© All Rights Reserved

0 vues

© All Rights Reserved

- GUIDELINE FOR EVALUATION OF FINITE ELEMENTS AND RESULTS
- ME484 Finite Element Analysis
- Fluent HeatTransfer L03 ForcedConvection
- Basic FEM Webinar 2011
- Finite Element Analysis Intro
- Question Bank
- Final Report
- FIXTURE
- FEM 4 2Course Handout New
- Lecture 2
- exam.docx
- Paper
- Heat transfer and friction behaviors in rectangular Duct with Two Different Ribs
- FEA -lec15
- FEM M1 Spring 2016 Lesson 1
- Chap 02
- InTech-Application of Nanofluids in Heat Transfer
- Lecture 1 Overview of the FEM
- Thermal Engg R15 Syllabus.pdf
- Lecture 15c

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

Buoyancy effects within laminar forcedconvectin flow at the thermal entrance region

of a vertical rectangular channel

R SMY

fH'

and Y K

SALMAN-'

,:X,ji""J"Tf"ifffiff"llilTff :: :iil3i,:!i;j[,ij'g

'

f3 ,**\*Tl,;fiff

nulfil*,H**f:+#+"il,,,!**ii,*T#":""j';r::ir;

to 4 , 10'and Reynolds,",:f

Nusselt numbers were

1ou

o'oiiL"ti""0-3h:ll;ii:f"*

List of sYmbols

co

D

F,F.

Gz

c

specific heat at constant presure, J

eauivalenr duct diameter, m

dimensionless factors in eqn (4)

kg K

heater current, A

thermalconcluctivity'Wm'

Nu.

Pe

Pr

q

q.

q,

lengthL.Wm'K'

PecleiNumber

Prandtl Number_:

= hr.D/t-

cnP/k

heatflux,Wm'

R

Rao

Reo

eterD=Gr,,,.Pr

nc!n"tOs Nri'iit'.t

eter D

temperature, "C

r,)

dimensionless temPerature = (1'-'l',)/(l'.,,,.,--

axialvelocitY,ms'

z"

cross-stream co-ordinatc' m

dimcnsionless cross-slrcam dislancc = Y/H

dimensionless axial distanec = L/(D Rc,, Pr)

bulk expansion,

K'

kinematic viscosity, m- s.

dynamic viscosit-"-, kg m ' s

inlet condition

surfacc

maximum value

local axial condition

is

cient in the assisting situation can be up to

pure forced convectlon'

pow^er

-itt".,roting

"ftonnels

situations could be pronc to mlxeo

.ertain

ln

..n.t.tt. *tti"tt

-'ina**luf tt"ut-"*changers in chemical and food-processconr"1""tlrr"i, where pioblems involving combined

ve"ction in channels may be encountered;

il:liK;j

:

:f.'J;[il

plate air heaters).

;:lTilJi",

situations

Thc clfect of huoylncl on lhe flo\\s in these

li :lm$:; :

ili#:[:

can

r;[ ;i#"li]!"i:: ::

[

m trow K

JllT:' 3'',1''fi r

hc mi ni m u

ril

ponent failure.

c"m-

made o[

Extcnsive experimcntat sludics have been

asr\ecl

various

oI

ducls

horizontal

in

ilin.J .on""itiun

work.oi

t"cently almost all exPerimntal

i",lri,'r,t"i

"ttiiLconvectn in vertical ducts had been coni"i"t"-i-"i

Subscripts

i

s

max

z

tant are:

racliative heat flur. W m '

'

duct conduction heat loss, W m

resistancc of heater, ohm

nuyf.igft N".U"t based on equivalcnt duot diam-

Q.-u

it'.

K'

: Re' Pr

vertical duct is

Mixcd-convection heat-transfer inside a

when lhe dircction ol forced-convection

"irtr"i

uo*urJ. nn61 ;55irled bv the fluid's buoyanc)' or

n* i. "i"lt,i"g

*:lx*

i".i"".

i""t,rt"

Graetz Number = ReD Pr DIL

acceleration of gravity, m s '

lensth of duct, m

uu"?us. Nutr"f t numbcr (based on D)

Introduction

;;ilil";;.;

hL

"ted-convection

'l)r

T.T l'

\llMecht

Uni'eIsrl\'^ol.Shefficld D(Parl'

t Jr.g"

"i-engin""t;ng.

