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Through out the video the air inlet of the gas turbine is considererd to be the

forward end and

The gas exit is the after end

The direction of the air flow in the turbine is called the downstream direction and
opposite is the
Upstream direction .

the right and left is defined as the looking at the forward end and looking at
The downstream .

The shaft of the gas turbine is rotates at 360 counterclock direction of the gas
turbine as viewing
Towards downstream .

This gas turbine consistis of the following main components .


compressor .
combustion system .
turbine .
exhaust assembly .
bearing .

The compressor is 17 stages axial flow compressor with variable inlet guide vane

Air is compressed to ration of 12:1 .

Each stage is consists of rotating blade and a set of stationary blades .

Compression is achieved in each stage as rotating blades increases the relative

velocity of the air
Then the stator of stationary blades convert the gained kinetic energy into a
pressure rise and guide
Air to a proper angle.
Compressor consists of the following major components.

The compressor rotor.

The compressor stator .

The compressor rotor has seventeen stages of rotating blades and consists of 15
individual wheels
And two stub shafts.
All wheels are tied together with 16 tied bolts and nuts.
The forward sub shafts are machined for the following feathers.

*Thrust collar ---- which carries the axial downstream and upstream thrust forces to
Rotor axial movement .

Journal surface --- for the bearing No.1

Surfaces of seals Oil and air seal.
Fwd balancing groove for balancing weight for vibration control.
Fwd flange for connecting gas turbine shaft to the auxillary gear box.
Speed ring A speed ring with 60 teeth is attached with the forward flange
Speed measurement and protection.
The aft sub shaft is machined for the following feathers .
A fan is machined in the forward side of the stab shaft .----- this fan draws air
through the
Gap between the 16th wheel and the aft stab shaft to cool the turbine rotor
Aft balancing Groove --Aft flange to connect the compressor rotor to the turbine rotor .
Labyrinth Teeth ---- to mate with compressor stator parts to prevent
compressor discharge
Air from escaping inside the inner barrel around the bearing number 2.

The compressor rotor blade are airfoil shaped and are attached to the wheel by
means of dovetail
Arrangement . The first wheel blades are mounted on the wheel portion of the
forward stub shaft and
They have only after spacer while the next 15 blades have forward and aft spacers.
The 17th stage blades are mounted on the wheel portion of the aft stub shaft and
they have only
Forward spacer. These are placed to maintainthe relative position between the rotor
and the stator
Blades . Rotor blades are held in axial position by staking at both ends of every
dovetail slot compressor
Blades cant be replaced with the rotor in position wheel must be disassembled .
The compressor stator consists of four main components :


Inlet casing .
forward casing
aft casing .
discharge casing.

The inlet casing is located at the forward end of the gas turbine. The blue painted
section at the
Forward of the casing is called the Bell Mouth.
The inner bellmouth is positioned to the outer bellbouth by eight airfoil shaped
The bellmouth function is to direct the air normally to the inlet guide vanes for
efficient airflow
Control and better inlet flow coefficient . The lower half of the bell mouth provides
For the bearing number 1 .
A stationary labyrinth seal is installed at the aft end of the inlet casing to prevent
suction of the
Contaminates into the compressor.
Variable inlet guide vanes are located at the aft end of the inlet casing. The function
of the guide
Vanes is to control the amount of airflow across the compressor . The total number
of the inlet guide
Vanes is 64 blades. Each blade stem is inserted into whole machine on the inlet
Each four of them are supported from below on inter segment .
A pinion Gear is installed to each plate stem and is keyed into position .
These pinion is rotated by a ring gear which is assembled to the control ring.
The control ring is position by a hydraulic actuator to obtain the desired inlet guide
Opening angle. The opening angle for the gas turbine ranges from 34 to 84
The forward casing contains the first four stator veins.
The lower half is equipped with two trunnions used with other trunnions on the
Shell to lift the gas turbine to or off the turbine base. It also features the mounting
Points for the forward turbine support plate. The aft casing contains the fifth to the

10th compressor stator vanes.

A groove is machined at the forward face around the 5 th wheel blades.
Where air is extracted for cooling and sealing functions through two ports of the
Half and two on the lower half. Another groove is machined around the 11 th wheel
Where air is extracted for surge protection during transient operation.
The discharge casing is the final portion of the compressor casing being the largest
Single casting. It is the keystone of the gas turbine structure. It connects the
To the turbine section and supports the combustion system.
The discharge casing contains the last seven stages of the compressor vanes.
And two rows of exist Guide Vanes. The discharge casing consist of outer and inner
Cylinders these inner and outer cylinders are connected by means of 12 struts.
These struts flare out to meet a large diameter of turbine shell. While provide
For transition pieces in between.
The inner cylinder is extended to the forward side by the inner barrel. The inner and
Outer cylinder of the discharge casing for the compressor diffuser which converts
Some of the kinetic energy of the compressed air into a pressure rise at the forward
End of the inner barrel.
A honeycomb seal is installed to meet with the labyrinth teeth on the aft stub shaft.
Brush seal is running against the rotor smooth surface. This arrangement is also
As the high-pressure packing.
The function of this arrangement is to control the amount inside the inner barrel .
This air despite being used to cool the first forward wheel space , the amount should

Minimized to improve unit efficiency and minimize air leakage inside bearing two
The lower half of the inner cylinder supports the bearing number 2 and provides for
The opening for the lube oil supply and drain piping the upper half of the inner
Has an opening for the vent pipe . seals are installed these opening to prevent
Air from escaping inside the inner cylinder .
Discharge casing also supports the turbine first stage nozzles. The first stage nozzle
Support ring is mounted on the aft end of the inner cylinder . The stationary vanes
Of the compressor are also the airfoil shaped . The bladed of the first eight stages
Mounted dovetail arrangement to ring segments. These ring segments are inserted
Circumferential grooves on the casing . the Blades of the last nine stages are squre
Base dovetail and directly into the circumferential grooves on the casing.
Two rows of exist guide vanes are located at the end of the compressor. These
stationary vanes help in reducing the rotation of the airflow and increasing the

The combustion system of this gas turbine is a reverse flow type with 14 dln-1 can
annular combustion arranged around the periphery of the compressor discharge
casing .combustion chambers are numbered counterclockwise as viewed looking
down stream , starting from the vertical centerline with dual fuel capability , this
turbine burns either gas fuel or liquid fuel. In this section the pressureized
compressor discharge is directed upstream to enter the combustion zone mixed and
burned with fuel producing hot gases which will drive the turbine . The combustion
system main components are :

Combustion rapper ,
Combustion can cover
Primary fuel nozzle .
Secondary fuel nozzle.
The liner .
Flow sleeve .

7) Transition pieces.
8) Cross fire tubes .
9) Spark plugs.
Flame detectors.
The combustion wrapper ---is a fabricated horizontally spit casing that
encloses the combustion system . It provides a supporting surface for
combustion chamber assemblies. The rapper forms a large plenum which
receives the compressor discharge air. This air is directed upstream to the
combustion chambers. The forward face of the wrapper is slanted @13
degrees angle from the vertical and contains machined opening to mount
the 14 combustion covers. The rapper is supported by the compressor
discharge casing and the turbine shell .
The combustion chamber cover function is to carry the combustion
chamber components .
The flow sleeve is mounted in the combustion chamber cover . The
flow sleeve forces the air to upstream forming a uniform air jacket around the
linerfor precise combustion and cooling function among 14 chambers. The
liner is the core of the combustion system . Inside the liner the air and fuel
are burn and providing hot gases . The liner is mounted on the flow sleeve at
the forward side by three liner stops and supported at the aft by inserting the
liner inside the transition piece. This configuration allows the thermal
expansion of the liner . spring seals are located at the aft end of the liner to
prevent the compressor discharge air from leaking into the hot gas path.
The liner consists of liner body , multi nozzle cap assembly and the
venturi. These parts are assembled together by rivets.
Combustion air flows in to liner thorough various locations primary
combustion air flows through the primary gaps tips . Air enters metering hole
for combustion functions. ( Primary premixing zone ( premix-ss mode only).
Secondary combustion air enter through the center body. (Secondary
premixing zone). Dilution air enters the liner from three holes at the aft side
of the liner. Due to extremely high temperature inside the liner , all surfaces
which are exposed to the flame are protected by thermal barrier coating.
The combustion liner is also protected by film cooling as air flows the
liner cooling to make an air film adjacent to the liner surface . This air film
keeps the hot gases away from the liner metal. The liner cap is protected by
film cooling and backside impingement cooling .
All combustion chambers are interconnected by cross-fire tubes.
These tubes enable flame to propagate from one chamber to another cross
fire tubes are couples of male and female parts. Each is inserted into the linr
crossfire tube collar and held on position to the bracket on the flow sleeve
by the cross fire tube retainer. All cross fire tube is surrounded by outer tubes
. These tubes connect the combustion chamber covers together. Packing is
installed to minimize leakage and held by flanges on both sides of each tube.
Outer tube are prevented from by split retainer mounted on the flanges . as
the DLN -1 system features to combustion zones, fuel is injected to the

combustion chambers through the primary and the secondary nozzle . The
primary fuel nozzle is functionally intregrated with the combustion chamber
and cover and provides a flange in the center for secondary nozzle
mounting . Fuel is injected into the primary zone through six identical nozzles.
Fuel enters the primary nozzles assembly through the fuel gas connection
flange and is routed through inernal machined passages to the orifices
located in the gas tips. Atomizing air is introduced in the same manner
through internal passages and exits to the primary zone through multiple
holes on each of the gas tips.
Water is supple dot the primary injection manifold then disturbed to
the six nozzles through piping .To each of the few loyal flange and tip
assemblies . Liquid fuel is supplied through a liquid fuel distribution valve to
equally distribute the fuel across the six nozzles , especially during the
startup. Fuel flows through the piping to the primary zone through the liquid
fuel tip located at the centre of the gas tip. The secondary nozzle features a
supply flange for secondary gas fuel which is injected into the secondary
premix zone through multiple holes. A small amount of the secondary gas is
injected after the secondary swirler this amount of gas is called the
secondary gas sub-pilot . This amount of gas promotes the secondary flame
stability. Transfer gas for transient transfer operation, is supplied to the
relevant supply flange and is injected before the secondary swiler Also.
Liquid fuel and water flow from the inlet flanges to the combustion zone
where they are injected at the aft tip of the secondary nozzle assembly.
Combustion means is initiated by the of two spark plugs mounted on the
11 and 12 combustion chambers.
The spark plug is mounted on the sparking ball joint. This joint allow
adjustment of the sparking plug relative to the liner on a dln-1 combustion
system . the spark plug remains inside the liner throughout the operation
for startup and primary zone readmission functions. Once the flame is
started on these chambers it propagates to the other chambers through
cross-fire tubes. Flame is detected on combustion chamber by means of
ultra violet flame detectors mounted on four chambers. The 14 th , 1st , the
2nd and the 3rd combustion chambers.
As the DLN system features two combustion zones . Flame is detected by
four flame detectors in each zone . The flame in theprimary zone is
detected by flame detectors mounted on pads on the combustion
chamber cover . This detector is inclined to detect the flame through one
of the metering holes around the liner body . Secondary flame dectectors
are mounted on the secondary nozzle flame flange. Flame is detected in
the secondary zone through view port in the secondary swirler .
Transition pieces are the interface between the combustion and the
turbine sections . They direct the hot gases from the liners to the turbine
first stage nozzles . The first stage nozzle entrance area is divided into 14
equal areas receiving the hot gas flow .

due to extremely high temperature of the passing hot gases , the inside
surface of the transition pieces are coated with TBC.
Cooling air is introduced by allowing compressor discharge air through the
vent plate to the cooling holds , Machined on the transition piece after.
the transition piece are sealed to both outer and inner side walls of the
first stage nozzle by the outer and inner seals.
These seals are inserted into groove on the first stage nozzle to minimize
compressor discharge air leakage into the hot gas path.
The sides of the transition pieces are sealed by side seals . Side seals are
held in position by side seal retainer blocks. These seals are mounted on
the first stage nozzle retainer ring. Transition pieces are supported at the
aft side by means of the aft mounting bracket. Which is mounted on the
first stage nozzle retainer ring.
Each transition piece is supported at the forward side by a support clamp
(bull horn) . This support clamp is mounted on the compressor discharge
casing .

Turbine section:
The turbine section consists of three stages. Each set consists of a set of stationary
nozzles followed by as set of rotating blades. They convert the energy in the hot
gases leaving the combustion system into kinetic energy and direct the gases at the
proper angle to rotate the moving blades to produce the mechanical rotational
energy . The turbine section consists of the turbine stator ,the turbine rotor . The
turbine stator consists of the following parts . The turbine stator consists of the
following parts ,

The turbine shell.

The shrouds.
The nozzles.

The turbine shell function is to control radial and axial position of the shrouds and
the nozzles and the relative clearences between the nozzles and the rotating
buckets. The position of these parts are critical to the turbine performance .
The lower part consists of two trunnions used to other trunnions on the forward
compressor casing to lift the gas turbine to or off the turbine base. The external
surface of the turbine shell incorporates cooling passages. Unlike the compressore
blades the turbine rotating bucket tips dont run directly aginst stator casing but
against the curve segments called the shroud . The primary function of the shroud is
to minimize the tip leakage. These shrouds are attached to the turbine shell by
sliding onto the T hook arrangement machine on the turbine shell , joints between
first stage shrouds are sealed by cloth seals . Shrouds are maintain circuferential
position by radial pins from the turbine .

The first stage shroud is coated with thermal barrier coating to withstand the highly
temperature of the this stage buckets . This labyrinth seal minimize tip leakage or
better tip clearance a honeycomb seal is integrated on the second stage and third
stage shrouds. This honeycomb is relatively soft material. The cutter teeth of the
second and third stage buckets open a slot on the honey comb seal without any
material transferred providing tighter clearences to improve the efficiency of the
unit efficiency. Shrouds of two stages are sealed by interconnecting tongues and
grooves and by key seals.
In the first stage nozzle the hot gas receives from the combustion system are
expanded and directed to the first stage rotor buckets. The first stage nozzle
consists of 18 cast nozzle segments. Each segment contains two airfoil partitions .
These partitions are hollow . This permits the relatively cool compressor discharge
air to cool the nozzle segments by entering from the impingement plates and
exiting through holes on the trailing edge into the hot gas path.
The 18 segments are contained on a horizontally spit retaining ring . The retaining
ring is supported to the lower turbine shell by two lugs extruding from lower
retaining ring half and held them place by clamps.The retaining ring is centered by
two eccentric pins from the turbine shell. This configuration permits radial
expansion due to the high temperature encountered while the ring remain centered
to the shell. The aft outer face of the retaining ring is loaded against the forward
face of the first stage shroud with steel trips in between to prevent compressor air
discharge leakage between the nozzle and the shell. The nozzle one assemble is
prevented from moving forward by four extruding from the outside diameter of the
retaining ring at 45 degree from vertical and horizontal centerline . these lugs fit in
a groove machine on the turbine shell. On the inner side wall nozzle is sealed and
supported by direct bearing of the nozzle inner rail against the first stage nozzle
support ring . The first stage inner support ring mounted on the face of the
compressor inner cylinder .
Hot gases leaving the first stage rotating bucket are expanded again and directed to
the second stage rotating buckets by the second stage nozzle. The second stage
nozzle set consists of 16 segments. Each segment contains three airfoil partitions.
The nozzle segments are assembled by fittig the male hook on the forward and after
sides of the outer side wall into the female groove on the outside of the first stage
shroud and the groove of the forward side of the second sge shrod seals.
Seals are installed between the segment to minimize the leakage.
The nozzle segment are held in circumferential position by the radial pin from the
turbine shell into the axial slots on the nozzle outer side walls.
Annular curve segments are attached to the inner sidewall of the nozzle . These
segments are called diaphragms .

Each diaphragm is securd to the nozzle with a pin .

