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# What is a Communications System?

Actual

Real Life
Message

Real Life
Message

Input Signal

Replica

Output Signal

Input
Transducer

Output
Transducer
Electronic Signal

Electronic Signal
Transmitter

Transmitted
Signal

Channel

Signal

## Noise and Distortion

Modulation/Coding
Redundancy

Capacity

Demodulation
Error Correction

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Classification of Signals
Continuous-time and Discrete-time Signals

## Analog and Digital Signals

Deterministic and Random Signals
Periodic and Aperiodic Signals
Energy and Power Signals

## Continuous vs. Discrete Time

Analog vs. Digital
Time

Value

Continuous

Continuous

Analog

Continuous

Discrete

Digital

Discrete

Continuous

Discrete

Discrete

Some Examples

Effect of SNR

## Periodic vs. Aperiodic Signals

Signal is Periodic if :

g (t ) g (t nT )
Period of the Periodic Signal
Frequency of the Periodic Signal

=T
= f = 1/T

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Some Examples
g (t ) 3 sin( 400t )
g (t ) 2 t 2

g (t ) sin(12t ) sin( 6t )

Energy of Signal

Eg

g (t )

dt

## Power of Signal (Time Average Energy)

T /2

1
2
Pg lim
g (t ) dt

T T
T / 2
RMS value of Signal

Pg

## Example of Energy and Power Signals

Neither

g (t ) e t / 2

Energy Signal

g (t ) u (t )e t / 2

Power Signal

g (t ) C cos(0t 0 )

Power Signal

g (t ) C1 cos(1t 1 ) C2 cos(2t 2 )

g (t ) e t / 2

Eg

g (t )

dt

t / 2 2

dt

e dt e
t

## Example 2 energy signal

g (t ) u (t )e t / 2

Eg

g (t )

dt

t / 2 2

dt

e dt e
t

t
0

0 1 1

## Example 3 power signal

g (t ) C cos(0t 0 )
T /2

1
2
g
(
t
)
dt

T T
T / 2

Pg lim

T /2

1
2
2
lim
C
cos
(0t 0 )dt
T T
T / 2
T /2

1
C2
lim
[1 cos(20t 2 0 )]dt
T T
2
T / 2
C2
lim
T 2T

T /2

C2
dt lim

T 2T
T / 2

T /2

cos(2 t 2
0

T / 2

)]dt

2 T /2

C
T 2T

lim

C
T 2T

dt lim

T / 2

2 T /2

cos(2 t 2
0

)]dt

T / 2

C2
C2
lim
(T ) lim
(0)
T 2T
T 2T

C2

2
C2
Pg
2

## For a sinosoidal signal regardless

of frequency and phase shift

RMS value C / 2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

## Example 4 power signal

g (t ) C1 cos(1t 1 ) C2 cos(2t 2 )
T /2

1
2
Pg lim
g
(
t
)
dt

T T
T / 2
T /2

T /2

1
1
2
2
2
2
lim
C
cos
(

)
dt

lim
C
cos
(2t 2 )dt
1
1
1
2
T T
T T
T / 2
T / 2
2C1C2
T
T

lim

T /2

cos( t ) cos( t
1

)dt

T / 2

C12 C22
2C1C2

lim
2
2 T T

T /2

cos( t ) cos( t
1

T / 2

)dt

T /2

C12 C22
2C1C2

lim
2
2 T T
Hint ->

cos( t ) cos( t
1

)dt

T / 2

C12 C22
C1C2
Pg

lim
2
2 T T

T /2

cos[(

2 )t 1 2 ]dt

T / 2

C1C2
lim
T T
C12 C22
Pg

2
2

T /2

cos[(

2 )t 1 2 ]dt

T / 2

## Power of the sum of the two sinosoid signals with

distinct frequencies is equal to the sum of the
powers of the individual signals

## Generalizing the Result

g (t ) Cn cos(n t n )
n 1

Cn2
Pg
n 1 2
It is called Parsevals Theorem

Time Shifting

x(t ) g (t a)

Time Scaling

t
x(t ) g ( )
a

Time Inversion

x(t ) g (t )

## Unit Impulse Function

Definition:

(t ) 0

t0

(t ) 1

Sampling Property

g (t ) (t )dt g (0)

or

g (t ) (t a)dt g (a)

Definition:

u (t )
0

t0
t0

t

u (t ) ( x)dx

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Components of a Signal
Lets approximate a signal with another signal

g (t ) cx(t )

t1 t t2

## Error of approximation is:

e(t ) g (t ) cx(t )
Energy (size) of error is

t1 t t2

t2

Ee e 2 (t )dt
t1
t2

[ g (t ) cx (t )]2 dt
t1

## For best approximation, energy needs to be minimized

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

t2

d
2
[
g
(
t
)

cx
(
t
)]
dt 0

dc t1
t2

or

dEe
0
dc

t2

t2

d
d
d
2
2 2
g
(
t
)
dt

c
x
(
t
)
dt

dc t1
dc t1
dc t1
t2

t2

t1

t1

t2

g (t ) x(t )dt
t1
t2

2
x
(t )dt

t2

g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1

of g(t) on x(t)

t1

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example 1
g (t )
1

-1

0 t 2

g (t ) c sin t

c?

