Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 316

ENSC3008

Structural Analysis
2016

James P Doherty

ENSC3008

2016

Structural Analysis ENSC3008


Objective:
To be able to analyse determinate and indeterminate beams, 2D trusses and 2D frames
under any static load condition.
Purpose:
For design

To check strength
To check serviceability (deflections).

Design Process:

Architect/
Draft Person/
Design Engineer

Proposed
Structure

Revise Design

Over
Conservative

Analyse under design


actions

Revise Design

Check Strength
Check Serviceability

Inadequate
Give to Draft person

ENSC3008

2016

Restrictions:
This course is restricted to
a) Material that is linear elastic

b) Plane sections remain plane after application of loads


Generally these requirements mean that structures we analyse are made up of members that
are long in proportion to their depth. Since we deal with 2D structures we also restrict
ourselves to symmetric cross-sections. Hence, in all cases we analyse structures consisting of
elastic members.

With d<<L (i.e. large aspect ratio ) subject to some combination of loads/actions.

We use the

coordinate system
positive right
positive up
3

ENSC3008

2016

Check Strength
Determine Stress Resultant (axial force, Bending movement & shear force) within the
member caused by design actions and compare with member capacity.
Stress Resultant:
At any cross-section of a beam (member) say
through the depth of the member.

there will be some variation of normal stress

The normal stress distribution at


resultants
1. A resultant internal axil force

. .

can be represented by 2 stress

acting through the neutral axis of the member


,

dA

ENSC3008
and

2016

= width of beam as a function of the height

e.g.

Convention:
is positive when tensile

+
is negative when compression

2. A resultant internal bending moment

Where
.

ENSC3008

2016

Convention
The negative sign is introduced to preserve smiling beam convention, so that

Internal Sign Convention

3. In addition to normal stress (), shear stress may also be present and may vary through
the depth of the member.

The resultant of the shear stresses is the shear force.

,
6

ENSC3008

2016

Where sign convention is

Internal sign convention

1.
2.
3.

_______ normal stress


_______ shear stress

The use of the above stress resultants simplifies design in 2 ways:


1. The variation of stress in the direction can be neglected & stress resultants plotted
as a function of for each member.

Bending Moment Diagram


Axial Force Diagram
Shear Force Diagram

B.M.D
A.F.D
S.F.D

2. Strength (i.e. capacity) of a potential section can be determined in terms of stress


resultants (e.g. bending strength, axial strength, shear strength) and compared with the
strength required.

ENSC3008

2016

Checking for Serviceability:


Usually check to ensure deflections are not too large. (Large deflections cause comfort
problems, cracking, damage to fixtures/fittings (windows) etc.)
Hence in addition to the stress resultants our analysis should determine the deflections both
normal to the members and along the member axis.
Summarising:
The objective of this unit is to develop the ability to:
Analyse: Any 2D structures consisting of line like members.
To obtain: Internal stress resultants
,
displacements along each member.

&

and the transverse & axial

For Structures Subject to: Any combination of design actions (external loads, prescribed or
imposed displacements & temperature variations.)

We want a general method that can handle any case we encounter. We restrict ourselves to
linear elasticity, but many of the principles can be extended to plastic analysis.

ENSC3008

2016

Member Subject to Axial Loads:


Start by considering members subject to design actions which only vary in the axial direction
(x-axis). Such members will not deflect in the transverse direction (y-direction) &
0 &
0 for all 0
These members may be called bars, struts or columns. Members in a pin jointed truss are of
this type.
We denote the deflection in the direction by
deflection in the direction (along the member).

, so that

denotes the variation of

Consider a bar fixed at one point so that


0
0 and apply a distributed axial load
Assume a constant cross-section,
0.08 &
10 /

10

10
5

2
Because the bar statically determinate, we can find the external reaction from equilibrium of
the structure directly:
Draw a Free Body Diagram (F.B.D)

2
Note: For consistency, we always put the unknown reaction in the positive direction & not in
the direction we know/think they act. (i.e. is drawn in the positive sense)
9

ENSC3008

2016

Equilibrium in the x-direction


2.5
10

Note: Summation applied to a distributed load becomes an integral.


