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Ecosystems Regents Review

Name:
1.

Date:

Decomposers are necessary in a food chain


because they
A.

manufacture food by photosynthesis

B.

return nutrients to the ecosystem

C.

absorb energy from the Sun

3.

Rabbits have evolved strategies that get them


through periods of time when there is little
food. The diagram below represents essential life
functions that rabbits need to perform.

D. produce organic nutrients


2.

The diagram below represents di erent feeding


levels in an energy pyramid.

Which life function in the diagram could be


eliminated without a ecting an individual rabbit's
ability to survive when food is scarce?

4.

The most likely explanation for showing fewer


organisms at each feeding level going up the
pyramid is that
A.

some energy is lost to the environment as


heat

B.

the larger the organism, the less energy it


requires

C.

some energy is recycled within each level and


remains there

A.

digestion

B.

excretion

C.

circulation

D. reproduction

The ow of energy in an ecosystem is best


described as energy moving in
A.

one direction from the Sun to the producers


and then to the consumers

B.

one direction from a consumer to a producer


and then to the Sun as heat and light

C.

two directions between the producers that are


present

D. two directions, back and forth, between the


producers and the consumers

D. decomposers convert most of the energy into


inorganic compounds

page 1

5.

Farmland abandoned in 1899 was observed to have


signi cant changes in plant species over a 50-year
period. The changes are shown in the chart below.

7.

Base your answer(s) to the following question(s)


on the information below and on your knowledge
of biology.

Found: A Plant-Eating Spider

Changes in Plant Species


on Abandoned Farmland
Year Observed

Plant Species

1900

grasses

1910

shrubs and briars

1950

beech and maple trees

1920

Spiders are meat-eaters. Until recently,


scientists thought that was true for the
roughly 40,000 spider species in the world.
Now, researchers have discovered a spider
that eats mostly plants.
Bagheera kiplingi, a jumping spider,
lives in Central America and Mexico.
It nests in the leaves of acacia shrubs.
Scientists have long known that ants live in
these plants. The ants eat the plants' little
yellow vegetables. But scientists had no idea
that the spiders eat the vegetables too.
Christopher Meehan was a college
student when he found the plant nibbling
spiders. I thought I was hallucinating, he
told TFK (Time for Kids). But by the
end of the day, I had seen about 100 more
spiders eating plants.

birch and cherry trees

A forest re burned all the trees on the land in


1955. Assuming no human interference, climate
changes, or natural disasters, the plant species you
would expect to see on this land in 2010 would
most likely be
A.

grasses

B.

shrubs and briars

C.

birch and cherry trees

Source: Time for Kids World Report,


Edition 10/23/09 Vol. 15, #7 p.3

D. beech and maple trees


6.

Which row best characterizes Bagheera kiplingi


and acacia shrubs?

Palm oil, produced from palm trees, is not only


a biofuel, but is also used in food additives,
cosmetics, and lubricants. Palm tree plantations
are now cultivated in areas that were formerly
natural forests. One ecological concern raised by
this expansion is that
A.

the natural forest ecosystem may harm the


palm trees

B.

the use of the land for agriculture will


increase the biodiversity of the area

C.

humans are changing the basic processes of


the palm trees

Row

Bagheera kiplingi
host

parasite

(2)

consumer

producer

(3)

autotroph

heterotroph

(4)

scavenger

herbivore

(1)

A.

D. planting large expanses of one crop reduces


the biodiversity of the area

page 2

(1)

B.

(2)

Acacia

C.

(3)

D. (4)

8.

Identify one abiotic factor that most likely a ects


the size of the acacia shrub population.

9.

Is competition likely to occur between the


Bagheera kiplingi and ants living in acacia shrubs?
Support your answer.

Ecosystems Regents Review

10.

Base your answer(s) to the following question(s)


on the passage below and on your knowledge of
biology.

13.

Inherited instructions control the color


patterns of snakes. Some snakes that are
not poisonous have colors that resemble the
patterns on poisonous snakes. Predators
avoid eating harmless snakes that have color
patterns similar to those of the poisonous
snakes. The results of a recent study
indicate that predators in areas that have
only harmless snakes do not avoid attacking
snakes that have color patterns similar to
poisonous snakes.

State one reason why predators in some areas


attack and eat harmless snakes, even though they
have color patterns similar to those of poisonous
snakes.

12.

Base your answer(s) to the following question(s)


on the diagram below, which represents an ameba
engul ng bacteria, and on your knowledge of
biology.