":-Jil;'lli "l;li:

n'

fined to the flowin tubes of circular cross-section. Although

this flow geometry is important, the results of these studies

are not generally applicable to ducts of rectangular crosssection with variations in the bealins of the sidewalls.

been made ofconvection in vertical channels of rectangular

cross-section. The most important of these are now

reviewed, although none of them has compared assisting

and opposing flows.

Early analyses of mixed convection' included an approach

appropriate to thermal boundary conditions for combined

free and forced convection, by using complex variable

theory; these were illustrated for two parallel plates and for

channels of rectangular cross-section. The method used

was

imaginaryparts are directly related to the velocity and temperature field respectively. In the case of two parallel

plates, the boundary layer was considered at constant temperature at the same horizontal level, with a linear axial

temoerature distribution at the wall. In the case of the rectanglar duct, the boundary layer was considered at a constant wall temperature at any peripheral section, and at a

linear temperature distribution in the axial direction.

The analysis oi fully developed combined forced and frcc

reported2. The analysis shows ihat the mixed convection

can be substantially simplified in vertical ducts, with little

loss in accuracy, try the application of variational methods.

The non-homogcneous Helmholtz equation obtained' was

replaced by an appropriate variational principle. Simple

polynomials were used to reduce the heavy computational

work required in series solution, without loss of accuracy in

the results. The results of this method for rectangular ducts

have been compared with available exact solutions, and

give good agreement.

circular ducts for a uniform axial heat flux and unitbrm peripheral wall temperature. The geometries treated were

right-angle triangle, isosceles triangle and rhombic ducts.

Finite-difference and variational approximate solutions

were used. The variational method shows good agreement

with the finite-difference predictions of Nusselt number lbr

rhombic ducts with different duct angles, and for Rayleigh

numbers of 0 and 1000.

Combined free- and forcedlaminar convection in noncircular rertical ducts has been investigated:. in rectangular, elliptical and rhombic cross-sections with uniform

peripheral temperature distribution. The governing equations with fully developed flow conditions at the inlet of the

method and by the variational metbod. The Nusselt

number for the rectangular duct has been depicted versus

the aspect ratio (width:height) of the duct, and shows that

for the pure forced convection lhe value of Nussell number

for the uniform circumferential heat flux falls slightly as thc

aspect ratio rises.

temperature rises rapidly with aspect ralio, and has a value

of 5.6 at an aspect ratio of 5. Combined free- and forced-

Rayleigh numbers varying from 0 to 3000 and uniform circumferential heat flux, the Nusselt number rises with lhe

aspect ratio for a slight amount of buoyancy. Under higher

buoyancy rates, this rise becomes appreciable.

velocity profiles was derived for ducts with arbitrary shape.

and

the Nusselt number by the finite-element method, finitedifference method and the exact solution of Rayleigh

ilil

temperature and velocity profiles given show the effect of

buoyancy forces on the upward forced flow, which create

reversed flow in the centreline at high Re values.

and'opposing' situations-

natural- and forced-laminar convection in vertical non-

solution algorithm with triangular elements and piecewise

ill

Fig.1

Suction and blowing were included in an analysis of combined forced- and natural-conyection flow in horizontal

and vertical channels. and in vertical tubesr. Continuity.

momentum and energy partial differential equations were

convertd lo coupled ordinary differential equations by the

similarity transformtion method. The variations of velocity profile were shown for Rayleigh numbers (Rao) of 500

and 1600, Prandtl number of 1, assisting flow, and various

Reynolds numbers.

ltl

b) : Assisting'

71

Use has been made6 of a llnite-element technique to analyse combined natural and forced convection in fully devcl-

,'t

lr

FLOW

oppo'inc

Fr*

free, forced and combined convection between parallel

plates in a vertical channel having uniform prescribed temperature. The Navier-Stokcs equations for comprcssible

flow with a discontinuity in thermal inlel profile at the

centre-line of the channel were solved by an explicit finitedifference method. An artificial compressibility term was

introduced to the continuity equation, and a central differencc scheme was used. exceDt for the diffusion term.

72

b

^j

LI

[\

't

tr'

z,

.E

d-.

