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IMPERIAL HANDBOOK VOLUME 2 3D MODELING &MACHINING THE GUIDE TO MASTERCAM

IMPERIAL HANDBOOK VOLUME 2

3D MODELING &MACHINING

THE GUIDE TO MASTERCAM

IMPERIAL HANDBOOK VOLUME 2 3D MODELING &MACHINING THE GUIDE TO MASTERCAM
Handbook Volume 2 To order more books: Call 1-800-529-5517 or Visit www.emastercam.com or Contact your

Handbook Volume 2

To order more books:

Call 1-800-529-5517 or

Visit www.emastercam.com or

Contact your Mastercam dealer

Mastercam 2017 Handbook Volume 2 for Mastercam 2017

Copyright: 1998 -2017 In-House Solutions Inc. All rights reserved

Software: Mastercam 2017

Author: In-House Solutions

ISBN: 978-1-77146-566-3

Date: June 10, 2016

Notice

In-House Solutions Inc. reserves the right to make improvements to this manual at any time and without notice.

Disclaimer Of All Warranties And Liability

In-House Solutions Inc. makes no warranties, either express or implied, with respect to this manual or with respect to the software described in this manual, its quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for any particular purpose. In-House Solutions Inc. manual is sold or licensed "as is." The entire risk as to its quality and performance is with the buyer. Should the manual prove defective following its purchase, the buyer (and not In-House Solutions Inc., its distributer, or its retailer) assumes the entire cost of all necessary servicing, repair, of correction and any incidental or consequential damages. In no event will In-House Solutions Inc. be liable for direct, indirect, or consequential damages resulting from any defect in the manual, even if In-House Solutions Inc. has been advised of the possibility of such damages. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you.

Copyrights

This manual is protected under International copyright laws. All rights are reserved. This document may not, in whole or part, be copied, photographed, reproduced, translated or reduced to any electronic medium or machine readable form without prior consent, in writing, from In-House Solutions Inc.

Trademarks

Mastercam is a registered trademark of CNC Software, Inc.

Microsoft, the Microsoft logo, MS, and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation; Windows 7 and Windows 8 are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

This document requires Mastercam Mill Essentials.

Table of Contents

Legend

1

Chapters

Introduction To 3D Workspace

3

Splines

33

Surface

Modeling

65

Surface Rough Machining

129

Surface Finish Machining

183

Surface High Speed Machining

207

Mold Project

259

Prototype Project

273

Handbook Volume 2

183 Surface High Speed Machining 207 Mold Project 259 Prototype Project 273 Handbook Volume 2

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

1

Introduction To 3D Workspace

OBJECTIVES

This chapter introduces the 3D Cartesian coordinate system and how to create and manipulate 3D wireframe drawings. Upon completion of this chapter, you should able to do the following:

• Understand the 3D Cartesian coordinate system.

• Set and use any of the seven pre-defined Construction Planes (Cplane).

• Set the Z: working depth on the active Cplane.

• Understand the purpose and how to use the 2D/3D setting.

• Create new Construction Planes by selecting two lines, a flat entity, a normal line, or by rotating an existing Cplane.

• Draw in 3D space using wireframe entities.

• Translate, or move, geometry using all available methods.

• Use the Translate 3D function to move the part and rotate about all three axes simultaneously to place and orient as desired.

INTRODUCTION

Surface modeling and machining requires the ability to visualize parts in three dimensions. You must also be able to visualize the entire machining process from start to finish. How will the part be held while being machined? What it will look like as it goes from one machining operation to the next? This spatial ability is, to some degree, a natural talent, but it can be developed with training and experience.

You must also be able to work efficiently and accurately in the Mastercam 3D workspace. This includes being able to create wireframe, surface, and solid entities, and to define and manipulate views and 2D work planes within this space. You have to be able to move the part between any two points in space and rotate it precisely about any axis.

This chapter provides the basic knowledge and skills you will need to accomplish all of these tasks. Study the information and examples in this chapter carefully. They form the foundation that will help you work with speed, confidence, and precision.

They form t he foundation that will help you work with speed, confidence, and precision. Handbook

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CHAPTER 11

Introduction To 3D Workspace

MASTERCAM WORKSPACE

An illustration of the Mastercam workspace is shown below. Because this workspace is dynamic and customizable, your screen may appear somewhat different from that shown.