We can find internal axial force (stress resultant
looking at equilibrium F.B.D

) by cutting the beam at a distance

&

10

10

5
2.5

We now have a simple function for the internal stress resultant


force diagram (A.F.D)
10

, so can plot the axial

ENSC3008

2016


Fixed End
10


Free end

0
2

Now need to find displacements

Displacements:
A differential equation .
the definition of strain

relating the displacements to the axial force

comes from


Assuming constant

Assuming plane sections remain plane

Parallel

& constant cross-sectional area



11

ENSC3008

2016

Note:
represents the displacement that occurs through deformation of the bar only. If
the bar does not have a fixed support at
0, then the displacement at
0 must be added.
0

0
0 may be considered an integration constant.

Or if indefinite integrals are used

Substituting
10

10

2.5

2.5

3

From the boundary conditions (BCs)


0

10

2.5

3

Displacement at the free end of the bar is found by substitution.


12

ENSC3008

2016

. .

1
0.08

10

1.667

10 2

2.5
2
3

10

We can also plot the displacement function

1.67

10

0
2
Note: The Procedure

1. Find reactions from statics by summing (integrating) the load over the length (L) of
the bar

2. Find axial force


distributed load

from equilibrium of a cut section (at ) & integration

13

ENSC3008

2016

3. Solve the differential equation

and impose B.Cs to find the

displacement
More Generally
If

is the applied load


0 provides the constant

& equilibrium (at the free end


Then

& compatibility with the displacement B.Cs provides the second integration constant
This is the general governing differential equation ( . ) for the deformation of an axial bar.
We solve it by integrating the applied load
twice and using boundary conditions to solve
for the constant &
The B.Cs are

2
0

Free end

0 at

14

ENSC3008

2016

So applying the more general approach to the same problem


5

2.5

Impose B.C
2

2.5 2

10

&

2.5

10

Integrate again

Impose displacement B.C

1
0.08


10

10

2.5

3

0
0

Note: This approach is general provided we can express the load


function of .

as an integratable

The example we considered had a simple continuous load. Now consider the more complex
patch loading case:
5

0.08

1
15

10

ENSC3008

2016

To be able to express such loads as function valid over all , we use Macaulay Brackets,
which are defined as

Integration & differentiation can be applied in the usual way:


i.e.

When

1
1

0, the Macaulay Bracket is equivalent to a step function.


This makes it possible to solve the problem at hand. i.e.

2
&

Can now apply general procedure to compare



16

ENSC3008

2016
5

Free end

A.F.D

5
Free end

x (m)

Integrate again

1
0.08

10

5

2

B.C
0

Displacement diagram

.
.

2
17

ENSC3008

2016

Any patch loading with constant, linear or polynomial variation can be represented using a
combination of Macaulay Brackets
e.g.
5

0.5

0.5

=
5

0.5

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

18

1.5

ENSC3008

2016

Patch loading using Macaulay Bracket

Step function

Linear Increase

19

ENSC3008

2016

Parabolic Increase

Further Example

10
5

0.5

0.5

=
5
5

0.5

0.5

2
20

ENSC3008

2016

+
5

0.5
5

0.5

1.5

+
1.5

10

1.5

+
1.5

1.5
2.5

0.5

0.5

10

1.5

1.5

Point Loads
As shown, Macaulay Brackets can handle any combination of continuous and discontinuous
load. If we could also handle point loads, all possible load combinations are covered. Point
loads are actually a convenient fiction. In reality, every load is distributed over some area,
although possibly a very small area. Calling it a Point Load means the area it is distributed
over is too small to matter.
e.g.
21

ENSC3008

2016
Col
Beam
=

To represent a point load as being applied over an infinitely small area, Dirac delta function
is used
. This represents a spike at
i.e.
0

& has the properties


(For small
Hence if

then
.

& a point load has been represented.


