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Practice Exercise 5.

12/8/15, 7:29 PM
Chris Ramos
Math 2413.WS1 F2015, Fall 2015
Instructor: Denise Brown

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Practice Exercise 5.1 (Practice Exercises)


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1. 1/1 points | Previous AnswersSCalcET8 5.1.AE.001.

Use rectangles to estimate the area under the parabola y = 2x2 from 0 to 1 (the

EXAMPLE 1

parabolic region S illustrated to the left).


SOLUTION

We first notice that the area must be somewhere between 0 and 2 because S is

contained in a rectangle of side lengths 1 and 2, but we can certainly do better than that. Suppose we
1
1
3
divide the region into four strips by drawing vertical lines x = , x = , and x =
as in the
4
2
4
Figure (a) below.

Video Example

(a)

(b)

We can approximate each strip by a rectangle whose base is the same as the strip and whose height
is the same as the right edge of the strip (as in Figure (b) above). In other words, the heights of
these rectangles are the values of the function f(x) = 2x2 at the right endpoints of the subintervals
1
1 1
1 3
3
0,
,
,
,
,
, and
,1 .
4
4 2
2 4
4
1
1 2
1 2
3 2
and the heights are 2
,2
,2
, and 2(1)2. If we let R4
4
4
2
4
be the sum of the areas of these approximating rectangles, we get
Each rectangle has width

2
2
2
1
2 1 + 1 2 1 + 1 2 3 + 1 2(1)2
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
15/16 .
= .9375

R4 =

We see that the area A is less than R4 , so


A < .9375

15/16 .

Instead of using the rectangles above we could use the smaller rectangles whose heights are the
values of f at the left endpoints of the sub intervals. (The leftmost rectangle has collapsed because its
height is 0.) The sum of the areas of these approximating rectangles is
2
2
2
1
2(0)2 + 1 2 1 + 1 2 1 + 1 2 3 = .4375
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
We see that the area is larger than L4 , so we have lower and upper estimates for A:

L4 =

.4375

7/16 < A < .9375

7/16 .

15/16 .

We can repeat this procedure with a larger number of strips. The figure shows what happens when we
divide the S eight strips of equal width.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

12/8/15, 7:29 PM

(a) Using left endpoints

(b) Using right endpoints

By computing the sum of these areas of the smaller rectangles (L8) and the sum of the areas of the
larger rectangles (R8), we obtain better lower and upper estimates for A:
0.5468750 < A < 0.7968750.
n

Ln

So one possible answer to the question is to say that the true area lies somewhere between

Rn

0.5468750 and 0.7968750.

10 0.5700000 0.7700000
20 0.6175000 0.7175000

We could obtain better estimates by increasing the number of strips. The table at the left shows the

30 0.6337037 0.7003704

endpoints (Ln) or right endpoints (Rn). In particular, we see by using 50 strips that the area lies
between 0.6468 and 0.6868. With 1000 strips, we narrow it down even more: A lies between

results of similar calculations (with a computer) using n rectangles whose heights are found with left

50 0.6468000 0.6868000

0.6656670 and 0.6676670. A good estimate is obtained by averaging these numbers:

100 0.6567000 0.6767000

A .666667

0.6666670 .

1000 0.6656670 0.6676670

2. 0.56/1 points | Previous AnswersSCalcET8 5.1.AE.002.

EXAMPLE 2

For the region under f(x) = 4x2 on [0, 4], show that the sum of the areas of the
256
, that is
3

upper approximating rectangle approaches


lim Rn =

256
.
3

SOLUTION
Rn is the sum of the areas of the n rectangles in the figure. Each rectangle has width
4
4 8 12
4n
and the heights are the values of the function f(x) = 4x2 at the points
, ,
,
,
; that
n
n n n
n
4 2
8 2
12 2
4n 2
is, the heights are 4
,4
,4
,
,4
. Thus,
n
n
n
n
Rn =

2
2
2
4
4 4 + 4 4 8 + 4 4 12 +
n
n
n
n
n
n
16

n
$$1n2

2
4
4 4n
n
n

(12 + 22 + 32 +

Video
Example

+ n2)

$$16n3
=
(12 + 22 + 32 +

+ n2).

Here we need the formula for the sum of the squares of the first n positive integers:

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Practice Exercise 5.1

12/8/15, 7:29 PM
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
+ n2 =
.
6
Perhaps you have seen this formula before. Putting this formula into our expression for Rn, we get
12 + 22 + 32 +

Rn =
$$16n3

n(n + 1)(2n + 1) =

6
$$16(n+1)(2n+1)6n2

.
Thus we have
$$256(n+1)(2n+1)6n2
lim Rn = lim

$$1283
= lim

n+1
n

2n + 1
n

$$1283
= lim

1+

1
n

2+

1
n

$$1283

12=
$$2563

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Practice Exercise 5.1

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3. 1/1 points | Previous AnswersSCalcET8 5.1.AE.004.