For instructional purposes, this example shows notes and interface components that are not normally displayed together. For example, the Screen Grid and RMB menus are active, and Drop Down/Fly Out menus are shown offset from their normal position for clarity.

are shown offset from their normal position for clarity. Item Definition Window Control Minimize, Restore

Item

Definition

Window Control

Minimize, Restore Down or Close Mastercam.

Quick Access Toolbar

Groups functions that are most used and displays them as Icons. Icons are picture representations of functions. This is customizable.

Backstage

By selecting FILE you open the Backstage where you have access to functions that are used to open, save, and manage MCAM and other file types.

Ribbon Tabs

The Ribbon tabs allows you to select all Mastercam functions. These functions have been grouped together into different categories. These categories are displayed as ribbons.

Panels/ Dialog boxes

A window that opens to allow input of information and setting options. Dialog boxes are tailored for specific functions and often feature descriptive graphics to simplify user input.

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for specific f unctions and often feature des criptive graphics to simplify user input. Page |

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

Item

Definition

Drop-down Menu

Menus that expand downward.

Graphic Area

Area where geometry and toolpaths are created, edited, and displayed.

Origin

Intersection of X, Y, Z axes.

Mouse Cursor

Shows mouse location. Appears as a cross hair over the graphic area and as an arrow when over a menu item.

Mini Toolbar

Displays the current attributes and allows the users to quick change them.

RMB

Right Mouse Button. Clicking on Right Mouse Button with cursor in the graphics area opens the RMB menu.

Function Prompt

Prompts for user input. Provide information and prompts for next expected action.

Viewport Axes

Shows orientation of the view in relation to the global coordinate system.

Plane Information

Information regarding the active planes, and WCS (Work Coordinate System)

Toolpaths/Solids/Planes/ Levels Managers

History manager for toolpath operations and solids bodies. Planes manager allows you to set the current Graphic view, the World Coordinate System, the Construction plane and the Tool plane. Levels manager allows you to manage the level settings for the current part file.

Keyboard Command

Not shown. Keyboard Function keys [F1-F12] and other key combinations can be assigned to functions.

Keyboard Function key s [F1-F12] and other key combinations can be assigned to functions. Handbook Volume

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CHAPTER 11

Introduction To 3D Workspace

Mastercam Coordinate System

The Mastercam coordinate system is a 3D Cartesian coordinate system. Three number lines are set at 90 degree angles to each other and labeled X, Y, and Z.

The point where the axes cross is called the Origin. Numbers on one side of the origin are labeled positive. Those on the other side are labeled negative.

The coordinate system comprises the total workspace that you can work on in Mastercam. It extends, for all practical purposes, infinitely in all directions.

for all practical purposes, infinitely in all directions. Any point in this workspace is p recisely

Any point in this workspace is precisely defined given its axes label, sign, and value. For example, the point "X3, Y2, Z4" is located by counting, from the Origin, three units along the X+ axis, then up two units parallel to the Y+ axis, and then up four units parallel to the Z+ axis.

3D Cartesian coordinates may be written two different ways. One way uses the axis label, sign and value. For example: X3, Y2, Z4.

The other writes coordinates as an ordered pair. Numbers are written in a specific order (X, Y, Z) separated by commas. For example:( 3, 2, 4).

Within the Mastercam coordinate system, any number of Construction Planes (Cplanes) can exist. A Cplane is a flat working plane that can be located in any position or orientation in the Mastercam coordinate system.

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plane that can be located in any position or orien tation in the Mastercam coordinate system.

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

Introduction To 3D Workspace CHAPTER 1 1 Screen Grid ( Alt-G ) shows the position and

Screen Grid (Alt-G) shows the position and orientation of the active Cplane.

CHAPTER 1 1 Screen Grid ( Alt-G ) shows the position and or ientation of the

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CHAPTER 11

Introduction To 3D Workspace

System Defined Cplanes

Cplanes are used to create flat, two-dimensional workspaces anywhere in the Mastercam workspace. These make drawing easier since coordinates can be entered in relation to the active Cplane rather than the coordinate system. Cplanes are also required to define arcs and 2D splines.