22

0)

ENSC3008

2016

Furthermore, the Dirac delta function is the derivative of the Macaulay Bracket step function
so that

To see how this can be used, put two point loads on the usual bar

EA

0.08

10

20

Note: The 10

10

load acts just inside the end of the bar so that the bar retains a free end
(i.e.
0

We represent this load as


20

10

1.9999

Integrate once to get



20

Impose B.C


10

1.99999

0
switch on just inside
0

20

10
10

23

ENSC3008

2016

20

10

10

10

0
10

Integrate again

1
0.08

10

20

10

2nd B.C
0

2
24

ENSC3008

2016

With this addition we can express any loading by a single loading function
.

& solve the

subject to B.Cs on displacement at one point & a B.C on force at another. It is possible to
account for variations in the bar cross-section by placing
inside the integral in the second
integration
i.e.

Macaulay Brackets can be used to account for sudden changes in cross-section


e.g.
1.5

0.5

0.3


0.05

10 0.3

0.25

10

1.5

However, the integrals become too difficult to solve by hand. Later we will see there is a
better way to handle change in cross-sectional area/properties.

25

ENSC3008

2016

Statically Indeterminate Structures


A structure is statically indeterminate if the internal stress resultants cannot be found from
equilibrium alone.
An axial bar which is fixed against movement at both ends is statically indeterminate.

One equation of equilibrium

i.e.

Two unknown reactions

&

. Cannot solve.

In such cases the constitutive behaviour of the material (i.e. the relationship between stress &
strain) must be included.
In fact, we have already done this by constructing the governing . for an axial bar
i.e.

26

ENSC3008

2016

This equation involves constitutive information



Only the B.Cs change

& internal equilibrium

and is valid for both determinate and indeterminate axial bars.

Statically Determinate

Using internal force at free end
0 equilibrium provides
and hence
throughout without reference to deformation. (i.e. no constitutive info required)

is found

Statically Indeterminate

which is an unknown

remains unknown

Both B.Cs are on displacement


e.g.

0
0

27

ENSC3008

2016

OR
1mm

0
0.001

Prescribed displacement
Solve noting

1st B.C at

0
0

0
0


2nd B.C at

.
1


Example
10

2
28

ENSC3008

2016
5

0.08

10

Find A.F.D &

Integrate

once
5 .
5
2

Integrate again

Now apply the two B.Cs to get the constants


0
2

0
1

5 2
6

Now substitute

&

back into equations


10
3

5
2
29

ENSC3008

2016

Can now find reactions

Free Body Diagram (F.B.D) at L.H End

F.B.D at R.H End

2

Note: in both F.B.Ds above, F is drawn in the positive internal sense and R is drawn in the
positive external sense.

30

ENSC3008

2016

Overall F.B.D
10

A.F.D

Dis

3.20

0 . .

10

0
1.155

Note: The loading functions


defines the variation in the internal axial force
within a constant, the B.Cs provide the constant
31

to

ENSC3008

2016

External Load

B.C

Second Example

0.3
0.08

0.2

10

0.5

1.5

10

Draw A.F.D

1.8

0.5

1.5

10

0.2

1.8

0.5

1.5

10

0.2

Integrate again

32

1.8

ENSC3008

2016
1

5
2

5
2

0.5

1.5

10

0.2

1.8

Impose B.Cs

1st B.C
0
2nd B.C

0.0003

1
0.08

10

0.0003

5
1.5
2

5
1.5
2

10 1.8

3 0.2

Only one unknown, so


23.2
Substitute back into equation
5

0.5

1.5

10

0.2

1.8

23.2

13.2
11.2
8.2

0
0.2

0.5

1.5

33

1.8

23.2

ENSC3008

2016

Temperature Effects (Actions of thermal change)


We must assume a reference or installation temp. This is denoted
to be the temperature from which all changes are measured.

Thermal strain t

and is assumed

Coefficient of thermal Expansion

There is no stress associated with thermal strain, but there is displacement. Taking as the
total strain (strain due to both internal stress resultant & thermal strain).

