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The Key Concepts of 4G LTE Drive test,


Network Planning and Optimization
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Syllabus: http://tiny.cc/d9s29x

Advanced 4G LTE RF Network


Optimization
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4G LTE RF Optimization Usecases


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LTE
OPTIMIZATION
INTRODUCTION

LTE Radio Interface Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network (EUTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


SAE-GW
MME

eNode-B

Serving
GW

LTE Radio Interface Key Features


Retransmission Handling (HARQ/ARQ)
Spectrum Flexibility
FDD & TDD modes
Multi-Antenna Transmission
Frequency and time Domain scheduling
Uplink (UL) Power Control

PDN
GW

Packet
Data
Network

EUTRAN Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network (EUTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


SAE-GW
MME

eNode-B

EUTRAN Key Features:


Evolved NodeB
IP transport layer
UL/DL resource scheduling
QoS Awareness
Self-configuration

Serving
GW

PDN
GW

Packet
Data
Network

EPC Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network (EUTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


SAE-GW
MME

eNode-B

Serving
GW

PDN
GW

EPC Key Features:


IP transport layer
QoS Awareness
Packet Switched Domain only
3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option
Prepare to connect to non-3GPP access networks

Packet
Data
Network

LTE/SAE Network Elements


Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


HSS

eNB

Mobility
Management
Entity

Policy & Charging Rule


Function

S6a
MME

X2

S10

S7

Rx+

PCRF
S11

S5/S8

S1-U

LTE-Uu
LTE-UE

Evolved Node B
(eNB)

Serving
Gateway

SGi
PDN
Gateway

SAE
Gateway

PDN

Evolved Node B (eNB)


eNB Functions
Inter-cell RRM: HO, load balancing between cells
Radio Bearer Control: setup , modifications and
release of Radio Resources

Connection Mgt. Control: UE State Management,


MME-UE Connection

Only network element defined as part of eUTRAN.


Replaces the old Node B / RNC combination from

Radio Admission Control

eNode B Meas. collection and evaluation

Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler)


IP Header Compression/ de-compression
Access Layer Security: ciphering and integrity
protection on the radio interface

MME Selection at Attach of the UE


User Data Routing to the SAE GW
Transmission of Paging Msg coming from MME
Transmission of Broadcast Info (e.g. System info,
MBMS)

3G.
Terminates the complete radio interface including
physical layer.
Provides all radio management functions
To enable efficient inter-cell radio management for
cells not attached to the same eNB, there is a intereNB interface X2 specified. It will allow to
coordinate inter-eNB handovers without direct
involvement of EPC during this process.

LTE Radio Interface and the X2 Interface


Control Plane

TS 24.301

NAS Protocols

TS 36.331

(E)-RRC

User Plane

LTE-Uu
Air interface of EUTRAN
Based on OFDMA in downlink and SC-FDMA in uplink
FDD and TDD duplex methods
Scalable bandwidth: from 1.4 up to 20 MHz
Data rates up to 100 Mbps(DL), 50Mbps (UL)
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is a major
component although optional.

User PDUs

TS 36.323

PDCP

TS 36.322

RLC

TS 36.321

MAC

TS 36.300

LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA)

LTE-Uu

eNB

X2-CP
(Control Plane)

X2-UP
(User Plane)

X2

User PDUs
TS 36.423
TS 36.422
TS 36.421

X2-AP

GTP-U

SCTP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2

TS 29.281

X2

TS 36.424

TS 36.421

TS 36.420
[X2 general aspects & principles)

eNB

Inter eNB interface


Handover coordination without involving the EPC
X2AP: special signaling protocol
During HO, Source eNB can use the X2 interface to
forward downlink packets still buffered or arriving from
the serving gateway to the target eNB.
This will avoid loss of a huge amount of packets during
inter-eNB handover.

S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces


TS 36.410
[S1 general aspects & principles]

S1-MME
Control interface between eNB and MME
MME and UE will exchange non-access stratum signaling via eNB
through this interface.
E.g.: if a UE performs a tracking area update the TRACKING AREA
UPDATE REQUEST message will be sent from UE to eNB and the eNB
will forward the message via S1-MME to the MME.
S1AP:S1 Application Protocol
S1flex 1 eNB to connect to several MME

S1-MME
(Control Plane)
TS 24.301

NAS Protocols

TS 36.413

S1-AP

MME

SCTP
TS 36.412

eNB

IP
L1/L2

TS 36.411
S1-U
(User Plane)
User PDUs

S1-U
User plane interface between eNB and serving gateway.
It is a pure user data interface (U=User plane).
S1flex-U also supported: a single eNB can connect to several Serving
GWs.
Which Serving GW a users SAE bearer will have to use is signaled
from the MME of this user.

TS 29.281

GTP-U
UDP

TS 36.414

IP

TS 36.411

L1/L2

TS 36.410
[S1 general aspects & principles]

Serving
Gateway

S10 & S6a Interfaces


S6a
(Control Plane)

S10
(Control Plane)

TS 29.274

MME

S6a Appl.

GTP-C
UDP

MME

DIAMETER

SCTP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2

S10
Interface between different MMEs
Used during inter-MME tracking area updates (TAU) and
handovers
Inter-MME TAU: The new MME can contact the old MME the
user had been registered before to retrieve data about identity
(IMSI), security information (security context, authentication
vectors) and active SAE bearers (PDN gateways to contact, QoS,
etc.)
Obviously S10 is a pure signaling interface, no user data runs on
it.

TS 29.272
HSS

S6a
Interface between the MME and the HSS
The MME uses it to retrieve subscription information from HSS
(handover/tracking area restrictions, external PDN allowed, QoS,
etc.) during attaches and updates
The HSS can during these procedures also store the users
current MME address in its database.

S11 Interface

MME
S11
(Control Plane)
TS 29.274

GTP-C

UDP

IP

L1/L2

Serving
Gateway

S11
Interface between MME and a Serving GW
A single MME can handle multiple Serving GW each one with its own S11 interface
Used to coordinate the establishment of SAE bearers within the EPC
SAE bearer setup can be started by the MME (default SAE bearer) or by the PDN
Gateway.

S5/S8 Interface
S5/S8 3GPP Alternative

Control
Plane

User
Plane
User PDUs

Serving
Gateway

TS 29.274

GTP-C

GTP-U
UDP

TS 29.281

PDN
Gateway

SGi

IP
L1/L2

S5/S8

Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW


S5: If Serving GW and PDN GW belong to the same network (non-roaming case)
S8:If this is not the case (roaming case)
S8 = S5 + inter-operator security functions
Mainly used to transfer user packet data between PDN GW and Serving GW
Signaling on S5/S8 is used to setup the associated bearer resources
S5/S8 can be implemented either by reuse of the GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements.

