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# Current flow

Experiment 1
Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to see the current from the resistor to the
LED of the brightness
Materials:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1 battery
One 100 ohm resistor
One 1000 ohm resistor
One 47000 ohm resistor
3 LED (Light Emitting Diode 9 wires)

Procedure
Assemble the Circuit
Use 100 ohm resistor
Observe the LED
Replication the process with 1000 ohm and 47000 ohm
Observe the LED

Results

Brightness
8
7
6
5
4

Axis Title

3
2
1
0

Axis Title
Series 1

Resistor Resistance
(OHMS

LED Brightness

Current (amps)

100ohms
1000ohms

Very Bright
Kind of bright

0.5 amps
0.005amps

47000ohms

Not bright

0.0012amps

Discussion: The result indicate that the lower OHMS resistor will give more power into
the object I have found that 100 OHMS resistor had giving the Led bulb more brightness
from the other two. From the results that I have seen from the three resistors I have
found that the lower resistors will gave you more power into the LED bulb
Conclusion the different use of resistors that found from the resistance is that lower
resistor will give you higher brightness at the end.

Experiment 2 ( Diodes

Positions
1st

Diode
Grey part was
pointing to the
right

LED
ON

Diode marking

2nd
Circuit
A
B
C

## Grey part was

pointing to the left
LED Brightness
Brighter then 2nd Circuit
Not bright
Most brighter

OFF

Discussion
:
1. the
diode
has a
positive and negative side to it. When you put the Diode ( grey line) to the right it
is the right way and to the grey line to the left it is revered.
2. A) Nothing will happen because the current flow will not work to put on the LED
because the LED bulb has a positive and negative wire. B) same thing as A they
have a positive and negative wire.
3. I think if you try to do it, it will not turn on the LED because the breadbored has a
positive side and negative side so if you connect the two positive nothing will
happen.
Conclusion:
The diode helps people to save their life because if you insert the diode wrong way
the diode will stop the current flow and you can change it right there.

## Experiment 3 (series and Parallel Resistors)

Discussion
1. The brightness of the LEDs got circuits a, b and c were quite different. The
brightness in circuits a was bright, but it was not as bright as the LED in circuit c.
From all the circuits, circuit b seemed to have the lowest brightness.
2. 1/Rt=/1/470+1/470
1/Rt= 0.00212 +0.00212
1/Rt=0.00424
Rt= 1/0.00424
Rt= 235.849
Series : Rt= 470 +470 + 0= 940
3. The brightness for the parallel and series circuit would be different because the
more resistor you add the more resistance there will be. The series circuit light
would dim even more because it is connected to one wire, whereas the parallel
circuit would stay the same because it is connected to more than one wire.
Conclusion
In conclusion the resistors in series overall affect the LEDs within the circuit whereas in
parallel circuit the resistors do not make a difference.

Experiment 4a
Input
High
Low

Discussion:

LED
On
Off

1. When you put to (0) It doesnt come on than when you put it to high (1)
because 1 is positive.
2. The circuit could be used to monitor the state of any point in a digital circuit
because we use binary numbers (1s and 0s) to make anything work. Binary
numbers work with digital electronics. When you use digital electronics 1
mean that current electricity is current and 0 means it is not current also
they tend to use decimal system when attempting math.
Conclusion:
When you put the wire to the high you get the LED working because high is positive but
when you put it to the low it will be negative and you cannot put two negative to make a
light.

Experiment 4b

Input
High
Low
Discussion:

LED
Lights up
Doesnt light up

1. When input is connected to a volt bus (high/logic 1 ) the LED lights up because
the current goes through successfully whereas when connected to the ground
bus (low/logic 0) the LED doesnt light up because the current does not go
thorough successfully.
2. This circuit could be used to monitor the state of any point in digital circuit
because just like any other circuit this has an on and off pattern. When the circuit
is connected though an on and off pattern he circuit works well and such circuits
are used in computers today.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the input wire connected to the ground bus (low) doesnt light up the LED
whereas the input wire connected to the 5 volt bus (high) dose light up the LED.

Experiment 5
Pin Number
1
2
3
6
7

LED Segment on
A
F
Do not connect
E
D

8
9
10
11
13
14

D
C
C
G
B
Do not connect

Conclusion:
The pin number of a 7- segment LED display light up a certain segment (or letters from
a-g) on the display.

Experiment 6
Input A
High (1)

Input B
High (1)

## Output (LED on or off)

On

High(1)
Low (0)
Low (0)

Low (0)
High (1)
Low (0)

On
Off
Off

Conclusion
1. The input states required to obtain an output at 5 volts are having both inputs ( A
and B) connected to the high and high (1) or having input A connected to high and
input B connected to low. For the input states to obtain an output at 5 volts the first
input needs to be connected at the high LED in the circuit to turn on.
2. The input states required to obtain an output at 0 volts are having input A connected
to low and input B connected to high or both inputs connected into to low.
Conclusion
The output has to be connected to high ( positive ) first for the LED to get light.

Experiment 7
Input A
High 1
High 1
High 0
High 0

Input B
High 1
Low 1
High 1
Low 0

## Output ( LED on or off

On
On
On
Off

1. In order to obtain an output at 5 volts you need to have both input wires at high.

2. To get 0 volts both input wires must be connected to low or input A has to be
connected to low and B to high.
Conclusion
The output of an gate responds to its
inputs by allowing electricity to flow
through.

Experiment 8
Input A
High (1)
Low (0)

Off
On

## 1. A 7404 in integrated circuit was probably designed so it could be used as an

inverter for circuit.
2. The output would be the same if 2 inverter were to be used in series because
when inverted the IC goes from off to on, and then off to on again resulting in the
same conclusion with 1 integrated chip
Conclusion
In conclusion, an inverter
changes direct current in a
circuit into alternating current.

Experiment 9

Input A

Input B

High 1
High 1
Low 0
Low 0

High 1
Low 0
High 1
Low 0

Off
On
On
On

Discussion
1.
2.
3.
4.

## To obtain an output of 5 volts one input must be low 0.

To obtain an output of 0 volts both inputs should be high none should be low.
Not-AND gates.
NAND gates are the opposite of AND gates.

Conclusion
If at least one input is low to output will
be on. If they are both high 1 it will be
off.

Experiment 10

Input A
High 1
High 1
Low 0
Low 0

Input B
High 1
Low 0
High 1
Low 0

Output (ON/}OFF)
Off
Off
Off
On

Discussion
1. To obtain an output of 5 volts both inputs must be on low 0.
2. To obtain an output of volts one input wire should be connected somewhere other
than low 0.
3. Not- OR gates.
4. NOR Gates are the opposite of OR Gates .
Conclusion
If both of the inputs are on low the output
will be on. If one of the inputs are
connected to high or even if both are
connected to high the output will be off.

Experiment 11

Input A
High 1
High 1
Low 0
Low 0

Input B
High 1
Low 0
High 1
Low 0

## Output (LED ON OR OFF)

Off
On
On
Off

Discussion
1. To obtain an output at 5 volts one input must be on high and one must be on low.
2. To obtain an output at 0 volts both inputs must either be on high or low.
Conclusion
If one of the inputs is high and the
other is low the output will turn on.