I

*z

{

{

I

tr-'

ql

;l!-

tF

q=T-\

F-

(

*

f-

i-*

,-

jt

(t

-i\

P

F--

tf

'.3,

;L

"1

;J

r-.i

^i

ri

i-*

\L

CD

fi

tl

t*

i|

i.

sl

-,

\i

iJ

,ry

-E

's'

\ I

\

\

.9

I

\< (

=\

For natural convection, the relation between local Nusselt

number and axial distance show good agreemcnt with

experimentally available data. For combined free_ and

forc-e-d-convection results, the velocity and temperature

profiles were presented for a Reynolds numbei of 333,

Grashof number of 8 x 10a and for different axial positioni

along the channel. The pure forced-convection results fall

below the analytical solution, but for the mixed convection

the results are above the analytical prediction.

forced-convection heat-transfer for fullv develooed flow in

a vertical channel at low Peclet numbe.r pe

1: p",rpr; 1.,ru"

been studied numerically3. The study was carrierj-oui with

73

and the power was determined by measurements of the

current cross the nxed resistance Nickrom foil, and a 60_

ampere ac supply for the guard heaters was controlletl bv

four

resistances

in

measured by means of a He-Ne Laser Dooler Anemometer sysrem. operating in the differential mode. Temp<:rature profiles were measured by a thermocouole

traversing between the heated surfaes on a nrecision

mechanism sliding in grooves in rhe perspex sidewall.

the assumption that the channel inlet and exit are insulated.

leakage. Calibration lests were per[ormed to determine the

longitudinal and lateral conduition heat losses of the test

section, for both heated plates. The local convective heattransfer coefficients h, were obtained from the convective

heat flux q., which was deduced from an enersy balance

(eqn l) applied to lhe duct tesr secrion:

1'ft

significantly to lhe understanding of mixed convection,

uncertainty still exists over the situation of assisting or

opposing fl ows-particularly for rectangular ducts. Experimentai work is required to determine the effect of buovancy-induced secondary motion caused by one si<.te of the

duct heated or when both parallel sides are heated. This

paper reports on an experimental study of mixed-convec_

tion heat-transfer in a vertical rectangular duct with either

(equation 2):

to assess the conduction effect, and that lhe free-convection flow either assists or opposes the forced-convection

flow. The governing equalioni were cast in a finire-difference form using a central-difference scheme for the interior

opposing or assisting flows. and with ne side or two Darallel sides of the duct heared.

Experimentalapparatus

The apparatus used in the investigation is shown schemalically in Fig.l. and consisted oi a vertical channel of

rectangular cross-section in the horizontal plane; this cross\ection had an aspect ralio of 5: l. Air inducerl by a small

centrifugal fan entered a settling chambcr at the bottom of

the channel through a short rectangular perspex duct, and

exhausted through a bellmouth to the 0.O4 x 0.2 x I m test

sectron.

The settling chamber, together with the 0.04 m wide sidewalls of the test section, were constructed from perspex

sheet, and the 0.2 m wide sidewalls were constructed from

two identical heater slabs. The slabs consisted mainlv of a

rigid Teflon sheet with a composite main heater plare glued

to the duct inner surface, and the outer surface was covered

with guard heaters. The composite main heater plate was

constructed from three layers glued together with high-

stainless-steel plate, 'Nomax' electrical insulation and

'Nickrom' (80% Ni, 20% Cr) Ioil heater strip.

a

a

the stainless-steel plate, eight thermocouplJs laterally 50

mm off-centre al four positions along the stainless-steel

plate, four thermocouples embedded in the main Teflon

plate directly above one side of the lateral thermocouples

In the stainless sleel, lwo thermocouples embedded in the

exil Teflon block for calculations of axial conduction heatross, and one thermo-couple in the side Teflon block

for calculations of lateral conduction heat-loss.

- Q-",r :

(c. + q.) A

(1)

^T,

^r,=(r,)._(rJ,

(2)

Hence

l, = q./AT,

(3)

To deduce the local radiation heat flux q- from the total heat

flux. the upper and lower plales were di;ided into 4q identi-

calculated for all these elements; the local radiation heat

flux was then calculated. The overall radiation heatloss

was found to be negligiblc for the both-plates-heated condition, but was as much as 97o for the one-side-heated case

with high heat flux.

Overall uncertaintyr" in the temperatures of the wall and air

was estimated to be 0.2 K, whereas the maximum uncertainty in the mean inlet velocity was estimated to be

0.015 m s-'. The uncrtainty in the dimensionless groups

varied with mean inlet velocity and wall heat flux, and was

5.1-16.3% for Reo, 4.16-8.77u for Nu, and 12.57" for

Grrr.o'

Results

4,1

and two with opposing flow. For each te\t, resulls were

obtained for the one-side-heated and both-sides-heated

conditions. The measuring position, Grashof number and

Reynolds number were approximately the same for all the

tests.