PDN

Gx (or S7) & Gxc Interfaces


Gx (Control Plane)

Gxc (Control Plane)


TS 29.212

Gx Application

Gx Application
DIAMETER

PCRF

DIAMETER

SCTP

SCTP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2

TS 29.212

SGi
Serving
Gateway

S5/S8

Gxc

Interface between Serving GW (S-GW) and PCRF (Policy


and Charging Rule Function)
This interface is only needed in case the S5/S8 interface is
based on PMIP (IETF candidate)
The reason is that only in this case the S-GW will perform
the mapping between IP service flows in S5/S8 and GTP
tunnels in the S1-U interface. The information to do the
mapping comes from directly from the PCRF

IMS/PDN

PDN
Gateway

Gx (Also referred as S7)

Interface between PDN GW and PCRF (Policy and Charging


Rule Function)
It allows:
the PCRF to request the setup of a SAE bearer with
appropriate QoS
the PDN GW to ask for the QoS of an SAE bearer to setup
to indicate EPC status changes to the PCRF to apply a new
policy rule.

Rx & SGi Interfaces


Rx
(Control Plane)

Rx

RX Application

TS 29.214

DIAMETER
PCRF

Interface between PCRF (Policy & Charging Rules Function) and the external
PDN network/operators IMS (in general, towards the Service Domain)
Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.214: Policy and Charging Control over the Rx
reference point (release 8)

SCTP

IP
L1/L2

SGi

SGi
(User Plane)
Application

UDP or TCP

PDN
Gateway

IPv4/IPv6
L1/L2

PDN

TS 29.061

Interface used by the PDN GW to send and receive data to and from the
external data network or Service Platform
It is either IPv4 or IPv6 based
Downlink data coming from the external PDN must be assigned to the right
SAE bearer of the right user by analysis of the incoming packets IP addresses,
port numbers, etc.
This interface corresponds to the Gi interface in 2G/3G networks
Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.061: Interworking between the Public Land
Mobile Network (PLMN) supporting packet based services and Packet Data
Networks (PDN)

LTE UE Categories

All categories support 20 MHz


64QAM mandatory in downlink, but not in uplink (except
Class 5 & 8)
2x2 MIMO mandatory in other classes except Class 1

Power
Class
1

Tx Power
(dBm)
[+30]

[+27]

+23

[+21]

Tolerance
(dB)

+/-2 dB

Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Class 4

Class 5

Class 6

Class 7

Class 8

10/5 Mbps

50/25 Mbps

100/50 Mbps

150/50 Mbps

299/75 Mbps

301/50 Mbps

301/102 Mbps

3000/1500 Mbps

RF bandwidth

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

Modulation DL

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

Modulation UL

16QAM

16QAM

16QAM

16QAM

64QAM

16QAM

16QAM

64QAM

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Optional

2x2

2x2

2x2

4x4

2x2 or 4x4

2x2 or 4x4

8x8

peakrate DL/UL

Rx diversity
MIMO DL

LTE Advanced - Carrier Aggregation (CA)

High peak data rate of 1 Gbps in downlink and 500 Mbps in uplink can be achieved with bandwidth
extension from 20 MHz up to 100 MHz.
Backwards compatibility to Release 8 by combining N Release 8 component carriers to N x LTE
bandwidth, for example 5 x 20 MHz = 100 MHz
Old LTE terminals use one carrier, new ones all N
LTE-Advanced maximum bandwidth

Rel8 BW

Rel8 BW

Rel8 BW

Rel8 BW

Rel8 BW

Carrier 1

Carrier 2

Carrier 3

Carrier 4

Carrier 5

CA also offers opportunities for


autonomous interference
management schemes
especially relevant for
heterogeneous networks.

Both contiguous and


non-contiguous CA is
supported offering
improved spectrum
flexibility (e.g. for
refarming).

Carrier Aggregation (CA)

CA capable UE

Carrier 1

Carrier 2

RESOURCE BLOCK
Physical Resource Block or Resource Block (PRB or RB)
12 Sub carrier x 1 slot period in time domain
Capacity allocation is based on RB
Resource element (RE)
1 sub carrier x 1 symbol period
Theoretical minimum capacity in allocation unit
1 RE is equivalent of 1 modulation symbol on a
subcarrier, i.e. 2 bits for QPSK, 4 bits for 16QAM and 6
bits for 64 QAM

Link to understand RB :
http://niviuk.free.fr/lte_ca_spectrum.php
http://dhagle.in/LTE

Cell-Specific Reference Signals Mapping


One antenna port

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

l 0

l 6 l 0

l 6

For Channel estimation


Measurements (e.g. RSRP)
Synchronisation in frequency & time
Cell Id (Physical Layer Cell Identity)

Resource element (k,l)

Two antenna ports

R0

R0

R0

R0

R1

R0

R0

R0

R1

R1

R0

l 0

R1

R1

R1

R1

l 6 l 0

l 6

l 0

For more detailed information


according to UE specific
Reference Signals and their
position see: TS 36.211; 6.10.

Not used for transmission on this antenna port

Reference symbols on this antenna port

R1
l 6 l 0

l 6

RSRP: Reference Signal Received Power


Four antenna ports

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 0

l 0

R3

R2

R1
l 6 l 0

even-numbered slots

R3

R2
l 6

odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 1

R3

R2

R1

R1
l 6

R2

R1

R1

R0
l 6 l 0

even-numbered slots

R1

R1

R0

l 0

R1

l 0

R3
l 6 l 0

even-numbered slots

l 6

odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 2

l 0

l 6 l 0

even-numbered slots

l 6

odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 3

DL Physical Channels
There are no dedicated channels in LTE, neither UL nor DL.
PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel
carries user data, L3 signaling, System Information Blocks & Paging
PBCH: Physical Broadcast Channel
for Master Information Block only

PMCH: Physical Multicast Channel


for multicast traffic as MBMS services
PCFICH: Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
indicates number of OFDM symbols for Control Channels = 1..4

PDCCH: Physical Downlink Control Channel


carries resource assignment messages for DL capacity allocations & scheduling grants for UL
allocations
PHICH: Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel
carries ARQ Ack/Nack messages from eNB to UE in respond to UL transmission