Mechanical strain

Simple Case
Recall

34

ENSC3008

2016

Statically Determinate
Apply B.C to above equation
0

e.g. for constant

35

ENSC3008

2016

Statically Indeterminate

Substitute into equation for

where

e.g. For constant

0
.

. .
(i.e.

is constant)

Note: in the absence of load


, the axial force generated by a temperature change is
always a constant (statically determinate = zero and statically indeterminate = non-zero).
However, displacement may not be constant.

36

ENSC3008

2016

Example

60
20
0

20
0.08

10

20

10

Apply B.C
0

2
0.08

Solving

32

32

10

10

20 2

(i.e. in comp)
37

10 2

20
10

ENSC3008

2016
10

20

20

2
(m)

A.F.D

10

32

However, if

0,

will no longer be a constant i.e. have

Constant component due to temperature change


Non constant component due to

38

ENSC3008

2016

Example
5

10

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.08

10

20

20

0.001

2.0

60

20

10

0.5

0.08

10

10
10

1
0.08

10
10

0.5
20

1.5

5
2

5
2

1.5

20

10
20

1.5

.
1

0.5
20

Apply B.C
0

0
2

0.001

1
0.08

10

10 1.5

5
1
2

0.001
5
0.5
2
39

10

20 2

20

ENSC3008

2016

0.001

1
0.08

0.001

10

80

13.125

10

1.4375

Now draw A.F.D & Dis

40

0.08
2

80

10

10

13.125

ENSC3008

2016

Review:
We can now work out internal axial force
and displacement u
for statically
determinate and statically indeterminate bars subject to any combination of loading and/or
temperature variation with any combination of force or displacement B.Cs

B.C on force or disp

B.C on force or disp

Now, what if the B.C provides a relationship between force and displacement?

Idealise

41

ENSC3008

2016

Note: Positive

results in negative

We cant apply the usual analysis because displacements at the ends are unknown
Need an alternative approach
This simple problem allows us to introduce the two classes of structural analysis techniques

The force method (Flexibility)


The displacement (Stiffness) method.

Example Problem

10

/
5

0.08

/
10

2
2000

2000

42

ENSC3008

2016

The Force (Flexibility) Method


This problem has one degree of indeterminacy. That is, if we release the spring at the R.H
end it would be stat. det. and we could solve using statics alone

Draw cut point (spring) offset for clarity

From previous example problem


10

43

5

2

ENSC3008

2016

At L.H End

0
10

0.005

1
0.08

0
2

10

10

5
6

0.005

0.005

5 2
6

0.005

1
0.08

10

0.005167

10 2

(at the cut end)

Note: The R.H end spring has no force (since it was cut/released) & therefore does not move.

44

ENSC3008

2016

By releasing the spring we have introduced a compatibility problem in the structure i.e. the
displacements at the cut points dont match.

0.005167

Therefore, we must introduce additional forces to restore compatibility. The forces we


introduce must not violate equilibrium and therefore must be equal and opposite. This is done
with a force pair .

Note: The force pair are drawn in the positive sense for internal force.

Once we determine the value for to restore compatibility (remove overlap) we can then add
this to the original solution for the cut structure to determine the final solution that satisfies
both equilibrium and compatibility. Adding two solutions is valid as the structure is elastic
(principle of super position).
To find the value of , we first find the influence of a unit force pair on the overlap i.e. find
the size of the overlap generated by unit forces.

45

ENSC3008

2016

= overlap caused by a unit force pair at release 1.


Note: later we look at multiple releases.

Position of Overlap

Position of Force

This problem is statically determinate.