'l'he dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles for

one-side-heated only are shown in Fig.2. Velocity profiles

exhibit the expected asymmetry in the profile. Foi lower

Reynolds numbers, raising the wall heat flux enhances the

air velocity near to the heated wall, and retards the flow

'l4SMYTH:BUOYANCYEFFECTSWITHINLAMINARFORCED-CONVECTIONFLOW

near to the other wall. Hence tbere may be a tendency to

ieversed flow near the unheated wall. Temperature proflles

show little variation in the transverse direction'

j2a

26

centre'makes a reversed-flow situation likely at low Reynolds numbers and high Grashof numbers'

4,,

o"ut u"to'"iti", on

"ach

from the middle ofthe duct The

ppto*irnurety

"quidistnt

profile aPpears to be produced-as

itipe ot lt. velcity

exoected-bv the summation of a natural-convection profil and a foiced-convection profile. Since the plates wer

no1 tt."t"O aornpt.tely across to the sidewalls. the natural.onuection flow is somewhat higher at the duct centre-line

and is reduced towards the plate edges lt is for this reason

that the 6 cm off-centre profile shows almost a llat prohle

about the middle of the duct.

]**

The both-sides-heated case shown in Fig'3 displays symmetrical profiles about the middle of the duct, with two

,1,

t2

l0

3 1 5 67891

156?a9t

'ro.'

,'

nr,o

3 1.567

'.Jjo'"'

iA.a touel one side ol the duct heatel'

F.7 @eloh,l both srd?s ol thc duct heatcd

Effect

R - RI6HI PTITE

T - LEFI PLATI

4.1.2

rv

OpPosing flows

avtRAGt

Oi 80lrl

PLAIES

2A

tor tne

show ouite a different behaviour from that obtarned

in the 2z+

greatly

is

reduced

velocity

The

uriistitis-no* tests.

occurs

vicinitv-of the heated surface, and this reduction

I

.u.n irc relatively high Reynolds number' The duct

centre-line profile appeais to suffer greater reduction as a

result of a irigh naruial convection effect. in comParrson

flow is

*iit tn. e cnioff-centre position; thus most of th

result 3' 16

The

duct

n.i iit" .lO"t tuttler than the centre of the

oiln.r"utine the buoyancy effect by either reducing the

Revnolds number or raising the Grashof number would

.tlniuu v produce a reversd flo* near the heated plate'

esoeciallv t the duct centre, with the main forced flow

exLecteO'to exit ttrrough the duct along the unheated sides'

Ai a resutt of the natural convection effect' temperature

oiot.t ttto* a thick thermal boundary layer at the heated

wall. in comparison with the assisting-flow test shown In

220

I C 562891

a 156769t

'ro

3 1-567

a n',o 'tJio'o'"

Fie.i.

The both-sides-heated test is shown in Fig'5 Here the

velocity profile has been reduced relative to Flg J' especF

;ll;;;t'G heated walls. although the 3 cm and 6 cm off-

centre orofiles show less reduction than that at the centreiin" oi itt. duct: these profiles keep their symmetry-about

the middle of the duct. Increasing the buoyancy ellect. Dy

numberiends to 6lock the duct centre position with natural-convection flow. with the forced flow being along the

unheated sides Further increasing of this effect will ulticonsematelv lead to unstedy flow in the whole duct' and

the

heat-transfer process'

of the duct. The buoyancy flow created by natural co.nuection sets up a traniue.se temperature variation in the

temperature Profiles.

4.2

Heat-transfer results

un oppo-sing flows, and for the two plate-h-eating situ'Test

iuns covered Reynolds numbers from 470 to

ations.

isli-n-ctuthor numbers frm 23 x 1 ro2'2 x '101 '

A total of 48 test runs were carried out, comprising-24 runs

ior euch of ttre two plate-heating situations' For the oneriO"-["ut"O condition, five reprsentative test tuns have

of

;;; ,!i";;; i;p;esentation.' Fig.6 shows theinvariation

heatthe

Nu. with z* and reveals the improvement

or

trarisfer process occurring below a critical value ol z"

approximately 0.0015.