UL Physical Channels
PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel
Transmission of user data, L3 & L1 signaling (L1 signaling: CQI, ACK/NACKs, etc.)
PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel
Carries L1 control information in case that no user data are scheduled in this subframe (e.g. H-ARQ
ACK/NACK indications, UL scheduling request, CQIs & MIMO feedback).
These control data are multiplexed together with user data on PUSCH, if user data are scheduled in
the subframe

PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel


For Random Access attempts; SIBs indicates the PRACH configuration (duration; frequency;
repetition; number of preambles - max. 64)

INFORMATION BLOCK
MIB ( Master information Block)
DL BW information
Configuration PHICH
System Frame Number
broadcast in the Physical
Broadcast Channel (PBCH)

Radio Network Temporary identifier


(SI-RNTI) is allocated to SIB1 and
another SIB

Every 40 ms

System Information Block 1 (SIB1)


Scheduling info other SIB
PLMN ID
TA
Cell Identifier
Cell Usage Restriction
Frek Information
Broadcasted via PDSCH

Every 80 ms

OTHER SIB

INFORMATION BLOCK DESCRIPTION


LTE system information
blocks

Description

MIB

Carries physical layer information of LTE cell which in turn help receive further SIs, i.e. system bandwidth

SIB1

Contains information regarding whether or not UE is allowed to access the LTE cell. It also defines the scheduling of the other SIBs.
carries cell ID, MCC, MNC, TAC, SIB mapping.

SIB2

Carries common channel as well as shared channel information. It also carries RRC, uplink power control, preamble power ramping,
uplink Cyclic Prefix Length, sub-frame hopping, uplink EARFCN

SIB3

carries cell re-selection information as well as Intra frequency cell re-selection information

SIB4

carries Intra Frequency Neighbors(on same frequency); carries serving cell and neighbor cell frequencies required for cell reselection
as well handover between same RAT base stations(GSM BTS1 to GSM BTS2) and different RAT base stations(GSM to WCDMA or GSM
to LTE or between WCDMA to LTE etc.) . Covers E-UTRA and other RATs as mentioned

SIB5

Carries Inter Frequency Neighbors(on different frequency); carries E-UTRA LTE frequencies, other neighbor cell frequencies from
other RATs. The purpose is cell reselection and handover.

SIB6

carries WCDMA neighbors information i.e. carries serving UTRA and neighbor cell frequencies useful for cell re-selection

SIB7

carries GSM neighbours information i.e. Carries GERAN frequencies as well as GERAN neighbor cell frequencies. It is used for cell reselection as well as handover purpose.

SIB8
SIB9
SIB10
SIB11

carries CDMA-2000 EVDO frequencies, CDMA-2000 neighbor cell frequencies.


carries HNBID (Home eNodeB Identifier)
carries ETWS prim. notification
carries ETWS sec. notification

UL Physical Resource Block: DRS & SRS


The Demodulation Reference Signal is
Note: when the
subframe contains the
PUCCH, the
Demodulation
Reference Signal is
embedded in a
different way

12 subcarriers

..

..
Frequency

1 ms subframe or
TTI

transmitted in the third SC-FDMA


symbol (counting from zero) in all
resource blocks allocated to the PUSCH
carrying the user data.

This signal is needed for channel


estimation, which in turn is essential for
coherent demodulation of the UL signal
in the eNodeB.

The Sounding Reference Signal SRS


0.5 ms slot
Time
Sounding Reference Signal
on last OFDM symbol of 1
subframe;
Periodic or aperiodic
transmission
SRS can be used to implement beamforming in TDD.

Demodulation Reference
Signal in subframes that
carry PUSCH

provides UL channel quality information


as a basis for scheduling decisions in the
base station. This signal is distributed in
the last SC-FDMA symbol of subframes
that carry neither PUSCH nor PUCCH
data. [SRS is always disabled in FDD RL20
and before.]

PUCCH: Physical UL Control Channel

Modulation Schemes
3GPP standard defines the following options: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM in both
directions (UL & DL)
UL 64QAM not supported in RL10
Not every physical channel is allowed to use any modulation scheme:
Scheduler decides which form to use depending on carrier quality feedback
information from the UE
64QAM:
16QAM:

QPSK:

6 bits/symbol

4 bits/symbol

2 bits/symbol
QPSK
b0 b1
Im
01

11

00

10Re

16QAM
b0 b1b2b3
Im

64QAM
b0 b1b2b3 b4 b5
Im

Modulation

PDSCH

QPSK, 16QAM,
64QAM

PMCH

QPSK, 16QAM,
64QAM

PBCH

QPSK

PDCCH,
PCFICH

QPSK

PHICH

BPSK

PUSCH

QPSK, 16QAM,
64QAM

PUCCH

BPSK and/or
QPSK

1111
Re

0000

Physical
channel

Re

Cell Search (1/2)


Remember?
What are all the steps and the physical
channels involved ?

1. PSS Primary Synchronisation Signal


(Time-slot & Frequency synchronisation
+ Physical cell id (0,1,2) )
2. SSS Secondary Synchronisation Signal
(Frame synchronisation
+ Physical Cell id group (1..168) )
3. DL Reference Signals
(Channel estimation & measurements

eNodeB

4. PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel


(MIB DL system bandwidth, PHICH configuration)

MIB = Master Information Block


PHICH = Physical HARQ Indicator Channel

UE

Cell Search
Challenge:
The PBCH contains only the MIB (Master Information Block) the SIBs (System Information
Blocks) are on the PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel)!
need to read SIBs on PDSCH
Problem: The UE should read PDSCH but it doesn't know which resource blocks are reserved for
it and where are they placed (in time & frequency)

Solution:
PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel) indicates the size of PDCCH (Physical
Downlink Control Channel)
the PDCCH is indicating which resource blocks are scheduled and where are located

Cell Search (2/2)


5. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
(How many OFDM symbols (1,2,3) in the beginning of
the sub-frame are for PDCCH)
6. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel
(Resource allocation for PDSCH )

eNodeB

7. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


(SIBs: Cell global ID, parameters for cell selection /
reselection, )

CELL SELECTION & RESELECTION


SIB: System Information Block

UE

What are the Next Steps?


The UE has selected one cell camping on the cell procedure

The camping on the cell procedure will be explained later


The UE can start the initial access

I have found one suitable


cell. What is next?

UE

eNodeB

Random Access (1/2)


8. PRACH preamble (A)

(A 1st random preamble*)

.
.
. (C)
8. PRACH preamble
(C 3rd random preamble)

eNodeB

UE
Challenge:
Several UEs may send the same preamble. How to solve the
collision ?

