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What is a Communications System?

Actual

Real Life
Message

Real Life
Message

Input Signal

Replica

Output Signal

Input
Transducer

Output
Transducer
Electronic Signal

Electronic Signal
Transmitter

Transmitted
Signal

Channel

Received
Signal

Receiver

Noise and Distortion

Modulation/Coding
Redundancy

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)


Capacity

Demodulation
Error Correction

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Classification of Signals
Continuous-time and Discrete-time Signals

Analog and Digital Signals


Deterministic and Random Signals
Periodic and Aperiodic Signals
Energy and Power Signals

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Continuous vs. Discrete Time


Analog vs. Digital
Time

Value

Continuous

Continuous

Analog

Continuous

Discrete

Digital

Discrete

Continuous

Discrete

Discrete

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Some Examples

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Deterministic vs. Random Signals

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Effect of SNR

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Periodic vs. Aperiodic Signals


Signal is Periodic if :

g (t ) g (t nT )
Period of the Periodic Signal
Frequency of the Periodic Signal

=T
= f = 1/T

If the signal is not Periodic, it will be Aperiodic

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Some Examples
g (t ) 3 sin( 400t )
g (t ) 2 t 2

g (t ) sin(12t ) sin( 6t )

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Size of the Signal?


Energy of Signal

Eg

g (t )

dt

Power of Signal (Time Average Energy)


T /2

1
2
Pg lim
g (t ) dt

T T
T / 2
RMS value of Signal

Pg

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Example of Energy and Power Signals

Neither

g (t ) e t / 2

Energy Signal

g (t ) u (t )e t / 2

Power Signal

g (t ) C cos(0t 0 )

Power Signal

g (t ) C1 cos(1t 1 ) C2 cos(2t 2 )

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Example 1 neither energy nor power signal

g (t ) e t / 2

Eg

g (t )

dt

t / 2 2

dt

e dt e
t

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Example 2 energy signal

g (t ) u (t )e t / 2

Eg

g (t )

dt

t / 2 2

dt

e dt e
t

t
0

0 1 1

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Example 3 power signal

g (t ) C cos(0t 0 )
T /2

1
2
g
(
t
)
dt

T T
T / 2

Pg lim

T /2

1
2
2
lim
C
cos
(0t 0 )dt
T T
T / 2
T /2

1
C2
lim
[1 cos(20t 2 0 )]dt
T T
2
T / 2
C2
lim
T 2T

T /2

C2
dt lim

T 2T
T / 2

T /2

cos(2 t 2
0

T / 2

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)]dt

2 T /2

C
T 2T

lim

C
T 2T

dt lim

T / 2

2 T /2

cos(2 t 2
0

)]dt

T / 2

C2
C2
lim
(T ) lim
(0)
T 2T
T 2T

C2

2
C2
Pg
2

For a sinosoidal signal regardless


of frequency and phase shift

RMS value C / 2
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Example 4 power signal

g (t ) C1 cos(1t 1 ) C2 cos(2t 2 )
T /2

1
2
Pg lim
g
(
t
)
dt

T T
T / 2
T /2

T /2

1
1
2
2
2
2
lim
C
cos
(

)
dt

lim
C
cos
(2t 2 )dt
1
1
1
2
T T
T T
T / 2
T / 2
2C1C2
T
T

lim

T /2

cos( t ) cos( t
1

)dt

T / 2

C12 C22
2C1C2

lim
2
2 T T

T /2

cos( t ) cos( t
1

T / 2

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)dt

T /2

C12 C22
2C1C2

lim
2
2 T T
Hint ->

cos( t ) cos( t
1

)dt

T / 2

cos(a b) cos(a b) 2 cos a cos b

C12 C22
C1C2
Pg

lim
2
2 T T

T /2

cos[(

2 )t 1 2 ]dt

T / 2

C1C2
lim
T T
C12 C22
Pg

2
2

T /2

cos[(

2 )t 1 2 ]dt

T / 2

Power of the sum of the two sinosoid signals with


distinct frequencies is equal to the sum of the
powers of the individual signals

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Generalizing the Result

g (t ) Cn cos(n t n )
n 1

Cn2
Pg
n 1 2
It is called Parsevals Theorem

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Some Important Operations on Signals