Fig.7 shows three reprsentative test runs for both-sidesit"?i"i. rrt" .right uaiiations between the two heated plates

i" rrto*n, ,ogE n"r with the average result for both Plates'

i-"".""iin the Nusselt nuriber for alt heat fluxes

rt'iirt.' for increasing z*' rhis can be

'iJin;

th; instability of natural convection at urDq

attributed to

;;l;;;;;i rot, *itl tr'i no* rnode expected at theduct

;#;;i;;;;

;f#;i

;;;i*i;;i. the natural convection effect This effect

hich:l

i"i li ir'i high-heat-flux test run with a slishtlv

signrncaxr

the

Revnolds numblr. This figure shows clearly

nv"'

improvement (up ro 100%) in Nu, with increastng

flui.

z4

t'

3

r.@ 1600 rsoo 2ooo

l-r"d-'

.-_l-SOVOL

344

..-...-

rs

T

T

l0

(below) both sides of the duct heated.

^uhh..

R"o

Fig.8

FiB.g

26

'iudi--

21]o'

2\

.-";.;;;;;;

r.oo 6c0

t----'-------,'--,-

;'r 22,,[oL

] H*,nYt"l'*

R.ynotd.

1063

20

75

3 ( 56739r

3 ! t67A9t

xlO_!

3 1' 567

xlo'z

FiB.10 (above) one side of the duct heated.

Fig.l (below) both sides of lhe duct heated.

o'q.

i

L AV

RIGH] PLAIE

LTFI

PLATT

Rln No. -, (6v00 50v04 53v03

ir... ll"i (u.;)

0

r37

J49

ll25

lr30

Rsv.otd6 nsmbr li36

2A

Th effect ofthe variation of Reynolds number on the Nusselt number for various Grashof numbers is shown in Fig.8

Both diagrams reveal the relatively high Nu, in the low

re

'6

\-*

]I

ll

t'

t2

2 3 at 57A9i

,ro

Z'

runs each for the two-plate-heating situations. Fig.10

shows the five reprsentative test runs chosen for the oneside-heated case. The lowest test Reynolds number has

been increased for approximately all opposing flows, to

prevent dealing with possible reversed flow. This reversed

flow, which is created by natural convection, occurs at low

Reynolds numbers (400-600) and moderate-to-high heat

flux. The onset of this effect can be checked by observing

the air temperature in the inlet settling chamber: this tem-

2 \ 1557

,ro:

.--';;;;a;;

improvement in the heat-transfer process at larger z* as the

heat flux rises relative to the assisting-flow case.

The variation of Nu, with the

loo

chosen; the results are depicted in Fig.I I , again with rcsults

for each plate and the average for both. The average heattransfer coefficient for both surfaces heated shows that the

sharp reduction in heat-transfer coefficients occurs earlier

as the heat flux increases. The variation of Nu. with z*

reveals the improvement in the heat-transfer process for

high heat flux, but with a considerably reduced effect for

the intermediate and low heat-flux resr run.

The effect of the ReD on Nu, is shown in Fig.12 tor onestde-heated and Fig.l3 for both-sides-heated. The latter

case gives a significant increase in Nu,. as Gr,,., rises as the

result of the mixed convection process-whiih improves

the heat-transfer Drocess on the whole.

*'o

Fig.l3 (below) both sides olthe duct heated.

Fig.12

6r^_

.-;;;;;

FLOW

SMYTH: BUOYANCY EFFECTS WITHIN LAMINAR FORCED-CONVECTION

16

The lower Reo range with high GrD,q shows alower Nu,, as

the natural convection appears to d<iminate the heat-transf", procerr. This behaviour is completely opposite to that

obtined for assisting flow.

The results ofthis study were compared with the early work

on .i".0 .onu..tion' whi"h gave eqn (4) as valid for both

assisting and oPPosing flow:

Nul

.75

8lr/r

F' [Gz + 0.077 Fr(Gro.u Pr D/L)0

(4)

rbind ro be varidI the high flux conditions of this work.