Solution:
contention resolution
* 64 Random Access Preamble Signatures available per Cell

Random Access (2/2)


response to RACH Preamble on PDSCH
9. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
(How many OFDM symbols (1,2,3) in the beginning of
the sub-frame are for PDCCH)

10. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel


(Resource allocation for PDSCH)
11. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel

eNodeB

(Random Access response: ID of the received


preamble, C-RNTI)

C-RNTI: Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity

UE

Contention Resolution for the Initial Access


several UE with same RACH
Preamble Signature
getting same UL grant
collision with RRC
Connection Request

8. PRACH Preamble

11. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


(Random Access response: ID of received preamble, UL
resources for TX*, C-RNTI)

12. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel


(RRC: RRC Connection Request, *C-RNTI, TMSI or
random number)

eNodeB
TMSI = Temporary Mobile Subscriber
Identity

UE

13. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


(Contention Resolution, C-RNTI & TMSI or random
number)
* UL grant PUSCH resources

All other UEs not receiving correct


answer (TMSI)
restart Random Access (8)

What are the Next Steps?


The random access procedure is successfully finished
Next steps:
- RRC Connection Establishment
- Registration
- UE-CN signaling (Attach)
Higher layer signaling -> not shown here

UE

Now I am connected so I can


download the web page from the
Internet. www.nokia.com

eNodeB

DL Transmission
1. DL Reference signals

Channel Estimate / CQI

2. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)


(CQI based on DL reference signals measurements)

3. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel


(How many symbols (1,2,3) in the beginning of the
sub-frame are for PDCCH)

Note:
CQI along with
data PUSCH

4. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel


(DL assignment for PDSCH: Modulation & coding,
resource blocks*)
5. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel

eNodeB
CQI = Channel Quality Indicator
ACK = Acknowledgment
NACK = Negative ACK
HARQ = Hybrid Automatic
Repeat Request

(user data initial transmission)


6. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)
(ACK/ NACK for HARQ)
7. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
(user data eventual re-transmission)
* Physical Resource Allocation

UE

UL Transmission
1. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)
(UL scheduling request*)
2. UL Sounding Reference Signal SRS
(used by Node-B for channel dependent scheduling)

3. UL Demodulation Reference Signal


(UL channel estimation, demodulation like DPCCH in UMTS)
4. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel
(UL grant capacity allocation)
5. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel

eNodeB
DPCCH = Dedicate Physical Control
Channel
ACK = Acknowledgment
NACK = Negative ACK
HARQ = Hybrid Automatic Repeat
Request

(user data initial transmission)

UE

6. PHlCH Physical HARQ Indicator Channel


(ACK/ NACK for HARQ)
7. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel
(user data eventual re-transmission)
* scheduling request only needed for applications with QoS like best effort

VoIP in LTE

Voice is still important in LTE


CS voice call will not be possible in LTE since there is no CS core interface
Voice with LTE terminals has a few different solutions
The first voice solution in LTE can rely on Call Setup FallBack redirection where LTE terminal will be moved to
2G/3G to make CS call
The ultimate LTE voice solution will be VoIP + IMS

Call Setup FallBack (CSFB)

EPS Bearers for Conversational Voice

IP Multimedia Subsystem, a set of specifications from 3GPP for delivering IP multimedia to mobile users
VoIP

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SR-VCC)

Options for voice call continuity when running out of LTE coverage

1) Handover from LTE VoIP to 3G CS voice

Voice Handover from LTE VoIP to WCDMA CS voice is called SR-VCC

No VoIP needed in 3G

2) Handover from LTE VoIP to 2G CS voice

Voice Handover from LTE VoIP to GERAN CS voice is called SR-VCC

No VoIP needed in 2G

2G CS voice
LTE VoIP
3G CS voice

2G CS voice
LTE VoIP
3G CS voice

2G CS voice

3G CS voice

Single Radio Voice Call


Continuity (SR-VCC)

3G CS voice

LTE Voice Evolution


LTE broadband for high speed data
LTE
HSPA
I-HSPA
2G/3G

EPC

MSS

Fast-Track VoLTE

LTE
HSPA
I-HSPA
2G/3G

IMS for enriched IP multimedia services

VoIP
NVS

MSS

LTE
HSPA
I-HSPA

Main focus on LTE data


CS Fallback to 2G/3G CS access for
voice
Re-use existing MSC Server system
for voice

IMS

EPC

EPC

Introduce NVS
VoIP solution

VoIP
NVS

Evolution to IMS
VoIP solution
Simple upgrade of MSS with NVS
(VoIP) function
Fully IMS compatible reuse of CS
infra-structure for LTE VoIP capable
handsets
SRVCC (HO LTE VoIP to 3G CS)

IMS-centric service architecture


Rich Communication Services with
full multimedia telephony
Support for any access
SRVCC (HO LTE VoIP to 3G VoIP)

LTE TDD/FDD
Frame and
Channel Type

Uplinkdownlink
configuration

Downlink-to-Uplink
Switch-point
periodicity

Subframe number

5 ms

5 ms

5 ms

10 ms

10 ms

10 ms

5 ms

LTE Physical Layer - Introduction


It provides the basic bit transmission functionality over air
LTE physical layer based on OFDMA DL & SC-FDMA in UL
This is the same for both FDD & TDD mode of operation
There is no macro-diversity in use
System is reuse 1, single frequency network operation is feasible
no frequency planning required
There are no dedicated physical channels anymore, as all resource mapping is dynamically driven by the scheduler

FDD

..
..
TDD

..

Frequency band 1
Frequency band 2

Single frequency band

Downlink

..
..

..
Uplink

LTE Physical Layer Structure Frame Structure (FDD)


FDD Frame structure ( also called Type 1 Frame) is common to both UL & DL
Divided into 20 x 0.5ms slots
Structure has been designed to facilitate short round trip time
- Frame length = 10 ms

0.5 ms slot

sy0 sy1 sy2 sy3 sy4 sy5 sy6

FDD: 10 sub-frames of 1 ms for UL & DL

- 1 Frame = 20 slots of 0.5ms each


- 1 slot = 7 (normal CP) or 6 OFDM symbols
(extended CP)

10 ms frame

..

s18 s19

0.5 ms slot

SF0

SF1

SF2

SF3
1 ms sub-frame

..

In FDD, there is a time offset between uplink and downlink transmission .