We know

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1
2

t sin 2t
E x sin 2 tdt
2
4
0

2
2
1

1
c g (t ) sin tdt sin tdt sin tdt
0

(1 1) (1 1) 4

Example 2
g (t )
1

-1

x(t )

0 t 2

g (t ) cx (t )

c?

We know

-1

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1

E x 1dt t 0 2
0

1
c
1dt 1dt 1
2 0

## g(t) has a full projection on x(t) both are same

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example 3
g (t )
1

x(t )

0 t 2

g (t ) cx (t )

c?

We know

-1

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1

E x 1dt t 0 2
0

1
c
(1)dt (1)dt 1
2 0

## g(t) has a full negative projection on x(t)

or g(t) and x(t) are opposite to each other
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example 4
g (t )
1

-1

x(t )

0 t 2

g (t ) cx (t )

c?

We know

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1

E x 1dt t 0 2
0

1
c
1dt (1)dt 0
2 0

## g(t) does not have any projection on x(t)

or g(t) and x(t) are orthogonal to each other
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

## Correlation between Signals

g (t ) cx(t )

t1 t t2

1 2
c
g (t ) x(t )dt

E x t1
Lets define a correlation co-efficient between two functions, g(t) and x(t), as

cn

1
Eg Ex

t2

g (t ) x(t )dt

t1 t t2

t1

Or to generalize

cn

1
Eg Ex

cn 1
Opposite

g (t ) x(t )dt

1 cn 1

Orthogonal

Itself

## Energy of Sum of Orthogonal Signals

z (t ) g (t ) x(t )

t1 t t 2

## If g(t) and x(t) are orthogonal, then

Ez Eg Ex
By definition:
t2

E z [ g (t ) x(t )]2 dt
t1
t2

t2

t2

t1

t1

t1

Eg Ex

## Orthogonal Signal Set

Lets define a signal set x1(t), x2(t), ., xN(t), such that

x
(
t
)
x
(
t
)
dt

t m n

t2

m n

En

m n

t1 t t2

## Then, x1(t), x2(t), ., xN(t) are called orthogonal signal set

and if En is = 1, then the set is called orthonormal
Now lets assume

g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c2 x2 (t ) c3 x3 (t ) ..... cN xN (t ) cn xn (t )
n 1

t2

## Then for best

approximation i.e.,
minimized error energy

g (t ) x (t )dt
n

cn

t1
t2

2
x
n (t )dt

1 2

g (t ) xn (t )dt

En t1

t1

## If the orthogonal set is complete, then error energy -> 0, i.e.,

approximation changes to equality
N

g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c2 x2 (t ) c3 x3 (t ) ..... cN x N (t ) cn xn (t )
n 1

## The above equation is called generalized Fourier Series

What about energy of g(t)? Parseals Theorem
N

E g c E1 c E2 c E3 ..... c E N cn2 En
2
1

2
2

2
3

2
N

n 1

## An Example of Complete Orthogonal Signal Set

{1, cos0t , cos 20t , cos 30t.....

0 2f 0

## sin 0t , sin 20t , sin 30t ,.....}

Follows by:

0
T cos n0t cos m0tdt T0 / 2

0
T sin n0t sin m0tdt T0 / 2

0

m n
mn0

m n
mn0

T0

2
T0

Lets assume:

## g (t ) a0 a1 cos0t a2 cos 20t a3 cos 30t .....

b1 sin 0t b2 sin 20t b3 sin 30t .....

t1 t t 2 T0

n 1

Remember:

1 2
cn
g (t ) xn (t )dt

En t1

Therefore,

2
an
T0
2
bn
T0

t1 T0

g (t ) cos n tdt
0

n 1,2,3...

t1
t1 T0

g (t ) sin n tdt
0

t1

n 1,2,3...

1
a0
T0

t1 T0

g (t )dt
t1

Trigonometric
Fourier Series

2
T0

Concept of
representing a
periodic signal
with a summation
of sinusoids

## g (t ) a0 [an cos n0t bn sin n0t ]

n 1

C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

Compact Trigonometric
Fourier Series

Where

Cn an2 bn2

bn

an

n tan 1

## Also called Fourier Spectrum

of periodic signal

C 0 a0

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example 1
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

g (t )
1

0.25

0.75

1.25

-1

## Without any mathematical calculations,

a0

bn

1
T0

2
T0

t 0 T0

g (t )dt 0

t0

t 0 T0

g (t ) sin( n t )dt 0
0

t0

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example 1 Cont.
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

g (t )
1

0.25

0.75

1.25

-1

2
an
T0

t 0 T0

g (t ) cos(n t )dt
0

t0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.25

0.5

0.25

## 4 cos(2nt )dt 4 (1) cos(2nt )dt

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

0.25

0.5

0.25

0.25

0.5

0.25

## 4 cos(2nt )dt 4 cos(2nt )dt

4 sin( 2nt )
4 sin( 2nt )