Time Shifting

x(t ) g (t a)

Time Scaling

t
x(t ) g ( )
a

Time Inversion

x(t ) g (t )

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Unit Impulse Function


Definition:

(t ) 0

t0

(t ) 1

Sampling Property

g (t ) (t )dt g (0)

or

g (t ) (t a)dt g (a)

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Unit Step Function


Definition:

u (t )
0

t0
t0

Can you represent u(t) in terms of unit impulse function?


t

u (t ) ( x)dx

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Components of a Signal
Lets approximate a signal with another signal

g (t ) cx(t )

t1 t t2

Error of approximation is:

e(t ) g (t ) cx(t )
Energy (size) of error is

t1 t t2

t2

Ee e 2 (t )dt
t1
t2

[ g (t ) cx (t )]2 dt
t1

For best approximation, energy needs to be minimized


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To minimize energy, a necessary condition is

t2

d
2
[
g
(
t
)

cx
(
t
)]
dt 0

dc t1
t2

or

dEe
0
dc

t2

t2

d
d
d
2
2 2
g
(
t
)
dt

c
x
(
t
)
dt

2cg (t ) x(t )dt 0

dc t1
dc t1
dc t1
t2

t2

t1

t1

2c x 2 (t )dt 2 g (t ) x(t )dt 0


t2

g (t ) x(t )dt
t1
t2

2
x
(t )dt

t2

g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1

cx(t) is the projection


of g(t) on x(t)

t1

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Example 1
g (t )
1

-1

0 t 2

g (t ) c sin t

c?

We know

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1
2

t sin 2t
E x sin 2 tdt
2
4
0

2
2
1

1
c g (t ) sin tdt sin tdt sin tdt
0

(1 1) (1 1) 4

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Example 2
g (t )
1

-1

x(t )

0 t 2

g (t ) cx (t )

c?

We know

-1

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1

E x 1dt t 0 2
0

1
c
1dt 1dt 1
2 0

g(t) has a full projection on x(t) both are same


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Example 3
g (t )
1

x(t )

0 t 2

g (t ) cx (t )

c?

We know

-1

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1

E x 1dt t 0 2
0

1
c
(1)dt (1)dt 1
2 0

g(t) has a full negative projection on x(t)


or g(t) and x(t) are opposite to each other
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Example 4
g (t )
1

-1

x(t )

0 t 2

g (t ) cx (t )

c?

We know

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1

E x 1dt t 0 2
0

1
c
1dt (1)dt 0
2 0

g(t) does not have any projection on x(t)


or g(t) and x(t) are orthogonal to each other
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Correlation between Signals


g (t ) cx(t )

We already know, if

t1 t t2

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1
Lets define a correlation co-efficient between two functions, g(t) and x(t), as

cn

1
Eg Ex

t2

g (t ) x(t )dt

t1 t t2

t1

Or to generalize

cn

1
Eg Ex

cn 1
Opposite

g (t ) x(t )dt

1 cn 1

Orthogonal

Itself

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Energy of Sum of Orthogonal Signals


z (t ) g (t ) x(t )

t1 t t 2

If g(t) and x(t) are orthogonal, then

Ez Eg Ex
By definition:
t2

E z [ g (t ) x(t )]2 dt
t1
t2

t2

t2

t1

t1

t1

g 2 (t )dt x 2 (t )dt 2 g (t ) x(t )dt

Eg Ex

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Orthogonal Signal Set


Lets define a signal set x1(t), x2(t), ., xN(t), such that

x
(
t
)
x
(
t
)
dt

t m n

t2

m n

En

m n

t1 t t2

Then, x1(t), x2(t), ., xN(t) are called orthogonal signal set


and if En is = 1, then the set is called orthonormal
Now lets assume

g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c2 x2 (t ) c3 x3 (t ) ..... cN xN (t ) cn xn (t )
n 1