SF9

SF: SubFrame
s: slot
Sy: symbol

LTE Physical Layer Structure Frame Structure (TDD)


Frame Type 2 (TS 36.211-900; 4.2)
each radio frame consists of 2 half frames = 10 subframes = 10 ms (1 subframe = 1 ms)

Half-frame = 5 ms = 5 Sub-frames of 1 ms

UL-DL configurations with both 5 ms & 10 ms DL-to-UL switch-point periodicity are supported

Special subframe with the 3 fields DwPTS, GP & UpPTS; length of DwPTS + UpPTS +GP = 1 subframe; (i.e. depending on frame
configuration one or two Special Subframes)

DL / UL ratio can vary from 1/3 to 8/1 according to service requirements of the carrier

Radio Frame: 10ms

SF
#4

SF
#5

UpPTS

SF
#3

GP

SF
#2

DwPTS

UpPTS

SF
#0

GP

UL/DL
carrier

Half Frame: 5 ms
DwPTS

SF
#7

SF
#8

SF
#9
time

Subframe 1ms
DwPTS: Downlink Pilot time Slot

Downlink Subframe

UpPTS: Uplink Pilot Time Slot

Uplink Subframe

GP: Guard Period to separate between DL/UL

Special Subframe

DL or UL Subframe

UL/DL Configurations

TDD allows flexible bandwidth allocation between UL & DL to support asymmetric traffic
The number of subframes dedicated to UL & DL within the 10ms frame can be adjusted
7 different frame configurations
Chosen UL/DL Configuration should be the same across all cells of a network to avoid interference between transmission
directions (Rel.8 static or semi-static TDD system)
Nokia RL45 supports Configuration 1 & 2:
Configuration 1 DL:UL=2:2
Configuration 2 DL:UL=3:1

Uplink-downlink
configuration

Downlink-to-Uplink
Switch-point periodicity

Subframe number
0

5 ms

5 ms

5 ms

10 ms

10 ms

10 ms

5 ms

Special

Downlink

Uplink

Special Subframe Configuration

More info: TS36.21

Total length of special subframe is 1ms but the length of the each field may vary
9 different formats supported

Fields:

Downlink Pilot time Slot (DwPTS)


shortened DL subframe
for Reference Signals & control information
may carry user data
contains PSS (note: SSS transmitted on
the last symbol of subframe 0)

Uplink Pilot Time Slot (UpPTS)


mainly used for RACH and SRS transmission

Guard Period (GP)


Switching point between DL & UL transmission
Compensates for the delay when switching between transmission directions
Its length determines the maximum supportable cell size
For 5ms periodicity subframe#6 is also a
special subframe (otherwise is normal)
SUBFRAME 1

TD-LTE Downlink Peak Bit Rate- MAC Layer


Condition:

20MHz bandwidth, total 100 PRBs allocated

2x2 MIMO (2 antennas for TX, 2 Antennas for RX)

Maximum TB Size in normal DL subframe = 75376 bits

Maximum TB Size in DwPTS = 55056 bits


MAC layer peak bit rate in different configurations:
2DL:2UL configuration, SF configuration 5

2DL:2UL configuration, SF configuration 7

3DL:1UL configuration, SF configuration 5

3DL:1UL configuration, SF configuration 7

(75376x2x2)/5ms = 60.30 Mbps


(75376x2x2+55056x2x1)/5ms = 82.32 Mbps
(75376x2x3)/5ms = 90.45Mbps
(75376x2x3+55056x2x1)/5ms = 112.47 Mbps

2) SINR measurment
3) Setting new power offset

LTE Radio
Resource
Management

4) TX power level
adjustment with the new
offset
1) Initial TX power level

Scope of RRM

Scope of RRM:
Management and optimized utilization of the (scarce) radio resources:
Provision for each service/bearer/user an adequate QoS (if applicable)
Increasing the overall radio network capacity and optimizing quality

RRM is located in eNodeB


See next slide

eNB

X2

LTE-Uu

LTE-UE

Evolved Node B
(eNB)

LTE RRM: Scheduling


Motivation
Bad channel condition avoidance

CDMA

OFDMA

Single Carrier transmission does


not allow to allocate only
particular frequency parts. Every
fading gap effects the data.

The part of total available


channel experiencing bad
channel condition (fading) can be
avoided during allocation
procedure.

LTE RRM: Link Adaptation by AMC (UL/DL)


Optimizing air interface efficiency
Motivation of link adaptation: Modify the signal transmitted to and by a particular user according to the
signal quality variation to improve the system capacity & coverage reliability.
It modifies the MCS (Modulation & Coding Scheme) & the transport block size (DL) and ATB (UL)
If SINR is good then higher MCS can be used more payload per symbol more throughput.
If SINR is bad then lower MCS should be used (more robust)
Flexi Multiradio BTS performs the link adaptation for DL on a TTI basis
The selection of the modulation & the channel coding rate is based:
DL data channel: CQI report from UE
UL: BLER measurements in Flexi LTE BTS
Adaptive Transmission Bandwidth (ATB): Calculates maximum number of PRBs that UL SCH can assigned to a
particular UE taking into account UE QoS profile and available UE power headroom

Link Adaptation / AMC for PDSCH


START

Procedure:
Initial MCS is provided by O&M
(parameter INI_MCS_DL) & is set as
default MCS
If DL AMC is not activated (O&M
parameter ENABLE_AMC_DL) the
algorithm always uses this default
MCS
If DL AMC is activated HARQ
retransmissions are handled
differently from initial transmissions
(For HARQ retransmission the same
MCS has to be used as for the initial
transmission)
A MCS based on CQI reporting from
UE , shall be determined for the
PRBs assigned to UE as indicated by
the DL scheduler

Retrieve Default MCS

no

Dynamic AMC
active?

HARQ
retransmission?

yes

no
Use Default MCS

Determine avaraged CQI


value for allocated PRBs

Determine MCS

END

Use the same MCS as for


initial transmission

Outer Link Quality Control (OLQC)


Optimize the DL performance
Feature: CQI Adaptation (DL)
CQI information is used by the scheduler & link adaptation in such a way that a certain BLER of the 1 st HARQ
transmission is achieved
CQI adaptation is the basic mean to control Link Adaptation behaviour and to remedy UE measurement errors
Only used in DL
Used for CQI measurement error compensation
CQI estimation error of the UE
CQI quantization error or
CQI reporting error
It adds a CQI offset to the CQI reports provided by UE. The corrected CQI report is provided to the DL Link
adaptation for further processing
CQI offset derived from ACK/NACK feedback

Support of aperiodic CQI reports


Functionality
Aperiodic CQI reports scheduled in
addition to periodic reports
Periodic CQI reports on PUCCH
Aperiodic CQI reports on PUSCH
Description
Controlled by the UL scheduler
Triggered by UL grant indication
(PDCCH)
Basic feature

