Modern Biology (BT101)
Feb 26th 2007, Monday
0.5 x 10= 5 Marks

Section I

1. Identify the DNA variants that have a) pitch of 45 Ao

a) Z form

b) rise per base pair 3.4 Ao

b) B form

2. How does a ribosome know when to stop making a polypeptide?

Stop codons for which there are no corresponding tRNA molecules.

3. For a DNA sequence ATGCCAATG, write the complementary mRNA codons and
tRNA anticodon.

mRNA codons


tRNA anticodon


4. The base composition of phage M13 DNA is A 23%; T 36%, G 21% and C 20%. What
does this tell you about the DNA of phage M13?

A ≠ T; G ≠ C
So DNA is not base paired double helix; the M13 DNA is singlestranded.

5. Calculate the possible number of amino acids that may be encoded if only two bases
defined a codon. Comment on why this is not the case.

If two bases defined a codon, only 16 amino acids would be encoded
(42=16). Twenty naturally occurring amino acids exist so three bases
are necessary.

6. It could be said that complementary base pairing is essential to the production and
function of RNA. Explain this statement.

i) RNA molecules are assembled on a DNA template through
complementary base pairing.
ii) The tRNA molecule carrying correct amino acid is aligned on the
mRNA molecule by complementary base pairing between tRNA
anticodon and the mRNA codon.

7. Describe two functions of RNA polymerase.

i) Adds RNA primer to the DNA template to let DNA synthesis begins.
ii) Links nucleotides in forming RNA molecules.

Draw the schematic figure showing a) nicked ds circular DNA b) single strand ends. Where are codons found? Solution: Each group of three nucleotides is transcribed into one codon on the mRNA molecule. Ribosome components. tRNA.8. Codons are found on mRNA and it is the mRNA code that should be used in writing down the sequence of amino acids. Distinguish between a triplet of nucleotides on DNA and a codon. 9. How many activating enzymes are there? Solution: 20 enzymes. ds DNA with Solution: nick a) or or b) or or 5’ 3’ 3’ 5’ 5’ 3’ 3’ 5’ 2 . mRNA. What components are needed to synthesize a protein? Solution: Amino acids. one for each amino acid Section II 2 x 3= 6Marks 11. 10. Enzymes. ATP. DNA are required for the initial nucleotide code for the protein.

a) How many turns of the double helix must be unwound during replication of the E.12. An E. coli the fragments are 1000 to 2000 nucleotide long and are firmly attached to the template strand by base pairing.456. Draw the structure of G · C base pair and highlight the H bonding. Ribosome Binding site Anticodon site 13. Roughly sketch a molecule of tRNA. In E. coli chromosome? b) About how many Okazaki fragments would be formed? What factors guarantee that the numerous Okazaki fragments are assembled in the correct order in the new DNA? Solution: a) 5. 3 .789 bp.4 x 105 turns (10 bp every turn) b) Roughly 3000 to 6000 Okazaki fragments. coli chromosome contains 5. Each fragment is quickly joined to the lagging strand thus preserving the correct order of the fragments. Solution: Section III 2 x 2= 4Marks 14. indicating the recognition site for the ribosomes binding and the location of the anticodon.

4 . mRNA does not enter cytoplasm as a naked strand. b) Melting temperature (Tm) is defined as the temperature at which 50% of same DNA molecules species form a stable double helix and other 50% have been separated to single strand molecule. Write short notes on a) Informosomes Solution: b) Tm (melting temperature) a) Informosomes are mRNA protein complex.15. The protein protects the mRNA from degrading and also regulates protein synthesis. In eukaryotes stability of mRNA is provided by certain protein. The Tm depends upon pH and ionic strength and on size and base composition of DNA. instead it is ensheath by certain protein.

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