14.

photosynthesis

B.

di erentiation

C.

autotrophic nutrition

local deforestation

B.

biotechnology

C.

ecological succession

Base your answer(s) to the following question(s)


on the information below and on your knowledge
of biology.

Types of Predators

When large predators, such as lions


or wolves, are removed from a food web,
smaller mesopredators step in to take their
places, and the results may be severe.
Mesopredators are usually smaller and more
numerous than the larger apex predators
that they replace. Some are also omnivores,
eating plant and animal food sources, rather
than eating the meat-only diet of the largest
predators. Examples of mesopredators
include coyotes, raccoons, and skunks.
In 1874, General George Custer noted
that there was an abundance of wolves, but
few coyotes, in South Dakota. Today,
there is an abundance of coyotes, but no
wolves. The wolves were removed to protect
domestic sheep, but now the coyotes are
often responsible for attacking sheep and
other animals. The cost of controlling
mesopredators by human intervention can
be very high, as mesopredators are very
numerous and quickly bounce back after
control e orts. Meanwhile, the number of
apex predators that are endangered continues
to increase.

The activity taking place is


A.

A.

D. habitat loss

State one advantage for a nonpoisonous snake


having coloration similar to that of a poisonous
snake.
11.

In New York State, small farms that were


abandoned many years ago have become hardwood
forests. This is an example of

Describe how the wolf population is controlled


naturally in the environment without human
intervention.

D. heterotrophic nutrition

page 3

15.

State how the mesopredator population was most


likely controlled before the wolves were removed
from the food web.

16.

If apex predators are so valuable to the ecological


balance, state one possible reason why wolves
were removed from the food web.

Ecosystems Regents Review

17.

18.

Fishermen have harvested certain sh to the point


where the population of that sh is decreasing.
This level of direct harvesting could cause
A.

ecosystems to be improved for future


generations

B.

ecosystems to be severely damaged

C.

the restoration of environmental stability

20.

The Eurasian water milfoil is a nonnative species,


which was once commonly sold as an aquarium
plant, and is now found growing in many lakes in
New York State. It has few natural enemies, and
grows rapidly, crowding out many native species.
This plant ruins shing areas and interferes with
boating and other water sports. This is an example
of
A.

human consumption of nite resources

D. all other sh species to increase in number

B.

an unintended consequence of adding an


organism to an ecosystem

Rabbits produce large numbers of o spring during


each reproductive season, yet the number of rabbits
within a given population changes very little from
year to year. The stability of the population size
is most likely the result of

C.

an abiotic factor having a negative e ect on


an ecosystem

A.

the development of mutations in young rabbits

B.

environmental factors that keep the population


in check

C.

rabbits continuing to reproduce when the


population is large

D. the introduction of a species that has increased


the long-term biodiversity of an ecosystem
21.

The graph below shows the size of a population


of foxes over a period of years.

D. the survival of more female rabbits than male


rabbits
19.

The diagram below shows a concept map.

If the line did not stay around the carrying


capacity, but continued to rise, which concept
would this graph best illustrate?

Which label correctly identi es what X represents


in the concept map?
A.

nucleus

B.

chromosome

C.

autotrophic cell

D. heterotrophic cell

A.

environmental stability

B.

genetic variety

C.

behavioral change

D. overproduction

page 4

Ecosystems Regents Review

22.

A food web is represented below.

24.

Base your answer(s) to the following question(s)


on the diagram below, which represents an ameba
engul ng bacteria, and on your knowledge of
biology.

This ameba would most likely be classi ed as a

25.

Which organism would receive the least amount of


transferred solar energy?

23.

A.

grasses

B.

C.

frogs

D.

eld mice

Some scientists have collected and stored seeds for


many types of food-producing plants. The purpose
of this is to
increase the destruction of environments

B.

continue the deforestation of world ecosystems

C.

decrease the dependence on plants for food

decomposer

B.

producer

C.

consumer

D. pathogen

Base your answer(s) to the following question(s)


and on the passage below and on your knowledge
of biology.
Ocean-dwelling (marine) iguanas and
land iguanas inhabit the Galapagos Islands.
Some scientists believe that both types of
iguanas diverged from a common ancestor.
Marine iguanas eat algae. Land iguanas feed
on cacti. Algae are more abundant in the
ocean than cacti are on the islands. Both
species lay their eggs in the sand.
Rats, cats, and goats have been
introduced to the islands by humans. Rats
feed on iguana eggs, cats eat baby iguanas,
and goats eat cacti.

owls

A.

A.