UL grant + CQI indicator

Perio
Ap e r
iodic

Benefits
Not so many periodic CQIs on PUCCH needed
Allow frequent submission of more detailed
reports (e.g. MIMO, frequency selective parts)

dic C
QI (P
UC

CQIs

(PU S

CH )

CH)

LTE RRM: Power Control


Improve cell edge behaviour, reduce inter-cell interference & power consumption
Downlink:
There is no adaptive or dynamic power control in DL but semi-static power setting

eNodeB gives flat power spectral density (dBm/PRB) for the scheduled resources:
The power for all the PRBs is the same
If there are PRBs not scheduled that power is not used but the power of the remaining scheduled
PRBs doesnt change:
Total Tx power is max. when all PRBs are scheduled. If only 1/2 of the PRBs are scheduled the
Tx power is 1/2 of the Tx power max ( i.e. Tx power max -3dB)

Semi-static: PDSCH power can be adjusted via O&M parameters


Cell Power Reduction level CELL_PWR_RED [0...10] dB attenuation in 0.1 dB steps

Power Control
Improve cell edge behaviour, reduce inter-cell interference and power consumption
Uplink:
UL PC is a mix of Open Loop Power Control & Closed Loop Power Control:

PPUSCH (i) min{ PCMAX ,10 log10 ( M PUSCH (i)) P0 _ PUSCH ( j ) ( j ) PL TF (i) f (i )}[dBm]

Closed Loop PC component f(i): Makes use of feedback from the eNB. Feedback are TCP commands send via PDCCH to instruct the
UE to increase or decrease its Tx power

UL Power control is Slow power control:


No need for fast power control as in 3G: if UE Tx power
was high it incremented the co-channel for other UEs.
In LTE all UEs resources are orthogonal in frequency &
time

TPC: Transmit Power Control

2) SINR measurment
3) Setting new power offset

4) TX power level
adjustment with the new
offset
1) Initial TX power level

Power Control
Uplink (cont.):
UL PC is a mix of Open Loop Power Control & Closed Loop Power Control:

PPUSCH (i) min{ PCMAX ,10 log10 ( M PUSCH (i)) P0 _ PUSCH ( j ) ( j ) PL TF (i) f (i )}[dBm]

PCMAX: max. UE Tx power according to UE power class; e.g. 23dBm for class 3

MPUSCH: # allocated PRBs. The UE Tx Power is increased proportionally to the # of allocated RBs. Remaining terms of the formula are
per RB

P0_PUSCH: eNB received power per RB when assuming path loss 0 dB. Depends on

: Path loss compensation factor. Three values:


= 0, no compensation of path loss
= 1, full compensation of path loss (conventional compensation)
{ 0 ,1 } , fractional compensation
PL: DL Path loss calculated by the UE

Delta_TF: increases the UE Tx power to achieve the required SINR when transmitting a large number of bits per RE. It links the UE
Tx power to the MCS.

3GPP Transmission Modes Summary

transmission modes defined by 3GPP TS36.331234


BF: beamforming
SM: spatial multiplexing
Mode 1

Single-antenna port (SISO)

Mode 2

Transmit diversity (SFBC, Frequency Shift Time Diversity)

Mode 3

Open-loop SM (CQI and RI reported by UE, PM def. by eNb, rank adapt., rank
1 TM2, otherwise SM)

Mode 4

Closed-loop SM (CQI, RI, PMI reported by UE, rank adaptation)

Mode 5

Multiuser-MIMO

Mode 6

Closed loop rank 1 precoding

Mode 7

Single-antenna port, port 5 (BF, DRS)

FDD & TDD


Rel 8

TDD only
Mode 8

Dual layer BF (port 7 and/or 8)

Rel 9

Mode 9

Multi-stream beamforming with CSI-RS (Channel state information)

Rel 10

FDD & TDD

Transmit diversity for 2 antennas


Benefit: Diversity gain, enhanced cell coverage
Each Tx antenna transmits the same stream of data with Receiver gets replicas of the same signal which
increases the SINR.

Synchronization signals are transmitted only via the 1st antenna

eNode B sends different cell-specific Reference Signals (RS) per antenna


It can be enabled on cell basis by O&M configuration
Processing is completed in 2 phases:
Layer Mapping: distributing a stream of data into two streams
Pre-coding: generation of signals for each antenna port

Spatial multiplexing (MIMO) for 2 antennas


Two code words
(S1+S2) are
transmitted in
parallel to 1 UE
double peak rate

Benefit: Doubles peak rate compared to 1Tx antenna

Signal generation is similar to Transmit Diversity: i.e. Layer


Mapping & Precoding
Can be open loop or closed loop depending if the UE provides
feedback

Spatial multiplexing with 2 code words


Supported physical channel: PDSCH
2 code words transferred
when channel conditions
are good

S2

S1

Layer Mapping
Precoding

Code word 1

Modulation

L1

Scale
Code word 2

L2

Map onto Resource


Elements

OFDMA

Map onto Resource


Elements

OFDMA

W1

Modulation

W2

Precoding

Precoding generates the signals for each antenna port


Precoding is done multiplying the signal with a precoding matrix selected from a predefined codebook
known at the eNB and at the UE side
Closed loop: UE estimates the radio channel, selects the best precoding matrix (the one that offers
maximum capacity) & sends it to the eNB
Open loop: no need for UEs feedback as it uses predefined settings for Spatial Multiplexing & precoding

Pre-coding codebook for 2 Tx antenna case

Inter Layer
Mobility

NB
WCDMA

eNB
LTE

Introduction to Inter-layer Mobility


Connected mode 4G to 3G
Idle mode 4G-3G, 3G-4G
LTE F1 to LTE F2
Connected, idle

3G F1 to 3G F2
Connected, idle

LTE

WCDMA

Connected mode 3G-2G, 2G-3G

Idle mode 2G-3G, 3G-2G

GSM

4G Connected mode to
2G Idle mode
4G Idle mode to
2G Idle mode

Reselection Flow
Reselection Process Overview

Measurements trigger

)
"

""

UE is measuring the neighbor cells


only when the RSRP signal level is
below some threshold. The measurements
trigger is based primarily on absolute
priorities. In case of equal priority addotional
thresholds are defined

'

[ Evaluate cell reselection criteria "R"

l
J

.
[ Execute cell reselection

..