Video Example

EXAMPLE 4

Suppose the odometer on our car is broken and we want to estimate the distance

driven over a 30 second time interval. We take the speedometer readings every five seconds and
record them in the following table.
Time (s)

10 15 20 25 30

Velocity (mi/h) 16 21 25 26 33 30 27
In order to have the time and the velocity in consistent units, let's convert the velocity readings to
5280
feet per second (1 mi/h =
ft/s). (Round your answers to the nearest whole number.)
3600
Time (s)

Velocity (ft/s) 23

5
31

10
31

37

15
38

20 25 30
38

48 44 40

During the first five seconds the velocity doesn't change very much, so we can estimate the distance
traveled during that time by assuming that the velocity is constant. If we take the velocity during that
time interval to be the initial velocity (23 ft/s), then we obtain the approximate distance traveled
during the first five seconds:
23 ft/s

5s=

115

115 ft.

Similarly, during the second time interval the velocity is approximately constant and we take it to be
the velocity when t = 5 s. So our estimate for the distance traveled from t = 5 s to t = 10 s is
31 ft/s

5s=

155

155 ft.

If we add similar estimates for the other time intervals, we obtain an estimate for the total distance
traveled:
(23
ft.

5) + (31 5) + (37 5) + (38 5) + (48 5) + (44 5) =

1105

1105

We could just as well have used the velocity at the end of each time period instead of the velocity at
the beginning as our assumed constant velocity. Then our estimate becomes
(31
ft.

5) + (37 5) + (38 5) + (48 5) + (44 5) + (40 5) =

1190

1190

If we had wanted a more accurate estimate, we could have taken velocity readings every two
seconds, or even every second.

4. 0.93/1 points | Previous AnswersSCalcET8 5.1.005.

(a) Estimate the area under the graph of f(x) = 3 + 2x2 from x = 1 to x = 2 using three rectangles and right endpoints.
R3 = 19

19

Then improve your estimate by using six rectangles.


R6 = 64

16.75

Sketch the curve and the approximating rectangles for R3.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

12/8/15, 7:29 PM

Sketch the curve and the approximating rectangles for R6.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

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(b) Repeat part (a) using left endpoints.


L3 = 13
L6 = 13.75

13
13.75

Sketch the curve and the approximating rectangles for L3.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

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Sketch the curve and the approximating rectangles for L6.

(c) Repeat part (a) using midpoints.

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Practice Exercise 5.1


M3 = 14.5
M6 = 14.875

12/8/15, 7:29 PM

14.5
14.875

Sketch the curve and the approximating rectangles for M3.

Sketch the curve and the approximating rectangles for M6.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

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(d) From your sketches in parts (a)-(c), which appears to be the best estimate?
L6
R6
M6

Solution or Explanation
Click to View Solution
Enhanced Feedback
Please try again. For estimating the area under an interval of a graph using rectangles, divide the domain of the interval into the desired number of segments, each of
equal length. Next, find the y value on the graph that corresponds to the desired endpoint or midpoint of each segment. This y value will be the height of the rectangle,
while the width of each rectangle will be the length of its segment. Finally, add together the areas of the rectangles.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

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5. 1/1 points | Previous AnswersSCalcET8 5.1.013.MI.SA.

This question has several parts that must be completed sequentially. If you skip a part of the question, you will not receive any points for the skipped part, and you will not
be able to come back to the skipped part.
Tutorial Exercise
The speed of a runner increased steadily during the first three seconds of a race. Her speed at half-second intervals is given in the table. Find lower and upper estimates for
the distance that she traveled during these three seconds.
t (s)

0 0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

v (ft/s) 0 6.2 10.8 14.9 18.1 19.4 20.2


Step 1
We will use either L6 or R6 for the upper and lower estimates.
Since the runner's speed is an increasing function, then
$$L6

will give the lower estimate, and


$$R6

will give the upper estimate.


Step 2
The sub-interval widths t for this situation are t = .5

0.5 .

Step 3
The first two sub-intervals in the table are [0, 0.5] and [0.5, 1.0].
When calculating L6, we should use the function values v = 0

and v = 6.2

6.2

for these two sub-intervals, respectively.

Step 4
Enter your answers from smallest to largest. In the last step, round your answer to one decimal place. For the lower estimate, we have the following.
L6 = (0.5)(0 + 6.2 + 10.8
= 34.7

10.8 + 14.9

14.9 + 18.1

18.1 + 19.4

19.4 )

34.7 ft

Step 5
Enter your answers from smallest to largest. In the last step, round your answer to one decimal place. For the upper estimate, we have the following.
R6 = (0.5)( 6.2
= 44.8

6.2 + 10.8

10.8 + 14.9

14.9 + 18.1

18.1 + 19.4

19.4 + 20.2

20.2

44.8 ft

You have now completed the Master It.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

12/8/15, 7:29 PM

6. 1/1 points | Previous AnswersSCalcET8 5.1.016.MI.SA.

