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Arch. Namika Marba


Elaine Sorillo


is generally defined as

energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale,
such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often
provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling,
transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
Broadly speaking, the world's energy resources (all the energy we have available to use) fall into
two types called fossil fuels and renewable energy:

Fossil fuels are things like oil, gas, coal, and peat, formed over hundreds of millions of
years when plants and sea creatures rot away, fossilize, and get buried under the ground,
then squeezed and cooked by Earth's inner pressure and heat. Fossil fuels supply about
8090 percent of the world's energy.

Renewable energy means energy made from the wind, ocean waves, solar power, biomass
(plants grown especially for energy), and so on. It's called renewable because, in theory, it
will never run out. Renewable sources currently supply about 1020 percent of the world's


Solar power
For as long as the Sun blazes (roughly another 45 billion years), we'll be able to tap the light
and heat it shines in our direction. We can use solar power in two very different ways: electric
and thermal. Solar electric power (sometimes called active solar power) means taking sunlight
and converting it to electricity in solar cells (which work electronically). This technology is
sometimes also referred to as photovoltaic (photo = light and voltaic = electric, so photovoltaic
simply means making electricity from light) or PV. Solar thermal power (sometimes called
passive-solar energy or passive-solar gain) means absorbing the Sun's heat into solar hot water
systems or using it to heat buildings with large glass windows.
Wind power
Depending on where you live, you've probably seen wind turbines appearing in the landscape in
recent years. There are loads of them in the United States and Europe, for example. A turbine is
any machine that removes kinetic energy from a moving fluid (liquid or gas) and converts it into
another form. Windmills, based on this idea, have been widely used for many hundreds of years.
In a modern wind turbine, a huge rotating blade (similar to an airplane propeller) spins around in
the wind and turns an electricity generator mounted in the nacelle (metal casing) behind. It takes
roughly several thousand wind turbines to make as much power as one large fossil fuel power
plant. Wind power is actually a kind of solar energy, because the winds that whistle round Earth
are made when the Sun heats different parts of our planet by different amounts, causing huge air
movements over its surface.
Hydroelectric power
Hydro means water, so hydroelectricity means making electricity using waternot from the
water itself, but from the kinetic energy in a moving river or stream. Rivers start their lives in
high ground and gradually flow downhill to the sea. By damming them, we can make huge lakes

that drain slowly past water turbines, generating energy as they go. Water wheels used in
medieval times to power mills were an early example of hydro power. You could describe them as
hydromechanical, since the water power the milling machines used was transmitted by an
elaborate systems of wheels and gears. Like wind power, hydroelectric power is (indirectly)
another kind of solar energy, because it's the Sun's energy that drives the water cycle, endlessly
exchanging water between the oceans and rivers on Earth's surface and the atmosphere up
Ocean power
The oceans have vast, untapped potential that we can use in three main ways: wave power, tidal
barrages, and thermal power.

Wave power uses mechanical devices that rock back and forth or bob up and down to
extract the kinetic energy from moving waves and turn it into electricity. Surfers have
known all about wave power for many decades!

Tidal barrages are small dams built across estuaries (the points on the coast where
rivers flow into the sea and vice versa). As tides move back and forth, they push huge
amounts of water in and out of estuaries at least twice a day. A barrage with turbines built
into it can capture the energy of tidal water as it flows back and forth. The world's bestknown tidal barrage is at La Rance in France; numerous plans to build a much bigger
barrage across the Severn Estuary in England have been outlined, on and off, for almost a

Thermal power involves harnessing the temperature difference between warm water at
the surface of the oceans and cold water deeper down. In a type of thermal power called
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), warmer surface water flows into the top of a
giant column (perhaps 450m or 1500ft tall), mounted vertically some miles out to sea,
while cooler water flows into the bottom. The hot water drives a turbine and makes
electricity, before being cooled down and recycled. It's estimated that there is enough
thermal energy in the oceans to supply humankind's entire needs, though little of it is
recovered at the moment.