~ f1st~
-~

parokonteL

For the reselection there are different cases


depending on priorltes of the neighbor
frequency Layers (for inter-frequency
and inter-RAT)

Measurement Management for cell Reselection


LTE Thresholds and periodicity for measurements
RSRP [dBm] serving cell

Search for higher priority frequency/RATs (low periodicity)


Re-select higher priority frequency/RATs if target is better than
Threshx,high

sintrasearch

-112 dBm

sNonintrsearch -116 dBm


Search for higher and lower priority frequency/RATs (high periodicity)
Re-select higher priority frequency/RATs if target is better than Threshx,high

ThresServLow

-118 dBm

qRxLevMin

-122 dBm

Search for higher and lower priority frequency/RATs (high periodicity)


Re-select higher priority frequency/RATs if target is better than Threshx,high
Re-select lower priority frequency/RATs if target is better than Threshx,low
S-criteria

Start cell selection

Idle Mode

Cell Selection

-68 dBm
When RSRP < -68 dBm UE
starts to measure intra-freq
neighbours

-118 dBm

-124dBm

-130 dBm

When RSRP < -118 dBm UE


starts to measure on LTE (Inter)
and WCDMA

interFrqThrL
sIntrasearch

LNCEL:Qhyst = 3dB
IAFIM: qOffestCell = 0dB
Reselection to other LTE cell will happen:
1. When neighbor is 3dB better than serving
2. For a time
LNCEL:tReselEutr = 1s
3. AND more than 1 s has elapsed since the
UE camped in the currrent cell

Confidential

sNonIntrsearch

threshSrvLow

Qrxlevmin (Used by Serving Cell)


qrxlevminintraF (Used By Neigh Cell)

LNCEL:threshSrvLow = 6 (-124 dBm)


UFFIM:utraFrqThrL = 0 (-115 dBm)
UFFIM:qRxLevMinUtra= -115 dBm
LNCEL:threshSrvLow= 6 (-124 dBm)
IRFIM:interFrqThrL = 4 (-120 dBm)
IRFIM:qRxLevMinInterF= -130dBm

Reselection to LTE Inter cell will happen:


1. When serving is below -124dBm
AND LTE neighbours RSRP is better
than -118 dBm
2. For a time
IRFIM:intertResEutr = 1s
3. AND more than 1 s has elapsed
since the UE camped in the current
cell

If no suitable LTE cell found, then reselection to


WCDMA will happen
1. When serving cell is below -124 dBm and
neighboring WCDMA cell RSCP > -115 dBm
2. For a time UFFIM:tResUtra = 1s
3. AND more than 1 s has elapsed since the UE
camped in the current cell

HO Process
HO Process Overview
UE continuously monitors the
serving cell. Events A2/A1 are used
to activate/de-activate neighbors
measurements when rad io conditions
are getting worse

Measurements activation/de-activation

[ Event based neighbor reports

"

)~

The reports of neighbors are triggered


tt--- --+ by A3 & AS events for intra.-RAT
neighbors and 82 event for the
inter-RAT neighbors
The "Measurement Report" message
contains a prioritized list of neighbors (best
neighbor first)

HO target & mode selection in eNodeB

HO execution

~ f1st~
-~

parokonteL

eNodeB decides the urgency of HO and


identifies a priori1ized list of HO target
oells. The eNodeB selects the target
cell for HO as well as the handover mode.
The HO/NACC mode could be:
-Intra eNB HO
-Intra LTE inter eNB via X2
-Intra LTE inter eNB via S1
-HO toWCDMA
-NACC toGSM

Intra RAT HO events


A1 -> Serving cell becomes better than threshold
A2 -> Serving cells becomes worse than threshold
A3 -> Neighbour becomes offset better than serving
A4 -> Neighbour becomes better than threshold
A5 -> Serving becomes worse than threshold 1 & neighbour
becomes better than threshold 2

Inter RAT HO events

Event B1 -> Inter RAT neighbour becomes better than threshold


Event B2 -> serving becomes worse than threshold 1 and
neighbour becomes better than threshold 2

Measurement Activation
radio coverage by RSRP decreases
RSRP (reported)
Threshold2GERAN

Intra-frequency
& Inter-frequency
& GERAN & UMTS
measurements

Threshold2Wcdma

Intra-frequency
& Inter-frequency
& UMTS
measurements

Threshold2InterFreq

Intra-frequency
& Inter-frequency
measurements

Threshold1

Intra-frequency
measurements
only

No neighbors
measurements
except the serving
cell

Assumptions* for this example:


Threshold2GERAN < Threshold2Wcdma < Threshold2InterFreq< Threshold1
threshold2InterFreq

threshold2GERAN

threshold2Wcdma

Trigger for inter-frequency


measurements

Trigger for GERAN


measurements

Trigger for WCDMA


measurements

LNCEL; 0..97dB; 1dB; -

LNCEL; 0..97dB; 1dB; -

LNCEL; 0..97dB; 1dB; -

HO Flow

70

X-2 Ho Preparation

71

X-2 HO Execution

72

X-2 HO Completion

73

Inter eNB Handover via S1 (preparation, execution)

74

Inter eNB Handover via S1 (completion)

75

HO to WCDMA
HO to WCDMA Steps (excerpt - simplified)

UE
RR~

Source

eNB

Target
RNC

MME

S-GW

SGSN

RRC Connection Reconfiguration (lNCEL: A1, A2 & LNHOW: B2 lhreshold

& lNADJW WCDMA frequency & scrambling code )


Measuremll'lts aclivallonldeadrvallOn of

WCDMA based on A21A1 event& UE


measurement reports lnggered by event 82

Oec:is1 on to perform
WCDMAHO
$1AF' Handover Required (LNAOJ" targel WCOMA cell)

Handover Prep.a ration


$1AF' Handover Command
RRC M~ility From EUTRA Command

~ f1st~
-~

parokonteL

P-GW

HO to WCDMA
HO to WCDMA event 82)

measQuantUtraFdd
def. which quantity to use for event 82
LNCEL; cpichRSCP. cp1chEcNO;
notUsed; cpichRSCP