Mastercam pre-defines the most common Cplanes; those aligned with the coordinate system XYZ axes. These can be selected from the Cplane, Named option on the Status Bar.

The illustration below shows the position and orientation of Mastercam's pre-defined Cplanes and their relation to the coordinate system. The shaded square shows the origin and position of the first quadrant (X+Y+) of these planes.

d position of the first quadrant ( X+Y+ ) of these planes. Arcs and 2D Splines

Arcs and 2D Splines are 2D entities and must exist on a Cplane. If needed, Mastercam will automatically create Cplanes to support these entities.

For example, if an arc is rotated such that it is not parallel to an existing Cplane, Mastercam will create one for it. These Cplanes are assigned a number (8, 9, 10, etc.) or can be given a name.

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one for it. These Cplanes are assigned a number (8, 9, 10, etc.) or can be

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

CONSTRUCTION DEPTH (Z:)

Work on any space parallel to the active Cplane by changing the Construction Depth setting, Z: setting in the HOME tab, Organize group as shown.

Z: setting in the HOME tab, Organize group as shown. You can also change the Z

You can also change the Z value in the Mini Toolbar as shown (Right Mouse Click).

Z value in the Mini Toolbar as shown (Right Mouse Click). By default, Z: is zero,

By default, Z: is zero, meaning that any geometry is created right on the active Cplane. To change construction depth, do any of the following:

• Enter the value in the field next to the Z: setting. Positive values move the construction depth above the active Cplane. Negative values move it below the active Cplane.

• Pick a previously entered value from the Z: drop down list.

• Click on Z: and then select a point for the new construction depth from existing geometry in the graphic area.

select a point for the new construction depth from exi sting geometry in the graphic area.
select a point for the new construction depth from exi sting geometry in the graphic area.

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CHAPTER 11

Introduction To 3D Workspace

Construction Depth

Practice how construction depth works by completing the following example:

Start with the part, GussetPlate.MCAM which is included on your student CD. Extrude the 2D profile to create a 3D wireframe model using the TRANSFORM tab, Translate, Join option and setting Delta Z to -0.5.

Add the rectangular shape at the bottom of the part as follows:

Step 1: Set Cplane to Top.

Step 2: Right mouse click in the graphics window and change the Gview to Isometric so that all geometry can be seen and selected.

Step 3: Right mouse click in the graphics window and set the Construction Depth by entering -0.5 in the Z:

field as shown, or by clicking on Z: and pick any endpoint at the bottom of the part.

on Z: and pick any endpoint at t he bottom of the part. • Step 4

Step 4: Draw the rectangle using any method you wish.

at t he bottom of the part. • Step 4 : Draw the rectangle using any

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at t he bottom of the part. • Step 4 : Draw the rectangle using any

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

Drawing Using Cplane

As you can see, working in 3D space requires awareness of both the Cplane (construction plane orientation and position) and Z: (construction depth) settings.

Practice using Cplane and Z: by completing the following example:

Step 1: Create a 1.0 square rectangle. Step 2: Extrude to form a 1.0 cube. Step 3: Change to an isometric or other 3D view. Step 4: Select a pre-defined Cplane. Step 5: Set the working depth of the face you want to draw on by clicking on Z: and picking the endpoint or midpoint of existing geometry on that face. Step 6: Create a 0.5 diameter arc at the center of the face.

6: Create a 0.5 diameter arc at the center of the face. Before Step 6: above,

Before Step 6: above, you may want to create a diagonal line across the face. This allows you to place the arc at the center of the face by picking the midpoint of the diagonal line. This construction geometry can be deleted after all arcs are drawn. You can also hover the cursor above the opposite endpoints and the midpoint will be automatically found by the system.

above t he opposite endpoints a nd the midpoint will be automatically found by the system.

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CHAPTER 11

Introduction To 3D Workspace

2D/3D Drawing Mode

So far, you have been drawing on flat planes. This is referred to as working in a 2D drawing mode, since all inputs are X-Y coordinates only in relation to the active Cplane.

The 2D/3D setting, located in the HOME ribbon, Attributes group or in the Mini Toolbar allows you to switch to the 3D drawing mode as shown.

allows you to switch to the 3D drawing mode as shown. 2D Mode: • Wireframe geometry

2D Mode:

• Wireframe geometry is created on the active Cplane.