:;;;;;;. ;l';;1;;t

Conclusions

surface is

il.*l* otit'. uitocity profile towards the heated

of symmerry

obtain for assisting flws. with a high degreeIor the both-sides-heated case. Raising the Plate heat nux

revcrsed

and reducing the Reynolds number may lead to a

lhe

lncreasc

factors

two

above

as

the

core,

flow at lhe duct

flow at the heated surfaces. For opposing flows' a comDlelelv contrary behaviour has been revealed l'or low-to'rnoO"iui" tt.ut'nu* the restriction on the forced flow for the

uiJ n"u. ttt" tt"ut"d surface makes th now rate at the duct

sides and corners higher than at the duct centre'

It. i.ut nu""t, ttt" hiat-transfer coefficients are higher

the

for

higher

are

no*.; U.t for high heat flux they

"iiirn*

opposirig flows. because of the increase in the natural conManinelli

i|t." Err..r. rl" single equation suggested byconvectlon'

mrxed

opposing

and

assisting

for

& Boeltero

htgh

was not found to be valid for rectangular ducts at a

heat-fl ux boundary condition.

Relerences

Trans

IAO L N. On combined frec and forccd convection in channels

ASME, J H?ttt Ttanler. lgno pp 233-238

i'"enwr-H cl a rariatinal method for combined free and forced

CARTERLFandGlLl W W As) mptol ic \olutlon tor comornco rree

.""".1." i".tt*""!,

I

ina'rliJ"o*""tion

ice,f V. nC"CeRwAL B D and |OWLER A

.,l

^

C

193-208

non-circular

vertical

in

irn"Jil". a"a'f-*o

eat and Mass Tnnsfet,1969' 12, pp^l123-t139

tr""i n"i. lr,.r H"onvection

M, KHATRY A K and AGGARWAL B D on the second

i""ar.ni"i p-ur"t of comhincd free and forced con\ection through

l-

i.t.

;- ic;t

...ti"^i

"on.i*"rrt

e LandCHENG

i--ilvr

vection heal transfer in \erlical duct wilh arbitrary closs-secllon 'nI

pp

227-2'16'

lt.

l9'15'

Tronslet,

Mas\

and

Heat

and forccd lmi" irelri p o i"d YTREHUS r' combined frec

channel 2nd Int Conf on Numerical Methods

i"

l"" "".iical

pt"ur".".

"."t:.ti

venice. llaty lg8l T't0 pp aa0- 1002

i" ir,"irn"i

.

s R and cAMPo A Eflecrs o[free con\eclron

c,

HuselN

ri liw

;"i;;;";d;".n

;;;;;i;;i;; P;.i.' "umbcr' rrans ASME r Hcat lrunsf tsu' t0r'

Publs EnP, 1942,5(2)' PP 23-28

i i<r-ifie sl r",i v.cl-lNrocx F A Describing unccrtdinries in

iinsle

and forced

II - MAR|IER W J ANd MCMILLAN Hl?italt 'r,t;a freelemperalure

wall

w'th

conslant

vcrtlcal

lubc

In

a

laminar convcction

Trans ASME, J Hedr han{et. lel0' pP 559'562

L E rects or heat

iirin-rrir l. RdsEN E M nd KABELR

tubes /nd& En8

verlical

in

numbcrs

Reynolds

r,

i<rw

nJa

nt"

"

i".i.t

ii-

PP 815-820

- GUIDELINE FOR EVALUATION OF FINITE ELEMENTS AND RESULTSTransféré parMario Tirabassi
- ME484 Finite Element AnalysisTransféré parnandan144
- Fluent HeatTransfer L03 ForcedConvectionTransféré pararafath1985
- Basic FEM Webinar 2011Transféré parkolle_sdestefa
- Finite Element Analysis IntroTransféré parJishnu Rajendran
- Question BankTransféré parnandusp1
- Final ReportTransféré parfirefox3011
- FIXTURETransféré parSaran Cool
- FEM 4 2Course Handout NewTransféré parSyed Sirajul Haq
- Lecture 2Transféré parAnimesh Kumar Jha
- exam.docxTransféré parMae Florizel Falculan
- PaperTransféré parmspiso2000
- Heat transfer and friction behaviors in rectangular Duct with Two Different RibsTransféré parIJSTE
- FEM M1 Spring 2016 Lesson 1Transféré parMitzu
- Chap 02Transféré parKhalid F Abdulraheem
- InTech-Application of Nanofluids in Heat TransferTransféré parrahwl13
- FEA -lec15Transféré par2011kumar
- Lecture 1 Overview of the FEMTransféré parRizwan Samor
- Thermal Engg R15 Syllabus.pdfTransféré parSudha Sudhakar
- Lecture 15cTransféré paraleyhaider
- Nano FluidsTransféré parjudeekene_403330720
- Ch09 Viscous Flow Along a WallTransféré parYash Dhabalia
- 2-23-1374738973-4. Static and dynamic analysis.full.pdfTransféré parsuhas110
- cd7316_68Transféré parmani manis
- DEM ModelingTransféré parHM Dalia
- NB15403 IntroductionTransféré parmh
- 1Course Structure for M.tech. WRE Civil(Autonomous) July 2018 (1) (1)Transféré parTanushree Ray
- FEA CourseTransféré parRuben Bartolome Garcia
- transferencia de masaTransféré parMarissa Mancia
- EXPERIMENTAL_INVESTIGATION_ON_HEAT_TRANS.pdfTransféré parNabeel Bhutta