1
0
1

1

2000

0
2

2
0.08

0.525

46

10

10

1
2000

ENSC3008

2016

For the R.H end

0.5

10

Total overlap

0.525
1.025

0.5

10

10

To restore compatibility there must be no overlap

5.167
1.025

10
10

5.041

The second soln

5.041

5.041

5.041

5.041
2000
47

ENSC3008

2016

5.041
0.08 10

5.041
2000

Release Soln

A.F.D

Force in spring

0
2

Dis
0.05167

0.005
Spring dis

48

ENSC3008

2016

Second Soln

A.F.D

2
0

5.041

0.0025

0.00265

49

ENSC3008

2016

Final Result

4.954
2

5.041

0.0252

0.00245

50

ENSC3008

2016

The Displacement Method (Stiffness Method)


Consider previous example

0.08

10

2
2000

2000

Instead of releasing the bar, we turn the bar into a structure we can solve by fixing both ends.

0.08

10

Note: We have already solved this problem (Tuesday, week 2) & found.
51

ENSC3008

2016

A.F.D

1.155

This is known as

the fixed end soln

& the fixed end relations are

If these fixed end forces were applied to our actual structure, the ends would not move.

52

ENSC3008

2016

However, in reality these fixed end forces do not exist. So, just as the overlap in the force
method was removed, we must now remove the fixed end forces from the displacement
method. This can be done by superposing the soln to:

53

ENSC3008

2016

onto the fixed end soln.


i.e.
(a)

+
(b)

54

ENSC3008

2016

(c)

Want soln to (c)


& we have soln to (a)
Given (a) + (b) = (c)
Must solve for (b) and add it to (a)

To solve this new problem (b), we compute the displacements at the bar ends ( & ) that
are in equilibrium with the reverse of the fixing forces. To do this, we consider the influence
of a unit displacement at bar ends and calculate the corresponding force.

End 1 (termed degree of freedom or D.O.F 1)

55

ENSC3008

2016

Where
= force at end 1 required to cause a unit displacement at end 1.

Location of force

Location of dis

0 . .

= force at end 2 due to a unit displacement at end 1, given

1,

consists of the force required to deform the spring at end 1 and the force required to
deform the bar.
Spring

1
1

Bar

(+ve tension)

56

ENSC3008

2016

(negative indicates compression)

Now sum force using external convention (+)

Note:

0 so no force in deforming spring

End 2
?

Spring

57

ENSC3008

2016

Bar

(i.e. assumed tensile force was correct)

Summing (+)

58

ENSC3008

2016

Recall problem at hand (reverse of fixing forces)

Now have equations for unknowns

&
10
3
20
3

Have two equations & two unknowns can solve

0.08

10

40

2
2
42
40

10 .
10 .

40
42

10

10
10
3

10 .

20
3

10 .

Or

10

42
40

40
42

Soln
59

10
3
20
3

ENSC3008

2016

0.00248
0.00252

So internal axial forces due to the reverse of the fixing forces


Spring 1

2000

4.954

Spring 2

2000

Bar

60

5.04

ENSC3008

2016
1.626

Now superpose two solutions to get final soln

Fixed

OR

61

ENSC3008

2016

A.F.D

3.33

1.155

6.667

3.20

10

1.155

62

ENSC3008

2016

Reverse of the fixed end forces

1.626

0.0252

0.0248

2

63

ENSC3008

2016

Final Result

3.33

1.626

4.954
2

6.667
1.626
5.041

Same as soln from flexibility method

0.0252
0.0248

(m)

64

ENSC3008

2016
2

FLEX/FORCE

STIFFNESS/DIS

Release/Cut Structure

Found overlap ( ) at release

Calculated the effect of a unit force


pair (

forces)

Solve a structure with the reverse of the


fixing forces. This was done by

Solved for value of force pair

calculating the force required to cause

by

unit dis D.O.F.

summing overlaps

Fix Structure & Find Reaction (fixing

Solved for the dis at each D.O.F. due to


fixing forces

Sum soln i.e. superpose

Superpose

FLEXIBILITY TERMS

STIFFNESS TERMS

Displacement caused by a unit force

Force required to cause a unit dis

Spring =

Spring =

Bar =

Bar =

65

ENSC3008

2016

Final Example

0.2

10
0.08

2
30,000

Flexibility Method

This example is twice statically indeterminate requires 2 releases

release 1

release 2

66

10

ENSC3008

2016

Solution to two statically determinate bars with uniformly distributed load for released
and right bar squashes by 125 10
).
structure (left hand bar extends by 50 10
Work out the overlaps (
) at the releases.