Biomass is the name given to any crop grown for the purpose of making energy. Biofuels are one
example. Other examples include burning animal waste in a furnace to generate electricity.
Biofuels are controversial because they often take up land that could be used to grow food, but
they are generally a cleaner and more efficient way of making power than using fossil fuels.
Because plants absorb carbon dioxide while they're growing and give it out when they're burned,
biomass can provide energy without adding to the problem of global warming.
Geothermal energy
Earth may feel like a pretty cold place at times but, inside, it's a bubbling soup of molten rock.
Earth's lower mantle, for example, is at temperatures of around 4500C (8000F). It's relatively
easy to tap this geothermal (geo = Earth, thermal = heat) energy using technologies such as
heat pumps, which drive cold water deep down into Earth and pipe hot water back up again.
Earth's entire geothermal supplies are equivalent to the energy you could get from about 25,000
large power plants!
Nuclear fusion

Conventional nuclear energy is not renewable: it's made by splitting up large, unstable atoms of
a naturally occurring chemical element called uranium. Since you have to feed uranium into
most nuclear power plants, and dig it out of the ground before you can do so, traditional forms of
nuclear fission (the scientific term for splitting big atoms) can't be described as renewable
energy. In the future, scientists hope to develop an alternative form of nuclear energy called
nuclear fusion (making energy by joining small atoms), which will be cleaner, safer, and
genuinely renewable.
Fuel cells
If you want to use renewable power in a car, you have to swap the gasoline engines or diesel
engine for an electric motor. Driving an electric car doesn't necessarily make you
environmentally friendly. What if you charge the batteries at home and the electricity you're
using comes from a coal-fired power plant? One alternative is to swap the batteries for a fuel cell,
which is a bit like a battery that never runs flat, making electricity continuously using a tank of
hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is cheap and easy to make from water with an electrolyzer. Fuel cells
are quiet, powerful, and make no pollution. Probably the worst thing they do is puff steam from
their exhausts!



called a finite resource) is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable
economic extraction in meaningful human time-frames. An example is carbon-based, organicallyderived fuel. The original organic material, with the aid of heat and pressure, becomes a fuel
such as oil or gas. Earth minerals and metal ores, fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas) and
groundwater in certain aquifers are all considered non-renewable resources, though individual
elements are almost always conserved. In contrast, resources such as timber (when harvested
sustainably) and wind (used to power energy conversion systems) are considered renewable
resources, largely because their localized replenishment can occur within time frames
meaningful to humans.


Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed in several stages as buried remains of land plants that lived 300400 million years ago were subjected to intense heat and pressure over millions of years. The
ancient plants along the bank of rivers and swamps were buried after death into the soil and due
to the heat and pressure gradually got converted into peat and coal over millions of years of time
There are mainly three types of coal namely anthracite (hard coal), bituminous (soft coal) and
lignite (brown coal). Anthracite coal has maximum carbon (90%) and calorific value (8700
kcal/kg). Bituminous, lignite and peat contain 80, 70 and 60% carbon, respectively. Coal is the
most abundant fossil fuel in the world.
When coal is burnt it produces carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas responsible for causing
enhanced global warming.