t2

Then for best


approximation i.e.,
minimized error energy

g (t ) x (t )dt
n

cn

t1
t2

2
x
n (t )dt

1 2

g (t ) xn (t )dt

En t1

t1

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If the orthogonal set is complete, then error energy -> 0, i.e.,


approximation changes to equality
N

g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c2 x2 (t ) c3 x3 (t ) ..... cN x N (t ) cn xn (t )
n 1

The above equation is called generalized Fourier Series


What about energy of g(t)? Parseals Theorem
N

E g c E1 c E2 c E3 ..... c E N cn2 En
2
1

2
2

2
3

2
N

n 1

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An Example of Complete Orthogonal Signal Set


{1, cos0t , cos 20t , cos 30t.....

0 2f 0

sin 0t , sin 20t , sin 30t ,.....}


Follows by:

0
T cos n0t cos m0tdt T0 / 2

0
T sin n0t sin m0tdt T0 / 2

sin n t cos m tdt 0


0

m n
mn0

m n
mn0

for all m and n

T0

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2
T0

Lets assume:

g (t ) a0 a1 cos0t a2 cos 20t a3 cos 30t .....


b1 sin 0t b2 sin 20t b3 sin 30t .....

t1 t t 2 T0

a0 [an cos n0t bn sin n0t ]


n 1

Remember:

1 2
cn
g (t ) xn (t )dt

En t1

Therefore,

2
an
T0
2
bn
T0

t1 T0

g (t ) cos n tdt
0

n 1,2,3...

t1
t1 T0

g (t ) sin n tdt
0

t1

n 1,2,3...

1
a0
T0

t1 T0

g (t )dt
t1

Trigonometric
Fourier Series

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2
T0

Concept of
representing a
periodic signal
with a summation
of sinusoids

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Compact Trigonometric Fourier Series

g (t ) a0 [an cos n0t bn sin n0t ]


n 1

C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

Compact Trigonometric
Fourier Series

Where

Cn an2 bn2

bn

an

n tan 1

Also called Fourier Spectrum


of periodic signal

C 0 a0

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Example 1
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

g (t )
1

0.25

0.75

1.25

-1

Without any mathematical calculations,

a0

bn

1
T0

2
T0

t 0 T0

g (t )dt 0

t0

t 0 T0

g (t ) sin( n t )dt 0
0

t0

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Example 1 Cont.
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

g (t )
1

0.25

0.75

1.25

-1

2
an
T0

t 0 T0

g (t ) cos(n t )dt
0

t0

0.5

0.5

0.5

an 2 g (t ) cos(2nt )dt 2 x 2 g (t ) cos(2nt )dt


0.25

0.5

0.25

4 cos(2nt )dt 4 (1) cos(2nt )dt


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0.25

0.5

0.25

4 cos(2nt )dt 4 (1) cos(2nt )dt


0.25

0.5

0.25

4 cos(2nt )dt 4 cos(2nt )dt


4 sin( 2nt )
4 sin( 2nt )

2n
2n
0
0.25
0.25

0.5

2
n
2
n
4
n
sin( ) ( sin( )) sin( )
n
2
n
2
n
2
4
n
an sin( )
n
2
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Example 1 Cont.
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

g (t )
1

0.25

0.75

1.25

-1

4
n
an sin( )
n
2
a1

a4 0

a2 0

4
a5
5

4
a3
3

a6 0

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Example 1 Cont.
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

g (t )
1

0.25

0.75

1.25

-1

g (t ) a0 [an cos n0t bn sin n0t ]


n 1

g (t )

cos(0t )

4
4
4
cos(30t )
cos(50t )
cos(70t ) ...
3
5
7

4
4
4
cos((2 )t )
cos(3(2 )t )
cos(5(2 )t )
cos(7(2 )t ) ...