50

10

50
75

50

10

125

10 m
10 m

125

Effect of a unit force pair at release 1

unaffected

35
10
67

10 /

10 /

10

10

ENSC3008

2016

Effect of unit force pair at release 2

remains unaffected
1

43.3
10

Now we have two unknowns

10 /

10 /

&

Use sum of overlaps = 0 (i.e. compatibility)

Rel 1

. 35

10

. 10

10

68

0
75

10

ENSC3008

2016

Rel 2

. 10

10

. 43

10

0
50

10

Solve simultaneously or

35
10

10
43.3

75
50

2.647
1.7647
Soln
Now superpose A.F.D (kN)

1. Released soln

10

10

69

ENSC3008

2016

+
2. Redundant soln

2.6471
0.8824

=
3. Final soln

10.8824

0.8824

1.7647

7.3524

70

ENSC3008

2016

Calculate

for yourselves

Same example now by the Stiffness Method

Introduce 1 fixity (D.O.F) at step change. Then we have two independent bars fixed at both
ends.
5

2
Bars have the same length and same load. So we end up with the same reactions as each end.
i..e (for both bars)

5kN

The sum of the reaction forces at the fixity (DOF 1)

10

10

71

ENSC3008

2016

Need to solve for the reverse of the fixity force

10

Force in equilibrium with a unit displacement

(Summing Stiffness)
0.2

10

0.08

10
2

0.17

30000

10

Equilibrium with the reverse of fixing force


10
10
0.17 10

5.8824

10

Force in spring

30000
1.7647

72

5.8824

10

ENSC3008

2016

Now superpose A.F.D (KW)

1. Fixed soln

2. Reverse of fixing force

5.8824

2.3524

73

ENSC3008

2016

10.8824
5
0.8824

2.6471

1.7647

7.3524

2.3524

Same soln
Stiffness Method simpler for this problem

74

(Spring force)

ENSC3008

2016

Beams
We have now covered the general cases of statically determinate statically indeterminate
axial bars (dis/loads in x-direction). Now we will do the same for statically determinate/
indeterminate beams. The new content is strongly related to what we have covered.
A beam has a longitudinal axis in the x-direction a transverse load
direction.

applied in the y-

It is assumed the beam is symmetric about the plane of bending & all loads are applied in this
plane.

Section A-A1

N.A

Deflection in the y-direction is denoted and


deflection along .

75

is the variation in the transverse

ENSC3008

2016

Note: Dont get confused between

&

the shear force.

First consider a statically determinate beam subject to a distributed load.

Example:
Complete & plot the bending moment diagram (B.M.D) & the shear force diagram (S.F.D)
for simply prismatic beam with constant flexural rigidity

7.5

200
10000
2

1.5

1.5

7.5
1.5
5
We want the S.F. function

1.5
1.5

and B.M function


76

based equations of equilibrium.

ENSC3008

2016

Recall Sign Conventions

External

Internal

77

ENSC3008

2016

Reaction

7.5

1.5

5.625

7.5

0.5

1.5

1.5

5.625
3

5.625

5.625 2.5
3

0
2.5

5.625

4.6875

4.6875
0.9375

Recall trying to solve for


0

&

1.5

F.B.D

0.9375

78

ENSC3008

2016

0.9375

0.9375

0.9375

0.9375

1.5

F.B.D
2

1.5 /3

1.5 /3
5

1.5

1.5

0.9375

0.9375

0.9375

1.5
5

0.9375

1.5
2.5

1.5

79

0
1
2

1.5

1.5
3

1.5
2

0.9375
0.9375

1.5

1
2

1.5
2

1.5
3

1.5

ENSC3008

2016
5
6

0.9375

1.5

Note:
1. Due to use of Macaulay Brackets the above expression is valid for all .
i.e. 0
3
2.

Based on this we can come up with a more general procedure.