1. Ms+ Hys < Thresh1 &


2 Mn + Ofn - Hys > Thresh2
Signal
I 11el

condition 2 fulfilled

b2threshold2Ut.raRscp /Ec NO
LNHOW : -5 ..911 0 .49 . 1: - dB

_hJ~B~T_h_res_h_o~~l:!_t~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

Event 8 2 fulfilled
condition 1 fulfilled

offsetFreqUtra
LNHOW: - 15..15. 1: 0 dB

___

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

.~T~.~~~.~~~::..:~.~~.::~.~~~~.::~.~~~-~- - --- ------ - ------ - ------- --------------

ttme

S - serving oeH LTE


N - ne igllbor oell WC OMA

~ fxst~
parokontel

--

Connected Mode

Intra and Inter-frequency Handovers

Trigger: RSRP below Thresholdx

Threshold1

Threshold2InterFreq

-50 dBm

Only Serving
Cell
Measurement

-100 dBm

UE measure
intra Frequency
Neighbors

UE stops to
measure intra
Frequency
Neighbors

Threshold3
-116 dBm

UE measure
inter Frequency
Neighbors

-80 dBm
Threshold2a

Trigger: RSRP above Thresholdxa

Threshold3InterFreq
-122dBm

UE perform HO
Neighbor

Threshold4
-140 dBm

UE perform HO
to inter Freq
Neighbor

-120 dBm
Threshold3aInterFreq

RRC Release
with Redirect

Connected Mode

IRAT WCDMA Handovers

Trigger: RSRP below Thresholdx

Threshold1

Threshold2InterFreq

-50 dBm

Only Serving
Cell
Measurement

-100 dBm

UE measure
intra Frequency
Neighbors

UE stops to
measure intra
Frequency
Neighbors

-80 dBm
Threshold2a

Trigger: RSRP above Thresholdxa

UE measure
inter Frequency
Neighbors

Threshold3 b2Threshold1UTRA
-124dBm
-116 dBm
UE
measure
WCDMA
Neighbor
s

Threshold4
-140 dBm

UE perform HO
to WCDMA
Neighbor

RRC Release
with Redirect

HO to WCDMA
Source
eNB

UE

Target
RNC

MME

S -GW

RRC: RRC Connection Reconfiguration (LNCEL: A1, A2 & LNHOW: B2 thresholds


& LNADJW: WCDMA frequency & scrambling code )

SGSN

Measurements activation/deactivation of
WCDMA based on A2/A1 events. UE
measurement reports triggered by event B2

3 RRC: Measurement Report (target WCDMA cells)


4

Decision to perform
WCDMA HO
S1AP: Handover Required (LNADJW: target WCDMA cell)

Handover Preparation
S1AP: Handover Command

RRC: Mobility From EUTRA Command

S1AP: S1 Application Part Protocol

P -GW

Redirection from LTE to WCDMA


Another mobility from LTE to WCDMA is Redirection. With redirection, LTE RRC connection is released with
target RAT information. Ue Released from LTE , than go idle mode in WCDMA

[..]

RRC: MEASUREMENT REPORT

RRC: RRC CONNECTION RELEASE


target RAT
indicated

event A2
for redirection

CS Fallback to UTRAN
No CS domain in Evolved Packet System (EPS)
eNB
LTE

NB
WCDMA

E-UTRAN attached UEs


request CS voice service
UEs must be redirected / handed over
towards other Radio Access Technology
(RAT) that provides CS-domain services
CS Fallback

MME

eNB

UE

RRC:
S1AP: UL NAS TRANSPORT
(Extended Service Request)

S1AP: (CS Fallback Indicator)

CS Fallback
MME
/ eNB

MO UE

RNC

MSC

Extended Service Request (MO CSFB)

Start MO call
ESR Procedure

RRC Connection Setup Procedure

MO CSFB Call Setup Duration

RRC Connection Release (with UARFCN)

UMTS
Acquisition

UMTS cell
acquisition
< Status: UMTS Cell Acquired >

UMTS
SIB Read Time

SIB reading
< Status: Camped on UMTS Cell >

UE time to Send
RRC Connection
Request

RRC Connection Request

NW RRC

UMTS
Call Setup
Duration

UE UMTS Service
Req.

( = RRC & NAS Procedures


on UMTS)

RRC Connection Setup

(Location Update Procedure)


CM Service Request
CC Setup

UMTS NAS

CC Call Proceeding
CC Alerting

83

RF
Measurement

LTE Measurements
Physical layer measurements have not been extensively discussed in the LTE standardization. They could change.
Intra LTE measurements ( from LTE to LTE)
UE measurements
CQI measurements
Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP)
Reference Signal Received Quality ( RSRQ)
eNB measurements
Non standardized (vendor specific): TA, Average RSSI, Average SINR, UL CSI, detected PRACH
preambles, transport channel BLER
Standardized: DL RS Tx Power, Received Interference Power, Thermal Noise Power
Measurements from LTE to other systems
UE measurements are mainly intended for Handover.
UTRA FDD: CPICH RSCP, CPICH Ec/No and carrier RSSI
GSM: GSM carrier RSSI
UTRA TDD: carrier RSSI, RSCP, P-CCPCH
CDMA2000: 1xRTT Pilot Strength, HRPD Pilot Strength
CSI: Channel State Information (received power per PRB)
TA: Timing Advance

UE Measurements: RSRP & RSRQ


RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power)
Average of power levels (in [W]) received across all Reference Signal symbols within the considered measurement frequency
bandwidth.
In other words RSRP (Reference Signal Receive Power) is the average power of Resource Elements (RE) that carry cell specific
Reference Signals (RS) over the entire bandwidth, so RSRP is only measured in the symbols carrying RS.
UE only takes measurements from the cell-specific Reference Signal elements of the serving cell
If receiver diversity is in use by the UE, the reported value shall be equivalent to the linear average of the power values of all
diversity branches
Reporting range -44-133 dBm
RSRQ ( Reference Signal Received Quality)
Defined as the ratio NRSRP/(E-UTRA carrier RSSI), where N is the number of RBs of the E-UTRA carrier RSSI measurement
bandwidth. The measurements in the numerator and denominator shall be made over the same set of resource blocks
Reporting range -3-19.5dB

E-UTRA Carrier Received Signal Strength Indicator, comprises the total received wideband power observed by the UE from all RS
symbols for antenna port 0, including co-channel serving and non-serving cells, adjacent channel interference, thermal noise etc.

eNodeB Measurements
DL Reference Signal Transmitted Power
Average of power levels (in [W]) transmitted across all Reference Signal symbols within the considered
measurement frequency bandwidth
Reference point for the DL RS TX power measurement: TX antenna connector
The DL RS TX power signaled to the UE is not measured, it is just an eNB internal setting
Received Interference Power:
Received interference power, including thermal noise, within one PRBs bandwidth
Thermal noise power: No x W
Thermal noise power within the UL system bandwidth (consisting of variable # of resource blocks)
No: white noise power spectral density on the uplink carrier frequency and W: denotes the UL
system bandwidth.
Optionally reported with the Received Interference Power
Reference point: RX antenna connector
In case of receiver diversity, the reported value is the average of the power in the diversity branches