Which population of iguanas, marine or land,


would you expect to be larger? Support your
answer.

D. preserve the diversity of plant species

page 5

Ecosystems Regents Review

26.

Base your answer(s) to the following question(s)


on the graph below on your knowledge of biology.
The graph shows the size of a population over
time.

28.

Which graph correctly represents the pattern of


human population growth over the past 5000
years?

Which term best identi es line B in the graph?


A.

niche of the species in the environment

B.

biodiversity in the environment

C.

carrying capacity of the environment

A.
29.

D. number of populations in the environment


27.

(1)

(1)

(2)

(2)

(3)
B.

(2)

C.

(3)

D. (4)

A study was done on three di erent sh species


living in a pond in New York State. The in uence
of temperature on the growth rates of the sh
populations is shown in the graph below.

The diagram below represents factors that a ect


New York State ecosystems.

In this pond where these sh live, temperature is a

An increase in human activity at X would most


likely result in

A.

limiting factor

A.

a decrease in rainfall in the area

B.

hereditary factor

B.

a decrease in available carbon dioxide

C.

source of ATP

C.

an increase in air pollution in the area

D. source of solar energy

D. an increase in the supply of fossil fuels

page 6

Ecosystems Regents Review

30.

31.

Which type of organism helps to reduce


atmospheric carbon dioxide?
A.

carnivores

B.

C.

decomposers

D. herbivores

32.

Base your answer to the following question on the


diagram, below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents a food web in an
ecosystem.

producers

Which statement best describes an ecosystem


maintaining a state of approximate equilibrium?
A.

Nutrients from decayed organisms are recycled


in a forest ecosystem.

B.

All the frog species in a South American rain


forest become extinct.

C.

A mutation spreads through a species of


bacterium, making them unable to decompose
wastes.
If the population of hawks in this area increases,
their prey populations might decrease. Later, with
fewer prey, the hawk population might decrease.
The prey populations might then increase. This is
an example of

D. Mice are released into a eld ecosystem as


food for a declining predator population.

A.

an ecosystem that is completely out of balance

B.

how ecosystems maintain stability over time

C.

interaction between biotic and abiotic factors


within an ecosystem

D. ecological succession in an ecosystem

page 7

Ecosystems Regents Review

33.

Missing from the diagram of this ecosystem are


the

34.

Which row in the chart below best identi es the


relationship between the mice and the wheat?
Row

Role of Mice

Role of Wheat

(2)

predator

host

(3)

host

predator

(4)

consumer

producer

(1)

A.
35.

A.

biotic factors and decomposers

B.

abiotic factors and decomposers

C.

autotrophs, only

(1)

producer

B.

(2)

C.

consumer

(3)

D. (4)

Base your answer(s) to the following question(s)


on the graph below on your knowledge of biology.
The graph shows the size of a population over
time.

D. heterotrophs, only

State one reason for the changes in population size


represented by line A between years 5 and 10.

page 8

Ecosystems Regents Review

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Ecosystems Regents Review

01/13/2017

1.
Answer:

17.
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2.
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18.
Answer:

3.
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19.
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4.
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20.
Answer:

5.
Answer:

21.
Answer:

6.
Answer:

22.
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7.
Answer:

23.
Answer:

8.
Answer:

[answers vary] ex: light

24.
Answer:

9.
Answer:

10.
Answer:
11.
Answer:

[answers vary] ex: Yes, both ants


and Bagheera kiplingi eat the yellow
vegetables of acacia shrubs.
[answers vary] ex: Predators will avoid it.
[answers vary] ex: The predators have
never experienced the negative e ects of
attacking/eating poisonous snakes.

25.
Answer:

The population is larger because their


food supply is greater than that of th land
iguanas

26.
Answer:

27.
Answer:

28.
Answer:

12.
Answer:

13.
Answer:

29.
Answer:

30.
Answer:

31.
Answer:

32.
Answer:

33.
Answer:

34.
Answer:

14.
Answer:
15.
Answer:
16.
Answer:

[answers vary] ex: The population


is controlled by the amount of food
available.
[answers vary] ex: The wolves ate the
mesopredators.
[answers vary] ex: Ranchers were
concerned that the wolves would eat the
sheep.

Teacher's Key
35.
Answer:

Populations grow until they exceed


the limits of the environment,and then
they die o until they fall below
environmentallimits.
Changes in available food cause
changes in population size.

Parasites/disease/starvation causes
population sizes to vary.

Variations in predator populations will


cause changes in preypopulations.

Page 2