3
5
7
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Example 2
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

y(t )
2

0.25

0.75

1.25

y(t ) 1 g (t )
We know that
4
4
4
4
g (t ) cos((2 )t )
cos(3(2 )t )
cos(5(2 )t )
cos(7(2 )t ) ...

3
5
7
Therefore,
4
4
4
4
y(t ) 1 cos((2 )t )
cos(3(2 )t )
cos(5(2 )t )
cos(7(2 )t ) ...

3
5
7
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Example 3
T0 f 0

y(t )

1
2
0
T0
T0

0.25T0

0.75T0

1.25T0

We know that with time period = 1 sec


4
4
4
4
y(t ) 1 cos((2 )t )
cos(3(2 )t )
cos(5(2 )t )
cos(7(2 )t ) ...

3
5
7

Therefore, with time period of T0

y(t ) 1

cos(0t )

4
4
cos(30t )
cos(50t ) ...
3
5

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Example

1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

T0

T0

2T0

g (t ) C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

1
a0
T0

t 0 T0

1
t (t )dt T0
0

Remember definition of
impulse function

(t ) 1

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Example cont.

1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

2
an
T0

2
bn
T0

T0

T0

2T0

t 0 T0

2
t (t ) cos(n0t )dt T0
0

Remember extended sampling


properties of impulse function

t 0 T0

(t ) sin( n t )dt 0
0

g (t ) (t ) g (0)

t0

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Example cont.

1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

1
a0
T0
2
an
T0
bn 0

T0

T0

2T0

C 0 a0

1
T0

2
C n a b an
T0
2
n

2
n

bn
0
n tan
an
1

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Example cont.

1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

T0

T0

2T0

g (t ) C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

1 2
cos(n0t )
T0 n1 T0

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Example cont.
Time Domain Signal
T0 f 0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

T0

T0

2T0

2 0

1
2
0
T0
T0

Fourier Spectrum

Cn
2
T0

3 0

4 0

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Energy of Signal Revisited


Energy of Signal is defined

Eg

g (t )

dt

and not

Eg

2
g
(t )dt

To accommodate complex signals


Because

g (t ) g (t ) g (t ) g 2 (t )

for real signals

g (t ) g (t ) g * (t )

for complex signals

Similarly,

g (t ) x(t )

becomes g (t ) x* (t )

complex signals

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Another Example of orthogonal Signal Set


(again periodic)

e
T0

jm0t

jn 0t

(n 0,1,2,...)

e dt e
jn 0t *

j ( m n )0 t

0 2f 0

dt

T0

cos(m n)0t j sin( m n)0t dt


T0

cos(m n)0tdt j sin( m n)0tdt


T0

T
0

T0

m n
mn 0

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2
T0

Exponential Fourier Series


g (t )

jn 0 t
D
e
n

By orthogonality

1
jn 0t *
Dn g (t ) e
dt
T0 T0
or

1
Dn g (t )e jn0t dt
T0 T0

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Compact to Exponential Fourier Series

g (t ) C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

Cn j ( n0t n ) j ( n0t n )
C0
e
e
n 1 2

Cn j n jn0t Cn j n jn0t
C0 e e
e e

2
2

n 1

D0 Dn e jn0t D n e jn0t

n 1

D0

D e

n
n0

jn 0t

jn 0 t
D
e
n

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Lets look back on the Example of Impulse Train


1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

T0

T0

2T0

g (t ) C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

1 2
cos(n0t )
T0 n1 T0

1
D0 C0
T0
C n j n 1
Dn
e
2
T0

D n

C n j n 1
e

2
T0

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Time Domain Signal

2T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

T0

Fourier Spectrum

1
2
0
T0
T0

T0

2T0

2 0

3 0

4 0

2 0

3 0

4 0

Cn

2
T0

Exponential Fourier
Spectrum

T0 f 0

Dn
1
T0

4 0 30 2 0

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering