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BachelorofEducation(B.Ed.

)
SEM1COURSE2:LanguageAcrossCurriculum
SNDTUniversity/AshokaEducationFoundation

NOTES

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Thesenotesareonlytobeusedasaquickrefresher.Theydonot
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Useatpersonaldiscretion.

MeghaGoyal
www.oakwoods.in

Semester1

Course2

CourseTitle:LanguageAcrossCurriculum

Total Credit: 4; Marks: 100; Hours : 60( Excluding hours to be spent by


studentteachersforcompletingassignments)
Note:Figuresinthebracketshowhoursforcurriculumtransaction

Module1:TheNatureandCharacteristicsofLanguageObjectives:
Afterlearningthismodulestudentteacherwillbeableto..

discussbasicnatureandcharacteristicsoflanguage

explainimportanceofphoneticsoflanguage

elaboraterelationshipoflanguagewithsociety,culture,literature

explainthesignificanceofbasicprincipleoflinguistics

Content:

Languageasbasicmeansofcommunication(1)

1.

Specifichumanbehavior, systemofsymbols,oralandwrittenforms(2)

2.

Innatecapacity,habitformation(1)

3.

Voiceproductionmechanism(1)

4.

Phonetics,phonology,vowelSounds,Consonantssounds,diphthongs,stressintonation(5)

5.

Briefintroductiontolinguisticsasaseparatediscipline(1)

6.

Pragmatics,interlanguage,multilingualism(1)

7.

Languageandsociety(gender,power,identity,class);LanguageandCulture;Languageand

8.

literature(1)
Standardformoflanguageanddialects(1)

9.

10.

LanguageandProcessofthinking(1)

Module2:AcquisitionofLanguage

Objectives:Afterlearningthismodulestudentteacherwillbeableto..

explaintheprocessofacquisitionoflanguageandstagesofacquisitionofknowledge

apply the theoretical principles of Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, Chomskey in teachinglearning


transaction

explainfunctionsofbraininlanguageacquisition

discussplaceandimportanceofmothertongue,verbalintelligence

explaintheplaceoflanguageinpersonalitydevelopment

discusstheimpactofICTonlanguageandEnglishonmothertongue

Content:

Theprocessofacquisitionoflanguage;Differentstagesintheacquisitionoflanguage(2)

1.

ContributionofJohnDewey,JeanPiaget,Vygotsky,NoamChomskey(4)

2.

Functionsofbraininlanguageacquisition(1)

3.

Roleoflanguageinsocialization(1)

4.

Placeandimportanceofmothertongueinindividualslife(1)

5.

Developmentofverbalintelligenceandrelatedactivities(3)

6.

Placeoflanguageinpersonalitydevelopment(1)

7.

ImpactofICTonlanguage(1)

8.

ImpactofEnglishonmothertongue(1)

9.

Module3

PlaceandImportanceofLanguageinSchoolCurriculumObjectives:
Afterlearningthismodulestudentteacherwillbeableto..

explaintheplaceoflanguageand centralityoflanguageinschoolcurriculum

discusstheConstitutionalprovisionsandpolicies

describeimportanceoflanguageineverysubjecteducation

explainthecorrelationoflanguagewithothersubjects

discusstheIssueofmediumofinstructionand SemiEnglishmediumforScience

Content:

1.

Placeoflanguageinschoolcurriculum;centralityoflanguageinlearning(2)

2.

Constitutionalprovisionsandpolicies(Art343to351)

a.

Provisionsin KothariCommission,NationalPolicyofEducation(1986);

RecommendationsregardinglanguageeducationinNCF2005(3)
3.

Objectivesofteachinglanguageingeneral,theirspecifications(2)

4.

Firstlanguage,Secondlanguage,Thirdlanguage,Threelanguageformula(1)

5. ImportanceoflanguageineverysubjecteducationScience/mathematics/socialsciences(2)

6. Study ofclassicallanguageswithspecialreferencetoSanskrit(1)

7. Studyofmothertongue,languagesfromotherstates,foreignlanguages(1)

8. Correlationoflanguagewithothersubjects(1)

9. Issueofmediumofinstruction,SemiEnglishmediumforScience(1)

10. Issuesofmultilingualclass(1)

Module4

EnrichingLanguageProficiency

Objectives:Afterlearningthismodulestudentteacherwillbeableto..

applyvariousmethodsofteaching intransactionofcontent

explaintheimportanceoffourbasicskills

applydifferenttechniquestoenhanceteachinglearningtransactionoflanguage

discussvariouswaysofenrichingvocabulary

explainfunctionalpurposesoflearninglanguage

explainthecharacteristicsoflanguageteacher

appreciatethelanguage

Content:

1.

Pedagogy of language; various methods of teaching language : auraloral method,


structural method, grammar translation method, direct method, grammar translation
method,directmethod,InteractiveteachingandCooperativelearning(4)

2. Teaching of four basic skills : listening, speaking, reading, writing; Different ways and

activitiestodevelopthese skills; Interrelationshipof theseskills; Constructivism in


languageteaching(3)
3.

Different techniques to enhance teaching learning transaction of language : debate,elocution,


roleplay,mockconversation,dramatization,quiz,crosswordpuzzles,riddles,languagegames(3)

4.

Enrichment of vocabulary, active and passive vocabulary, synonyms, antonyms,Conversionof


word forms( noun to adjective, verb to noun, adjective to noun, noun toverbetc),oneword
substitution,idioms,phrases,proverbs,figuresofspeech(1)

5.

Developingverbal/linguisticcreativity(1)

6. Developingartoftranslation,appreciationofliteratureand Encouragingcreativewriting

(1)

7.

Learninglanguageforspecificfunctionalpurposes:Conversation,tomakeintroduction,voteof
thanks,compeering,announcements,interview(takingandgiving),shortspeech,debate(1)

8.

Characteristicsneededforlanguageteacher(1)

Q.1.Discussthenatureoflanguageandexplainhowitislearnt.
Ans.Languageisthemostimportantphenomenonintheworld.Frombirthtodeath,allour
activitiesareregulatedbylanguage.Thehumanknowledgeandcultureisstoredandtransmitted
inlanguage.Thinkingisonlypossiblethroughlanguage.Inourdreams,wemakeuseoflanguage.
Languagedominateseveryaspectofhumanlife.Infact,itisayardsticktoseparateusfromother
beings.Languageisameanofcommunication.Withthehelpoflanguage,wecanexpressour
thoughtsandfeelingstoothers.Withoutlanguage,societywouldbeimpossible.
SOMEDEFINITIONSOFLANGUAGE:
AccordingtoH.A.Gleason,Languageisoneofthemostimportantandcharacteristicformsof
humanbehavior.
NATUREOFLANGUAGE:
1. Language is learnt: Learning of language is not an automatic process. Of course, it is a
behaviourbutitisnottypeofbehaviourlikewalkingandcrawlingthatcomestochildinnatural
way.Languagebyimitationandpractice.Languageisnotpossiblewithouteffort.
2.Languageisrelatedtothecultureofsociety:Everylanguageisrelatedtocultureofsociety
towhichitbelongs.Thecultureofthepeoplenaturallyinfluencesthelanguage.Everylanguage
istheproductofsociety.Wecannotseparatelanguagefromthecultureinwhichthatlanguage
exists.Ithasmeaningonlyinrelationtothatsocietyandculture.
3.Languageisspeciesspecific:Languageisspeciesspecific.Onlyhumanbeingshavegotthe
giftoflanguage.Ofcourse,theotherspeciesdocommunicatebutonlyhumanbeingscanmake
useoflanguage.
4. Language is species uniformed: Language is species uniformed. All human children are
capableofacquiringanylanguagenativelyiftheyareprovidedtherightkindofenvironment.
5.Languageisasystem:Eachlanguageisauniquesystem.Thesystemoflanguageconsists
ofsounds,structuresandvocabulary.Apersonwhowantstolearnanewlanguagewillhaveto
learnnewsounds,newstructuresandnewvocabulary.Thesoundsystemoflanguagediffers
from language to language depending upon the culture to which a language belongs. Each
languagehasitsownsystemofvocabulary.Thuseachlanguageissystematic.
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6. Language is a system of systems: Each language is a system of systems. There are


phonologicalandgrammaticalsystemsinalllanguages.Thereareseveralsubsystemswithina
language.Thephonologyofalanguageformsitsownsystemasthevarioussoundsfunctionina
systematicway.
7.Languageisasystemofsymbols:Eachlanguageworksthroughsymbols.Differentwords
usedinalanguagearethesymbols.Theystandforcertainthings.Thelanguagewillfunctionwell
ifitssymbolsareknownbothtothespeakerandthepersonforwhomtheyarebeingused.
Forexampletheworldcuphasthreesounds(K,,P)ItisasymbolofEnglishbecauseameaning
isattachedtoit.Butifwetakethesamethreesoundslike,K,,PtheydoformPuc,butthatis
notasymbolofEnglishlanguageasnomeaningisattachedtoit.
8. Symbols of language are vocal: Different symbols are used in a single language. These
symbolsarevocal.Alanguagesystemdoesnotexistinavacuum.Itisprimaryusedinspeech.
Onlyspeechprovidesallessentialsignalsofalanguage.Thereareotherkindsofsymbolswhich
cannotbecalledvocalsymbols.Forexample,gesturesandsignalflagsarevisualsymbolsand
ringingofthebellsandbeatingofadrumareauditorysymbols.Theydonotformanylanguage.
Inlanguagethesoundsareproducedthroughvocalorgans.Readingandwritingarenodoubt
important.Butspeechisthebasicformoflanguage.Alanguagewithoutspeechisunthinkable.
9.Languageisaskillsubject:Learningofalanguageisaskillsubject.Itisskilllikeswimming
and cycling. We can not learn swimming or cycling just by studying rules. We can learn it by
practice.Inthesameway,wecanlearnalanguageyconstantpracticeofthatlanguage.Soalot
ofrepetitionformajorlinguisticskillslikelistening,speaking,readingandwritingisrequired.
10.Languageisforcommunication:Languageisthebestmeansofcommunicationandself
expressions. Human beings express their ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through
language.Inthiswaylanguageisameanstoconnectpastpresentandfuture.
11.Governedbyaparticularsetofrules:Eachlanguageisgovernedbyaparticularsetorrules.
ForexampleEnglishisS.V.O.language.Informingsentence,weputsubject,thenverbandafter
verbweputobject.
Forexample
Hekilledasnake.
SubjectVerbObject
Ontheotherhand,HindiisS.O.V.language.Firstweputsubject,heobjectandafterobject,we
putverb.
Usnesaampmaara.
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SubjectObjectVerb
12.SymbolsoflanguageareArbitrary:Herebyarbitrarysymbolswemeantthatthereisno
visualrelationshipbetweenthelanguageitemandtheobjectforwhichitstands.Amaniscalled
mantraditionally.Thereisnovisualsimilaritybetweenthesymbolmanandtheactualman.We
havenotnameditsoonthebasisofsomelogicorscientificprinciples.InEnglishwesayman,in
Hindiwesaymanaushya.Noneofthemisbetterthantheother.Infact,wecallamanman
becausepeoplehaveagreedtouseitinthatsense.
13.Languageisunique:Eachlanguageisuniquebecauseithasitsownstyleoffunctioning.The
sounds,vocabularyandstructuresofeverylanguagehavetheirownspecialty.

Whatisphoneticsandwhydoesitmatter?
Phoneticsisascience,whichdealswithpronunciationandstructureofalanguage.Itreferstothestudy
ofspeechsounds.
Pronunciationincludesthesystemofallthephoneticmeansofexpressioninspeechspeechsounds,
wordstress,andintonation.Allofthemareimportantandshouldnotbeunderestimatedinstudyinga
language.
Inordertounderstandhowsomethingworksitisoftenusefultobreakitdownintoitsconstituentparts.
Thefollowingdiagramshowsabreakdownofthemainfeaturesofpronunciation.

Phoneticscanbedividedinto3mainareas:
1. Articulatoryphoneticsstudiesproductionofspeechsounds;
2. Acousticphoneticsstudiestransmissionofsoundsbetweenspeakerandalistener
3. Auditoryphoneticsexamineshowsoundsareperceivedbyalistener.

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Phoneticsvs.Phonology
Phonemesarethedifferentsoundswithinalanguage.
Phonetics is often mentioned in relation to phonology which is a connected branch of linguistics. The
differencebetweenthetwoisintheapproachtothesounds.
Phoneticsisabranchoflinguistics,whichdealswiththephysicalrealityofspeechsounds.Itstudies
the articulation and their acoustic qualities and the physical characteristics and sound perception
Phonologyisprimarilyconcernedwithhowweinterpretandsystematisesounds.Itdealswiththe
systemandpatternofthesoundswhichexistwithinparticularlanguages.Thestudyofthephonology
ofEnglishlooksatthevowels,consonantsandsuprasegmentalfeatures(stressandintonation)ofthe
language.SignificanceofPhonetics
Phonetics is important not only for the scientists, but also for anyone who either teaches or learns a
foreign language. One of the most important applications of phonetics is in the teaching foreign
languages. It allows teachers to examine the differences between the sounds of source and target
languagesandexplainthisdifferencetolearners.Italsoenableslearnerstobetterunderstandandspeak
the language they are learning. One of the most famous phoneticians was Henry Sweet who made a
number of important discoveries in the field of English phonetics. In his book The Practical Study of
Language(1899)Sweetsaysthat:withoutphoneticswecanneitherobservenorrecordthesimplest
phenomenaoflanguage.
Hisresearchhascontributedtothescienceofphoneticsingeneralandheisconsideredtobethefather
ofwhatweknowtodayasReceivedPronunciation.

STRESS&INTONATION
Stressisdefinedasusingmoremuscularenergywhilearticulatingthewords.Whenawordorasyllable
in word is produced louder, lengthier, with higher pitch or with more quality, it will be perceived as
stressed.Theprominencemakessomesyllablesbeperceivedasstressed.Wordsincludinglongvowels
anddiphthongsorendingwithmorethan1consonantarestronger,heavierandstressed.Englishwords
have one or more syllables. A syllable is a complete sound unit. In words containing more than one
syllable,oneorsometimestwosyllablesprominent,thatis,theyreceivethestressoraccent.Themore
prominentofthesyllablereceivestheprimaryaccentandtheotherreceivesthesecondaryaccent.While
theprimaryaccentmarkcomesabovethesyllablethesecondaryaccentmarkcomesbelowthesyllable.
TheaccentualpatternofEnglishwordsdoesnotrigidlyconformtoanysetofrulesandoneshouldlearn
tospeakwiththerightaccentbybeingexposedtotherightmodelsofspeech.Afewconventionsfor
accentpatternsaregivenbelow
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Englishintonation:structures,functionsanduse
Wecallthemelodyoflanguageintonation.Intonationreferstothetotalpatternofpitchchanges,i.e.,the
rising and falling of the voice when a person is speaking, within an utterance. Intonation is another
importantelementofspokenEnglish.ItistheEnglishintonationwhichmakesEnglishsoundreallyEnglish.
Intonationmakesspeechmeaningful.
Englishintonationaddsthemeaningofanutteranceintwoways:
Itshowstherelationshipofwordswithinandbetweensentences;
2. Ittellssomethingaboutthefeelingofthespeaker.
1.

In other words, different pitches may indicate different meanings for the same utterance. Different
pitches help us express our feelings: happiness, sadness, surprise, annoyance, anger, and so on. In
listeningtothemeaningofanutterance,therefore,welistentohowspeakerstalkaswellastowhatthey
say. The HOW and WHAT together give us the meaning of an English utterance. We now see the
importancetousetheappropriateintonationpatternswhenwespeak.Otherwise,wemaybesending
messagesusingintonationsthatcontradictwhatwewantwordstosay.Intonationpatternsthatdisagree
withthecontentoftheutterancemayindicatedoubt,sarcasm,orconfusion.
Englishhastwobasicintonationpatterns:risingandfalling.Whentheygotogether,theycanmakea
fallingrisingtone.
Intonationunitsarealsocalledintonationgroups,tonegroupsortoneunits.Anintonationunitusually
correspondstoasensegroup(orwordgroup).Anintonationunitmaycontainseveralsyllables,someof
them stressed and some unstressed. The last stressed syllable is usually a marker of the highest
importanceandhasthefocusstress.Onthissyllable,theretakesplaceachangeofpitch,eitheranupward
ordownwardmovement,oracombinationofthetwo.Anucleusreferstothesyllableinanintonation
unitwhichcarriesmaximalprominence.

PHYSIOLOGYOFSPEECH

VocalTract
SubglottalSystem
Soundinhumanlanguageisproducedbytheregulationofairflowfromthelungsthroughthethroat,
nose,andmouth.Thisairflowisalteredinvariouswaysbydifferentaspectsofthisspeechsystem.

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Thefirstmajorsegmentofthespeechsystemisthesubglottalsystem.Thissubglottalsystem(See

Picture1)comprisesthelungs,diaphragmandtrachea.

TheLarynx
Thelarynxisamassofcartilageatthetopofthetrachea.Itiscommonlycalledthevoicebox.(See
Picture2)
Soundsthatareproducedwithrelaxedvocalfoldsareknownasvoicelesssounds,andsoundsthat
are produced with tensed vocal folds are known as voiced sounds. Example z is voiced and s is
voiceless.

AbovetheLarynx
Theareaabovethelarynxconsistsofthreemainareas:thepharynx,thenasalcavity,andtheoral
cavity.Thepharynxconsistsoftheareaabovethelarynxandbelowtheuvula.Theoralcavityisthe
areafromthebackofthethroattothemouth.Themajorpartsoftheoralcavitythatareusedin
speechproductionaretheuvula,thevelum,thetongue,thehardpalate,thealveolarridge,theteeth,
andthelips.Theuvulaisthatfleshyblobthathangsdowninthebackofthethroat.Thevelumisthe
softpalate,andthealveolarridgeisamassofhardcartilagebehindtheteeth.

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Thefollowinggraphicshowsthesemajorpartsofthearea,whichisalsoknownasthesupraglottal
system.

Summary
Theairstreamreleasedbythelungscomestothelarynx,whichcontainsthevocalcords.Whenwe
breathe out, the vocal cords are in a relaxed position. But if the tense vocal cords are brought
together,theairstream,whichcomesfromthelungsmakesthemvibrate,andwehearsomevoice.
Theairstreamcomingoutofthelarynxpassesthroughthepharynx.Thengoesthesoftpalate,which
directstheairstreameithertothemouthortothenasalcavity.Thesoftpalateistheremotestpart
ofthepalatefromtheteeth.Mostofthepalateishard.Thishardpartofthepalateisdividedinto
twosections:thehardpalate(whichisthehighestpart),andthealveolarridge.
The teeth ridge is very important for the English sound formation as many consonants here are
formed with the tongue touching it. The lower teeth are not very important for making speech
sounds,whiletheupperteethtakeanactivepartintheproductionofmanyofthem.
Themostimportantorganofspeechisthetongue.Phoneticiansdividethetongueintofoursections:
thetip,theblade,thefront,andthebackofthetongue.
Thelipscantakeupvariouspositionswhileproducingspeechsounds.Theycanbefirmlybrought
togetherorbeapart,neutral,roundedorprotrudedforward.

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CLASSIFICATIONOFSPEECHSOUNDSVowelsandConsonants

Theworkofspeechorgansnecessaryformakingspeechsoundsiscalledarticulation.
Accordingtothespecificcharacterofarticulation,especiallyaccordingtothepresenceorabsenceof
theobstructionspeechsoundsaredividedintovowelsandconsonants.

Themostsubstantialdifferencebetweenvowelsandconsonantsisthatinthearticulationofvowels
theairpassesfreelythroughthemouthcavity,whileinmakingconsonantsanobstructionisformed
in the mouth cavity or in the pharynx and the flow of the air meets a narrowing or complete
obstruction.

Vowelshavenofixedplaceofarticulation,thewholeofthespeakingapparatustakespartintheir
formation,whilethearticulationofconsonantscanbelocalized,anobstructionoranarrowingfor
eachconsonantisformedatadefiniteplaceofthespeakingapparatus.

Inproducingvowelsalltheorgansofspeecharetense,whileinmakingconsonants,theorgansof
speecharetenseonlyintheplaceofobstruction.Voiceprevailsinvowelswhileinmostconsonants
noiseprevailsovervoice.

Vowelsaresyllableformingsoundswhileconsonantsarenot,asarule.

MonophthongsandDiphthongs

English vowel phonemes are divided into two large groups: monophthongs and diphthongs. This
divisionisbasedonthestabilityofarticulation.

Amonophthongisapure(unchanging)vowelsound.Initspronunciationtheorgansofspeechdonot
change their position throughout the duration of the vowel; e.g. [i], [e], [], [o], etc. In most
educated, standard, accents of English not only in UK, but also around the world this vowel
requiresarelativelysteadytongueposition.

Diphthongs are described as sequences of two vowels pronounced together, the two vocalic
elementsbeingmembersofthesamesyllable.

Thus,adiphthongisacomplexsoundconsistingoftwovowelelementspronouncedsoastoforma
singlesyllable.Inthepronunciationofadiphthongtheorgansofspeechstartinthepositionofone
vowelandglidegraduallyinthedirectionofanothervowel,whosefullformationisgenerallynot
accomplished.ThefirstelementofanEnglishdiphthongiscalledthenucleus.Itisstrong,clearand
distinct.Thesecondelementisratherweak.Itiscalledtheglide.

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Linguistics
Linguistics,thesystematicstudyofhumanlanguage,liesatthecrossroadsofthehumanitiesand
thesocialsciences.Muchofitsappealderivesfromthespecialcombinationofintuitionandrigor
that the analysis of language demands. The interests of the members of the Department of
Linguisticsandcolleaguesinotherdepartmentsspanmostofthemajorsubfieldsoflinguistics:

phoneticsandphonology,thestudyofspeechsounds;
syntax,thestudyofhowwordsarecombined;
semantics,thestudyofmeaning;historicallinguistics,thestudyoflanguagechangein
time;
Computational linguistics, the modelling of natural language in all its aspects from a
computationalperspective.

Studying linguistics is not a matter of studying many languages. Linguistics is a theoretical


disciplinewithtiestosuchareasascognitivepsychology,philosophy,logic,computerscience,
andanthropology.Nonetheless,knowingparticularlanguages(e.g.,SpanishorJapanese)insome
depthcanenhanceunderstandingofthegeneralpropertiesofhumanlanguage.
Linguisticsattemptstoanswersuchquestionsas:

howthemindenablesustoproduceandunderstandutterances
howchildrenacquirelanguage
howandwhylanguagesresembleanddifferfromeachother
howandwhylanguageschangeovertime,andhowtheyarerelated
howthecategoriesoflanguagerelatetotheworld
howlanguageusevariesacrossdifferentsocialandculturalcontexts
howtomakecomputerstalkand'understand'humanlanguages

Pragmatics
Foranyspecificlanguage,naturalspeakerswillinherentlyknowtheusesandtherulesformany
types of expressions. These rules determine the interaction between people and between
societies.Thislessonwilllookatoneaspectofthoserules:pragmatics.
Pragmatics is a branch of linguistics, which is the study of language. Pragmatics focuses on
conversationalimplicature,whichisaprocessinwhichthespeakerimpliesandalistenerinfers.
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Simplyput,pragmaticsstudieslanguagethatisnotdirectlyspoken.Instead,thespeakerhintsat
orsuggestsameaning,andthelistenerassumesthecorrectintention.
In a sense, pragmatics is seen as an understanding between people to obey certain rules of
interaction.Ineverydaylanguage,themeaningsofwordsandphrasesareconstantlyimpliedand
notexplicitlystated.Incertainsituations,wordscanhaveacertainmeaning.Youmightthinkthat
wordsalwayshaveaspecificallydefinedmeaning,butthatisnotalwaysthecase.Pragmatics
studieshowwordscanbeinterpretedindifferentwaysbasedonthesituation.
Examples

The definition might be a bit confusing, so let's look at some examples to clarify the role of
pragmaticsinourlanguage.Thisfirstexampleisonethatyouprobablyuseinyourownlifeevery
day.Sayyouareinlineatastoretopayforyourpurchases.Thecashierasks,'Howareyoutoday?'
Doyouimmediatelygointoanindepthaccountofyourhealthissues,varyingmood,relationship
status, and everything else going on in your life? Of course not! Usually, you respond with
somethingsimilarto,'Fine,howareyou?'withthesameexpectationthatthecashierwillnotgo
into full detail of how she truly is. This interaction perfectly shows pragmatics at work. It is
understoodthatthisquestiondoesnotreallyaskyoutoexplaineverythinggoingoninyourlife.
Theimplicationreliesonthecontextandsituation.Itisgoodmannerstoaskstrangershowthey
are,butitisnotintendedforadetailedresponse.

Interlanguage
Interlanguage pragmatics is the study of the ways in which nonnative speakers acquire,
comprehend,anduselinguisticpatterns(orspeechacts)inasecondlanguage.
Theinfluenceoffirstlanguage(L1hereinafter)inthelearningofsecondlanguage(L2).Theterm'
Interlanguage' was first introduced by Selinker (1972 &1974) who referred it to as L2 systematic
knowledge independent of both L1 and L2. According to Richards et al. (1996), IL is the type of
languagewhichcanbeproducedbyFL/L2(FL=ForeignLanguage)learnerswhoareintheprocessof
acquiringorlearninganewlanguage.Withinthecognitiveperspective,referstotheseparatenessof
anL2learner'ssystem,asystemwhichincludesastructuralstatusbetweentheNL(NativeLanguage)
and TL(Target Language). It reflects L2 learners' attempts at building up a linguistic system which
progressivelyandgradually
approachestheTLsystem.

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MT=MotherTongue;NL=NativeLanguage;TL=TargetLanguage;FL=ForeignLanguage.

ThemaintheoreticalassumptionofILtheoryisthatwhenaFL/L2learneristryingtocommunicate
intheTL,he/sheusesanewlinguisticsystemdifferentfromtheNLandtheTL.Thisassumptionhas
beensupportedbySelinker(1974:35)whostatesthatILcanbe"aseparatelinguisticsystembased
ontheobservableoutputwhichresultsfromalearners'attemptedproductionofaTLnorm".

IL theory is important for some reasons. First, it looks at the L2 learner as an active participant
becausehe/shehastheabilitytoformrulesfromthedatahe/shemightencounter.Thisleadsto
saying that the study of IL is universal and systematic by nature, which makes it similar to the
innatenesstheory.Second,thestudyofILtheorymighthelpusindeterminingwhataFLleanerknows
ataparticularpointintimeandwhathe/sheshouldbetaught.
Third,ILtheoryhelpsinunderstandingtheL2learners'problemsbetterandinprovidingtimelyhelp
tosuchlearners;hence,theycanachievecompetenceintheirTL.Fourth,ILtheoryhasalsobrought
aboutsignificantchangesintheteachingmethodology,withcommunicativeteachingmakingitsway
intotheteachingsystem.ILalsobroughtintheacknowledgementofthefactthaterrorsareapart
andparcelofthelearningprocess,thusreducingtheneedforcontinuoussupervisionbytheteachers.
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Multilingualismistheuseoftwoormorelanguages,eitherbyanindividualspeakerorbyacommunity
of speakers. Multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population.
Multilingualismisbecomingasocialphenomenongovernedbytheneedsofglobalizationandcultural
openness.

LANGUAGE, SOCIETY, CULTURE. CONCEPT OF CULTURE IN


LINGUISTICS

According to theoretical manuals in sociolinguistics there are several possible relationships


betweenlanguageandsociety.Oneisthatsocialstructuremayeitherinfluenceordeterminelinguistic
structure and/or behavior. Certain evidence may be adduced to support this view: the agegrading
phenomenonwherebyyoungchildrenspeakdifferentlyfromolderchildrenand,inturn,childrenspeak
differentlyfrommatureadults;studieswhichshowthatthevarietiesoflanguagethatspeakersusereflect
suchmattersastheirregional,socialorethnicoriginandpossiblyeventheirsex(gender).
Asecondpossiblerelationshipisdirectlyopposedtothefirst:linguisticstructureand/orbehavior
mayeitherinfluenceordeterminesocialstructure.ThisistheviewthatisbehindtheWhorfianhypothesis.
Athirdpossiblerelationshipisthattheinfluenceisbidirectional:languageandsocietymayinfluenceeach
other.
Hencelanguageisasocialinstitutionitbothshapesandisshapedbysocietyinwhichitplaysan
importantrole.Languageisnotanautonomousconstruct[Fairclough1989:vi]butsocialpracticeboth
creating and created by the structures and forces of the social institutions within which we live and
function.Certainly,languagecannotexistinavacuum;thereisakindoftransfusionbetweenlanguage
andculture.
TogobacktotherelationshipbetweenlanguageandcultureSamovar,Porter,&Jain[1981:24]
observe: Culture and communication are inseparable because culture not only dictates who talks to
whom,aboutwhat,andhowthecommunicationproceeds,italsohelpstodeterminehowpeopleencode
messages, the meanings they have for messages, and the conditions and circumstances under which
various messages may or may not be sent, noticed, or interpreted... Culture...is the foundation of
communication.
Fairlyrecently,manyethnographerssuchasButtjes(1990),Ochs&Schieffelin(1984),Poyatos,
(1985),andPeters&Boggs,(1986)haveattemptedtoshowthatlanguageandculturearefromthestart
inseparablyconnected.Morespecifically,hesummarisesthereasonswhythisshouldbethecase:
1)

languageacquisitiondoesnotfollowauniversalsequence,butdiffersacrosscultures;

2)

theprocessofbecomingacompetentmemberofsocietyisrealizedthroughexchangesof
languageinparticularsocialsituations;
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3)

everysocietyorchestratesthewaysinwhichchildrenparticipateinparticularsituations,
andthis,inturn,affectstheform,thefunctionandthecontentofchildren'sutterances;

4)

caregivers'primaryconcernisnotwithgrammaticalinput,butwiththetransmissionof
socioculturalknowledge;

5)

thenativelearner,inadditiontolanguage,acquiresalsotheparalinguisticpatternsand
thekinesicsofhisorherculture.

Languageandgender
The word gender, originally a grammatical term, has come to refer to the social roles and
behaviourofindividualsarisingfromtheirclassificationasbiologicallymaleorfemale.Thisisa
hugecomplexembracingvirtuallyallaspectsofsocialbehaviourofwhichlanguageisonlyone.
Inthepastthreedecadesorsointensiveresearchhasbeencarriedoutintotherelationshipof
languageandgender,largelybyfemalescholarswhohavefeltdrawntothetopicbecauseofthe
obviousdiscriminationagainstwomenwhichhastakenplaceinthepastandwhichisstilltobe
observedtoday.
It is assumed by all researchers on language and gender that men and women use language
differently.Thisistakentoresultfromwhatiscalledsocialisation,thegrowingintoasocietyfrom
earlychildhoodonwards.Genderrolesarepresentedtoinfantsandleadthemalongpathsfullof
preconceivedopinions.

Language&Class
Studies,suchasthosebyWilliamLabovinthe1960s,haveshownthatsocialaspirationsinfluence
speechpatterns.Thisisalsotrueofclassaspirations.Intheprocessofwishingtobeassociated
withacertainclass(usuallytheupperclassanduppermiddleclass)peoplewhoaremovingin
thatdirectionsocioeconomicallywilladjusttheirspeechpatternstosoundlikethem.However,
notbeingnativeupperclassspeakers,theyoftenhypercorrect,whichinvolvesovercorrecting
theirspeechtothepointofintroducingnewerrors.Thesameistrueforindividualsmovingdown
insocioeconomicstatus.

Language&Literature
Language, literature, teacher effectiveness and quality (language) education are related and in fact
inextricablyinterwovenconcepts.Thisisbecauseanineffectivelanguageteachercannotprovidequality
educationbutitisnotpossibleforalanguageteachertobeeffectiveifheisnotwellgroundedinboth
the language he teaches and the literature that emanates therefrom. This is because language and
literaturearetwosidesofthesamecoinsuchthatitishardtosaywhichofthetwotakesprecedence
overtheother.Theirrelationshipisjustlikethatbetweenachickenandanegg:withoutaneggyoucannot
haveachickenyetitisthechickthatgrowstolayeggs.WelleckandWarren(1970:22)havesuccinctly
capturedthisrelationshipwhentheysay,Languageisthematerialofliteratureasstoneorbronzeisof
sculpture, paints of picture, or sounds of music implying that whereas language is system of
communication,literatureisthecontentbeingcommunicated.Thequestionofonebeingsuperiortothe
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othercannotarisebecausebotharecomplementaryastheyenrichandglorifyeachother.Thatiswhya
successfullanguageteachermustbehighlyproficientinboth,toprovidequalityeducation.
Thatisalsowhyabackgroundofliteratureisanecessarypreconditionforprospectivelanguage
students and especial y for those seeking to teach language at all levels of our education. Several
classroomsituationsvindicatethispositionasweshallseeshortly:
First andforemost,quality(language)educationrequiresthat studentsbe nurturedto acquireand
sustainarichrepertoireofwordsthatenablesthemtoexplorethecreativepotentialsoflanguageinall
ramifications. Language students that go through a goal oriented language course are exposed to
literature that enriches their vocabulary and by so doing release themselves from the claws of
dictionaries.Thisempowersthemwithsufficientcreativeacumentogeneratenotjustaninfinitenumber
of words but more importantly an expansive range of quality sentences; thus, widening their
communicativeefficacy.ThisisimportantbecauseaccordingtoFromkinetal.(2011),itisthecreative
natureofhumanlanguagethatmarkshumanlanguageoutfromthatusedbyanimals.Toachievethis
however,theteachermustcarefullyselectliteraturetextshechoosesoexposethestudentstoand
insistthattheyreadallwithapenandjotter;readytojotallnewwordsandsentencestructuresthey
encounterfordiscussionlaterintheclassroom.Thisway,theteacherensuresthataveryrichquantum
ofwordsandliteratureclass.
Secondly, for many students in a language class, literature motivates them to read based on the
interestingplots.Wecancastourmindsbacktothoseyearswhenweusedtoreadtheactionpacked
novels of James Hardley Chase, or James Bond or the Mills and Boom series. At the time, the main
motivationwouldbethethrillthatthecontentprovidedbuteverylanguageteacherknowsthatapart
fromthestories,theworksthemselvesareidealvehiclesfordemonstratinglanguageuse:Thevarious
syntacticstructureswescrupulouslyteachduringlanguagelessons,thetediousandsometimesgruelling
lessonsonlexisandstructures,thepainstakingeffortsweexpendonregistersaswellastheexhausting
inroadswemakeintoidiomaticexpressionsetcwillnotamounttomuchwithoutavenuesofpractical
demonstration.Thesuccess,ofcourse,inusingliteraturefortheattainmentofthisobjectivedepends
largelyontheselectionoftextswhichwillnotbedifficultoneitherthelinguisticorconceptuallevel.Good
choiceoftextsnotonlyhelpstobringalllanguagelessonstolifebutalsoshowshowlanguageshouldbe
usedincontexts.
Thirdly,wehadalreadypointedoutduringourdiscussiononeffectivelanguageteachingthatwhatwe
doinlanguageclassistodevelopandsustainthebasicskillsoflistening,speaking,readingandwriting
andthisiswhereliteraturebecomesindispensable.Ithelpsstudentsnotonlytolearnandimprovetheir
reading but also their listening, speaking and writing through the series of texts they are exposed to.
However, success cannot be attainable in this regard unless the class is made as participatory and as
student centred as possible. This is because listening, speaking, reading and writing skills cannot be
developedthroughteachercentredapproachesthatmakestudentspassiveparticipants.
Furthermore,throughliterature,learnersareexposedtoexperiencesandeventsinreallifewhichexpose
peopletoaspectrumofreallifeexperiencesthatexertvaryingdemandsonlanguageandtheirlanguage
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competence. Learners for instance appreciate the fact that being proficient in English language,
necessarily requires not only being able to acquire but more importantly delineate the varieties of
EnglishlanguagetobeusedfromtheexistingEnglishesasdictatedbytheexigenciesofthelanguage
situationstheymayfindthemselvesin.WhenforinstancelearnersreadandanalyseChinuaAchebes
AnthillsoftheSavannahandareledthroughasystematicanalysisofitsnarrativetechniques,particularly
languageuse,theywillunderstandwhythemajorcharactersinthenovelsuchasChrisOriko,IkeOsodi,
Sam,andparticularlyBeatricecodeswitchseamlesslyfromQueensEnglishtoNigerianEnglishandthen
topidgindespitethefactthattheyaregraduatesoffamousBritishuniversities.Understandingthe
dynamicsthatoccasionsuchfluidandeffortlesstransitionfromonevarietyofEnglishtoanotherin
the novel will expedite students language acquisition skills particularly as regards equipping them to
selectfromthemultiplicityofvarietiesthatpreponderatetheNigerianEnglishcommunity.

Characteristicsofdialect:
1.Regionalvarietyofastandardfrom
2.Theutteranceofdialectisunique
3.Maximumtimeusingdialectisinfluencedby
ruralorurbansocioculturalaspects.
4.Dialect canbevariedfromgeographicarea
toarea.
5. A language could have more than one
dialect.

Differences
between
standard language and
dialect:
Manytimepeoplegetconfusedwiththeaspectoflanguageanddialectbutthereissomebasicdifferences
betweenlanguageanddialect.Virtuallydialectisonekindofformwhichderivedfromlanguage.So,the
differencesarequitetransparentandalsoinevitable.Themaindifferencesare:
1. Standardlanguagecanhashugespeakerandexpandedlanguageareacomparingthatdialecthas
littlesmalllanguageareawithlessspeaker.
2. ImplicitdifferencecanbeseeninPronunciationstyle,vocabularyandalsoinsentencestructure.
3. Standardlanguageisapprehensiveforalldialectspeakerswheredialectisnot.
4. Standardlanguagecanbeusedineveryfieldbutdialecthaslimitationinuse.
5. PeoplefollowStandardlanguageintheirwritingsystembutthereisnouseofdialectinwritten
language.Ifituseitcannotbeapprovedbysociety.

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6. Standardlanguageisunbiasedcomparingdialectforpublicorcommonuse.Butdialecthasmore
variationthanstandard.
7. Dialect is not approved in formal situation but standard form can be used in both formal and
informalsituation.
8. Standardlanguageisconsideredasaprestigiouslanguagebysocietywhiledialectdoesnotcount
asaprestigiouslanguage.
9. Astandardlanguagecanrepresentalldialectunderit.Dialecthasnotthepower.
10. Standard language is not a formation of dialect but all dialects are formation of a standard
language

LanguageandThoughtProcesses
Languageismorethanjustameansofcommunication.Itinfluencesourcultureandevenour
thoughtprocesses.Duringthefirstfourdecadesofthe20thcentury,languagewasviewedby
Americanlinguistsandanthropologistsasbeingmoreimportantthanitactuallyisinshapingour
perceptionofreality.ThiswasmostlyduetoEdwardSapirandhisstudentBenjaminWhorfwho
saidthatlanguagepredetermineswhatweseeintheworldaroundus.Inotherwords,language
acts like a polarizing lens on a camera in filtering realitywe see the real world only in the
categoriesofourlanguage.

CrossculturalcomparisonsofsuchthingsascolortermswereusedbySapir
andWhorfasevidenceofthishypothesis.Whenweperceivecolorwith
oureyes,wearesensingthatportionofelectromagneticradiationthatis
visiblelight.Infact,thespectrumofvisiblelightisacontinuumoflight
waveswithfrequenciesthatincreaseatacontinuousratefromoneendto
theother.Inotherwords,therearenodistinctcolorslikeredandgreenin
nature.Ourculture,throughlanguage,guidesusinseeingthespectrumin
termsofthearbitrarilyestablishedcategoriesthatwecallcolors.Different
culturesmaydivideupthespectrumindifferentways.Thiscanbeseeninthecomparisonof
someEnglishlanguagecolorswiththeircounterpartsintheTivlanguageofNigeria:

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Note: value refers to

the
lightness
or
darkness
of
a
color. High value is
light and low value is
dark.

Sapir and Whorf interpreted these data as indicating that colors are not objective, naturally
determinedsegmentsofreality.Inotherwords,thecolorsweseearepredeterminedbywhat
ourculturepreparesustosee.ThisexampleusedtosupporttheSapirWhorfhypothesiswas
objectively tested in the 1960's. That research indicated that they went too far. All normal
humanssharesimilarsenseperceptionsofcolordespitedifferencesincolorterminologyfrom
onelanguagetoanother.Thephysiologyofoureyesisessentiallythesame.Peoplealloverthe
world can see subtle gradations of color and can comprehend other ways of dividing up the
spectrum of visible light. However, as a society's economy and technology increase in
complexity,thenumberofcolortermsusuallyalsoincreases.Thatistosay,thespectrumof
visible light gets subdivided into more categories. As the environment changes, culture and
languagetypicallyrespondbycreatingnewterminologytodescribeit.

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MODULE2
StagesofLanguageAcquisition
Researchers define language acquisition into two categories: firstlanguage acquisition and
secondlanguageacquisition.Firstlanguageacquisitionisauniversalprocessregardlessofhome
language.Babieslistentothesoundsaroundthem,begintoimitatethem,andeventuallystart
producing words. Secondlanguage acquisition assumes knowledge in a first language and
encompassestheprocessanindividualgoesthroughasheorshelearnstheelementsofanew
language, such as vocabulary, phonological components, grammatical structures, and writing
systems.
TheSixStagesofSecondLanguageAcquisition
This is also called "the silent period," when the student takes in the new
Preproduction
language but does not speak it. This period often lasts six weeks or longer,
dependingontheindividual.

Earlyproduction

The individual begins to speak using short words and sentences, but the
emphasis is still on listening and absorbing the new language. There will be
manyerrorsintheearlyproductionstage.

Speech becomes more frequent, words and sentences are longer, but the
individual still relies heavily on context clues and familiar topics. Vocabulary
SpeechEmergent
continues to increase and errors begin to decrease, especially in common or
repeatedinteractions.
Speechisfairlyfluentinsocialsituationswithminimalerrors.Newcontextsand
BeginningFluency academiclanguagearechallengingandtheindividualwillstruggletoexpress
themselvesduetogapsinvocabularyandappropriatephrases.

Intermediate
Fluency

Communicatinginthesecondlanguageisfluent,especiallyinsociallanguage
situations.Theindividualisabletospeakalmostfluentlyinnewsituationsorin
academic areas, but there will be gaps in vocabulary knowledge and some
unknownexpressions.Thereareveryfewerrors,andtheindividualisableto
demonstratehigherorderthinkingskillsinthesecondlanguagesuchasoffering
anopinionoranalyzingaproblem.

The individual communicates fluently in all contexts and can maneuver


successfullyinnewcontextsandwhenexposedtonewacademicinformation.
AdvancedFluency At this stage, the individual may still have an accent and use idiomatic
expressions incorrectly at times, but the individual is essentially fluent and
comfortablecommunicatinginthesecondlanguage.

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JeanPiaget
JeanPiaget(18961980)wasabiologistwhooriginallystudied
molluscs (publishing twenty scientific papers on them by the
timehewas21)butmovedintothestudyofthedevelopment
ofchildren'sunderstanding,throughobservingthemandtalking
andlisteningtothemwhiletheyworkedonexercisesheset.

His view of how children's minds work and develop has


been enormously influential, particularly in educational
theory. His particular insight was the role of maturation
(simply growing up) in children's increasing capacity to
understand their world: they cannot undertake certain tasks until they are psychologically
mature enough to do so. His research has spawned a great deal more, much of which has
undermined the detail of his own, but like many other original investigators, his importance
comesfromhisoverallvision.
He proposed that children's thinking does not develop entirely smoothly: instead, there are
certainpointsatwhichit"takesoff"andmovesintocompletelynewareasandcapabilities.He
sawthesetransitionsastakingplaceatabout18months,7yearsand11or12years.Thishas
beentakentomeanthatbeforetheseageschildrenarenotcapable(nomatterhowbright)of
understandingthingsincertainways,andhasbeenusedasthebasisforschedulingtheschool
curriculum.

Piaget'sKeyIdeas
Adaptation

Whatitsays:adaptingtotheworldthroughassimilationandaccommodation

Assimilation

Theprocessbywhichapersontakesmaterialintotheirmindfromtheenvironment,
whichmaymeanchangingtheevidenceoftheirsensestomakeitfit.

Accommodation The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation.
Notethatassimilationandaccommodationgotogether:youcan'thaveonewithout
theother.
Classification

Theabilitytogroupobjectstogetheronthebasisofcommonfeatures.

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StagesofCognitiveDevelopment
Stage

Characterisedby

Sensorimotor
(Birth2yrs)

Differentiatesselffromobjects
Recognisesselfasagentofactionandbeginstoactintentionally:e.g.pullsastring
tosetmobileinmotionorshakesarattletomakeanoise
Achievesobjectpermanence:realisesthatthingscontinuetoexistevenwhenno
longerpresenttothesense(paceBishopBerkeley)

Preoperational
(27years)

Learnstouselanguageandtorepresentobjectsbyimagesandwords
Thinkingisstillegocentric:hasdifficultytakingtheviewpointofothers
Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks
regardlessofshapeorallthesquareblocksregardlessofcolour

Concrete
(711years)

operational Canthinklogicallyaboutobjectsandevents
Achievesconservationofnumber(age6),mass(age7),andweight(age9)
Classifiesobjectsaccordingtoseveralfeaturesandcanordertheminseriesalong
asingledimensionsuchassize.

Formal
operational Canthinklogicallyaboutabstractpropositionsandtesthypothesessystemtically
(11yearsandup)
Becomesconcernedwiththehypothetical,thefuture,andideologicalproblems

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LevVygotsky
Major Contributions to Instructional
Development

VygotskysSocialDevelopmentTheory
ZoneofProximalDevelopment(ZPD)
MoreKnowledgeableOther(MKO)

Vygotskys theories stress the


fundamentalroleofsocialinteractioninthedevelopment
ofcognition(Vygotsky,1978;Wertsch,1985),ashebelievedstronglythatcommunityplaysa
centralroleintheprocessof"makingmeaning."
HowLevVygotskyImpactsLearning:

CurriculumSince children learn much through interaction, curricula should be designed to


emphasizeinteractionbetweenlearnersandlearningtasks.
InstructionWith appropriate adult help, children can often perform tasks that they are
incapableofcompletingontheirown.Withthisinmind,scaffoldingwheretheadultcontinually
adjuststhelevelofhisorherhelpinresponsetothechildslevelofperformanceisaneffective
form of teaching. Scaffolding not only produces immediate results, but also instills the skills
necessaryforindependentproblemsolvinginthefuture.
AssessmentAssessmentmethodsmusttakeintoaccountthezoneofproximaldevelopment.
Whatchildrencandoontheirownistheirlevelofactualdevelopmentandwhattheycandowith
helpistheirlevelofpotentialdevelopment.Twochildrenmighthavethesamelevelofactual
development,but giventheappropriate helpfrom anadult,onemightbeabletosolvemany
more problems than the other. Assessment methods must target both the level of actual
developmentandthelevelofpotentialdevelopment.[Source]

Majorthemes:
1. Socialinteractionplaysafundamentalroleintheprocessofcognitivedevelopment.Incontrast
toJeanPiagetsunderstandingofchilddevelopment(inwhichdevelopmentnecessarilyprecedes
learning),Vygotskyfeltsociallearningprecedesdevelopment.Hestates:Everyfunctioninthe
childsculturaldevelopmentappearstwice:first,onthesociallevel,andlater,ontheindividual
level;first,betweenpeople(interpsychological)andtheninsidethechild(intrapsychological).
(Vygotsky,1978).
2. The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). The MKO refers to anyone who has a better
understandingorahigherabilitylevelthanthelearner,withrespecttoaparticulartask,process,
orconcept.TheMKOisnormallythoughtofasbeingateacher,coach,orolderadult,buttheMKO
couldalsobepeers,ayoungerperson,orevencomputers.
3. TheZoneofProximalDevelopment(ZPD).TheZPDisthedistancebetweenastudentsabilityto
perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the students ability
solvingtheproblemindependently.AccordingtoVygotsky,learningoccurredinthiszone.
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JOHNDEWEY
The main aims of education as advocated by Dewey are:
SocialEfficiency:AccordingtoDeweythedevelopmentofsocialefficiencyisone
oftheaimsofeducation.Tohimschoolisasocialinstitution.Theschoolshould
beorganisedinsuchawaythattheactivitiesoftheouterworldarereflected.

Educationislife:Deweyemphasisesthateducationisnotapreparationforlife,it
islifeitself.Thechildlivesinthepresent.Thefutureismeaninglesstohim.Hence
itisabsurdtoexpecthimtodothingsforsomefuturepreparation.
Educationisexperience:Deweyfavouredaneducationby,ofandfor,experience.Everynewexperience
iseducation.Anoldexperienceisreplacedbyanewexperience.Thehumanracehegainedexperiencein
its struggle to meet the needs of life. This ' struggle for existence ' is a continuous process.
Educationshouldcombinetheory&practice:Theaimofeducation,accordingtoDeweyshouldbecreate
abalancebetweentheoreticalandpracticalactivities.Hehasstressedequalimportancetobothaction
andthought.Thesetwoshouldgohandinhand.

DeweyonSchoolCurriculum
Dewey advocates that broader curricular programmes are needed and emphasis should be
placedinthetotaldevelopmentofthepersonasbeingequallyimportantastheintellectualand
theacademic.
Theteacherisaguideanddirectorhesteerstheboat,buttheenergythatpeopleitmustcome
fromthosewhoarelearning.Themoreateacherisawareofthepastexperienceofstudentsof
theirhopes,desires,chiefintereststhebetterwillbe.
The teacher isengaged not simply in the training of individuals but in the formation of the
propersociallife.InthiswaytheteacheralwaysistheprophetofthetrueGod.

Dewey'sMethodofTeaching

SituationProblemObservationSolutionApplication
Dewey's method of teaching is based on his pragmatic philosophy. He is of the opinion that direct
experienceisthebasisofallmethod.Knowledgetakesplacefromconcreteandmeaningfulsituations.
Henceknowledgeshouldcomefromspontaneousactivitiesofthechildren.Dewey'smethodofteaching
are based on the principles of learning by doing activities in connection with the life of the child.
TheprojectorproblemmethodwhichDeweyadvocated,thechild'sinterestsandpurposesarethemost
important
things.

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For his problem or project method, Dewey laid down the following five steps as essential.
(1)Thepupilshouldhaveagenuinesituationofexperiences.
(2)Agenuineproblemshouldarisefromthissituationandshouldstimulatethethinkingofthechild.
(3)Thechildshouldobtaininformationormakeobservationneededtodealwiththeproblems.
(4)Thesuggestedsolution(s)shouldoccurtohim.
(5)Heshouldhaveanopportunitytotesthisideasbyapplication.

Dewey'scontributiontoeducationalthoughtandpractice
(1)Dewey'ssocialtheoryofeducationcoupledwiththelogicofexperimentalmethodhasbeen
veryinfluentialinthedevelopmentofmoderneducationpractices.
(2)Thegreatestchangehasbeenintherecognitionoftheworthoftheexpenseofthechild.
Thechildisnolongerregardedasapassivesubjectmeantfortheimpositionofexternal
informationbutisconsideredanactivelivingbeingthoseinterestshavetobestimulatedby
participationinsociallysignificantexperience.
(3)Deweyhasbeenoneofthesignificantleaderswhohavetriedtointroduceamorehuman
touchintheprocessesofeducation.
(4)Hehasbeenapowerfulinfluenceininterpretingtheschoolasacommonlyforthe
realizationofthesignificanceoftheimmediateexperiencesandpresentopportunitiesofthe
childifheistobeacontributortothemarchofthesocialprocess.
(5)Hisinsistenceonactivitiesofdiversekindsinschoolisalsoanotheraspectofhissocial
theoryofeducation.
(6)Thepragmaticmethodofinstrumentaliticexperimentationreactsagainstallkindsof
mysticism,transcendentalismandabsolutism.
(7)ThesupremecontributionofDeweytoaphilosophyofeducationisthetheoryofscientific
democratichumanism.
(8)Deweyisquiterightinpleadingforthewideuseoftheexperimentalmethodofsciencein
education.

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NoamChomsky
Chomskysmajorcontributiontostudyinglanguagewasthathemadeit
scientific. He demonstrated that despite the observable variety of the
worlds languages, there is in reality only one language. All other
languages;dead,stillspokenorevenfutureones,arevariationsofasingle
theme. After Chomsky, linguistics is defined as The Scientific Study of
Language,languageinthesingular.
Chomsky is considered one of the most important linguists in the twentieth
century. His main contribution in the field of linguistics is the influential "transformativegenerative
grammar" which is an attempt to describe the syntactical processes common to all human language
mathematically(Smith,1999).Chomskydrawsakeydistinctionbetweenthedeepstructureandsurface
structureoflanguages.Hearguesthatthedeepstructure,whichcontainsthemeaningofasentence,is
notculturallydeterminedbutrather"hardwired"inthehumanbrain.Themeaningisthenconvertedby
a transformation into surface structure, which includes the sounds and words in a sentence. The
Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is the hypothetical brain mechanism that according to Chomsky
explainedtheacquisition ofsyntacticstructureoflanguage (McGilvray,2005).Chomskyhypothesized
thatthelanguageacquisitiondevicewasthesystemthatdeterminedthefeaturesofthechild'snative
language.Thisfallsundertherealmofthenativisttheoryoflanguagewhichstatesthathumansareborn
withtheinnateabilityforacquiringlanguage
Atitsheart, Chomsky's theoryof Generative Grammarisawayof describing thewaypeoplelearn to
communicate. The core of this theory is the idea that all human language originates from a common
source,aninnatesetofgrammaticalrulesandapproachesthatishardwiredintothehumanmind.This
isaverynaturalisticapproach,butonethathasfoundeverincreasingacceptanceamongstexpertsinthe
field
Withregardtolearninglanguage,Chomskypurportsthatsomeaspectsoflanguageareexplicitlytaught
inschoolsuchthespellingconventionsofthewrittenrepresentationoflanguageandformsoftechnical
vocabulary;however,themostfundamentalaspectsoflanguageareuniversal.Weallknowthesame
uniquehumanlanguage.Thisnotionofuniversalgrammaristhesetoflinguisticprinciplesthatweare
endowed with at birth in virtue of being human (Smith, 1999). Chomsky also asserts that there is a
geneticallydetermined"windowofopportunity"forlanguageacquisition.Ifthechilddoesnotlearnits
firstlanguageduringthisperiod,thenitwillneverattainfull"nativelikemastery"ofanylanguage
AccordingtoChomsky,thegoalinteachingistohelpcultivategrowthandtohelpthestudentsbecome
interested in learning. He states that students, "typically they come in interested, and the process of
educationisawayofdrivingthatdefectoutoftheirminds.Butifchildren'snormalinterestismaintained
orevenaroused,theycandoallkindsofthingsinwayswedon'tunderstand(Chomsky,1992).Inother
words,theteacher'sroleinthetransmissionoflearningistokeepthechildrenengagedinthelearning
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processandinterestedinexplorationandindependence.Thefocusisonthestudentslearningratherthan
theteachersteaching.

Languageacquisitioninthebrain
Languageacquisitionalmostalwaysoccursinchildrenduringaperiodofrapidincreaseinbrainvolume.
Atthispointindevelopment,achildhasmanymoreneuralconnectionsthanheorshewillhaveasan
adult,allowingforthechildtobemoreabletolearnnewthingsthanheorshewouldbeasanadult.
Sensitiveperiod
Thereisa"sensitiveperiod"oflanguageacquisitioninwhichhumaninfantshavetheabilitytolearnany
language. Several findings have observed that from birth until the age of six months, infants can
discriminatethephoneticcontrastsofalllanguages.Researchersbelievethatthisgivesinfantstheability
to acquire the language spoken around them. After this age the child is only able to perceive the
phonemes specific to the language he or she is learning. This reduced phonemic sensitivity enables
childrentobuildphonemiccategoriesandrecognizestresspatternsandsoundcombinationsspecificto
thelanguagetheyareacquiring.Accordingtothesensitiveorcriticalperiodmodels,theageatwhicha
childacquirestheabilitytouselanguageisapredictorofhowwellheorsheisultimatelyabletouse
language.[51]However,theremaybeanageatwhichbecomingafluentandnaturaluserofalanguageis
nolongerpossible.[citationneeded]Ourbrainsmaybeautomaticallywiredtolearnlanguages,[citationneeded]but
thisabilitydoesnotlastintoadulthoodinthesamewaythatitexistsduringdevelopment.[citationneeded]By
theonsetofpuberty(aroundage12),languageacquisitionhastypicallybeensolidifiedanditbecomes
moredifficulttolearnalanguageinthesamewayanativespeakerwould.[citationneeded]Atthispoint,itis
usuallyasecondlanguagethatapersonistryingtoacquireandnotafirst

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ImportanceofMotherTongueinEducation
Mothertongueisthelanguagethatachildlearnsinhismother'slap.Itisthelanguagewhichthe
child learns almost without any conscious effort on his part. It is a language which the child
acquireswhilelivinginhisownsocialgroup.
Mothertongue plays a tremendously useful role in the education of a child. It has a great
importanceinthefieldofeducation.Therefore,mothertonguemustbegivenanimportantand
prominentplaceintheschoolcurriculum.
Specifically,theimportanceofmothertongueisduetothefollowingreasons:
1.MediumofExpressionandCommunication.
Mothertongueisthebestmediumfortheexpressionofone'sideasandfeelings.Thus,itisthe
mostpotentagentformutualcommunicationandexchangeofideas.
2.FormationofaSocialGroup.
It is through language, and especially through the mothertongue, that individuals form
themselvesintoasocialorganisation.
3.EasytoLearn.
Ofallthelanguages,themothertongueismosteasytolearn.Fullproficiencyormasterycanbe
achievedinone'sownmothertongue.
4.BestMediumforAcquiringKnowledge.
Thinkingisaninstrumentofacquiringknowledge,andthinkingisimpossiblewithoutlanguage.
"And training in the use of mothertonguethe tongue in which a child thinks and dreams
becomes the first essential of shoaling and the finest instrument of human culture." (P. B.
Ballard.)
Itisthereforeofthegreatestimportanceforourpupilstogetafirmgroundingintheirmother
tongue.
5.ItbringsaboutIntellectualDevelopment.
Intellectual development is impossible without language. Reading, expressing oneself,
acquisition of knowledge and reasoning are the instruments for bringing about intellectual
development;andallofthesearepossibleonlythroughlanguage,orthemothertongueofthe
child.
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6.InstrumentofCreativeSelfExpression.
Wemaybeabletocommunicateinanylanguage,butcreativeselfexpressionispossibleonlyin
one'sownmothertongue.Thisisclearfromthefactthatallgreatwriterscouldproducegreat
literatureonlyintheirownlanguage.
7.InstrumentofEmotionalDevelopment.
Mothertongueisthemostimportantinstrumentforbringingaboutemotionaldevelopmentof
the individual. The emotional effect of literature and poetry is something which is of vital
importanceinthedevelopmentandrefinementofemotions.
8.InstrumentofGrowthofthePupils.
Theteachingofthemothertongueisimportantbecauseonitdependsthegrowthofourpupils.
Growthintheirintellectuallife;growthinknowledge;growthinabilitytoexpressthemselves;
growthincreativeandproductiveabilityallstemfromthemothertongue.
9.SourceofOriginalIdeas.
Originalideasaretheproductofone'sownmothertongue.Onaccountofthefacilityofthought
andexpression,newandoriginalideastakebirthandgetshapeonlyinone'sownmothertongue.
Thus,mothertonguehastremendousimportanceineducationandinthecurriculum.

Verbalintelligence
Definition:Verbal intelligence is the ability to analyze information and solve problems using
languagebasedreasoning.

Verbaltasksmayinvolveconceptssuchas:

Concreteorabstractideas;or

Internalizedlanguagebasedreasoning.

Verbaltasksinvolveskillssuchas:

Theabilitytolistentoandrecallspokeninformation;
Understandingthemeaningofwrittenorspokeninformation;
Solvinglanguagebasedproblemsofaliterary,logical,orsocialtype;
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Understanding the relationships between language concepts and performing language


analogiesorcomparisons;and

Theabilitytoperformcomplexlanguagebasedanalysis.

VerbalIntelligenceintheBrain

Verbal/linguisticintelligenceandthecapacitytousewordstocommunicateisaskillthat
comes from the temporal cortex on the left side of the brain. This area has been
namedBrocasArea.
BrocasAreahasfourareasofsensitivity.
Semantics,thefirstofthese,isthevariousmeaningsandshadesofmeaningsin
words.
2. Phonologyisthesoundsandmeterofwords.
3. Syntaxinvolvestheorderwordsareused.
4. Finally,praxisisthedifferentwayswordscanbeusedinasentenceorculturally
to invoke different meanings. Combined, these four sensitivities impact an
individualsabilitytospeak,write,andunderstandwords.
1.

People with strong linguistic intelligence are attracted to words. They learn well with
mnemonic devices, and they enjoy reading. They may score high on standard
achievementtestsbecauseofthelargeamountofreadingonthesetests.Thesearethe
childrenwhoarebookworms,thepeoplewhoenjoycreatingrhymeswhenstudyingfor
tests,andthestudentswhofindwritingpapersanengagingactivity,notadreadedone.

LinguisticIntelligenceActivitiestoBoostLinguisticSkill

Whileeveryoneisbornwithameasureoflinguisticintelligence,itcanalsobedeveloped
throughthecarefuluseoflinguisticintelligenceactivities.
Word games of all types can help improve thisintelligence. Young children can play
alphabetandspellinggames,whileolderstudentscanplaygamesthatrequirethemto
usewords,whetherwrittenorspoken,todescribethings.
Studentscandrawapictureandthenwriteastorytodescribewhattheydrewtopractice
linguisticskills.
Debatesanddiscussionsinagroupsettingarealsolinguisticintelligenceactivitiesthat
canboosttheseskillsforsomepeople.Evensimplepoetryreadingandwritingactivities
canhelpdeveloplinguisticintelligence.
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Language&PersonalityDevelopment
Success of a man's life depends on his appropriate personality development. University first rank
holders very often prove to be utter failure in life, because they do not care for development of
personality.AccordingtoMahatmaGandhi'Trueeducationistotalpersonalitydevelopment'.
Hence,personalitydoesnotmeanlookinggoodandattractive.Ittakesintoaccountboththephysical
andmentalstateofanindividual.
Personality development fundamentally means grooming and enhancing one's inner and outer
personaltobringinthepositivechangeofyourlife.Eachandeveryindividualfeatures,adistinct
persona that could be polished, refined and developed. This technique includes improving
communication, language, speaking abilities and boosting one's confidence, developing certain
hobbies, extending one's scope of understanding of skills, manners and studying fine etiquette,
includinggraceandstyle,walksandtalksandtotalimbibingoneselftogetherwithliveliness,positive
outlookandpeace.
Ifwetakeintoconsiderationthepeoplewhohavegoodcommandoveralanguage,theycanenhance
theirpersonalitywithgreateasebecausewhenapersonisfluentinEnglishlanguage,itgiveshim
courageandconfidencetospeakopenly,ingroups,amongfriendsorcolleagues.Ifapersonspeaks
well,othersaremoreinterestedinlisteningtowhatheisspeakingandnoattentionispaidonhow
helooks.Whensuchapersonmovesamongdifferentkindsofpeople,helearnsnewwaysandisvery
goodatadaptingthem.Suchnaturewillundoubtedlyenhancehispersonality.

ICTinforeignlanguageteaching/learning
ThereisnomoredoubtthattheuseofICThaspositiveeffectsonforeignlanguageteaching/learningand
alargeliteratureisavailableonthetopic;however,itsimpactishighlydependentonthewayitisused,
theteachersmotivationandhisknowhow.Indeed,technologicequipmentandconnectivitywithout
humanimplicationisnotsufficienttoimproveteachingandlearning;tobeconsideredasanefficienttool,
ICTrequiresanactualengagementoftheteacherandawelldefinedpedagogicproject.
Thefollowingimpactsseem tobethemostobviousoneswhen usingICTto supportforeignlanguage
teaching:
Thepossibilitytoadapteasilytheteachingmaterialsaccordingtocircumstances,learnersneeds
andresponse;
ICTallowstoreactuponandenablestheuseofrecent/dailynews,itoffersaccesstoauthentic
materialsontheweb;
Aquickfeedbackismadepossible;
Possibilitytocombine/usealternately(basic)skills(textandimages,audioandvideoclip...);
Lecturesbecomemoreinterestingandlessordinarywhichboostslearnersengagement;
ICTenablestofocusononespecificaspectofthelesson(pronunciation,vocabulary...).

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Inspiteofcontraststhatmayexistintermsofeducationalenvironment,thereissignificantevidenceof
thebenefitsandadvantagesthattheuseofICTcanhaveonlearners.TheeffectiveuseofICTimpactson
learnersandvariousaspectsofthelearningprocessasfollows:
ICTincreaseslearnersmotivationandthusenhancespersonalcommitmentandengagement;
ICTimprovesindependentlearning;
Learnerscollaborationandcommunicationaremoreimportant;
Learnersattainmentandoutcomesareimproved.
ICTimpactspositivelyonstudentsproficiency.AmajorityofstudentsgetbettergradeswithICT
assistance;
Studentsincreasetheirabilitytotakenoteseffectively;

Theprimegoalofthelearnerswhoattendedthecourseswastodeveloplinguisticcompetenceinorder
tocrushthelinguisticbarrierthatmakesthemfailtheirexaminations.Studentsstillneedtodevelopmore
accuratecompetences,strategiesandmethodologytobenefitmorefromtheiracquisitions.Nevertheless,
ICTcertainlybringsanappropriateanswertothosestudentswhosestudiesareendangeredbylinguistic
limitations.

ImpactofEnglishonmothertongue
Firstofall,yourmothertongueisyourrootandbackboneofyourculturesodonotcutitoffjustbecause
Englishisanimportantneedoftoday.HerearesomepossibleeffectsofEnglishasasecondlanguageon
amothertongue:
1. AspeoplearemoreintoEnglishbecauseofitsgreatrequirementinbusinessandstudiesetc.,
theyarenotlearningtheirownmothertongue.
2. Englishisthelanguageinwhichschoolsinsomeplacesteach.Ifthisisthecase,childrenwillfind
iteasiertoreadEnglishthantheirmothertongue.TheprofusionofInternetsitesinEnglishhas
thesameeffect.
3. Themothertongue,especiallyifitisonewhichdoesnothaveasignificantliterature,maybecome
moreandmoreofanorallanguageunderpressurefromwrittenEnglish.
4. TheperceptionamongtheyoungthatEnglishis"cool"andthemothertongueisoldfashioned
candriveyoungpeopletotrytoconverseinEnglishratherthantheirmothertongue.Iftheyforget
theirownlanguage,theywillbeunabletopassitontotheirchildren.
5. Foreachcountrytosucceedinfutureitsimportantforittofirstlearnfromtheirpast,itshistory
andeachcounty'spastandhistoryisbestknownintheirownlanguageandculture.Ifpeople
don'tgivevaluetotheirownlanguageandculturetheirindividualityandculturalidentitywillbe
swallowedupintheartificialcultureofmultinationalbusiness.

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MODULE3
Placeoflanguageinschoolcurriculum;
LanguageAcrosstheCurriculum(LAC)asaconceptacknowledgesthefactthatlanguageeducationdoes
not only take place in specific subjects explicitly defined and reserved for it, such as mother tongue
education, foreign language education, second language education etc.). Language learning and
educationalsotakeplaceineachandeverysubjectinschool,ineachandeveryacademic/mentalactivity,
across the whole curriculum whether we are conscious of it or not. This reflects the latest research
findingsonReadingComprehension(whichisrequiredextensivelyineachnonlinguisticsubjectmatter
inlearningandteaching)andwithinsightsthatLS/L1asasubjectinschoolcannotbesolelyresponsible
forlanguageeducation;thedevelopmentoflanguageskillsandcompetenceshastobeintegratedalso
intosubjectspecificteaching.
Consequently,weneedtodevelopacomprehensiveunderstandingoflanguageeducationandlanguage
learninginschoolthattakesplaceacrossallsubjectsinadditiontothecentralroleoflanguageasa
subjectitselfandallthatitinvolves(e.g.shapingtheintellectualandsocialpersonality).Thislinguistic
dimensionineachandeverylearningactivityissometimeshiddenandpartlyimplicitandthereforeoften
underestimated in its importance. However, LAC as a policy has to be understood as a necessary and
systematicextensionofthestandardvarietyofthelanguageofschooleducation(LE)intosubjectspecific
waysofthinkingandcommunicatingor,tophrasedifferently,intodisciplinarymodesoflanguageuse.
These follow in part different thematic patterns and rhetorical structures to the ordinary language of
school(andcertainlytoeverydaylanguageuse).Acquiringconceptualliteracyanddiscoursecompetence
for subjectspecific use and thus acquiring new varieties of language use within one and the same
languageisnottobeseenasaluxury,butratherasapreliminaryandfundamentalformofplurilingualism.
A second form of plurilingualism develops when a learner acquires other languages, extends his/her
repertoirewithnewlanguagesthroughforeignlanguageeducationaddingtothenewvarietiesofthe
language of school education and home language if different. Both types of plurilingualism (the first
discoursebased or internal one as well as the second external one, based on adding new language
repertoires) are indispensable for learners to become intraculturally and interculturally sensitive,
knowledgeableandskilledandthustodeveloptowardsdemocraticcitizenshipandparticipationwithin
India.

GoalsinconnectionwithLanguageAcrosstheCurriculum
Inordertounderstandtheimportanceoflanguageinschooleducation,forallsubjectsandacrossthe
wholecurriculum,wehavetoidentifyandsummarisethebasictenetsonwhichLACrests.Theseare(cf.
Corson1990,74):
i. Languagedevelopsmainlythroughitspurposefuluse(domainstobebroadened)
ii. Learning (often) involves talking, writing, shaping and moving (normally in reaction
toperceptions)
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iii. Learningoftenoccursthroughspeakingorwritingasmuchasthroughshapingandmoving
iv. Languageusecontributesto/isaprerequisiteforcognitivedevelopment
v. Languageisthemediumforreflectingonlearning,forimprovingit,forbecoming(moreorless)
autonomousaslearners.

Centralityoflanguageinlearning
ThereforethegoalsofLACareinsimpletermstosupportlanguagedevelopmentineachandevery
child,inalldomainsoflanguageuse,ineachlearningactivityinschool,andtogivechildrenfeedback
abouttheirprogress(throughappropriateassessmentandevaluation).LACisnolongernarrowlyseenas
the exclusive domain of L1/LS education nor is it confined solely to the conventional four modes of
language: Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking; all nonverbal means of representation and
expressionarerightlyseenaspartoftheoverallsemioticsystemsthatwehaveathandandthatweuse
when communicating. The whole scope of semiotics comes into focus including images or graphs,
movementsand,generallyspeaking,allvisualformsofrepresentationandexpression(cf.Corson1990:
72).Thus,wecandistinguisheightmodesofhumanactivitiesinvolvinglanguage,namely:

Listening:comprehendingoralinput/intake

Speaking:constructingmeaningfulutterances

Reading:understandingwrittentexts

Writing:producingwrittentexts/coherentdiscourse

Viewing:attendingtovisualsigns/information

Shaping:usingvisualmeansofexpression

Watching:attendingtophysicalmovements

Moving:usingthewholebody,thewholepersonforselfexpression.

TheconceptofLACalsoclaimsthatlanguageandlearningaswellaslanguageandthinkingaredeeply
linked.Therefore,wishingtoacknowledgeandfurtherdevelopchildrensexistingmentalandlinguistic
capacities,LACfocusesonactive,constructive,potentiallyautonomouslearning(morethanonteaching):
Languageplaysacentralroleinlearning.Nomatterwhatthesubjectarea,studentsassimilate
newconceptslargelythroughlanguage,thatiswhentheylistentoandtalk,readandwriteabout
whattheyarelearningandrelatethistowhattheyalreadyknow.Throughspeakingandwriting,
languageislinkedtothethinkingprocessandisamanifestationofthethinkingthatistakingplace.
Thus,byexplainingandexpressingpersonalinterpretationsofnewlearningsinthevarioussubject
fields,studentsclarifyandincreaseboththeirknowledgeoftheconceptsinthosefieldsandtheir
understandingofthewaysinwhichlanguageisusedineach.(OntarioMinistryofEducation,1984;
quotedinCorson1990,75)
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Consequently,allteachersareencouragedtoparticipateindevelopinglanguageskillsandcompetences
withintheirfieldsofresponsibilityandthuscontributetoaschoollearningpolicyasawhole.Insummary
onecanstatethefollowingbeliefs:

Languageismorethancommunicationskills

Languageisalsolinkedtothethinkingprocess

Languageisatoolforconceptualising,forthinking,fornetworking

Languagesupportsmentalactivityandcognitiveprecision

Languageforacademicpurposeshelpstoexpressthoughtsmoreclearly(thisisespeciallytruefor
writing)

Languagehelpstostructurediscourseandpractisediscoursefunctions

PARTXVII
OFFICIALLANGUAGE
CHAPTERI.LANGUAGEOFTHEUNION
343.OfficiallanguageoftheUnion.
1. TheofficiallanguageoftheUnionshallbeHindiinDevanagariscript.Theformof
numeralstobeusedfortheofficialpurposesoftheUnionshallbetheinternational
formofIndiannumerals.
2. Notwithstandinganythinginclause(1),foraperiodoffifteenyearsfromthe
commencementofthisConstitution,theEnglishlanguageshallcontinuetobeusedfor
alltheofficialpurposesoftheUnionforwhichitwasbeingusedimmediatelybefore
suchcommencement:ProvidedthatthePresidentmay,duringthesaidperiod,byorder
authorisetheuseoftheHindilanguageinadditiontotheEnglishlanguageandofthe
DevanagariformofnumeralsinadditiontotheinternationalformofIndiannumerals
foranyoftheofficialpurposesoftheUnion.
3. Notwithstandinganythinginthisarticle,Parliamentmaybylawprovidefortheuse,
afterthesaidperiodoffifteenyears,of
4.
a. theEnglishlanguage,or
b. theDevanagariformofnumerals,forsuchpurposesasmaybespecifiedinthe
law.

PARTXVII
OFFICIALLANGUAGE
CHAPTERI.LANGUAGEOFTHEUNION
344.CommissionandCommitteeofParliamentonofficiallanguage.
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1. ThePresidentshall,attheexpirationoffiveyearsfromthecommencementofthis
Constitutionandthereafterattheexpirationoftenyearsfromsuchcommencement,by
orderconstituteaCommissionwhichshallconsistofaChairmanandsuchother
membersrepresentingthedifferentlanguagesspecifiedintheEighthScheduleasthe
Presidentmayappoint,andtheordershalldefinetheproceduretobefollowedbythe
Commission.
2. ItshallbethedutyoftheCommissiontomakerecommendationstothePresidentasto
3.
a. theprogressiveuseoftheHindilanguagefortheofficialpurposesoftheUnion;
b. restrictionsontheuseoftheEnglishlanguageforalloranyoftheofficial
purposesoftheUnion;
c. thelanguagetobeusedforalloranyofthepurposesmentionedinarticle348;
d. theformofnumeralstobeusedforanyoneormorespecifiedpurposesofthe
Union;
e. anyothermatterreferredtotheCommissionbythePresidentasregardsthe
officiallanguageoftheUnionandthelanguageforcommunicationbetweenthe
UnionandaStateorbetweenoneStateandanotherandtheiruse.
4. Inmakingtheirrecommendationsunderclause(2),theCommissionshallhavedue
regardtotheindustrial,culturalandscientificadvancementofIndia,andthejustclaims
andtheinterestsofpersonsbelongingtothenonHindispeakingareasinregardtothe
publicservices.
5. ThereshallbeconstitutedaCommitteeconsistingofthirtymembers,ofwhomtwenty
shallbemembersoftheHouseofthePeopleandtenshallbemembersoftheCouncilof
StatestobeelectedrespectivelybythemembersoftheHouseofthePeopleandthe
membersoftheCouncilofStatesinaccordancewiththesystemofproportional
representationbymeansofthesingletransferablevote.
6. ItshallbethedutyoftheCommitteetoexaminetherecommendationsofthe
Commissionconstitutedunderclause(1)andtoreporttothePresidenttheiropinion
thereon.
7. Notwithstandinganythinginarticle343,thePresidentmay,afterconsiderationofthe
reportreferredtoinclause(5),issuedirectionsinaccordancewiththewholeorany
partofthatreport.

PARTXVII
CHAPTERII.REGIONALLANGUAGES
345.OfficiallanguageorlanguagesofaState.
Subjecttotheprovisionsofarticles346and347,theLegislatureofaStatemaybylawadopt
anyoneormoreofthelanguagesinuseintheStateorHindiasthelanguageorlanguagestobe
usedforalloranyoftheofficialpurposesofthatState:
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Providedthat,untiltheLegislatureoftheStateotherwiseprovidesbylaw,theEnglishlanguage
shallcontinuetobeusedforthoseofficialpurposeswithintheStateforwhichitwasbeingused
immediatelybeforethecommencementofthisConstitution.
346.OfficiallanguageforcommunicationbetweenoneStateandanotherorbetweenaState
andtheUnion.
ThelanguageforthetimebeingauthorisedforuseintheUnionforofficialpurposesshallbe
theofficiallanguageforcommunicationbetweenoneStateandanotherStateandbetweena
StateandtheUnion:
ProvidedthatiftwoormoreStatesagreethattheHindilanguageshouldbetheofficial
languageforcommunicationbetweensuchStates,thatlanguagemaybeusedforsuch
communication.
347.SpecialprovisionrelatingtolanguagespokenbyasectionofthepopulationofaState.
OnademandbeingmadeinthatbehalfthePresidentmay,ifheissatisfiedthatasubstantial
proportionofthepopulationofaStatedesiretheuseofanylanguagespokenbythemtobe
recognisedbythatState,directthatsuchlanguageshallalsobeofficiallyrecognisedthroughout
thatStateoranypartthereofforsuchpurposeashemayspecify.

PARTXVII
CHAPTERIII.LANGUAGEOFTHESUPREMECOURT,HIGHCOURTS,ETC.
348.LanguagetobeusedintheSupremeCourtandintheHighCourtsandforActs,Bills,etc.
1. NotwithstandinganythingintheforegoingprovisionsofthisPart,untilParliamentby
lawotherwiseprovides
2.
a. allproceedingsintheSupremeCourtandineveryHighCourt,
b. theauthoritativetexts
3.
i. ofallBillstobeintroducedoramendmentstheretotobemovedineitherHouse
ofParliamentorintheHouseoreitherHouseoftheLegislatureofaState,
ii. ofallActspassedbyParliamentortheLegislatureofaStateandofall
OrdinancespromulgatedbythePresidentortheGovernor_304***ofaState,
and
iii. ofallorders,rules,regulationsandbyelawsissuedunderthisConstitutionor
underanylawmadebyParliamentortheLegislatureofaState,shallbeinthe
Englishlanguage.

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4. Notwithstandinganythinginsubclause(a)ofclause(1),theGovernorofaStatemay,
withthepreviousconsentofthePresident,authorisetheuseoftheHindilanguage,or
anyotherlanguageusedforanyofficialpurposesoftheState,inproceedingsinthe
HighCourthavingitsprincipalseatinthatState:
Providedthatnothinginthisclauseshallapplytoanyjudgment,decreeororderpassed
ormadebysuchHighCourt.
5. Notwithstandinganythinginsubclause(b)ofclause(1),wheretheLegislatureofaState
hasprescribedanylanguageotherthantheEnglishlanguageforuseinBillsintroduced
in,orActspassedby,theLegislatureoftheStateorinOrdinancespromulgatedbythe
Governor_304***oftheStateorinanyorder,rule,regulationorbyelawreferredtoin
paragraph(iii)ofthatsubclause,atranslationofthesameintheEnglishlanguage
publishedundertheauthorityoftheGovernor_304***oftheStateintheOfficial
GazetteofthatStateshallbedeemedtobetheauthoritativetextthereofintheEnglish
languageunderthisarticle.
349.Specialprocedureforenactmentofcertainlawsrelatingtolanguage.
DuringtheperiodoffifteenyearsfromthecommencementofthisConstitution,noBillor
amendmentmakingprovisionforthelanguagetobeusedforanyofthepurposesmentionedin
clause(1)ofarticle348shallbeintroducedormovedineitherHouseofParliamentwithoutthe
previoussanctionofthePresident,andthePresidentshallnotgivehissanctiontothe
introductionofanysuchBillorthemovingofanysuchamendmentexceptafterhehastaken
intoconsiderationtherecommendationsoftheCommissionconstitutedunderclause(1)of
article344andthereportoftheCommitteeconstitutedunderclause(4)ofthatarticle.

PART
CHAPTERIV.SPECIALDIRECTIVES

XVII

350.Languagetobeusedinrepresentationsforredressofgrievances.
Everypersonshallbeentitledtosubmitarepresentationfortheredressofanygrievancetoany
officerorauthorityoftheUnionoraStateinanyofthelanguagesusedintheUnionorinthe
State,asthecasemaybe.
350A.Facilitiesforinstructioninmothertongueatprimarystage.
ItshallbetheendeavourofeveryStateandofeverylocalauthoritywithintheStatetoprovide
adequate facilities for instruction in the mothertongue at the primary stage of education to
childrenbelongingtolinguisticminoritygroups;andthePresidentmayissuesuchdirectionsto
anyStateasheconsidersnecessaryorproperforsecuringtheprovisionofsuchfacilities.
350B.SpecialOfficerforlinguisticminorities.
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1. ThereshallbeaSpecialOfficerforlinguisticminoritiestobeappointedbythePresident.
2. It shall be the duty of the Special Officer to investigate all matters relating to the
safeguards provided for linguistic minorities under this Constitution and report to the
President upon those matters at such intervals as the President may direct, and the
PresidentshallcauseallsuchreportstobelaidbeforeeachHouseofParliament,andsent
totheGovernmentsoftheStatesconcerned.
351.DirectivefordevelopmentoftheHindilanguage.
ItshallbethedutyoftheUniontopromotethespreadoftheHindilanguage,todevelopitso
thatitmayserveasamediumofexpressionforalltheelementsofthecompositecultureofIndia
andtosecureitsenrichmentbyassimilatingwithoutinterferingwithitsgenius,theforms,style
andexpressionsusedinHindustaniandintheotherlanguagesofIndiaspecifiedintheEighth
Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on
Sanskritandsecondarilyonotherlanguages.

IndianEducationCommission
Indian Education Commission (19641966), popularly known asKothari Commission, was an ad hoc
commissionsetupbythegovernmentofindiatoexamineallaspectsoftheeducationalsectorinIndia

ThreeLanguageFormula:
ItprovidesthatchildrenintheHindispeakingstatesaretobetaughtthreelanguages,namely
Hindi,Englishandoneofthelocallanguages.ThechildreninnonHindispeakingstatesaretobe
taughtthelocallanguage,EnglishandHindi.

ThesalientrecommendationsoftheNPE1986are:

TheNationalPolicyonEducation,1986emphasizestheadoptionofregionallanguagesas
themediaofinstructionattheuniversitystage.
Vigorouseffortatimplementationofthethreelanguageformula.
improvementinthelinguisticcompetenciesofstudentsatdifferentstagesofeducation.
provisionoffacilitiesforthestudyofEnglishandotherforeignlanguages.
Development of Hindi as the link language, as provided for in Article 351 of the
Constitution.
TeachingofSanskritattheuniversitystageaspartofcertaincourseslikeIndology,Indian
History,Archaeologyetc.;seriouseffortattranslationofbooksfromonelanguagetothe
other;andthepreparationofbilingualandmultilingualdictionaries.
TheemphasisinthePolicyisontheadoptionofmodernIndianlanguagesasthemedia
ofinstructionattheuniversitystage.

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TheNationalCurriculumFramework(NCF2005)
is one of four National Curriculum Frameworks published in 1975, 1988, 2000 and 2005 by
NCERT. The NCF 2005document draws its policy basis from earlier government reports on
educationasLearningWithoutBurden
NCF2005GivesaFreshImpetustoLanguageEducation:
1. Arenewedattemptshouldbemadetoimplementthethreelanguageformula.
2. Childrensmothertongues,includingtriballanguagesshouldbeconsideredasthebest
mediumofinstruction.
3. ProficiencyinmultiplelanguagesincludingEnglishshouldbeencouragedinchildren.
4. Readingshouldbeemphasizedthroughouttheprimaryclasses.
Culture and language are intermingled. NCF 2005 advocates an interdisciplinary approach.
However,teachersofdifferentsubjectsdonotdiscussthesematters.Languagecanrelateallthe
subjects,asitistheheartofeducationsoistheheartofchildren.Centralityoflanguage,and
achievingitwouldbeagreatmilestone.
Thethreelanguageformulaisan attemptto addressthechallengesandopportunitiesofthe
linguisticsituationinIndia.Theprimaryaimoftheformulaistopromotemultilingualismand
nationalharmony.

Objectivesofteachinglanguageingeneral,theirspecifications
OBJECTIVESOFTEACHINGENGLISH
1)Listening,reading,speakingandwritingarethefourimportantobjectives.
2)Graphicsshouldbepracticedbythestudentsatprimarylevel.Thestudentmustbeableto
writethealphabets,keepingspacebetweentwowordsinasentenceandwritesentencesusing
appropriatepunctuationmarksandcapitalletters.
3)Writingisalsoequallyimportant.Thestudentsshouldbeabletowritecomposition.
4)Allthefourskillsi.e.Listening,Reading,WritingandSpeakingbecomeimportantasthestudent
grows,particularlyreadingandwritingatthelaterstage.
5)Students should be able to read other books excluding textbooks i.e. novel, poetry, drama,
essay writing, autobiography, prciswriting etc Indian people consider English as a second
language.Itisstudiedasacompulsorysecondlanguage.
Itisnotthemediumofinstructionforamajorityofthestudents.Itisaninstrument,ameansfor
acquiringknowledge.TheaimofteachingEnglishinIndiaistohelpstudentstoacquirepractical
commandof
English.Inotherwords,itmeansthatstudentsshouldbeabletounderstandspeakEnglish,read
andwrite

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MAINOBJECTIVESOFTEACHINGENGLISH
TherearetwomainObjectivesofteachingEnglish.Theyareas
1)Languagedevelopment,and
2)Literarydevelopment
Thesetwoobjectivesdifferfromeachotherasfarastheclassandageofstudentsisconcerned.

Objectives
SemanticrelatedPhoneticdealswithsoundGraphicrelatedPhoneticdealstounderstanding
spellingandpronunciationtowritingwithreading

ABILITIESTOBEDEVELOPEDBYFOURFOLDOBJECTIVES:
1)TounderstandSpokenEnglish:
ItincludesrecognitionofEnglishsoundswithoutcommittinganyerrors.Alsoabilitytopointout
meaningfromwhatisheard.
2)AbilitytospeakEnglish:
Itincludesintonationandstressresponseinspeechasreactiontohearing.
3)AbilitytoreadEnglish:
4)Itincludesabilitytoreadandunderstandvariousbooksreadinglikeprose,poetry,drama,and
novelandsoon.
5)AbilitytowriteEnglish:
It includes ability to write guided composition followed by free composition. To select right
words, to construct sentences. The most important objective is to have command over the
language.Itcanbeexplainedwiththehelpoffollowingdiagram.

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Issuesinvolvedinlanguageeducation
Thereareseveralotherissuesinvolvedinlanguageeducationotherthanthedifferenceinlanguageand
culture.Standardlanguageistaughtasoneofsubject.Teachersteachskillstoappreciateliteratureand
aestheticsensibility,andtobuildapositiveattitudetowardstheworld.Butitisalsonecessarytodevelop
itasatoolforacquiringknowledge,thatis,forstudyingalltheknowledgebasedsubjects.Herecomes
theissueofimpartinginstructioninMotherTongueorfirstlanguage.

Issueofmultipledialectsandfirstlanguageinstruction
DialectversusStandardVariety:Educationisimpartedinstandardvarietyofthelanguageconcerned.This
is true of both the first language used as medium of instruction, or a second language taught for
enrichment.Thisattainsgreaterimportanceinfirstlanguageinstruction,becausethechildhastolearn
allthesubjectsinthislanguage.Veryfewreallyspeakstandardvariety.Mostofthechildrenspeaksome
orotherdialect,andsomeofthedialectsaresofarremoved,thattheycanbedistinctlanguages.Many
childrenspeakoneofthedialectsathome,MumbaiHindiwhichisapidginisedvarietyascontactlanguage
outsidetheirhomesandatschooltheylearnhighlystylizedvarietyofthetextbooks.Thisistrueofall
languages but worst is the case of Hindi that has eleven dialects almost like distinct independent
languages.This,veryoften,provesverytraumatictochildrenjustenteringschool.Notonlythatthese
languageshavedifferentlinguisticsystemsbuttherulesofsocialverbaletiquettesarealsodifferentin
differentsociolects.
Again,severalbelievethatstudentsbelongingtolowincomegrouporlowsocialstatuslacklanguageand
theyaretreatedwithnegativeattitudebothbyteachersandbyfellowstudents.ButasprofessorLabov
says, these children dont lack language but the sophistication of the standard variety. A survey was
conducted(byLanguageDevelopmentProject,abodysetupbymunicipalcorporationtostudyproblems
in language education of slum dwelling children with the help of Ford Foundation), to find out the
vocabularycontrolofGujaratispeakingpreschoolchildren,becausetheirtextbookswerebeingrewritten.
Itwasfoundthatthevocabularyofslumdwellingchildrenwasgreaterthanthatofthechildrencoming
frommiddleclass.Butitcontainedalargenumberoftaboowordsnotappropriatefortextbooksorschool.
AstudywasalsodoneoftheschoolsaroundwhichthefishermencommunityofMumbailived.Itwas
found,thattherewasaheavydropoutrateamongthechildrenbythetimetheyreachedsecondarystage.
The observation of these children revealed, that the children use their own language in the first and
secondstandardsinalltheirschoolactivities,inthethirdandthefourththeymixthecodeoftheirdialect
withandthestandard.Theyappearedquitecomfortablewiththismixturebutbythetimetheyreachthe
fifthstandardtheystartrealizingthattheirlanguageisnottherightone.Bythistimetheyalsoreachtheir
adolescence, adding a psychological dimension to their problems, and then dropping out from school
begins.
Thesolutionperhapsliesinlettingthechildrenusetheirlanguageintheclassroomstoinitiatethemin
literacy,aswasfoundamongfishermenchildren,butthereshouldbegradualandconsciouseffortsto
transfer to the standard variety. The question is not whether to allow the children to use their home
language in school, but for how long? Children should understand that every one speaks the home
language, but they must also learn the standard language to be successful in school. Teachers should
explaintothemtheroleofeachofthevarieties;thestandardvarietyisforlifeoutsidetheirhomes,to
beusedinpublicaffairs,andtheirdialectforprivatelifeathome.Thiswouldgivethemthepsychological
stabilityandgroupsolidarity.LanguageDevelopmentProjectconductedanexperimenttotrythisoutwith
positiveresults.Itwasmoredifficulttoconvincetheteacherstoacceptthismethod,thantransferring
speech habits of children from dialect to standard. (In this experiment students were allowed to use
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words,sometimesevenstructures,fromthedialecttheyspokeathome.Theexperimentwastriedinthe
firstgradeintenschoolsofMumbaiMunicipalCorporation.Thiswasdonetoinitiatetheminliteracy.
Oncetheymasteredinitialreadingskills,theywereintroducedtoregularprescribedtextbookinstandard
language.Itneededonlyafewweeksforthechildrenfromexperimentalgrouptocomfortablytakeexams
withchildrenfromcontrolgroup.Theyhadbegunlookingintodifferencesinthetwovarietiesthemselves.
Itturnedouttobeaspecialactivityforthemtolocatedifferencesinthedialectsofotherstudentswho
spokedifferentvarieties.)

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MODULE4
Pedagogyoflanguage;variousmethodsofteachinglanguage:auraloralmethod,structuralmethod,
grammartranslationmethod,directmethod,InteractiveteachingandCooperativelearning(4)

Pedagogyoflanguage
Therearethreeprincipalviews:
1. Thestructuralviewtreatslanguageasasystemofstructurallyrelatedelementstocode
meaning(e.g.grammar).
2. Thefunctionalviewseeslanguageasavehicletoexpressoraccomplishacertainfunction,
suchasrequestingsomething.
3. Theinteractiveviewseeslanguageasavehicleforthecreationandmaintenanceofsocial
relations, focusing on patterns of moves, acts, negotiation and interaction found in
conversationalexchanges.

Structural
methods

Functional
methods

Interactive
methods

Grammar
translation
method

Theoral
approach

Direct
method

Audiolingual
method

Directed
practice

Theseries
method

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Thegrammartranslationmethodisamethodofteachingforeignlanguagesderivedfromthe
classical(sometimescalledtraditional)methodofteachingGreekandLatin.Ingrammar
translationclasses,studentslearngrammaticalrulesandthenapplythoserulesbytranslating
sentencesbetweenthetargetlanguageandthenativelanguage.Advancedstudentsmaybe
requiredtotranslatewholetextswordforword.Themethodhastwomaingoals:toenable
studentstoreadandtranslateliteraturewritteninthesourcelanguage,andtofurther
studentsgeneralintellectualdevelopment.Grammarrulesarelearneddeductively;students
learngrammarrulesbyrote,andthenpracticetherulesbydoinggrammardrillsandtranslating
sentencestoandfromthetargetlanguage.Moreattentionispaidtotheformofthesentences
beingtranslatedthantotheircontent.Whenstudentsreachmoreadvancedlevelsof
achievement,theymaytranslateentiretextsfromthetargetlanguage.Testsoftenconsistof
thetranslationofclassicaltexts.
Thereisnotusuallyanylisteningorspeakingpractice,andverylittleattentionisplacedon
pronunciationoranycommunicativeaspectsofthelanguage.

Theaudiolingualmethod,ArmyMethod,orNewKey,[1]isastyleofteachingusedinteaching
foreignlanguages.Itisbasedonbehavioristtheory,whichprofessesthatcertaintraitsofliving
things,andinthiscasehumans,couldbetrainedthroughasystemofreinforcement.Thecorrect
use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive
negativefeedback.
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This approach to language learning was similar to another, earlier method called the direct
method. Like the direct method, the audiolingual method advised that students should be
taughtalanguagedirectly,withoutusingthestudents'nativelanguagetoexplainnewwordsor
grammarinthetargetlanguage.However,unlikethedirectmethod,theaudiolingualmethod
didnotfocusonteachingvocabulary.Rather,theteacherdrilledstudentsintheuseofgrammar.
The direct method of teaching, which is sometimes called the natural method, and is often (but not
exclusively)usedinteachingforeignlanguages,refrainsfromusingthelearners'nativelanguageanduses
onlythetargetlanguage.ItwasestablishedinGermanyandFrancearound1900andcontrastswiththe
Grammartranslationmethodandothertraditionalapproaches
Thestructuralapproach

Thismethodseeslanguageasacomplexofgrammaticalruleswhicharetobelearnedoneata
timeinasetorder.Soforexampletheverb"tobe"isintroducedandpractisedbeforethepresent
continuoustensewhichuses"tobe"asanauxiliary.

Cooperativelearning
Cooperativelearningisateachingmethodwherestudentsofmixedlevelsofabilityarearranged
into groups and rewarded according to the group's success, rather than the success of an
individualmember.
Formalcooperativelearningisstructured,facilitated,andmonitoredbytheeducatorovertime
andisusedtoachievegroupgoalsintaskwork(e.g.completingaunit).Anycoursematerialor
assignmentcanbeadaptedtothistypeoflearning,andgroupscanvaryfrom26peoplewith
discussionslastingfromafewminutesuptoanentireperiod.Typesofformalcooperative
learningstrategiesinclude:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Thejigsawtechnique
Assignmentsthatinvolvegroupproblemsolvinganddecisionmaking
Laboratoryorexperimentassignments
Peerreviewwork(e.g.editingwritingassignments).

Havingexperienceanddevelopingskillwiththistypeoflearningoftenfacilitatesinformaland
baselearning.[20]Jigsawactivitiesarewonderfulbecausethestudentassumestheroleofthe
teacheronagiventopicandisinchargeofteachingthetopictoaclassmate.Theideaisthatif
studentscanteachsomething,theyhavealreadylearnedthematerial.
Informalcooperativelearningincorporatesgrouplearningwithpassiveteachingbydrawing
attentiontomaterialthroughsmallgroupsthroughoutthelessonorbydiscussionattheendof
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alesson,andtypicallyinvolvesgroupsoftwo(e.g.turntoyourpartnerdiscussions).These
groupsareoftentemporaryandcanchangefromlessontolesson(verymuchunlikeformal
learningwhere2studentsmaybelabpartnersthroughouttheentiresemestercontributingto
oneanothersknowledgeofscience).
Discussionstypicallyhavefourcomponentsthatincludeformulatingaresponsetoquestions
askedbytheeducator,sharingresponsestothequestionsaskedwithapartner,listeningtoa
partnersresponsestothesamequestion,andcreatinganewwelldevelopedanswer.Thistype
oflearningenablesthestudenttoprocess,consolidate,andretainmoreinformation.[20]
Ingroupbasedcooperativelearning,thesepeergroupsgathertogetheroverthelongterm
(e.g.overthecourseofayear,orseveralyearssuchasinhighschoolorpostsecondarystudies)
todevelopandcontributetooneanothersknowledgemasteryonatopicbyregularly
discussingmaterial,encouragingoneanother,andsupportingtheacademicandpersonal
successofgroupmembers.
Basegrouplearning(e.g.,alongtermstudygroup)iseffectiveforlearningcomplexsubject
matteroverthecourseorsemesterandestablishescaring,supportivepeerrelationships,which
inturnmotivatesandstrengthensthestudentscommitmenttothegroupseducationwhile
increasingselfesteemandselfworth.Basegroupapproachesalsomakethestudents
accountabletoeducatingtheirpeergroupintheeventthatamemberwasabsentforalesson.
Thisiseffectivebothforindividuallearning,aswellassocialsupport.

InteractiveTeaching
Involvesfacilitatorandlearners
Encourageandexpectlearnerstoparticipate
Usequestionstostimulatediscussion,emphasizingthevalueofanswers
Giveparticipantshandsonexperience
Useteachingaidstogainandretainattention
Brainstorming
Steps:
1. Presentanopenendedquestionforstudentstodiscussorsolve.
2. Studentscanworkindividually,inpairsorsmallgroups,orasaclass(orcombinationof
these).
3. Havestudentsshareideaswithclass,makingnotesontheboard.
4. Challengetheirresponsesorhaveotherstudentschallengethe responsesonthe board.
5. Attheend,correctanymisconceptions,noteopposingpointsofview,andsummarizemain
points.

Value: promotes critical and creative thinking and imagination


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ConceptMap
Steps:
1. Providestudentswithalistoftermsrelativetotheircoursework(eitherfromthe
previousclass,lastseveralclassesormostrecentlecturesegment). Termsmaybe
providedasalistorgivenoutasastackof cards.
2. Askstudentstocreateameaningfulpatternwiththeseterms(i.e.foodwebhow
aredifferentorganismslinked,cardiovascularsystembloodflow,etc.). Theremaybe
onerightanswerortheconceptsmaypromote creative exploration ofthe topic.
3. Iftimeallows,askonegrouptoshareconceptmapwiththewholeclass. Oralternatively,
askgroupstoexplaintheirpatterntoanothergroupintheclass.

Value: promotes integration of ideas, provides immediate feedback about student understanding,
DecisionMaking
Steps:
1. ProvidestudentswithproblemthattheyneedtoworkonforexampleImagineyouare
thedirectoroftheantibioticdiscoveryunitinamajorpharmaceuticalcompanyandyou
areasksforafiveyearplantodevelopnewantibiotics. Youaretoldthattheplanwillbe
fundedonlyifyoucanconvinceyourmanagersthatyouwillbeabletodevelopthefive
newdrugswithentirelynewmodesofaction. Canyoudoit? Whatisyourplanandhow
willyoudefendit?
2. Ask students to work in groups (24 students) to develop a plan based on what they
have learned inclass.
3. Havestudentsshareideaswithclass,makingnotesontheboard.
4. Askotherstudentsintheclasstocommentoneachgroupsproposalandsuggestchanges.

Value: promotes integration of ideas, critical, creative thinking, provides immediate feedback
about studentunderstanding,
ItemClarification
Steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Givestudentsahandoutorpostaslidethatlistskeytermsoritemsfordiscussion.
Askstudentstoreviewthelistandselectafewitemsforclarification.
Nexthavestudentsgetintopairsandselectaparticularitemforimmediateclarification.
Callastudentatrandomandclarifythechosenitem(or,betteryet,askifanother
studentcanofferclarification).

5. allonadditionalstudentsandcontinuetoclarifyitems.
6. Neartheend,iftimeallows,askparticipantsifthereareofyourresponsesorthoseof
otherstudentstheywanttochallengeordebate.
7. Concludewithabriefreviewoftheitems.

Value:providesimmediatefeedbackaboutstudentunderstanding,andithelpsprioritizeitems
forreview ordiscussion
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GroupGraphic
Steps:
1. Havestudentsgetinpairsorsmallgroups.
2. Askthepairsorgroupstoillustratelecturecontentbyconstructingapicture,
diagram,flowchart,conceptmap,or someothervisualillustrationthatrepresents
theirunderstandingofthe content.
3. Havestudentsreportontheirgroupgraphictotherestoftheclass,explainingwhatis
representedandwhy (their representation might also include questions, unknowns, etc.).
4. Haveothergroupsrespondwithquestions,feedbackorsuggestions,andyoucanalso
providefeedback
tohelpclarifyquestions,pointoutmisconceptionsoroversimplifications,orcorrecterrors.Youcan
alsohavegroupsturnintheirillustrationsforyoutoscrutinizeafterclassandlaterhandbackwith
feedback.

VariationforLargeClasses:Havesmallgroupsassignrolessuchasrecorder(persondrawing),
facilitator(ensures everyone participates), reporter (will report on illustration), and participants
(contribute to discussion).Oncethegraphiccomplete,havethereportersfromeachgroupgotoa
differentgroupandreportontheillustration,receivingfeedbackfromtheothergroup. Some
instructorsprovidemarkersandlargepostitnotesorpiecesofpaperandtapetoadhere
illustrationstoawall.

Value:promotesintegrationofideasandthinking,facilitatesattentiononthebigpicture
andrelationshipsamongideas,andallowsforcreativityinthinkingandexpression

Matrix
Steps:
1. Studentsshouldcreatea tablewithinformationtocompare (i.e.pros/con,twodifferent
processes)

Learning activity

Value of activity

Limitation of
activity

When wouldyou
usethisinclass

Matrix

Minute paper, etc.

2. Ask students to work in groups (24 students) to fill out the table
3. Havegroupssharetheirideaswiththeclassandmakenotesontheboard.

Value:promotesintegrationofideas,allowsstudentstoeasily compareideasandreduce
complexity.

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MinutePaper
Steps:
1. Attheendofalecturesegmentortheendofthelectureclass,havestudents
spendtwoorthreeminuteswritingasummaryofthemainpoints.
2. Askatleastonestudenttosharewhathe/shewrote.
3. Collectthepapersforreview(butnotforagrade).
4. Youcanalsousetheminutepapertohavestudentstowritedownquestionstheyhave
aboutthelecture,3keypointsoftheday,indicatepointstheydontunderstand,or
sharefeedbackaboutyourdelivery,useofslides,etc.

Value: providesimmediate feedback aboutstudentunderstanding,helpsprioritize items for


review ordiscussion,andallowsstudentstoputmaterialintotheirownwords
MultipleChoice Survey
Steps:
1. Putamultiplechoiceitem,preferablyconceptualinnature,relatedtoyourminilecture
ontheboard,aslide,oranoverhead,andgivefourresponseoptions.
2. Surveystudentresponses(havethem raisehands,usecoloredcards,oruseelectronic
responsesystem
clicker).
3. Nexthavethemgetintopairsandtakeacoupleofminutestoconvinceeachotheroftheir
responses.
4. Thenresurveythestudents.
5. Clarify any misconceptions before proceeding.

Value:makesstudentsapplyanddiscussmaterialwhilefreshintheirminds,anditprovides
immediatefeedbackabout student understanding
QuickCaseStudy
Steps:
1. Displayaverybriefcaseonanoverheadorslide(orputonahandoutiflengthy).
2. Posespecificquestionsforstudentstoanswerbasedonthecase[Forexample,Whatisthe
problem?
Whatistheremedy?Whatistheprevention?]
3. Havestudentswrite downtheiranswers.
4. Studentscanworkindividuallyorinpairsorsmallgroups.
5. Iftimeallows,selectafewstudentstosharealoudtheiranswers

Value:makesstudentsapplymaterialtoarealisticsituation,anditpromotescriticalandcreative
thinking.
QuickThinks
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Foreachofthefollowing,useimmediatematerialfromlecture,andallowstudentsacoupleof
minutestoreflectbeforesurveyingtheirresponses(havestudentssharealoud,andyoucan
collectwrittenresponsesforparticipationpoints):

CorrecttheError:Presentstudentswithastatement,equation,orvisualthatyouhave
intentionallymadeincorrectandhavethemcorrecttheerror.Theerrormaybean
illogicalorinaccuratestatement,premise, inference, prediction, or implication.

CompleteaSentenceStem:Presentstudentswithasentencestarterandhavethem
completethesentence.Thecompletedstatementmaybeadefinition,category,
causeandeffectrelationship,rationale,controversy,etc.Trytoavoidstatements
thataskforroteknowledge.

ReordertheSteps:Presentsequenceitemsinthewrongorderandhavestudentsreorder
thesequencecorrectly.Thismightbeaprocess,cycle,method,plan,technique,etc.

Interpretation/Paraphrase: Letstudentsknowthatyouwillbecallingonthematrandom
duringyourlectureandaskingthemtointerpretwhatyouvesaid,puttingthematerialin
theirownwords.Whenyouareready,pauseforamomenttosignalthatyouareabout
tocallonsomeone.Onceastudenthasshared,youcanhaveanotherstudentaddmore.
Youcanalsohavestudentsworkandshareinpairs.

WhatdoYouSee?Presentstudentswithanimage,suchasapicture,symbol,graphic,
equation,etc.,andaskthemwhatdoyousee?Theimagecanbesomethingnewor
familiartostudents.Theideaistoascertainiftheycanidentifynoticeablepatterns,
discrepancies,unusualfeatures,andsoon.Youcanalsopresentanintentionallyaltered
imagetodetermineifstudentscanidentifywhatiswrongormissingorsuggesthowto
correctit.

ReachaConclusion:Presentstudentswithsomedata,opinion,event,orsolutionand
havetheminferlogicallytheimplicationsofthefacts,concepts orprinciples involved.
Theirconclusionscanbe probablyresults, probable causes or outcomes.

Value: these exercises foster attentiveness, provide immediate feedback about student
understanding, andpromote critical thinking skills
Plus/Delta(+/)
Steps:
1. Attheendofclassaskstudentstotakeasheetofpaperanddivideitintotwocolumns.
2. Incolumn1(+)studentswritedownwhatwasverypositiveabouttheclass,anactivity,
orinstructionalmaterials. Incolumn2()studentswritewhattheywouldliketochange
forthefuture.
3. Collect student responses.
4. Readstudentresponsesandmakechangesfornextclassaccordingly.
5. Inthenextclasssharesomeofthehighlightswithstudentsandmakechangesasnecessary.

Value:providesimmediatefeedbacktotheinstructor,allowsforquickchangeseveninthemiddle
ofaterm.
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Reflection
Steps:
1. Havestudentstakeafewminutestothinkandwritedowntheirthoughtsaboutthe
lecturematerialjustpresentedoraparticularquestionorproblemthathasbeenposed
2. Collectstudentpapers,ifyouwish,andreview theirresponsestoassesstheir
understandingandidentifyareasthatneedclarificationatthebeginningofthenext
lecture(youcanalsoassignparticipation pointsforresponsesorallow studentsto
submit them anonymously)

Value:allowsstudentstothinkthroughmaterialandputitintheirownwords

StretchBreak
Steps:
1. Atanytimeyousensestudentsarelosingfocusorenergy,youcanpauseyourlectureandhave
studentsstandandstretchormoveabout.Researchindicatesthatthesimpleactofstretchingor
movingcanrefocusstudentattentionandenhancetheirlearning.Youcanaddcontentbyhaving
studentsdiscussaparticularquestionorsummarize aparticularideatogetherwhiletheystretchor
move.Someinstructors play musicwhilestudents aremoving about.

Value:promotesalertnessandaddsvarietyto the classroom experience

StripSequence
Steps:
1. Providestudentswithanoutoforderlistofstepinamultisteppedprocess(canbe
writtenonsmallstripsofpaperorontheclassscreen).
2. Ingroupsorindividually,havestudentsputthestripsintothecorrectorderfrom
beginningtoend.
3. Have studentgroups compare answerswith another group.
4. Revieworderandanswerquestions(especiallytoclarifymisconceptions)forthewhole
class.

Value: promotes critical thinking and collaborative learning.


ThinkAloudInquiry
Steps:
1. Presentaparticularproblem,ideallyanappropriatedisciplinerelatedproblemthatcan
besolvedinarelativelyshorttimeframe(or,foramorecomplexproblem,themethodof
inquiryviawhichyouwouldgoaboutsolvingtheproblemcanbepresented).
2. Next,literallytalkaloudinfrontofstudentshowyouwouldgoaboutengagingtheproblem.

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Youmight
say,forexample,Okay,forthisparticularproblem,firstIneedtoclarifythenatureoftheproblem.
DoIunderstandwhatisatstake?Fromwhatisgivenhere,Iunderstandittoinvolvex,y,z.Given
this,thenextthingIneedtodoisconsider.Andsoon.Theideaistodemonstrateexplicitly
yourthinkingprocess(oraformalprocessofinquiry)sothatstudentscanliterallyobserve/hear
thinkinginactionasonemovesthroughabasicprocessofinquiryorproblemsolving(e.g.
identifythenatureoftheproblem,analyze the knowledgeorskillsrequiredtoengageit,identify
potentialsolutions,choosethebest solution, evaluate potential outcomes, report on findings, etc.).
3. Next,havestudentformpairsandassumetherolesofproblemsolverandlistener.
Thenpresenta
problemforthemtosolve.Theproblemsolveristoreadtheproblemaloudandtalkthroughthe
reasoningprocessinattemptingtosolveit.Theroleofthelisteneristoencouragetheproblem
solvertothinkaloud,describingthestepstosolvetheproblem.Thelistenercanalsoaskclarifying
questionsoroffersuggestionsbutshouldnotactuallysolvethe problem.
4. Presentyetanotherproblem andhavestudentsswitchroles.
5. After an allotted amount of time, have student pairs share their experience. Did they
actually solve theproblems? What obstacles or breakthroughs did they encounter? How
diditfeeltotalkaloudorlistentothinkinginaction?

Value: promotes critical thinking and inquiry, attentiveness, and collaborative learning
ThinkPairShare
Steps:
1. Posea question.
2. Studentsgetintopairsanddiscussquestion,comingtosomeresolution.
3. Eachstudentpairthensharesconclusionswithentireclass(inlargeclassesorwhentime
islimited,callonasmanypairsastimeallows).

Value: promotes critical thinking and collaborative learning.

2.Teachingoffourbasicskills:listening,speaking,reading,writing;Differentwaysand
activities to develop these skills; Interrelationship of these skills; Constructivism in
languageteaching(3)
Listening
Listeningisthelanguageskillwhichlearnersusuallyfindthemostdifficult.Thisoftenisbecausetheyfeel
under unnecessary pressure to understand every word. To achieve the aims related to this skill, the
teacherplaysanimportantrolethatisdefinedinthefollowingsteps.
1. Itisimportanttohelppupilsprepareforthelisteningtaskwellbeforetheyhearthetextitself.
Firstofalltheteachermustensurethatthepupilsunderstandthelanguagetheyneedtocomplete
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thetaskandarefullyawareofexactlywhatisexpectedofthem.Reassurethepupilsthattheydo
notneedtounderstandeverywordtheyhear.
2. The next important step is to encourage pupils to anticipate what they are going to hear. In
everydaylife,thesituation,thespeaker,andvisualcluesallhelpustodecodeoralmessages.A
waytomakethingsabiteasiertothepupilsistopresentthelisteningactivitywithinthecontext
ofthetopicofateachingunit.Thisinitselfwillhelppupilstopredictwhattheanswersmightbe.
Theteachercanhelpthemfurtherbyaskingquestionsandusingtheillustrationstoencourage
pupilstoguesstheanswersevenbeforetheyhearthetext.
3. Duringthelisteningthepupilsshouldbeabletoconcentrateonunderstandingthemessageso
makesuretheyarenottryingtoread,draw,andwriteatthesametime.Alwaysgiveasecond
chancetolistentothetexttoprovideanewopportunitytothosewhowerenotabletodothe
task.
4. Finally,whenpupilshavecompletedtheactivity,inviteanswersfromthewholeclass.Trynotto
putindividualpupilsunderunduepressure.Ratherthanconfirmingwhetheranansweriscorrect
ornot,playthecassetteagainandallowpupilstolistenagainforconfirmation.Youmaybegiven
avarietyofanswers,inwhichcaselistthemallontheboardandplaythetextagain,sothatthe
classcanlistenandchoosethecorrectone.Evenifthepupilsallappeartohavecompletedthe
tasksuccessfully,alwaysencouragethemtolistentothetextoncemoreandchecktheiranswers
forthemselves.

Speaking
Firstofall,wemusttakeintoaccountthattheleveloflanguageinput(listening)mustbehigherthanthe
leveloflanguageproductionexpectedofthepupils.Sowehavemanyspeakingactivitiesusedinthefirst
levelsthatenablepupilstoparticipatewithaminimalverbalresponse.Howeverinthelastlevels,pupils
areencouragedtobegintomanipulatelanguageandexpressthemselvesinamuchmorepersonalway.

Inprimaryschoolstwomaintypesofspeakingactivitiesareused.Thefirsttype,songs,chants,
andpoems,encouragespupilstomimicthemodeltheyhearonthecassette.Thishelpspupils
to master the sounds, rhythms, and intonation of the English language through simple
reproduction.Thegamesandpairworkactivitiesontheotherhand,althoughalwaysbasedon
agivenmodel,encouragethepupilstobegintomanipulatethelanguagebypresentingthem
withacertainamountofchoice,albeitwithinafairlycontrolledsituation.
Inorderforanyspeakingactivitytobesuccessfulchildrenneedtoacknowledgethatthereisa
real reason for asking a question or giving a piece of information. Therefore, make sure the
activitiesyoupresenttothepupils,provideareasonforspeaking,whetherthisistoplayagame
ortofindoutrealinformationaboutfriendsintheclass.
Oncetheactivitybegins,makesurethatthechildrenarespeakingasmuchEnglishaspossible
without interfering to correct the mistakes that they will probably make. Try to treat errors
casually by praising the utterance and simply repeating it correctly without necessarily
highlightingtheerrors.Andfinally,alwaysofferpraiseforeffortregardlessoftheaccuracyofthe
Englishproduced.
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Reading
Inordertomakereadinganinterestingchallengeasopposedtoatediouschore,itisimportantthatpupils
donotlabourovereveryword,whethertheyareskimmingthetextforgeneralmeaningorscanningitto
pickoutspecificinformation.Otherthingstokeepinmindare:
1. Whenchoosingtextsconsidernotonlytheirdifficultylevel,butalsotheirinterestortheirhumour
sothatchildrenwillwanttoreadforthesamereasonstheyreadintheirownlanguage:tobe
entertainedortofindoutsomethingtheydonotalreadyknow.
2. As with listening activities, it is important to spend time preparing for the task by using the
illustrations(ausualfeatureinreadingactivitiesforchildren),pupils'ownknowledgeaboutthe
subjectmatter,andkeyvocabularytohelpthepupilstopredictthegeneralcontentofthetext.
Discussthesubjectandaskquestionstoelicitlanguageandtostimulatethepupils'interestinthe
text before they begin reading. Also make sure that the pupils understand the essential
vocabularytheyneedtocompletethetaskbeforetheybegintoread.
3. Whilethechildrenarereadingthetext,movearoundtheclassprovidingsupportifpupilsneed
it.Wherepossible,encouragepupilstoworkoutthemeaningofvocabularyastheycomeacross
it,usingthecontextandthesupportingillustrations.
4. Donotencouragepupilstoreadtextsaloudunlessthisistolearnaplayorreciteapoem.Reading
aloudinhibitsmostpupilsandforcesthemtoconcentrateonwhattheyaresayingasopposedto
whattheyarereadingandthemeaningisveryoftenlost.

Writing
Inprimaryschools,EFLpupilsprogressfromwritingisolatedwordsandphrases,toshortparagraphsabout
themselvesoraboutveryfamiliartopics(family,home,hobbies,friends,food,etc.)

Sincemanypupilsatthislevelarenotyetcapableeitherlinguisticallyorintellectuallyofcreating
apieceofwrittentextfromscratch,itisimportantthattimeisspentbuildingupthelanguage
theywillneedandprovidingamodelonwhichtheycanthenbasetheirownefforts.Thewriting
activitiesshouldthereforebebasedonaparalleltextandguidethepupils,usingsimplecues.
Thesewritingactivitiesgenerallyappeartowardstheendofaunitsothatpupilshavehadplenty
ofexposuretothelanguageandpracticeofthemainstructuresandvocabularytheyneed.
Atthisstage,thepupils'workwillinvariablycontainmistakes.Again,theteachershouldtryto
besensitiveinhis/hercorrectionandnotnecessarilyinsistoneveryerrorbeinghighlighted.A
piece of written work covered in red pen is demoralizing and generally counterproductive.
Wherepossible,encouragepupilstocorrecttheirownmistakesastheywork.Ifthereistime,
encouragepupilstodecoratetheirwrittenworkandwherefeasibledisplaytheireffortsinthe
classroom.
WritingandReadingRelationships

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In1983,Stotskypublishedareviewofcorrelationalandexperimentalstudiesthatinvestigated
reading and writing relationships. Her much cited synthesis spans approximately fifty years.
Correlationalstudiestothattimeshowedthat":

betterwriterstendtobebetterreaders,
betterwriterstendtoreadmorethanpoorerwriters,
betterreaderstendtoproducemoresyntacticallymaturewritingthanpoorerreaders"

Decodingmeanstranslatingwrittenwordsintothesoundsandmeaningsofspokenwords(oftensilently).
Encoding,orspelling,isthereverseprocess.Theskillsusedinencodingareusuallydevelopedalongside
decodingskillsandreflectsimilarlearning.Inordertobecomegooddecodersandspellers,learners

need to first develop some basic understandings about print and how it relates to spoken
language. In particular, learners must have developed phonological awareness and phonemic
awareness.
Learnersalsoneedtoknowthenamesofthelettersofthealphabetandthesoundstheletters
represent,andtheyneedtounderstandthekeyconceptsaboutprint.Withoutthisknowledge,
readerswillnotlearntodecodeandwriterswillnotlearntospell.

Thealphabeticprinciple.Learnersneedtoknowthatlettersinprintrepresentsoundsinspeech.
Thisknowledgeisnecessarysothatlearnerscanrecogniselettersbyshapeastheyreadandshape
letterscorrectlyastheywrite.
Concepts about print. Learners need to understand how print works in written text.
Such
concepts
include:
thattextiswrittenandreadfromlefttorightwithareturnsweeptotheleftofeachnewline
that print on the lefthand page or column is read before print on the right
that written sentences start with capital letters and end with full stops
thatthespacingsbetweenwords,sentences,linesofprintandparagraphsfollowameaningful
pattern.
Knowledgeoflettersoundcorrespondence.thisknowledgeoftherelationshipbetweenspoken
soundsandthecorrespondinglettersisessentialfordecodingandwritingtext.
Wordanalysis.Learnersusetheirincreasingknowledgeofthewaysinwhichmanywordsarebuilt
upfromrootwords,prefixesandsuffixestohelpthemworkouthowtoreadnewwords,
Developing the ability to decode or spell automatically. Good decoders and spellers quickly
developastoreorbankofwordstheyrecogniseorcanwriteautomatically.

ConstructivisminTeachinglanguage

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CHARACTERISTICSOFACONSTRUCTIVISTTEACHER
1. Constructivistteachersencourageandacceptstudentautonomyandinitiative
2. Constructivistteachersuserawdataandprimarysources,alongwithmanipulative,interactive
andandphysicalmaterials
3. When framing tasks, constructivist teachers use cognitive terminology such as classify,
analyse,predictandcreate

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4. Constructivist teachers allow the students' responses to drive lessons, shift instructional
strategies,andaltercontent
5. Constructivistteachersinquireaboutstudentsunderstandingsofconceptsbeforesharingtheir
ownunderstandingoftheseconcepts
6. Constructivistteachersencouragestudentstoengageindialogue,bothwiththeteacherandwith
oneanother
7. Constructivistteachersencouragestudentsinquirybyaskingthoughtful,openendedquestions
andencouragingstudentstoaskquestionsofeachother
8. Constructivistteachersseekelaborationofstudentsinitial
9. Constructivistteachersallowwaittimeafterposingquestions

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Debate

Classroomdebateisaformofempoweredlearninginwhichstudentsbecomeinvolvedin
researching,teaching,andrecognizingalternativepointsofview.Thebenefitsofaformal
classroomdebateinclude:1)reducingthebiasesofbothstudentsandtheinstructor;2)
enhancingstudentresearchandanalysisskills;3)promotinglogicalandcriticalthinking;4)
increasingoralcommunicationskills;5)motivatingstudents;and6)buildingeffectiveteam
workskills.Mostsignificantly,tobesuccessful,thestudentsinvolvedindebatemustmasterall
sixlevelsofBloom'sTaxonomy(1956).
Debaterevolvesaroundthedebateproposition,whichshouldbeacarefullywordedone
sentencestatement,callingforsomenewpositionorchangeinthepresent.Althoughthe
propositionshouldbewordedtoavoidexcessiveambiguity,theyareoftennormativeinstyle
andoffertheopportunitytoarguebothissuesoffactandbelief.Thisallowsdebaters,
considerableflexibilityinbuildingarguments.Theaffirmativeteamarguesinfavorofthe
propositionwhilethenegativeteamtriestorefutetheargumentsoftheaffirmativeteamand
inessencearguestomaintainthestatusquo(Payne).
Debatesshouldfocusontopicsforwhichthereisno"rightanswer"ortoowhichamarginal
viewisvaluable
Quizzes&Exams

Typicallyeducatorshaveutilizedquizzesandexamsasassessmenttools.HarrisandJohnson
havefoundthatcollaborativelearningcanoccurthroughpreparation,execution,discussion
andreviewofexaminationquestions.Theauthorshaveutilizedavarietyoftestingstrategies
thatemphasizeteachingandlearningsuchas:individualandgroupquizzes,multipletest
opportunities,andfirstdayfinalexams.Theprinciplebehindthesestrategiesistomove
beyondregurgitationoffactstoBloom'shigherlevelsoflearningsuchasapplication,
analysis,synthesisandevaluation.
Roleplay
Roleplayistocreatethepresenceofareallifesituationintheclassroom.Itisimportantinthe
classroomcommunicationbecauseitgivesstudentsanopportunitytopracticecommunicativelyin
differentsocialcontextsandindifferentsocialroles.Thelanguageappliedinthisactivityisvaried
accordingtothestudentsstatus,attitudes,mood,anddifferentsituations.(Blachowicz,etal.,
2006.)speaks,
Teacherscanintroducesomeofthewordswhichprovidebothdefinitionalandcontextual
informationaboutthewordstobelearnedbymakingupadialogueforstudentssothatstudents
canunderstandafurthermeaningandusageofthewords.

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Crosswordpuzzle
Crosswordpuzzlesofferanentertainingwayofreviewingvocabulary.Studentscandothepuzzles
inclassinpairs,asaracewithotherstudents,orathomeashomework.Theteachercanalsodesign
aWordPuzzle,whichisalsocalledaWordCross,askingthestudentstocooperateingroupsto
findandcirclethewordsthatthepuzzlecontains.Theteachermightalsoplaceseveralversionsof
thewordinthepuzzle,withonlyoneofthembeingthecorrectspelling.Thestudentsmustcircle
onlythewordwiththecorrectspelling.

TechniquesofTeachingVocabularyattheIntermediateLevel
Vocabularyofalanguageisjustlikebricksofahighbuilding.Despitequitesmallpieces,theyare
vitaltothegreatstructure.Wilkinsrightlysays,Withoutgrammarverylittlecanbe
conveyed.butwithoutvocabularynothingcanbeconveyed.Thereforethestudyofvocabulary
isatthecenterwhilelearninganewlanguage.Englishbeingasecondlanguageorforeignlanguage,
oneneedstolearnvocabularyinthesystematicway.

Active&PassiveVocabulary
Alearner'spassivevocabularyisthewordsthattheyunderstandbutdon'tuseyet.Thiscanbe
comparedwithactivevocabulary,whicharewordsthatlearnersunderstandandusein
speakingorwriting.Theactiveandpassivevocabularyofalearnerchangesconstantly.They
startusingwords,trynewmeanings,forgetwords,abandonwordsthathavenouse,revise
words,etc.
Example
Advancedlearnersoftenhaveanextremelylargepassivevocabularybutaconsiderablysmaller
activeone.
Intheclassroom
Asimplewaytohelplearnerskeepbuildingtheiractivevocabularyisbyconstantrevision
activity,suchasaskinglearnerstousewordsleftontheboardfromapreviousclassina
sentence.Learnerscanallcontributetoavocabularybagwithwordsanddefinitionsor
examplesentencesoncards;thesecanbeusedtoplayvocabularyrevisiongames.

Techniques
Byshowingactualobjectsandshowingmodels
Itisaveryusefultechniquetoteachvocabularytothebeginners.
Usingdemonstrationsandshowingpictures
Teachercanperformsomewords.Itcanbefunandfrolic.Itmakestheclassstudentcentered.
Teachercanactandlearnerstrytoimitateit.
Teachingwordsinthecontext
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Mostpeopleagreethatvocabularyoughttobetaughtincontext(Nilsen1976;Chastain1976;
Rivers1968).Wordstaughtinisolationaregenerallynotretained.Inaddition,inordertograspthe
fullmeaningofawordorphrase,studentsmustbeawareofthelinguisticenvironmentinwhichthe
wordorphraseappears.
Etymology
Everywordhasitsoriginanditsstoryofhowitgetsitscurrentmeanings.
Bydrawingpictures
Itisaneasyandquicktechniqueofintroducingvocabularytothelearners.Forstudents,drawing
canbeafunmediumtoexplainvocabulary.
Associatedvocabulary
Ifonetopicconsistsofnumberofwords,itiseasytoteachtheseentirewordsaltogether.For
example,itiseasiertoteachwordslikeorange,banana,grapes,lemon,pineapple,mango,and
watermelontogetherinthecontextoffruits
Usingmorphologicalanalysisofwords
Morphologyisthestudyofwordsindifferentterms,showinghowwordsarebrokendowninto
smallerunits,andhowsuchunitsarerecognized.
Dictionary
Itisanimportanttoolintheteachingandlearningofvocabulary.Teachershouldencourage
studentstosearchwordsindictionaries.
Collocation
Thetermcollocationgenerallyreferstothewayinwhichtwoormorewordsaretypicallyused
together.Forexample,wetalkaboutheavyrainbutnotheavysun,orwesaythatwemakeorcome
toadecision,butwedontdoadecision.So,heavyrainandmakeadecisionareoftenreferredtoas
collocationsandwesaythatheavycollocateswithrain.Collocationsinclude:
[1]Verb+Noun(e.g.breakacode,liftablockade)
[2]Verb+Adverb(e.g.affectdeeply,appreciatesincerely)
[3]Noun+Verb(e.g.waterfreezes,clockticks)
[4]Adjective+Noun(e.g.strongtea,bestwishes)
[5]Adverb+Adjective(e.g.deeplyabsorbed,closelyrelated)
Synonyms
Asynonymmaybeusedtohelpthestudenttounderstandthedifferentshadesofmeaning,ifthe
synonymisbetterknownthanthewordbeingtaught.Synonymshelptoenrichastudent's
vocabularybankandprovidealternativewordsinstantly.Thesecanbeeffectivesincetheybuildon
wordsandphrasesthatstudentsalreadyrecognize.Adjectivesoftenhaveseveralsymptoms,and
phrasalverbswillusuallyhaveanonphrasalverbequivalent.Usecautionthatyoudoimplythatall
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thewordshaveexactlythesamemeaning,sincedifferentwordsoftenareusedfordifferent
connotationsortoimplydifferentmeanings.Thesameprocedurecanbeusedtoelicitsynonyms.
Theteacherneedstohighlightthefactthattruesynonymsarerelativelyrareandtheanswerswill
oftenbenearsynonyms.Thestudentscouldmakecrosswords,wordsnakesorotherpuzzlesfor
eachotherusingthesesynonyms.
Studentswereaskedtobringdailyfivenewwordswhichwerenotfamiliartothemfromthetext
book.Attheendofeachsessiontheywereaskedtotelltheword,itsspellinganditsmeaningin
English.Theywerebannedtoseethenotebookwherethesewordswerewritten.Iftheywerenot
abletogivethecorrectworditsspellingandmeaning,theywereaskedtobringnewtenwordsnext
day.Suchanexercisewasfruitfulforthelearner.

Antonyms
Thestudentswereaskedtomakelistsofoppositewords.Twogroupsweremade;onegroupgave
onewordwhiletheothergroupaskedtogiveanoppositewordtoit.Forexample,
sharp/blunt,rude/polite,flexible/rigid,generous/meanetc.Onegroupgavewordsharpandthe
othergroupgaveoppositewordforitasblunt.Markswerewrittenontheboard.Theyfoundit
veryinterestingandmemorizedmorewordsinordertowinthecontest.Thus,byplaywaymethod
theycanlearnnewwords.
Idioms
Teachingidiomsbytopiccanmakeeasierforstudentstoremember.Anidiomisaphraseor
expressioninwhichtheentiremeaningisdifferentfromtheusualmeaningsoftheindividualwords
withinit.Idiomsarefuntoworkwithbecausetheyarepartofeverydayvocabulary.Studentsenjoy
workingwithfigurativemeanings.Theyalsoenjoyfindingoutabouttheoriginsofidiomatic
expressions,someofwhichareveryold.
Anidiomisanexpressionthatcannotbefullyunderstoodbythemeaningsoftheindividualwords
thatarecontainedwithinit.Themeaningofthewholeidiomhaslittle,oftennothing,todowith
themeaningsofthewordstakenonebyone.Pointouttostudentsthatidiomsareoftenusedin
writingorspeechtomakeexpressionmorecolorfulandthatsomeofthemostcolorfulEnglish
idiomsmakeuseofanimalsoranimalcomparisons.
Phrasalverbs/Phrases
Teachersshouldincludephrasalverbs(phrases)intheirclassroomlanguageasmuchaspossible
anddrawattentiontothesefromtimetotime.TherearemanyphrasalverbsintheEnglish
languageandtheyareusedinnormal,everybodyspeechandwriting.Phrasalverbsmeanwords
consistingofaverbandaparticle(prepositionoradverb).Themeaningofaphrasalverbisdifferent
fromthemeaningofeachwordifitwasconsideredseparately.Commonclassroomexpressions
incorporatingphrasalverbsare:sitdown,putyourhandup,turnyourpapersover,writethisdown,
coverthepageup,lookitup,hurryupandcalmdown!

EffectiveteacherofLanguageassomeonewhopossesses5Is:<
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Imagination
Innovativeness
Interaction
Independentthinking
InterdependenceImagination

FourMainCharacteristicsofanEffectiveLanguageTeacher

SocioAffectiveSkills
Asinallotherfields,itiscrucialthatteachershavesomebasicsocioaffectiveskillstointeractwiththeir
studentsandmaintaintheeducationalprocesseffectively.Theseskillsincludeawiderangeofitemssuchas
motivatingstudents,sparingtimeforstudentswhentheyaskforhelp,beingenthusiasticforteaching,having
positiveattitudestowardsstudents,respondingtostudentsneedsandprovidingastressfreeclassroom
atmosphere(Cheung,2006;ShishavanandSadeghi,2009).Inadditiontotheseaspects,Foote,Vermette,
Wisniewski,Agnello,andPegano(2000,citedinWichadee,2010)alsostatethattherelationshipbetween
teachersandstudentsisoneofthemoststrikingfeatures.Intheirstudy,Arikan,TaerandSaraSzer
(2008)alsohighlighttheimportanceofestablishingandmaintainingpositiverelationshipswithstudents.
Besides,whentryingtofindsimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenhisstudyandtheexistingliterature,Borg
(2006)maintainsthesignificanceoftherelationshipbetweenthemembersoftheprocess.Accordingtohis
study,thesocioaffectiveskillsenableteacherstoestablishgoodrapportwiththeirstudentsaswellas
maintainingtheprocessofeducationmoreeffectivelyandsuccessfully.
Anothercrucialpointiswhatstudentsexperience,howtheyfeelandhowtoapproachtheirrelatedproblems
intheprocessofteachingandlearning.Feelingssuchasanxietyandfear,andothernegativeemotionsare
naturalandexpectedpartsofthisprocess.Therefore,whatisimportantforteachersistocreatean
environmentinwhichtheirstudentscanconcentrateonlearninginbothcognitiveandemotionallevels.
Moreover,socioaffectiveskillsprovideteacherswiththeopportunitytodealwithwhattheirstudentsfeel
andexperienceintheirlearningprocess(Aydn,Bayram,Candar,etin,Ergnay,zdemandTun,2009).In
otherwords,inordertobeeffective,teachersshouldcombinetheirbehaviorwithboththeirmindsand
emotions.
PedagogicalKnowledge
Inordertoconductanykindofjobproperly,oneshouldhavetheknowledgeofhowtodoit.S/heshouldbe
awareoftheproceduresandthestrategiestofollowintheprocess,whichispedagogicalknowledge.Inhis
study,VlezRendn(2002,ascitedinAydnetal.,2009)definespedagogicalknowledgeaswhatteachers
knowaboutteachingtheirsubjects.Healsoclaimsthatwithoutpedagogicalknowledgeteacherscannot
conveywhattheyknowtotheirlearners.TheresultsofthestudyconductedbyAydnetal.(2009)showthat
studentsprefertheirteachertohavetheknowledgeofhowtoteachinordertodealwiththeaffective
domain.Todeliverthecontentinthebestway,aneffectiveteacherneedsbothfieldspecificknowledgeand
knowledgeofhowtopresentit(Brophy,1991,citedinAydnetal.,2009).Furthermore,ClarkandWalsh
(2004)emphasizethesignificanceofpedagogicalknowledgebyclaimingthatitisasophisticatedformof
knowledgehardtoobtain,andnotavailabletoeveryonethatseeksit.Differentstudiesrefertonumerous

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dimensionsofpedagogicalknowledgesuchasprovidingstudentswithanenvironmentinwhichtheycanbe
relaxedinordertolearnandproducewell,guidingstudents,havingtheabilitytoorganize,explainand
clarify,aswellasarousingandsustaininginterest,motivatingstudents,givingpositivereinforcement,
allocatingmoretimetopreparationanddelivery,andteachingwitheffectiveclassroommaterialsby
integratingtechnology(Arkanetal.,2008;Aydnetal.,2009;Borg,2006;Cheung,2006;Shishavanand
Sadeghi,2009;YuHsin,1999)Inaddition,effectiveteachersshouldbasicallyhaveclassroommanagement
skillsdefinedaspracticesandproceduresthatateacherusestomaintainanenvironmentinwhich
instructionandlearningcanoccur(WongandWong,1998).Thebasicaimatmaintainingclassroom
managementistocreatestressfreelearningenvironmentsforbothlearnersandteachersbylowering
affectivefilterandraisingmotivation.Stressfreeenvironmentsprovidenotonlylearnersbutalsoteachers
withtherelaxingatmospheretotakepartintheprocesswillinglyandtoeliminateoratleastminimizethe
fearofmakingmistakes.
SubjectMatterKnowledge
Anothermainareathatattractsattentionisthesubjectmatterknowledgewhichteachersshouldpossess
regardingtheirspecificfield.Tomakeageneraldefinitionofthisnotion,VlezRendn(2002,citedinAydn
etal,2009)regardsthesubjectmatterknowledgeaswhatteachersknowaboutwhattheyteach.Another
studypointingoutthesignificanceofthisknowledgetype(Buchman1984,citedinAydnetal,in2009)
suggeststheuseofsubjectmatterknowledgeindifferentphasesoftheeducationalprocesssuchasusing
targetlanguageeffectivelyinclass,integratinglessonsbasedonstudentsbackgroundsandpreparing
effectivelessonplans.Inadditiontotheseitems,differentstudiescontributetothenotionofthesubject
matterknowledgefromdifferentperspectivesrangingfromhavingknowledgeofthetargetlanguage
knowledgeconcerningfluency,accuracy,lexiconandpronunciationtobeingknowledgeableontargetculture
(Borg,2006;ParkandLee,2006;Werbinska,2009)
Subjectmatterknowledgeenablesteacherstomakeuseofaudiovisualmaterialswhenpossible,guide
studentstogetsomelearningstrategies,teachatopicinaccordancewithstudentsproficiencylevels,and
watchandinformstudentsabouttheirprogressinlanguagelearning.Tohighlighttheseaspects,Arkan
(2010)maintainsthateffectiveteachersshouldhavethesubjectmatterknowledgetoprepareappropriate
lessonplansbesidesusingadequateresourcesforcontentdelivery.ShishavanandSadeghi(2009)pointout
theimportanceoffieldknowledgeofteachersastheyaretheprovidersofknowledgeintheprocess.Their
studyshowsthatoneoftherequirementsofbeinganeffectiveteacheristohavethemasteryofthesubject
matterknowledgeintheirspecificfield.Themoreteachershavethesubjectmatterknowledge,themore
effectivelytheyteachandthemoresuccessfulresultswillbeobtained.

PersonalityCharacteristics
Peoplewhoworkinanyprofessionindispensablybringtheirpersonalcharacteristicsintheworking
environment.Thisisalsovalidforteacherswhonotonlyarehumanbeingsbutalsodealwithhuman.
Therefore,inadditiontothesubjectmatterknowledgeorthepedagogicalknowledge,teachersarealso
supposedtohavesomeessentialpersonalcharacteristicstoteacheffectivelyandtobesuccessfulintheir
profession.Malikow(2006)liststhepersonalitycharacteristicsmostoftencitedbythestudiesconductedon
whatpersonalqualitiesaneffectiveteachershouldhaveasfollows:beingchallengingandhavingreasonably
highexpectations,havingsenseofhumor,beingenthusiasticandcreative.Tothislist,otherstudieshave
addedbeingtolerant,patient,kind,sensibleandopenminded,flexible,optimistic,enthusiastic,having
positiveattitudestowardnewideas,andcaringforstudentsascharacteristicsnecessaryforbeingan
effectiveteacher(Cheung,2006;ShishavanandSadeghi,2009;Werbinska,2009).ClarkandWalsh(2004)
suggestthatwhenteacherscombinealloftheseexpectedcharacteristicsintheprofession,theycanendup
withatrustingrelationshipwiththeirstudents.

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AFourpartModelforTeacherstoFacilitateLinguisticCreativity
Teachers should have the knowledge and skills to nurture creativity in their students. These
innatefeaturescanbeenhancedbyknowledgeableteachers.Humancommunicationbeginswith
thoughtsandthoughtsarerenderedintomessages,themediuminwhichthemessageisencased
becomesamatterofindividualchoice.Onecanchoosetowriteapoemaboutspring,oronecan
drawapictureofatreeinblossom.Thereisnoquestionthatthemediumonechooseslendsits
specialqualitiestotheshapeofthemessage,butunderlyingbothmediumandmessageisthe
commonreservoirofhumanthought.Respondtonotonlywhatisontheprintedpagebutwhat
ishappeningintheworldofsight,sound,smell,touch,andtastethatsurroundshim.

Partsofthemodelfunctioningas:
1. Catalysttoaction:problems,needs,challengeandcuriosity.Ifanyoftheseismissing,creativity
maynotappear.
2. Incubation:theroleofthinkingincreativity;problemsolvingthroughcreativebehaviour,critical
thinkingandobjectivity.
3. Processes: how to create oneself. Creative intelligences include personal, social, spiritual,
physical,numericalintelligence,andalsomakingsenseofyoursenses,thepowerofwords.
4. Outcomes: assessing creativity, effectiveness as a function of usefulness and practicality. The
congeniallearningenvironmentshouldpromoterisktakingandlivingwithtemporaryfrustrations
andfailure.

ComponentsofLinguisticCreativity
Democraticviewofcreativity:whichmeansthattheytreatitasapropertyexistingineveryday
practice,andnotmerelyasafeaturecharacterizingonlygiftedindividuals.Thetechniquesof
grammaticalanalysiscanbeusedtodemonstratetheenormouscreativepoweroflanguage
how,fromafinitesetofgrammaticalpatterns,evenayoungchildcanexpressaninfinitesetof
sentences.
Allpervasivefeatureofeverydaylanguage:Linguisticcreativityisnotsimplyapropertyofexceptional
peoplebutanexceptionalpropertyofallpeople.Itisabroadranging,multidimensional,andsignificant
aspectofourlinguisticcompetence.Thecharacteristicfeatureoflinguisticcreativityiseitherasonly
structuralgenerativecreativityorasonlylexicalcreativitythatitisamatterofdegree,whichmeans
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that it can be placed along a continuum on which the basis of linguistic creativity can be used as a
parameter.

LanguagePlayinLanguageTeaching
Awiderangeofvocabularyisessentialforimprovingthinkingskills,developingargumentativeskillsand
expressingemotions,whichinducescreativity. Riddles,limericks,haikus,jokes,playfulusesofaccents
break the rules of language for the simple reason of being funny. Language play has importance in
learnersmetalinguisticdevelopment.Somekindsoflinguisticcreativitywhichareassociatedwithpoetry
andformsofliteraturearefeaturesofeverydaylanguage.Thesefeaturesinclude
1. playwithsoundsandstructuresoflanguage,(e.g.Crystalintroducesapproximants,i.e.frictionless
continuantsashavingsomephoneticpropertiesofvowels.Thelateralconsonantlisusedby
poetsinseverallanguagestosuggestsoftnessandsilence.
2. repetitions,
3. metaphors,
4. rhymeandrhythm.

CORRELATION
INTRODUCTION:
Nosubjectiseverwellunderstoodandnoartisintelligentlypracticed,ifthelightwhich
theotherstudiesareabletothrowuponitisdeliberatelyshutout.
Educationisacoordinatedprocessandthemajoraimofeducationistheunificationof
knowledgeexistinginthedifferentbranchesoflearning.Teachingofvarioussubjectsis
hencecorrelated.Aconsciouseffortismadetointegratevarioussubjectstotreatthe
subjectasasyntheticwhole.
Herbertfirstconceivedtheideaofcorrelatingtheteachingofvarioussubjects.All
knowledgeisoneunit.Thepoweroftheminddoesnotdependupontheamountof
informationaccumulatedinpieces,notrelatedtooneanother,butisratheronwell
organisedsystemonwhichallthesepiecesofknowledgearetaught,showingtheir
relationshipwithoneanother.ThisisknownastheprincipleofCorrelation.

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LateronZillarmadethistheoryofcorrelationmoreelaborate.ThenDeGarmoandJohn
Deweylaidstressontheintegrationintheteachingofvarioussubjects.Today,correlating
ofteachingofdifferentsubjectsisconsideredhighlyessential.
CORRELATIONMEANING
Whatiscorrelation?Thetermcorrelationinitssimplestformmeansconnectortobe
connected.Tobemoreprecise,Correlationmeansmutualrelationsoftwoormore
things/persons.
But,Correlationinteachingindicatesatechniquewhichshowsthereciprocalrelationship
betweenvarioussubjectsofthecurriculumformakingtheknowledgeconcreteand
permanent.Itistheconsciouseffortmadebyteachersteachingvarioussubjects,toshow
similaritiesordependenceofonesubjectonanother.CORRELATIONMEANING
DEFINITION:CORRELATIONSIMPSONandKAFKA:Correlationanalysisdealswiththe
associationbetweentwoormorevariables.FERGUSON:Correlationisconcernedwith
describingthedegreeofrelationbetweenvariables.A.M.TAULE:Correlationisan
analysisofcovariationbetweentwoormorevariables.Thuscorrelationisjustamutual
relationshipbetweenvariousvariables,i.e.,subjectsofschool/collegecurriculum.
SIGNIFICANCEOFCORRELATION
Themostsignificantdevelopmentofthe21thcenturyeducationistheemphasison
impartingunified,integratedandmeaningfulknowledgeofthepupils.Impartingof
knowledgeintheisolatedfactsofHistory,Geography,Science,Economicsetc.hasbecome
obsolete.Achildsmindisanintegratedwholewhichwantstoreceiveexperiencesinan
integratedmanner.

UsesofCorrelationareasfollows:
1.Mindperceivesknowledgeasawhole.Earlier:AssumedHumanMindsconsistsofso
manymentalfacultiesandeachfacultylikefacultyofreasoning,thinking,memorization
etc,weresupposedtobedevelopedthroughthestudyofaspecificsubject.Soeachsubject
hadanindependentfunction.ButEducationPsychologistshavedisregardedthisstudy.Now
:Mindconsistsasawholeandsoreceivesknowledgeasawhole.Allthesubjectsaimto
developtheintellectualpowerofthestudentsasawhole.Thereforeitbecomesnecessary
tocorrelateonesubjectwithanother.Nosubjectcanbetaughtinisolation.
2.RETENTIONOFEARLIERKNOWLEDGE:Fragmentsofknowledgemayaccumulateatone
placeintheformofdistinctlayers.Sinceeverypieceofknowledgeisgainedthroughone
andthesamemind.Failureinestablishinglinksbetweenthecurrentlayersofknowledge

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andpreviousonesmaybeanobstacletoretentionofearlierknowledge.AlwaysLINKOLD
KNOWLEDGEWITHNEW.
3.USEFULKNOWLEDGE:Knowledgeisusefulwhenitcanbeappliedtodaytodaylife.
Correlationofasubjectwithdailylifehelpstomaketheknowledgebroadbasedandmakes
knowledgeuseful.
4.ALLROUNDDEVELOPMENT:Theaimofeducationtoachievethedevelopmentofanall
roundpersonality,cannotbedonebyteachingonlyafewsubjectsinisolation.
5.Ithelpstoachieveunityofknowledgeanddevelopsworthyinterestsandattitudesin
studentsforacquiringknowledge,becauseitprovidesthepracticalandliferelatedlearning
tothestudents.Eg.Sciencestudentshatingliterature.
6.Itdevelopsthementalabilitieslikeimaginationpower,logicalthinkingandanalytical
powerofstudents,becausetheycaneasilycorrelateoneacquiredknowledgewiththe
other.
7.Itstrengthensskillsthatstudentsencounterinonecontentareabutalsopracticein
another,leadingtomasteryofthoseskills.(skillofmakinggraphinmathsandeconomics)
8.Itmakeslearningconcreteandpermanent.
9.Itmakesthelessoneasyandclear.
10.Ithelpstoenablethestudentstoacquireknowledgeinashortperiodoftime.
11.Developsvarioushumanandsocialqualitiessuchascooperation,citizenshipetc.
12.Ithelpstolightentheburdenofcurriculum.(e.g.economicsteacherhavingtaughtthe
lawofdemandandsupply,acommerceteachermaynothavetoagainteachitfrom
beginning)
13.Ithelpstheteachertocompletethecurriculuminveryshortperiodoftime.
PRINCIPLESOFCORRELATION
Itshouldbesimple,natural,suitedtothenatureofthesubjectandthestageofthepupils
mentaldevelopment.Itshouldbeadequateandjudicious.Maintopicormainsubject
shouldbethemainfocus.Othertopics/subjectsshouldbelinkedtoitandthenrevertagain
tothemaintopic.
Whendoingsystematiccorrelation,teacherscouldsittogetheranddiscusshowto
correlate.Itshouldinvolvethepreviousknowledgeofthestudents.Itshouldbedoneonly
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whereitispossible,elseitleadstosuperficialcorrelation.Eg.Thestudyofvoyageof
Columbuscannotleadtooceancurrents,invasionofAlexandertothecalculationofits
expenses.Thesecondarytopicsdonothelpinunderstandingtheprimaryones.

TypesofCorrelation:
1. CorrelationwithPracticalLife:correlationofthegivensubjectwithdailyactivities.
2. Vertical/InternalCorrelation:correlationbetweenthedifferentbranchesofagiven
subject.
3. Horizontal/ExternalCorrelation:correlationbetweenthegivensubjectandother
subjects.
CorrelationwithPracticalLife:AccordingtoHerbertSpencer,themainaimofeducationis
topreparestudentsforfuturelife.Thisaimcanbeachievedonlyifeducationiscorrelated
withlife.Therefore,teachingofvarioussubjectsshouldbecorrelatedwithvariousaspects
oflife.Asubjectisbestunderstoodwhenitisapplicabletodailylife.Correlationofa
subjectwithdailylifeisoftheutmostimportanceinordertocreateinterestinthesubject.
Correlationwithdailylifemakesthesubjectrelevantinsteadofbeingonlytheorywithno
practicalapplications.
Maths:Applytheformulastocalculateareasofrectangleorsquaretocalculateareaof
classroomareaorhome.Science:giveevidencesofthescientificphenomena.E.g.givethe
egofthedropletsformedinanACcar.OrUseofAlfoiltopackfoods,toexplainitsoxide
formingproperty.CorrelationwithPracticalLife:
Thistypeofcorrelationindicatestherelationshipbetweendifferentbranches(orvarious
divisions)ofagivensubject.Italsoincludescorrelationofdifferenttopicsinthesame
branchofagivensubject.(correlationofoldknowledgewithnewknowledge)Branchesofa
subjectmanyatimesaretaughtbydifferentteachers,suchthateachbranchistreatedasa
differententity.Internalcorrelationisnecessaryforcontinuityofknowledgeand
understandingofthesubject.
Vertical/InternalCorrelation:
Acommerceteachercantakehelpofverticalcorrelationtomakehisstudentsunderstand
abouttrade,internaltrade,externaltradeandexportimportproceduresetc.Aneconomics
teachercantakehelpofverticalcorrelationtocorrelateproduction,consumption,
distribution,exchange,etc.Ascienceteacherusesverticalcorrelationtocorrelatephysics
andchemistryorchemistryandbiologyandphysics,orbiologyandphysicsetc.
AmathematicsteacherwoulduseverticalcorrelationtocorrelateArithmeticandAlgebraor
AlgebraandGeometryetc.AHistoryteacherwoulduseverticalcorrelationtocorrelate
historyofearlyagetoancientormedievalormodernortocorrelatepoliticalhistoryto
economichistoryorsocialhistoryortocorrelateancienthistorytoeconomichistoryor
worldhistorytolocalhistoryetc.
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AGeographyteacherwoulduseverticalcorrelationtocorrelatephysicalgeographywith
humangeographyoreconomicgeographywithpoliticalgeographyorphysicalgeography
withhistoricalgeography.Alanguageteacherwoulduseverticalcorrelationtocorrelate
poetry,prose,grammar,composition.
Thistypeofcorrelationisbetweendifferentschoolsubjectsandagivenschoolsubject.All
subjectsoftheschoolcurriculumcontributetowardstherealizationoftheaimsof
education.Sincetheyhavethesamepurpose,studyofonesubjecthelpsinthestudyof
othersubjects.Inhorizontalcorrelationanattemptismadetocoordinatetheteachingof
varioussubjects.ThisisdonebythreemethodsCasualandSystematicandConcentric.
CASUAL/INCIDENTALCORRELATION:
Here,teacherplaysaprominentrole.Itisnotaplanned/predecidedone,i.e.,nodeliberate
orconsciousorsystematicattemptmadetocorrelate.Ifalearnedteacherhasversatile
knowledgeofbasicelementsofdifferentsubjects,thiskindofcorrelationisboundtotake
place.
ECONOMICS:Ateacherwhoisteachingproductionofclothmayexplaintothestudentsthe
geographicalfactorslikesoil,climatethatareresponsiblefortheproductionofcotton.
History:ateacherteachingSuccessofShivajiwouldtellaboutthegeographicalconditions
ofthatplace.
Itisplannedbeforehand/consciouslyinasystematicmanner.Teachermakesdeliberate
attempttoteachaparticulartopicinsuchawaythathemaygoonexplainingotherthings
aswell,alongwithit.Previousstudyismadebytheteacheronthepointsthathastobe
correlatedwithothertopicsinothersubjects.
CONSCIOUS/SYSTEMATIC/PLANNEDCORRELATION:
Materialsofothersubjectsarechoseinsuchamannerthatwhileteachingtheycanbe
broughtinuseatthetimeofneed.Toovercomeinsomemeasures,alltheeffectsof
treatingeverysubjectinwatertightcompartments,asystemofpreplannedcorrelation
shouldbedevised.
HISTORY:IftheteacherwantstoteachthehistoryofIndusValleyCivilization,hehasto
explaintheclimateandtheeffectoftheclimateonthecivilizationbeforetellingaboutthe
developmentandthedownfallofit.
CONCENTRICCORRELATIONThistheorywasputforwardbyZILLERNotonlyappropriate
subjectscouldbecorrelatedbuttherewasprobablysomeonesubjectwhichwouldform
theCOREroundwhichallotherscouldbehinged.ZillerthoughtofHistoryasasubjectthat
couldbetheCoresubjectofall.SomeothersrecommendScienceasCore,orHandicraftas

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coreetc.Thisisatheoryofintensifiedcorrelationandtermedasthetheoryof
concentration.
HORIZONTALCORRELATIONEXAMPLESMATHSWITHOTHERSUBJECTSSCIENCEWITH
OTHERSUBJECTSHISTORYWITHOTHERSUBJECTSGEOGRAPHYWITHOTHERSUBJECTS
ECONOMICSWITHOTHERSUBJECTSCOMMERCEWITHOTHERSUBJECTSHINDIWITH
OTHERSUBJECTS
MATHEMATICSWITHOTHERSUBJECTS
MathematicsIsScienceOfAllSciencesAndArtsOfAllArts.MATHSANDSCIENCEThemath
teachercanteachstudentsaboutexponentialnotation.Oncestudentsbecomeproficientin
readingandwritingnumbersinexponentialform,andinconvertingnumbersbetween
exponentialform,factorform,andstandardform,theycanapplythisknowledgetotopics
inscience.Forexample,theycanwritethedistancebetweenthesunandeachplanetusing
scientificnotation.ExponentialForm22StandardForm2x2ANDFactorForm4SCIENTIFIC
NOTATIONInthenumber123,000,000,000Thecoefficientwillbe1.23Tofindthe
exponentcountthenumberofplacesfromthedecimaltotheendofthenumber.In
123,000,000,000thereare11places.Thereforewewrite123,000,000,000as:
MATHEMATICSANDPHYSICS
PHYSICSMathematicsgivesfinalshapetotherulesofphysics,itpresentstheminworkable
form.Mathematicalcalculationsoccurateverystepinphysics.CHARLESLAWOF
EXPANSIONOFGASESISBASESUPONMATHMATICALCALCULATIONSNumericalproblems
onLAWSOFMOTIONLIQUIDPRESSUREFRICTION
MATHEMATICSANDCHEMISTRYForestimationofelementinorganiccompoundstheuse
ofpercentageandratiohastobemade.Molecularweightsoforganiccompoundsare
calculatedmathematically.BALANCINGEQUATIONS
MATHEMATICSANDBIOLOGYFirstpaperthatMendelwroteonhisdiscoveryofMendelian
lawswascalled"MathematicsofPeas"rateofrespiration,transpirationnormalweight
calculationcaloricandnutritivevalueoffoodiscalculatedusingmathsthegrowthinweight
ofinfantsuptoninemonths
MATHSANDSOCIALSCIENCESAfterteachingaunitonhowtoread,interpret,anddraw
graphs,youcanhaveyourstudentsapplytheseskillstotopicsinSocialStudies.For
example,theycandrawbargraphstocomparethePopulation,PerCapitaIncome,and
PopulationDensityofvariouscountries.
MATHEMATICSANDGEOGRAPHYFROMTHEGLOBETOTHEMAPDistancesontheEarth
anddistancesonmaps:whatthescaleis,whyandhowonehastopreservetheproportion.

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2.VariousmethodsofmappingtheEarth:whathappenstothedistances?Mappingto
globeversusmappingstoplanemaps.
Formationofdaysandnightslunarandsolareclipselatitudelongitudeheightabovesea
levelcalculationofinternational,local,standardtimemaximumandminimumtemperature
barometricpresssuresurveyinginstrumentsinmathshavetobemathematicallyaccurate.
Mathematicsandeconomicsstatisticalmethodsareappliedtoeconomicforecaststrade
cyclesvolumeoftradetrendofexportsandimportspublicmoneytheoryofprobabilityis
thebasisofinsurance
Mathematicsandfineartsartsusesthemathematicalideasofratioandproportion,
includingsimilarityandscaleappreciationofrhythminmusic,proportion,balanceand
symmetrypostulatesamathematicalmind.
Mathematicsandhistorymathshelpshistoryincalculationofdates.Alexanderinvaded
indiain327b.c.tell,howmanyyearshavepassestheoccurrenceofthesaidevent?
Mathematicsandlanguagemathandwritingamathsteacherteachesaboutdrawingapie
chartandaskthemtowriteainterpretationintheirownwords.Mathandreadingstudents
readabouttheworkofgreatmathematiciansstudentsmakepoemsonnumbers
Languageandothersubjectswithhistoryessaywritingcanbeplannedonhistoricalthemes
tomakethemmoremeaningful,byassociationgwithpasteventsliebuildingoftajmahal
celebratenationaldaysbyhavingelocutionanddebatestudentscanwriteplays,storiesor
poemsonhistoricalevents
languageandgeographygeographicalfeatureshavebeensourceofinspirationto
innumerablepoets,eg.Wordswothsdaffodilincludeexcusionstostudyenvironmentand
studentswouldgetaninspirationtowritepoems,onchangingseasons,scenicbeautyetc.
Myidealdestination:havesuchtopicsforstudentstostudyandwriteabout.Readbooks
ontravel
Languageandscienceinterestinsciencecanbebestinculcatedbyexplainingthemiracles
ofscienceartistically.Livesofgreatscientists
languageandmathsmakeapiechartoftimespentbyyouinadayandgiveittoyour
partnerforinterpretation.(interpretatonofnonverbaldata)readaboutthelifehistoryof
mathematiciansinventionofzerobyaryabhatta
GEOGRAPHYWITHOTHERSUBJECTS
HISTORYWITHOTHERSUBJECTSWithgeographyWhycouldAurangzebnotholdSouth
IndiaMansevolutioncannotbetoldwithoutdiscussingthevariedgeographicalsettingsof
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theworldGrowthofEnglandduetoitsgeographicalconditionsHistoryofhostilitybetween
FranceandGermanycanbeexplainedonthebasisoftheexistenceofriverRhineand
LorrainCoalfields.
WitheconomicsEconomicconditionsplayavitalroleinthecourseofhistory.Toknowthe
economicconditionsofIndiaduringthereignofAkbarorShahjahan,weshallhavetogo
throughthepagesofhistory.Certainempiresfacedliquidationonlybecauseofeconomic
reasonsSimilarly,economiceventshavebeeninfluencedbyhistoricalcircumstances.
MohdTughlakhadcertainplans,butthehistoricalconditionsofthetimedidnotfavour
them,howeverlatertheywereconsideredtobegoodandscientific.
Economicswithothersubjectswithhistoryineurope,industrialrevolution.Thisgaveanew
turntothehistoryoftheworld.Variousdevelopedpowersofeuropestartedfighting
amongthemselves.Firstandsecondworldwarswerefoughtonlyonaccountofeconomic
considerations.
Economicswithothersubjectswithgeographyeconomyofacountrydependsonthe
geographicalconditionsindiahasagriculturalbasedeconomybecauseofitsclimate,
rainfall,riversetcpunjab,haryana,u.p,veryfertile,socontributetograinstores,butno
mines,solessindustriesthere.
Withsciencemanyofproblemsrelatedwithagriculturehavecloserelationshipwith
chemistryandphysics.Duetoscientificinventions,lotofgrowthofeconomytakesplace.
Economicswithothersubjects
Withcommercethroughtheknowledgeofcommerce,itispossibletoruntheeconomyof
thecountrytheteacherofeconomicsshouldtrytoteachthesubjectinsuchawaythathe
mayexplaintothemthebearingofthesubjectmatterofeconomicsonthecommerce.
Economicswithothersubjects

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