2n
2n
0
0.25
0.25

0.5

2
n
2
n
4
n
sin( ) ( sin( )) sin( )
n
2
n
2
n
2
4
n
an sin( )
n
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example 1 Cont.
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

g (t )
1

0.25

0.75

1.25

-1

4
n
an sin( )
n
2
a1

a4 0

a2 0

4
a5
5

4
a3
3

a6 0

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example 1 Cont.
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

g (t )
1

0.25

0.75

1.25

-1

## g (t ) a0 [an cos n0t bn sin n0t ]

n 1

g (t )

cos(0t )

4
4
4
cos(30t )
cos(50t )
cos(70t ) ...
3
5
7

4
4
4
cos((2 )t )
cos(3(2 )t )
cos(5(2 )t )
cos(7(2 )t ) ...

3
5
7
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example 2
T0 1sec f 0 1Hz 0 2

y(t )
2

0.25

0.75

1.25

y(t ) 1 g (t )
We know that
4
4
4
4
g (t ) cos((2 )t )
cos(3(2 )t )
cos(5(2 )t )
cos(7(2 )t ) ...

3
5
7
Therefore,
4
4
4
4
y(t ) 1 cos((2 )t )
cos(3(2 )t )
cos(5(2 )t )
cos(7(2 )t ) ...

3
5
7
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example 3
T0 f 0

y(t )

1
2
0
T0
T0

0.25T0

0.75T0

1.25T0

## We know that with time period = 1 sec

4
4
4
4
y(t ) 1 cos((2 )t )
cos(3(2 )t )
cos(5(2 )t )
cos(7(2 )t ) ...

3
5
7

y(t ) 1

cos(0t )

4
4
cos(30t )
cos(50t ) ...
3
5

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example

1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

T0

T0

2T0

g (t ) C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

1
a0
T0

t 0 T0

1
t (t )dt T0
0

Remember definition of
impulse function

(t ) 1

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example cont.

1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

2
an
T0

2
bn
T0

T0

T0

2T0

t 0 T0

2
t (t ) cos(n0t )dt T0
0

## Remember extended sampling

properties of impulse function

t 0 T0

(t ) sin( n t )dt 0
0

g (t ) (t ) g (0)

t0

Example cont.

1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

1
a0
T0
2
an
T0
bn 0

T0

T0

2T0

C 0 a0

1
T0

2
C n a b an
T0
2
n

2
n

bn
0
n tan
an
1

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example cont.

1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

T0

T0

2T0

g (t ) C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

1 2
cos(n0t )
T0 n1 T0

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Example cont.
Time Domain Signal
T0 f 0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

T0

T0

2T0

2 0

1
2
0
T0
T0

Fourier Spectrum

Cn
2
T0

3 0

4 0

## Energy of Signal Revisited

Energy of Signal is defined

Eg

g (t )

dt

and not

Eg

2
g
(t )dt

## To accommodate complex signals

Because

g (t ) g (t ) g (t ) g 2 (t )

## for real signals

g (t ) g (t ) g * (t )

## for complex signals

Similarly,

g (t ) x(t )

becomes g (t ) x* (t )

complex signals

(again periodic)

e
T0

jm0t

jn 0t

(n 0,1,2,...)

e dt e
jn 0t *

j ( m n )0 t

0 2f 0

dt

T0

T0

T0

T
0

T0

m n
mn 0

2
T0

## Exponential Fourier Series

g (t )

jn 0 t
D
e
n

By orthogonality

1
jn 0t *
Dn g (t ) e
dt
T0 T0
or

1
Dn g (t )e jn0t dt
T0 T0

## Compact to Exponential Fourier Series

g (t ) C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

Cn j ( n0t n ) j ( n0t n )
C0
e
e
n 1 2

Cn j n jn0t Cn j n jn0t
C0 e e
e e

2
2

n 1

D0 Dn e jn0t D n e jn0t

n 1

D0

D e

n
n0

jn 0t

jn 0 t
D
e
n

## Lets look back on the Example of Impulse Train

1
2
T0 f 0 0
T0
T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

2T0

T0

T0

2T0

g (t ) C0 Cn cos(n0t n )
n 1

1 2
cos(n0t )
T0 n1 T0

1
D0 C0
T0
C n j n 1
Dn
e
2
T0

D n

C n j n 1
e

2
T0

## Time Domain Signal

2T0

g (t ) T0 (t )

T0

Fourier Spectrum

1
2
0
T0
T0

T0

2T0

2 0

3 0

4 0

2 0

3 0

4 0

Cn

2
T0

Exponential Fourier
Spectrum

T0 f 0

Dn
1
T0

4 0 30 2 0