• Z sets construction depth: in the HOME ribbon.

• Z-value input selections from the mouse are ignored.

3D Mode:

• The Construction depth Z: settings in the HOME ribbon are ignored.

• Z-value inputs from the mouse are used.

Practice using the 3D drawing mode by completing the following example:

• Create a one-inch cube. Then draw lines between endpoints and midpoints in a zigzag pattern as shown. Try this using the 3D mode and then the 2D mode to see how the two methods differ.

as shown. Try this using the 3D mode and then t he 2D mode to see

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Handbook Volume 2

as shown. Try this using the 3D mode and then t he 2D mode to see

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

User Defined Cplanes

Mastercam provides many ways to define new Cplanes or to select and manipulate existing planes. The most commonly used ways to define a new Cplane are:

• Two Lines

• Flat Entity

• Dynamic - Rotate

• Normal

Two Lines • Flat Entity • Dynamic - Rotate • Normal Creating Cplanes Create a Cplane

Creating Cplanes

Create a Cplane using the Planes Manager panel. To open the Planes Manager panel, from VIEW tab, in the Managers group select Planes as shown.

CHAPTER 11

Introduction To 3D Workspace

The Planes Manager options should look as shown.

CHAPTER 11 Introduction To 3D Workspace The Planes Manager options should look as shown. Page |

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CHAPTER 11 Introduction To 3D Workspace The Planes Manager options should look as shown. Page |

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

Item

Definition

Create a new plane

Allows you to select one of the options to define a new plane.

From Geometry

Defines a Cplane by selecting a flat entity, two lines, or three points. A flat entity is an arc, 2D spline, flat surface, or flat solid face.

From Solid Face

Selects a plane by picking on a flat solid geometry face.

From Gview

Creates a Cplane the same as the current Graphics View.

From Line Normal

Uses a line to define the Z-axis of a Cplane.

Relative to WCS

Sets Cplane to be the same as a defined WCS.

Dynamic

Creates a plane through the use of an interactive gnomon in the graphics window.

Select lathe plane

Allows you to select one of the available planes used to draw and machine a lathe part.

Lathe Diameter

Predefined Cplanes Lathe planes that are using the diameter and the z coordinates such as +D +Z, -D +Z, +D -Z, -D -Z.

Lathe Radius

Predefined Cplanes Lathe planes that are using the radius and the z coordinates such as +X +Z, -X +Z, +X -Z, -X -Z.

Find a plane

Allows you to find an existing plane previously defined.

Display options

Allows you to customize which planes are shown, and if the gnomon and plane info are displayed.

Follow Rules

Allows you to enable rules such as updating the Cplane and Tplane when changing Gview.

Allows you to enable rules such as updating the Cplane and Tpla ne when changing Gview.

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CHAPTER 11

Introduction To 3D Workspace

PLANES FROM GEOMETRY

Construction Plane From Two Lines Example

Any two lines that intersect can define a Cplane. Ideally, the lines intersect at a 90-degree angle and share an endpoint. This is a preferred way to define Cplanes since it is easy to set the orientation, origin, and axes directions based on how the entities are selected.

Step 1: Select Planes, Planes by Geometry from the Status Bar. Step 2: Select one line that represents the new Cplane X+ axis. Pick the line near the new Cplane origin. Then select a line that represents the new Cplane Y+ axis near the new Cplane origin.

the new Cplane Y+ axis near the new Cplane origin. Step 3: Observe the axes indicator.

Step 3: Observe the axes indicator. Use the arrows to toggle through the possible solutions until you see the one you want and then click on the green checkmark.

e possible solutions until you see the one you want and then clic k on the

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e possible solutions until you see the one you want and then clic k on the

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

Step 4: By default, the new Cplane is assigned a number. Name the Cplane by entering it in the Name field. The origin of the new plane is where the two lines intersect. Shift the origin by clicking on the arrow below the origin field and then picking a point on the part.

origin by clic king on the arrow below the origin field and then picking a point
origin by clic king on the arrow below the origin field and then picking a point

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CHAPTER 11

Introduction To 3D Workspace

Flat Entity

This option is easy to use, but it is more difficult to control the Cplane X-Y axes direction. Simply click on a flat entity to set the new plane Z-axis normal (piercing at 90 degree angle all-around) to the flat entity. A flat entity is a(n):

• Arc.

• 2D Spline.

• Flat Surface.

• Flat Solid Face.

Arc. • 2D Spline. • Flat Surface. • Flat Solid Face. Item Definition Arc An arc

Item

Definition

Arc

An arc must exist on a plane. This method sets the new plane Z-axis normal to this plane.

2D Spline

2D splines lie on a plane. Certain geometric shapes, such as an ellipse and some arcs, are modeled using 2D splines.

Flat Surface

A flat surface has an infinite radius of curvature. Check the radius of curvature using Analyze, Dynamic.

Solid Face

Any flat face on a Solid can be used to set a Cplane similar to the Flat Surface method.

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Any flat face on a Solid can be used to set a Cplane similar to the

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

Cplane Dynamic

Dynamic uses an interactive gnomon to create a plane in the graphics window. The gnomon comprises three axes connected at the origin, with selection points on the gnomon's segments.

The selection points on the gnomon are defined as shown.

The selection points on the gnomon are defined as shown. Item Definition Transform Align Allows you

Item

Definition

Transform Align

Allows you to align entities to existing geometry using an interactive gnomon. The alignment can be applied to the gnomon axes or to the geometry depending on the option selected with the button next to the gnomon.

Translate Along

Allows you to move entities along an axis by selecting the axis leg. A ruler appears allowing you to indicate the direction and to snap at different positions. You can control the snap increment with the zoom function. You can also enter the value directly into the input box.

3D Translate XYZ/Polar

Allows you to translate the gnomon origin in XYZ (delta).

XY Orient

Use the XY orient function to orient the gnomon's XY axis to a face or a surface, whether it is tangent to a curved surface/face or on a flat surface/ face. To turn on this function, click on the area between the gnomon's X and Y axes.

2D Transform Rotate

Allows you to rotate the gnomon around an axis by selecting the center segment of the curved control.

3D Transform Rotate

Allows you to rotate the gnomon around an axis by selecting the center segment of the curved control and also to snap to another axis and rotate it with an angle too.

of the curved control and also to snap to another axis and rotate it with an

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Introduction To 3D Workspace

The Dynamic Plane dialog box allows you to set some of the parameters used to create a new plane.

to set some of the parameters used to cr eate a new plane. Item Definition Name

Item

Definition

Name

Allows you to enter the name of the new plane.

Origin XYZ

Displays the location of the gnomon at all times.

Move to

Moves the gnomon to the origin. The origin used is based on the pull down selection. You may select WCS, World, Cplane, or Tplane origin.

Align to

Aligns the gnomon to a chosen set of axes. The axes used are based on the pull down selection. You may select WCS, World, Cplane, Tplane axes, or Graphics view.

Work Offset #

Assigns a work offset code to the plane when you use the plane for a Tplane and create a toolpath.

Set as WCS

Automatically aligns the Work Coordinate System (WCS) to this view when you exit this dialog box.

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aligns the Work Coordinate System (WCS) to this v iew when you exit this dialog box.

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

The next example shows the steps to follow when you rotate the surface around the X axis using the Dynamic plane.

Step 1:In the Planes Manager panel ensure that the WCS, Cplane and Tplane are set to top while the Gview is Isometric.

Step 2: Select the Create new plane icon and then Dynamic.

Step 3: Place the gnomon origin as shown.

Dynamic. • Step 3: Place the gnomon origin as shown. • Step 4: Pick the center

Step 4: Pick the center segment that controls the Z axis rotation and enter the angle or snap to the angle on the dial as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

and enter the angle or snap to the angle on the dial as shown in Figure
and enter the angle or snap to the angle on the dial as shown in Figure

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Introduction To 3D Workspace

Step 5: In the Dynamic Plane dialog box enter the plane name and then select the OK button to exit.

In the Dynamic Plane dialog box enter the plane name and then select the OK button

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In the Dynamic Plane dialog box enter the plane name and then select the OK button

Introduction To 3D Workspace

CHAPTER 11

Right Hand Rule

The Right Hand Rule is used to determine the positive direction of rotation about any axis in a Cartesian coordinate system.