These diaphragm segments prevent hot gas leakgage past the innerside wall of the
nozzle and the rotor.
A high low labyrinth seal is machine don the diaphragm inside diameter. These
seals meet the opposite sealing land on the turbine rotor spacer. The second stage
nozzle is cooled by the compressor discharge air passing through the first stage
shroud. Some of this air exits through the holes on the airfoils trailing edges . The
remainder of the cooling air is directed to the first stage wheel space through three
cooling air tubes assembled on the diaphragm.
A brushseal segment is installed on the inside diameter of the diaphragm between
the labyrinth seals. This brush seal is continuously contact with the turbine rotor
spacer surface to control the amount of cooling air passing from the fist stage aft
wheel space to the second space forward wheel space.
This ensures more precise cooling and better unit efficiency .
The third stage nozzle receive hot gas from second stage rotor bucket . Expand it
further and direct this flow to the third stage rotor buckets .
The third stage nozzle set consists of 16 segments . Each segments contains four air
foil partions , A diaphragm segment is also attached to the innerside wall of the
nozzle. The third stage nozzle are not air cooled. These segment s are installed to
the stator in the same manner of the second stage nozzle. The third stage nozzle is
supported by the second stage and third stage shrouds.
The nozzle segments are held on position in the circumferential position by radial
pin from the turbine shell into the axial slots on the nozzle axial side walls.
The turbine rotor consist of the forward wheel shaft. First and second stage turbine
wheels two turbine wheel spaces. The aft wheel shaft
All parts are assembled together by 12 studs.
The forward wheel shaft is machined to provide the following features journal
surface for bearing number two and surfaces for oil and air seals ,
forward balancing groove
forward flange to connect the tubine rotor to the compressor rotor.
The forward wheel shaft is hollow to pass the turbine rotor cooling air
The first wheel carries the 92 buckets of the first turbine stage like the next two
stages buckets could be disassembled without rotor removal being the first part
encountered by the hot gases leaving the first stage nozzles.

These buckets are protected by thermal barrier coating from outside and air cooled
from inside when the bucket is attached to the wheel a small air plenum is formed
in between .
The rotor internal cooling air which passes slots on the forward face of the first
wheel spacer is fed into the plenums.
cooling airflow from this plenum to a series of longitudinal air passage to cool the
bucket and exit at the recessed bucket tip buckets .
Buckets are attached to the wheel by straight axial entry multiple tank dovetails
that fit into matching cutouts on the wheel rims .
The moving buckets are prevented from axially by D key arrangement , a radial
locking pin is installed for the first bucket ,then the first bucket is installed and
locked in place by D-key, this is repeated for the next 90 buckets, an axial locking
pin is inserted on the locking bucket dovetail.
This pin pushes the radial locking pin to hold the last bucket on position . The first
spaced is located between first and second turbine wheels spacer .
Spacer function is to define the axial position of the turbine wheels , the outer
diameter of the spacer carries the diaphragrm celling lands . Slots are machined on
both forward and aft faces for cooling and sealing functions.
The second wheel carries the buckets of the second turbine stage 92 buckets are
also installed on the second wheel . Buckets are attached to the wheel by the same
dovetail arrangement of first stage but the held on the axial direction by twist lock
arrangement .
Twist locks are first placed on the wheel then buckets are installed as 360 degree
ring due to interlocking between the buckets. Once the buckets become on position
the twist locks are rotated and stacked .
Buckets are internally cooled by the rotor internal cooling air which passes through
slots on the aft face of the first wheel spaced. This air is fed into a plenum casted on
the bucket shank from this plenum . Air flows into spanwise holds machined on the
bucket and exits at the bucket tip .
The second stage bucket tip is enclosed by a shroud which is a part of the tip seal .
The shrouds interlock from bucket to bucket to provide vibration damping . These
shrouds also featured the cutter teeth which open slot on the honeycomb seal and
mates with the seal on the shroud block .
The second wheel spacer is located between the second and third turbine wheels.
Slots are machined on the forward face .

The forward face of the spacer is machined to form a gap at the mating surface with
the second stage wheel for cooling functions .
The third wheel carries the buckets of the third turbine stage . 92 bucket are also
installed on the third wheel. Third stage buckets are not internally cooled .
Third stage bucket tip is also enclosed by shroud . buckets are attached to the
wheel by the dovetail arrangement and held on axial direction by twist locks
arrangement like the second stage .
The aft wheel shaft is machined to provide the following features .
Journal surface for bearing number thre and surface for the oil and air seals .
Aft blancing groove
Aft flange to connect the turbine rotor to the generator rotor
Turbine temperature control ;
The turbine rotor must be maintained at reasonable operating temperature to
ensure a longer turbine service life.
for this purpose bucket veins are not directly attached to the dovetail instead they
are connected to their dovetails by means of shanks.
These shanks located the bucket two wheel attachment at a significant distance
from the hot gases combined with the diaphragm segments . This arrangement
isolates the rotor away from the hot gases flow.
Seals from the first stage nozzle support ring mate with sealing wings extruding
form the forward side of the first stage bucket shank.
Also seals from both sides of each diaphragm mate with sealing wings from both
sided of each bucket . The seal from the exhaust frame mates with the sealing wing
on the aft side of the third stage bucket shank.
All these seals reduce leakage of the hot gases radically inward to rotor parts
improving the turbine efficiency and protecting the rotor parts .
the rotor parts are cooled by position flow of cooling air discharged radially through
a space between the turbine wheels and the turbine stator parts . These space is
called wheel space .
The first stage forward wheel space is cooled by compressed air leaking at the highpressure packing the forward end of the inner barrel.
The first stage aft wheel space is cooled by the compressor discharge air supply
through the second stage nozzle .

