity, including a DC power supply, basic
meter, rheostat, resistor, and connecting cables. In an electrical circuit there is a strong electric
current and voltage, as well as major obstacles to be determined value. Experiments were
conducted to strong electric current and voltage in series and parallel circuits to determine the
amount of resistance. Resistance value (R) used is 100 , SSV Voltmeter used is 0,2 V and SSV
Amperemeter used is 2 mA or 0,002 A.

## Keywords: Strong Current, Voltage, Resistor, Barriers.

PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. How do investigate the relationship between voltage and current in a simple
circuit ?
2. How do calculate the barriers a resistor ?
OBJECTIVES
1. Investigate the relationship between voltage and current in a simple circuit.
2. Calculate the barriers a resistor.
EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY
Brief Theory
Basically, The set is a means for delivering electrical energy from one
place to another. When a charged particle moving in a circuit, the electric
potential energy is transferred from a source to a device where the energy is
stored or converted into other forms of energy.
Study of conductors in electrostatic, stating that the field inside the
conductor listrrik in electrostatic equilibrium condition must be zero. If not
then, charges will be moving freely in the conductor. Suppose that in a

situation where the charge is moving freely in the conductor. That is, the
conductor is not in a state of electrostatic equilibrium. Currents in conductors
generated by the electric charge in a conductor when a pushing force on the
free charges. Because the E field in the direction of the force on a positive
charge, and because of the current direction is the direction of the flow of
positive charge, the direction of the flow direction of the electric field. Figure 1
shows a wire segment of length and cross section A L carrying a current I.
L
A
a

I
E

## Gambar 1. Representasi segmen kawat yang membawa

arus I

Because the direction of the electric field of the higher potential areas to
the lower potential region, the potential at point A is greater than at point b.
Assume that L small enough so that we can assume that the electric field across
the segment is constant, the potential difference V between points a and b are
V = Va Vb = EL
For most materials,
"The current in a wire segment is proportional to the potential difference across
segments"
The experimental results are known as Ohm's Law. Written proportionality
constant 1 / R, where R is called resistance:
I=

1
V
V I =
R
R

The above equation provides a general definition of the resistance between two
points in terms of a decrease in the voltage V between two points . The SI unit
of resistance , volts per ampere , called ohms ( ) :1 =1

V
A

Resistance to the material depends on the length , cross-sectional area , the type
of material , and temperature . For materials that comply with Ohm's law does
not depend on the flow resistance ; Such materials , like most metals , called

## ohmic material . For ohmic material , the voltage falls on a segment

proportional to the flow :
V =I R , wit h R=constant
This equation with the qualification that R is constant , providing a
mathematical statement of Ohm's law . This law is not a fundamental law of
nature such as Newton's laws or the laws of thermodynamics but an empirical
description of the properties owned by a lot of material .
Tools and Materials
-

Power Supply DC
Basic meter
Rheostat
Resistor
Connecting cables

Identification of Variabels
1. Control Varieble
2. Manipulation Variable
3. Response Variable

: Resistor
: Rheostat
: Voltage , Current

## Operational Definition of Variables

1. Resistor is device that is connected to the amperemeters and positive

## current from the current source.

2. Rheostat is resistor that shifted from the direction towards the minimum to

## get the maximum voltage data and a strong electric current.

3. Voltage is electric potential difference in the circuit, which in this
experiment we observe through the appointment of a needle on a basic
meter.
4. Current is the amount of electric charge through the circuit, which in this
experiment we observe through the appointment of a needle on a basic
meter.
Procedures
1.

Prepare the necessary tools and materials and assemble the following
circuit

A A AAA

2.

Ensure the installation of a voltmeter and ammeter are at the highest limit
measure to avoid damage , before turning on the power supply .

3.

notice .

4.

## Sliding Rheostat at maximum . If the needle deviates too small measuring

instrument , measuring limit lowered to its appointment deviate far enough
(close to the maximum value ) .

5.

## Shifting back Rheostat the minimum position . Voltmeters and ammeters

designation read on the position and noted the observation table .

6.

Raise the voltage source with Rheostat shift until the voltmeter indicates a
greater value and read designation ammeter .

7.

## Conducting activity (6) with a linear change to obtain at least 10 ( ten )

measurement data .

## EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS

Experimental Results
= 100

The Value of R
SSV Voltmeter=

Limit measure
10
= =0,2V
Number of scale 50

SSV Amperemeter =

Limit measure
100
=
=2 mA 0,002 mA
Number of scale 50

## Table Relationship between Voltage and Strong Electric Current

No

Voltage (V)

Current (A)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

|1,3 0,1 |
|1,6 0,1 |
|1,7 0,1 |
|1,9 0,1 |
|2,7 0,1 |
|3,0 0,1 |
|3,2 0,1 |
|3,6 0,1 |
|4,5 0,1 |
|5,8 0,1 |

|0,012 0,001|
|0,015 0,001|
|0,016 0,001|
|0,018 0,001|
|0,021 0,001|
|0,027 0,001|
|0,028 0,001|
|0,032 0,001|
|0,040 0.001|
|0,054 0,001|

Data Analysis

y=mx +c

m=

y
g
x

m=

V
=R
I

R=

V
I
I = |I I |
SSV

limit measure
number of scale

1
2

= |I I |

I1

0.01
5

x 0.00

= |0.050 0.001|

V1 = |V V|
SSV

limit measure
number of scale
1
2

SSV =

= |V V|

V1

1
5

V2 = |I I |

= |5.25 0.02|

Y = mx + C
V = mI + C
V = mI
m =

V
I

=R

R =

V
I

V
I

R =

V
I

5.251.60
0.050.014

3.65
0.036

= V

=0.2

1
0.02 = 0.01
2

= |1.60 0.02|

V 2 V 1
I 2 I 1

I 1

= 101.3

=0.002

= 0.001

= |0.014 0.001|

= |I I |

I2

1
2

SSV =

|VR |d V +|RI |d I

R=

V I

V I 1

R=| V |d V +| I |d I
V I

I V + V I

R
=
R

|VV |+|II |R
2 V 2 I
R=|
+
R
V
I |

R=

R=

2(0.01)
2(0.001)
+
101.3
(5.251.60) (0.0500.014)

0.002
+
101.3
|0.02
3.65 0.036 |

R=

R=|0.005+0.055|101.3
R=|0.06|101.3

R=6,078
KR =

R
R

KR =

6,078
101.3

X 100 %
X 100 %

KR = 6 % = 2 AB
DK = 100 % - 6 % = 94 %
R = |R R|
R = |10 6,0|
DISCUSSION
Experiment with title Basic Electrical Measurements have 2 objectives is,
first that student can investigate the relationship between voltage and current in a

circuit. In this experiment, it can be seen that that the relationship between
voltage and current is linearly. That mean, the greater the voltage between the
two ends of the circuit, the current flowing in the circuit even bigger.
Second, calculate the barriers a resistor. The equation used to calculate the
resistor, the equation is :
R=

V
I

where : R = resistor ()
V= voltage (Volt)
I= current (Ampere)
Based theory, the purpose of the electrical measurements are: to determine,
assess or test the electrical greatness. While the tool is used as a
comparison/pointer called Electrical Measuring Instrument (which serves as a
pointer electric greatness measured). The amount of this type of measurement in
accordance with the number of electric greatness be measured.
Based on the observed data, we measure the voltage and electric current
strength in a simple circuit as much as 10 times, while the resistance value used
is 100 , ie 0.2 V SSV voltmeter and ammeter SSV is 2 mA or 0.002 A. Based
on the graph, it can be seen that the greater the voltage is used, the greater the
listrikya strong currents. So, the voltage and electric current proportional strong
and very influential on the electrical resistance.
Based on the data we have, there are some deviations, it is caused by our
own mistakes, which is less accurate in reading the measuring instruments used
and errors in writing. So that the practice is slightly different from the theory,
although the difference can be just a little bit.
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
Based experimental results can concluded that :
1. Voltage and electric current has a linear relationship, where the greater the
obstacle, the greater the stronger currents flowing or passing through an
electric circuit.

## 2. The magnitude of the resistance value of R used is 100 , while in practice

the results obtained R value of 101.3 thus straying from both obtained by
6% and accuracy of 94%.

REFERENCES
Halliday, David dan Resnick, Robert. 1999. Fisika Jilid 2 Edisi Kelima
(Terjemahan). Jakarta: Erlangga.
Tipler, Paul A. 2001. Fisika untuk Sains dan Teknik Edisi Kedua Jilid 2
(Terjemahan). Jakarta: Erlangga.

## Laboratorium Fisika Dasar FMIPA UNM. 2014. Modul Praktikum Fisika

Dasar 1. Penerbit ITB Bandung