It works by imagining that you wrap your right hand about the axis with the thumb pointing in the positive

direction of the axis. In the illustration below, the X - axis is gripped with the thumb pointing in the direction + X.

The positive direction of rotation for the gripped axis is the same direction as the curled fingers.

gripped axis is the same direction as the curled fingers. Cplane Normal A Normal line is

Cplane Normal

A Normal line is a line that pierces an entity at 90 degrees all-around. Click on a line to set the

Z-axis of the new Cplane along the line.

a line to set the Z-axis of the new Cplane along the line. After picking the

After picking the Normal line, you will be prompted to select another entity to define the new plane X-axis. Choose <Enter> to skip this option.

a nother entity to define the new plane X-axis. Choose <Enter> to skip this option. Handbook

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INDEX

INDEX

Numerics

2

Surface Blend

120

3

Fillet Blend

124

3

Surface Blend

122

3D Contour Toolpath

55

3D Cutter Compensation

54

3D Mode

12

3D splines

53

A

Advanced Settings

164

Analyze Test Surfaces

139

Automatic Spline

39

B

Ball Nose Mil

130

Boss

130

Break many places

47

Bull Nose

130

C

cad geometry types

9

66

Cavity

130

Check Surfaces

130

Chordal Deviation

130

Chordal deviation

41

Climb vs. Conventional Machining

155

Construction Depth (Z

Continuity

36

Core

130

CPlane 2 Lines Example

16

Cplanes

8

Curve

33

Curves Spline

40

Cut Depths

159

Cut Tolerance

130

Cutting Methods

167

Cutting Speeds & Feeds

134

D

Direction

150

Draft

130

Draft surface

77

Drive Curves

68

Drive Surfaces

130

Drop Down Menu

5

Dynamic Planes

15

E

Entry Options

156

Extruded Surface

79

F

Facing

158

Fence Surface

85

Fill holes

106

Fillet Surface

110

Fillet Surfaces To Surfaces

110

Fillet to curves

119

Fillet To Plane

118

Filter

51

Flat Boundary Surfaces

104

Flat Endmill

130

Flat Entity

18

Flats

192

Function Prompt

5

G

Gap Settings

162

Graphic Area

5

H

Helix Parameters

189

High Speed Machining

130

High Speed Parameters

169

K

Keyboard command

5

L

Lathe Radius Lathe Diameter

15

Lofted Surface

72

M

Modify spline

43

Mouse Cursor

5

N

Net Surface

89

Normal Line

23

Nurbs Splines

35

O

Offset Surface

109

Origin

5

P

Parametric Splines

34

Planes = Gview

15

Planes = WCS

15

Planes By Geometry

15

Plunge Control

173

Pocket Parameters

165

WCS 15 Planes By Geometry 15 Plunge Control 173 Pocket Parameters 165 Handbook Volume 2 Page|

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INDEX

INDEX

R

Refine Toopath

155

Remove Bounday

105

Revolved Surface

73

Right Hand Rule

23

RMB

5

Rough Parallel

170

Rough Parallel Parameters

171

Rough Pocket

144,

152, 210

Ruled Surface

69

Runoff Surface

130

S

Scallop Height

130

Shade Settings

140

Shading

68

Shallow

190,

191

Simplify

46

Solids

66

Split surface

106

Stepover

130

Stock Allowance

130

Surface From Solid

125

Surface Normal

68

surface normal

67

Surface Parameters

147

Surface Terms

67

Surfaces

66

Swept Surface

81

System Defined Cplanes

8

T

Tapered End Mill

130

Tip Comp

130

Tool Center Boundary

131

Tool Parameters

146

Tool Selection

132

Tool Tip Compensation

135

Toolpath/Surface Selection

145

Toolpaths/Solids Manager

5

Translate 3D

24

Translucent

68

Trim Surfaces To A Plane

99

Trim Surfaces To Curves

95

Trim Surfaces To Surfaces

101

Trimmed Surfaces

93

troubleshooting splines

49

U

Un-Trim Surfaces

104

User Defined Cplanes

13

UV Curves

68

UV curves

67

V

Variable Fillet Indicators

115

Viewport Axes

5

W

Window Control

4

Wireframe

66

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Indicators 115 Viewport Axes 5 W Window Control 4 Wireframe 66 Page | 276 Handbook Volume