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# GENERAL TYPES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

## 1. UPFEED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

a. Direct system
b. Pneumatic air-pressure system
2. DOWNFEED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

## SPRING WATER SOURCE

In most conditions, springs are shallow wells with water supply just a few meters from
the ground surface. If this is the source of domestic water supply, careful attention must
be given to yield and purify. The flow may stop during dry season or surface water may
get contaminated.
Spring water can be developed so as to secure maximum protection from contamination
by excavating sufficiently to locate the true spring openings and to insure a secure
foundation for the encasing structure. This structure is known as a spring box which
serves as a collector for spring water. Water collected from the spring box flows to a
larger storage tank and then to the distribution pipes.
The determination of the yield of the spring water source employs a very simple
procedure. They are as follows:
1. Channel the flow of the spring into a collection basin. Make sure that the basin
collects all available flow.
2. Place an overflow pipe through the dam so that the collected water flows freely
through the pipe. There should be no leakage around the pipe.
3. Put a bucket of known volume (for example, a 10-liter bucket) under the overflow
pipe to catch the flow.
4. With a watch, measure the amount of time it takes to fill the bucket. At this
instance, the rate of flow can be determined.
5. Check the rate of flow per day if it is sufficient to supply the daily water demand
of the occupants.
SAMPLE PROBLEMS (DETERMINATION OF SPRING YIELD)
It takes a spring 60 seconds to fill a 10-liter bucket. Determine if its daily yield is
sufficient to the water demand of the community of 200 people. The average daily water
consumption per person is 60 liters.
Solution:
 Determine the rate of flow ( in liters/ second)
Rate of Flow= 10 liters = 0.16 liters/ second
60 seconds
 Determine the daily yield ( liters/day)
Daily yield=
=

## 0.16 liter x 60 seconds x 60 minutes x 24 hours

Second
1 minute
1 hour
1 day
13, 824 liters per day

##  Determine total daily water demand

Total demand= 200 persons x 60 liters/ person / day
= 12,000 liters per day
Therefore, the spring with the daily flow of 13,824 liters can sufficiently meet the
demand of the community of 200 people.
WELLS
Wells are holes or shafts sunk into the earth to obtain water from an aquifer. An aquifer
is a water-bearing formation of gravel, permeable rock or sand that is capable of
providing water, in usable quantities, to springs or wells.
The design and proper construction of a well require scientific knowledge of
hydrogeology, common sense and practical experience.
The types of wells generally refer to the method of its construction, which are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dub
Bored
Driven
Drilled
a. Percussion or standard
b. Rotary
c. Reverse-circulation rotary
d. Jetting

1. Dug wells- These are wells 60 centimeters or more in diameter dug through
the soft upper soil. The sides may be of masonry or concrete to prevent from caving-in.
It is necessary that the well should be impervious to a depth of at least 3 meters.
2. Bored wells these are constructed using either hand or power driven earth
auger. A well casing is lowered to the bottom of the hole. After the boring is complete,
cement grout is poured to fill the gap between the bored hole and the well casing. This
is to prevent contamination.
3. Driven wells- a driven well is done by forcing into the earth a 60 to 90
centimeter long piece of perforated steel tube attached to a pointed screen called a
drive point. This type of well varies from 32 mm diameter at a depth of 3 to 12 meters.
4. Drilled Wells- A drilling rig is used to drill the well hole and then a casing or
tubular pipe is forced down the hole to prevent it from caving-in. when a water-bearing
stratum of sufficient capacity is found, a well screen is set in place to permit the water to
flow into the casing and to hold back the fine material. The depth of this well is limited

CORPORATION COCK- a valve screwed into the street water main to supply the house
service connection.
GOOSE NECK- the part of a pipe curve like the neck of a goose, usually flexible.
CURB STOP- A control valve for the water supply of a building, usually placed in case of
emergency or should the water supply of the building be discontinued.

only by the distance one must dig to obtain an adequate supply of fresh water, even
down to 450 meters.
RAIN WATER SOURCE
In terms of resource conservation, rainwater is an attractive alternative. Rain water is
soft and is near to the purest state in the hydrological cycle. However, air pollution
causes rainwater to be acidic which corrode non-ferrous pipes and cause rusting and
clogging of steel pipes.

## WATER CONNECTION DETAIL

In spite of these conditions, rainwater collection system remains a viable water source
alternative. This system typically employ a cistern or covered reservoir tanks to store
water collected from roofs or other relatively clean, impervious surfaces. The collected
rain can be used for flushing water closets and urinals, as well as for landscape
purposes wherein potable water is not necessary.
The city council of Cebu promulgated City Ordinance No. 1711 otherwise known as the
water conservation and Flood Prevention ordinance. This ordinance requires all
projects to provide a permanent rainwater tank or container proportionate to the roof
area. These are stated as follows:
A. For commercial, Industrial and Institutional buildings
One cubic meter of tank/ container for every fifteen (15) square meters of roof
area and deck, up to a maximum of seven (7) cubic meters.
B. For Residential Buildings (Php 500,000.00 and above project cost)
One cubic meter of tank/ container for every fifteen (15) square meters of roof
area and deck, up to a maximum of three (3) cubic meters.
SIZING OF RAIN WATER CISTERN
There are two methods that can be used in determining the size of the storage tank for
rain water:

WATER METER- a mechanical device used to measure the volume of water passing
through a pipe.
METER STOP- A valve placed at the street side of the water meter and serves as a
controlling device for the building installation.