This question has several parts that must be completed sequentially. If you skip a part of the question, you will not receive any points for the skipped part, and you will
not be able to come back to the skipped part.
Tutorial Exercise
When we estimate distances from velocity data, it is sometimes necessary to use times t0, t1, t2, t3, . . . that are not equally spaced. We can still estimate distances
using the time periods ti = ti ti 1. For example, a space shuttle was launched on a mission, the purpose of which was to install a new motor in a satellite. The table
provided gives the velocity data for the shuttle between liftoff and the jettisoning of the solid rocket boosters. Use these data to estimate the height, h, above Earth's
surface of the space shuttle, 62 seconds after liftoff.
Event

Time (s) Velocity (ft/s)

Launch

Begin roll maneuver

10

185

End roll maneuver

15

319

Throttle to 89%

20

447

Throttle to 67%

32

742

Throttle to 104%

59

1325

Maximum dynamic pressure

62

1445

125

4151

Solid rocket booster separation


Step 1

We can obtain an upper estimate for the height by using the final velocity for each time interval.
The first interval begins at t = 0 and ends at t = 10, so its width is

t1 = 10

10 .

Step 2
The second interval begins at t = 10 and ends at t = 15, so its width is

t2 = 5

5 .

Step 3
The final velocities for the first two intervals are, respectively,
v1 = 185

185

and v2 = 319

319 .

Step 4
Now, we can calculate an upper estimate for the height.
h (185

10) + (319 5) + ( 447

= 54694

447

5) + (742

12

12 ) + ( 1325

1325

27) + (1445

3 )

54,694 ft

You have now completed the Master It.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

12/8/15, 7:29 PM

7. 1/1 points | Previous AnswersSCalcET8 5.1.017.

The velocity graph of a braking car is shown. Use it to estimate the distance traveled by the car while the brakes are applied. (Use M6 to get the most precise estimate.)
155

155 ft

Solution or Explanation
Click to View Solution

8. 1/1 points | Previous AnswersSCalcET8 5.1.501.XP.MI.SA.

This question has several parts that must be completed sequentially. If you skip a part of the question, you will not receive any points for the skipped part, and you will
not be able to come back to the skipped part.

Exercise (a)
Estimate the area under the graph of f(x) = cos(x) from x = 0 to x = /2 using four approximating rectangles and right endpoints. Is your estimate an
underestimate or an overestimate?
Step 1
Rectangle areas are found by calculating height

width.

The width of each rectangle equals x and the height of each rectangle is given by the function value at the right-hand side of the rectangle.
4

f(xi)x = [f(x1) + f(x2) + f(x3) + f(x4)] x , where x1, x2, x3, x4 represent the right-hand endpoints of four equal sub-intervals

So we must calculate R4 =
of

0,

i=1

x =

$$8

Since we wish to estimate the area over the interval

0,

using 4 rectangles of equal widths, then each rectangle will have width

Step 2
We wish to find R4 = [f(x1) + f(x2) + f(x3) + f(x4)]

.
8

Since x1, x2, x3, x4 represent the right-hand endpoints of the four sub-intervals of

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0,

, then we must have the following.


2

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Practice Exercise 5.1

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x1 =
$$8

x2 =
$$4

x3 =
$$38

x4 =
$$2

Step 3
Round your answer to four decimal places.
R4 = cos

+ cos + cos 3 + cos


8

= .7908

0.7908

Step 4
We can use the above information to sketch the graph of the function and the rectangles.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

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Step 5
Is your estimate an underestimate or an overestimate?
underestimate
overestimate

Exercise (b)
Estimate the area under the graph of f(x) = cos(x) from x = 0 to x = /2 using four approximating rectangles and left endpoints. Is your estimate an
underestimate or an overestimate?
Step 1
4

f(xi 1) x = [f(x0) + f(x1) + f(x2) + f(x3)]x, where x0, x1, x2, x3 represent the left-hand endpoints of four equal sub-intervals of

We must calculate L4 =
0,

i=1

x =

$$8

Since we wish to estimate the area over the interval

0,

using 4 rectangles of equal widths, then each rectangle will have width

Step 2
We wish to find L4 = [f(x0) + f(x1) + f(x2) + f(x3)]

.
8

Since x0, x1, x2, x3 represent the left-hand endpoints of the four sub-intervals of

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0,

, then we must have the following.


2

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Practice Exercise 5.1

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x0 =
$$0

x1 =
$$8

x2 =
$$4

x3 =
$$38

Step 3
Round your answer to four decimal places.
L4 = cos(0) + cos

+ cos + cos 3
8

= 1.1835

1.1835

Step 4
We can use the above information to sketch the graph of the function and the rectangles.

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Practice Exercise 5.1

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Step 5
Is your estimate an underestimate or an overestimate?
underestimate
overestimate

You have now completed the Master It.

9. 0.5/1 points | Previous AnswersSCalcET8 5.1.508.XP.

Consider the following.


a = 20

(a) By reading values from the given graph of f, use five rectangles to find a lower estimate and an upper estimate for the area under the given graph of f from x
= 0 to x = 40. (Round your answers to the nearest integer.)
lower estimate 625
upper estimate 832

641
831

(b) Find new estimates using ten rectangles in each case. (Round your answers to the nearest integer.)
lower estimate 715
upper estimate 787.2

691.2
787.2

Solution or Explanation
Click to View Solution

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