Petroleum is oily, flammable, thick dark brown or greenish, liquid that occurs naturally in
deposits, usually beneath the surface of the earth; it is also called as crude oil. Petroleum means
rock oil, (Petra rock, elaion oil, Greek and oleum oil, Latin), the name inherited for its
discovery from the sedimentary rocks.
It is used mostly for producing fuel oil, which is the primary energy source today. Petroleum is
also the raw material for many chemical products, including solvents, fertilizers, pesticides and
plastics. For its high demand in our day-to-day life, it is also called as black gold.
Oil in general has been used since early human history to keep fires ablaze, and also for warfare.
Its importance in the world economy evolved slowly. Wood and coal were used to heat and cook,
while whale oil was used for lighting. Whale oil however, produced a black, smelly, thick liquid
known as tar or rock oil and was seen as a substance to avoid.
When the whaling industry hunted the sperm whale almost to extinction, and the industrial
revolution needed a fuel to run generators and engines, a new source of energy was needed.
In the search for new products, it was; discovered that, from crude oil or petroleum, kerosene
could be extracted 1 and used as a light and heating fuel. Petroleum was in great demand by the
end of the 1800s, forcing the creation of the petroleum industry.
Petroleum is often considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry. For its high energy
content and ease of use, petroleum remains as the primary energy source.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG):
LPG is manufactured during the refining of crude oil, or extracted from oil or gas streams as they
emerge from the ground. Liquefied petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid
petroleum gas, LPG, LP Gas, or auto gas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in
cooking, heating appliances, vehicles, and increasingly replacing fluorocarbons as an aerosol
propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer.
Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane, mixes that are
primarily butane, and mixes including both propane and butane, depending on the season.
Propylene and butylenes are usually also present in small concentrations. A powerful odorant,
ethane thiol, is added so that leaks can be detected easily.
At normal temperatures and pressures, LPG will evaporate. Because of this, LPG is supplied in
pressurized steel bottles. In order to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid, these
bottles should not be filled completely; typically, they are filled to between 80% and 85% of their
Natural Gas
Natural gas has emerged as promising fuel due to its environment friendly nature, efficiency, and
cost effectiveness. Natural gas is considered to be most eco-friendly fuel based on available
information. Economically natural gas is more efficient since only 10 % of the produced gas
wasted before consumption and it does not need to be generated from other fuels.

Moreover natural gas is used in its normal state. Natural gas has high heat content of about 1000
to 11000 Btu per Scf for pipeline quality gas and it has high flame temperature. Natural gas is
easy to handle and convenient to use and energy equivalent basis, it has been price controlled
below its competitor oil.
It is also suitable chemical feedstock for petrochemical industry. Hence natural gas can substitute
oil in both sectors namely fuels (industry and domestic) and chemicals (fertilizer petrochemicals
and organic chemicals).


Compressed natural gas (CNG)
Which is the most common form, and as liquefied natural gas. Cars using natural gas are
estimated to emit 20% less greenhouse gases than gasoline or diesel cars. In many countries
NGVs are introduced to replace buses, taxis and other public vehicle fleets. Natural gas in
vehicles is inexpensive and convenient.
Fuel cells
Natural gas is one of the multiple fuels on which fuel cells can operate. Fuel cells are becoming
an increasingly important technology for the generation of electricity. They are like rechargeable
batteries, except instead of using an electric recharger; they use a fuel, such as natural gas, to
generate electric power even when they are in use. Fuel cells for distributed generation systems
offer a multitude of benefits, and are an exciting area of innovation and research for distributed
generation applications.
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy is known for its high destructive power as evidenced from nuclear weapons. The
nuclear energy can also be harnessed for providing commercial energy. The nuclear energy can
also be harnessed for proving commercial energy.


Nuclear Fission
It is the nuclear change in which nucleus of certain isotopes with large mass number are
split into lighter nuclei on bombardment by neutrons and a large amount of energy is
released through a chain reaction. Nuclear reactors make use of nuclear chain reaction. In
order to control the rate of fission, only 1 neutron released is allowed to strike for splitting
another nucleus. Uranium 235 nuclei are most commonly used in nuclear reactors.

Nuclear Fusion
If light nuclei are forced together, they will fuse with a yield of energy because the mass of
the combination will be less than the sum of the masses of the individual nuclei. If the
combined nuclear mass is less than that of iron at the peak of the binding energy curve,
then the nuclear particles will be more tightly bound than they were in the lighter nuclei,

and that decrease in mass comes off in the form of energy according to the Einstein
relationship. For elements heavier than iron, fission will yield energy. For potential nuclear
energy sources for the Earth, the
deuterium-tritium fusion reaction
contained by some kind of magnetic
confinement seems the most likely path.
However, for the fueling of the stars,
other fusion reactions will dominate.
Nuclear energy has tremendous potential
but any leakage from the reactor may
cause devastating nuclear pollution.
Disposal of the nuclear waste is also a
big problem. Nuclear power in India is
still not very well developed. There are
four nuclear power stations with an
installed capacity of 2005 MW.