The second stage forward wheel space is cooled by a portion of the first stage aft
cooling air which passes through the labyrinth and brush seal . The second stage aft
wheel space is cooled by the rotor cooling air which passes through the slots on the
forward face of second wheel spacer.
The stage forward wheel space is cooled by a portion of the second stage after
wheel spaced cooling air which passes through the labyrinth seal .
The third stage after wheel space obtains the cooling air from the exhaust frame
cooling system .
The rotor internal extraction cooling air utilized for bucket and wheel space cooling .
This airflow also maintains the parts of the rotor at approximately compressor
discharge temperature . This ensures longer service life for turbine parts.
Turbine shell cooling :
For efficient gas turbine operation , clearances between all rotating and stator parts
should be tight as possible . As the turbine shell controls the radial and axial
position of all turbine stator parts , the shell should be isolated from the high
temperature of the enclosed hot gases . This will ensure the control of the shell
diameter and roundness to be maintained .
The heat transfer from the gases is reduced by the following means :

Hollow shroud blocks provide high thermal resistance between the hot
gases and the turbine shell.
The first stage shroud is cooled by the compressor discharge air.
The third stage is cooled by the cooling and sealing air system. This air is
extracted from the compressor 5 th stage supplied to the 3 rd stage shroud
through 6 holes machine on the turbine shell.
Combined with the assembly of the nozzles between shrouds hot gases
are kept away from the shell.

The heat transfer from the nozzle to the shell is reduced by means of insulation
package .
The exernal surface of the turbine incorporate air passage cooling air is supplied
from exhaust frame cooling circuit .
To control the amount of airflow , multiple metering holes are installed on the flow
passages .
The exhaust Section:
The exhaust assembly consists of two parts :
1. The exhaust frame.

2. The exhaust diffuser.

The exhaust frame consists of inner and outer cylinders connected together by 10
radial struts . The innr cylinder supports bearing number three
The lower part of the outer cylinder features mounting points for the turbine aft legs
and and the Jib key.
The inner side of the exhaust fram part is covered by the inner and outer diffuser .
The outer surface is manufactured to provide digergent cross-sectional area to
increase the exhaust gases pressure.
The struts are covered by airfoil shaped bearing surfaces. The inner and outer
diffuse and airfoil shape bearing surfaces are metal surface which protects the
exhaust frame parts from being exposed to the high temperature of exhaust gases
to maintain temperature stability .The stability is required to keep the exhaust
frame inner cylinder which carries the bearing no.3 in the accurate position avoiding
any misalignment .
To ensure the temperature stability, air is forced by two off-base blowers between
the exhaust frame outer cylinder and the exhasust frame diffuser surface through
four ports.
A portion of this air goes to the cooling holes around the turbine shell and the
remaining air flows between the struts and its outer airfoil shape bearing surface.
Then cooling air exists in two directions to the third stage aft wheel space and to the
inside of the inner cylinder around bearing no.3 to protect the instrumentation
around this area from being exposed to high temperatures.
The portion of the exhaust plenum is exposed to exhaust gases is covered by
insulation packs to reduce heat transfer.
The exhaust diffuser is located at the extreme aft end of the gas turbine , bolted to
the exhaust frame .
The exhaust diffuser is a fabricated assembly consisting of inner cylinder and outer
divergence cylinder. This divergent configuration reduces the exhaust gases velocity
and increases its pressure.
At the aft end of the diffuser five turning vanes direct gases from the axial to the
radial direction into the exhaust plenum.
The inner side of the inner cylinder is isolated by insulation packs to reduce the heat
transfer to the load coupling tunnel and to the bearing no.3 area.