1. The use of Cebu city Ordinance 1711 which states that for every fifteen (15)
square meter of roof area, one (1) cubic meter of rain water can be collected.
This is the short method of sizing the cistern.
2. The use of the rain fall data of the locality. This is the long method of determining
the size of the cistern.
SAMPLE PROBLEM1: SIZING OF RAINWATER CISTERN BY LOCAL RAINFALL
DATA

As part of the design problem, it was required that 5 water closets, 2 urinals and
2 slop sinks of a school building in Cebu city be provided with an alternative source of
water supply, specifically from rainfall catchment. Your are to determine the size of the
rainwater cistern based on the following givens or assumptions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Water closets shall be flush tank types

Rainfall data of Cebu is available from PAGASA
Roof area is 1,000 square meter.
Capacity of cistern to satisfy 30 minute duration of water demand
Rainfall catchment efficiency is 80%.

Solution
1. Solving for rainwater demand load
Water closet: 5 x 5 WSFU =
Urinal
: 2 x 5 WSFU =
Slop Sink : 2 x 10 WSFU=
Total demand=

25
10
20
55 WSFU

##  From tables of valves, the equivalent for 55 WSFU is 29 GPM

 The estimate daily demand is:
Daily demand = 29 gallons x 30 mins. = 870 gallons
Mins
 The estimated annual demand is:
Annual Demand= 870 gallons/ day x 365 days = 317,550 gallons
Or
1,201,926.75 liters
 The estimated average monthly demand is:
1,201,926.75 liters / 12 = 100,160.56
Or
100.16 cubic meters
2. Determining the rain fall data from PAGASA ( average precipitation rate in
millimeters)
January
109.00m
July
196.70
February
71.10
August
152.70
March
54.60
September
186.70
April
58.60
October
201.40
May
120.90
November
162.30
June
177.00
December
137.70
Average annual rainfall:

1628.70 mm

## SERVICE TAP CONNECTION DETAIL

Fittings
A variety of fittings must be used to install the piping in the project. Fittings are
accessories usually standardized, used for joining two or more pipes together.

## 3. Solving for the amount of available rain water per month:

Available rain water = monthly rain fall x roof area x 80%
Therefore:

Fittings include:
1. Nipple- a short of piece of pipe, threaded on the outside (male threads) at both
ends, used to join couplings or other fittings
a. Short nipple- below 75mm in length. Also known as shoulder nipple.
b. Long nipple- over 75mm in length.
c. Close nipple- where threading meet.
2. Couple- a short internally threaded (female thread) at both ends and used to
connect two pipes in straight line.
3. Elbow- a pipe fitting having a bend and makes an angle (90o or 45o) between
adjacent pipes for a change in direction. It is also known as ell or straight elbow.
a. Reducing elbow- Joins two pipes of different diameters at right angle of each
other. When specifying reducer fittings, the bigger diameter is stated first,
(followed by the smaller diameter. (example: reducing elbow, 25mm x 20mm)
b. Street elbow- an elbow fitting having a 45o or 90o bend with an inside thread
on one end and outside thread on the other. It is also known as service ell or
street ell.
4. Tee- a T-shaped pipe fitting that joins 3 or 4 pipes at perpendicular directions.
a. Straight tee
c. reducing tee
b. Straight cross tee
d. reducing cross tee

January

February

56, 880

March

54.60 x 800

43,680

April

58.60 x800

46,880

May

120.90 x 800

96,720

June

177.00 x 800

141,600

July

197.70 x 800

157,360

August

152.70 x 800

122,160

September

186.70 x 800

149,360

October

201.40 x 800

161,120

November

162.30 x 800

129,840

December

137.70 x 800

110,160

TOTAL

## THE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

ELEMENTS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
1. WATER SERVICE OR HOUSE SERVICE
2. WATER METER

## 3. HORIZONTAL SUPPLY MAIN OR DISTRIBUTION MAIN

4. RISERS
5. FIXTURES BRANCHES
6. VALVES AND CONTROLS
7. STORAGE TANKS

1,302, 960 / 12

1,302,960 liters

= 108,580 liters

January
February
March
April
May
June

87,200 liters
144,080
187,760
234,640
331,360
472,960

July
August
September
October
November
December

630,320
752,480
901,840
1,062,960
1,192,800
1,302,960

## CHAPTER 9: DOMESTIC COLD WATER SUPPLY

Definition
The domestic cold water supply of the plumbing system consists of the piping and
fittings which supply cold water from the building water supply to the fixtures, such as
lavatories, bath, tubs, water closets and kitchen sinks. This is also known as water
distribution system.
Elements of water Distribution system
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## Water service or house service

Water meter
Horizontal supply main or distribution main
Riser
Fixture branches
Valves and control
Storage tanks

## General types of water distribution system

1. Upfeed Distribution system
a. Direct
b. Pneumatic air-pressure system
2. Down feed distribution system
Materials for Mains, Risers and Branches
1. Galvanized Iron (G.I.) Pipes and fittings, schedule 40- is moderately corrosion
resistant and suitable for mildly acid water. It is connected to its fitting with
threaded connections. It is available in diameters form 12 mm (1/2) to 300 mm
(12) at a length of 6 meters (20 feet).
2. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Pipes and fittings, schedule 40- is economy and ease of
instruction make it popular, especially on low budget projects.
3. Polybutilyne (PB) pipe
4. Polyethylene (PE) pipe
5. Copper Pipes and Tubing
a. Type K- used primarily for underground water service. It is color-coded in
green.
b. Type L- is most popular for use in water supply system. It is color-coded in
blue.
c. Type M- it has the thinnest wall and is used where water pressure is not
too great. It is color-coded in red.