- Pipe Flow Matlab a 1Transféré parMadusuthanan Sababathy
- Mixed conv in building.pdfTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- Chapter 2 Poisson’s Equation.pdfTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- Chapter 2 Natural Convection Horizontal Cyl.Transféré parYasin K. Salman
- Lee SullivanTransféré parMatematica Educativa
- NC Fins ArrayTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- Wicking TypesTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- HP Per WallinTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- Wicking StudyTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- Porous Media 3Transféré parYasin K. Salman
- Entropy Conv 15Transféré parYasin K. Salman
- Mixed Con in Porous MediaTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- Natural Cn in AtticTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- F Convection- Internal FlowTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- ConvectionTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- lecfeTransféré parDavid Obike Onuoha
- Numerical Solutions via MatlabTransféré parElzimar Freitas
- SteadyHeatCond_1DTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- Flat Heat Pipe 14Transféré parYasin K. Salman
- Heat Pipe29Transféré parYasin K. Salman
- heat pipe 324Transféré parYasin K. Salman
- CorrelationTransféré parYasin K. Salman
- ANCOVA Output for Field 2009Transféré parYasin K. Salman
- Convective Heat Transfer 1Transféré parVladimir Kojic
- Ahmed Faghry(Mixed)Transféré parYasin K. Salman

- Compressed Cefr Lesson Plan Template 2018Transféré parTracy Vianney
- monkey-with-a-tool-belt-lp-2-0-2-2Transféré parapi-308666520
- Popcorn Ak CylindersTransféré parSarah Mada
- 22400-Article Text-70270-1-10-20190120Transféré parMuhammad Abdulhamid
- Application of Thermodynamics to Flow ProcessesTransféré parAldren RebaLde
- 4º E.S.O. PASSIVETransféré parJose Luis Vilches
- The Foundations of Celestial MechanicsTransféré parEmisa Rista
- Right to Efficient,Effcetive and Responsive Governance-EnglishTransféré parPriyanka Tisseverasinghe
- 10781.pdfTransféré parBeboy Paylangco Evardo
- RCC Dams Thermal Induced Cracking Performance of RCC DamsTransféré parCarlos L. Oyuela
- Utilization of “Dynaform“ Simulation SoftwareTransféré parElaine Johnson
- A Discrete-time Event Simulator for Distance Vector RoutingTransféré parAsad Rao
- Abbaszadehmosayebi (2014)Transféré parRodrigo
- Aras Innovator 9.2 - Installation GuideTransféré parCharles Bateman
- ethnography discussion questionsTransféré parapi-235718856
- 20-1 literary elements notes and vocabularyTransféré parapi-204719782
- Equipment BrochureTransféré parAmar Behera
- Cyprus Under the Turks 1571-1878Transféré paryuye0913
- Medical AffairsTransféré parsightbd
- Detailed Tutorial for Building ASPTransféré pargfgomes
- R-0097_Customer Cleared Items ListTransféré parJayanth Maydipalle
- AlcoholTransféré parLehaci Onisim
- Fundamentals SF RatingsTransféré parllimstudydesk
- 38968353 Persons and Family Relations DigestsTransféré parJameh Jann Rosales Narvasa
- bibliografieTransféré parPandărescuSarra
- Method Statemnet for 11kV Cable SATTransféré parZaheer Ahamed
- Tom QuestionsTransféré parRahul
- ProblemTransféré parLeonora Erika Rivera
- A tracer study of Bachelor of Science in computer science graduates of Negros oriental state university-Guihulngan city campus, PhilippinesTransféré parRoger Ojing Salatandre Malahay
- Chapter 7 Bio Test Study Guide ATransféré parRachel Frankenfield

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.