From vertical equilibrium

Or to be consistent with previous notation

Reaction

80

ENSC3008

2016

Provided we can obtain


valid at
0 over all 0
&
by integrating and using B.Cs to solve for constant &

we can obtain

Plotting S.F.D
Plotted positive side up
0.9375

2.5

1.5

0.9375

1.5

4.6875
Note: ends of S.F.D provide reactions

L.H. end

0
0

81

ENSC3008

2016

R.H. end
3
3

0
3

B.M.D
For B.M.D we plot positive down. This is equivalent to tension side plotting i.e. positive
B.M indicates the tension side of the member.

tension

82

ENSC3008

2016

B.M.D

5
6

0.9375
1.5

0.9375

1.5

2.11

1.5
3

1.784

0.9375

2.5

1.5

2.11

2.11

1.784

Displacements
When a beam has a small angle of rotation

tan

Recall from ENSC3004, deflection is related to B.M by

83

ENSC3008

2016

Where from? The curvature of the beam

may be approximated by

& the

moment is related to curvature by


. This provides the governing differential
equation for the transverse deflection, which may be integrated to find .

Curvature

Slope

Deflection

For a simply supported beam.

0
0

Already satisfied to obtain

0
0

Back to Example

84

&

. .

&

ENSC3008

2016
2.5
3

0.9375

1.5

0.9375
2

2.5
12

1.5

1 0.9375
6

2.5
60

1.5

Now solve for


3

1
4.21875
2

0.31641

0.6504

We can now plot the deflection diagram

1.7

1.5

0.7119

0.722

85

ENSC3008

2016

Procedure

Traditional approach
1. Find reactions at supports from global
equilibrium

New approach
1. Write


2. Use equilibrium at cut sections to get
,
3.

2. Use B.C on
&

Solve by integrating twice & applying B.Cs to find

86

&

.
&

to find

ENSC3008

2016

BEAMS

BARS

Form

Form
1 Int

Int

2 Int

Int

Int

Stat det

Int

0
0

0
0

87

ENSC3008

2016

Statically Indeterminate Beams


When a beam is statically determinate all of its external reactions
&
can be
computed from equilibrium applied to the F.B.D then deflection
is computed directly
from the governing differential equation. However for statically indeterminate beams the
number of unknown reaction exceeds the number of independent equation of equilibrium &
additional equation are needed to solve for
&
e.g.

Here we have 4 unknowns but two equations of equilibrium.

0 &

2 degrees of indeterminacy

As for the axial bar, the additional equation comes from using material constitutive
behaviour. This can be done by solving the governing d.e for the deflection of the beam &
impose the B.Cs to obtain integration constants
Governing

d.e

for

& Also

88

beam:

ENSC3008

2016

So given

1
1
2

1
6

89

ENSC3008

2016

Example
Plot S.F.D, B.M.D and compute the reactions for the following statically indeterminate beam.
10

Zero disp & zero


slope of fixed ends

1. 0
2.

3. 4
4.

0
0

&

Solve for

10

10

10

1
2
1
2

1
2

5
5
3

10

1
1

90

ENSC3008

2016

Apply B.C

4
4

5
3
6

4
12

5 3
2

4
4

4
4

4
2

Simplify to get the following set of system of equations


16
3

45
2

45
2

4
Solve to get

5.625
8.4375
Then
10
10

1
1

8.475
8.4375

5.625

Plot


8.4375


1.5625

91

ENSC3008

2016

5.625

1.875
2

2.8125

Reactions

F.B.D at L.H end

5.625

+
0

8.4375

8.4375

8.4375
5.625

92

ENSC3008

2016

F.B.D at R.H end

1.5625
1.875

1.5625

Note:
1. Could have a prescribed displacement at end (e.g. L.H support move up by 5mm)
2. Material is linear elastic, so superposition applies

So if we have complex load case can solve for each component separately & add up the final
answer.
93

ENSC3008

2016

So if we have complex load case can solve for each component separately & add up the final
answer.
e.g.

Second Example

150

15

10

/
6.66

10

200
1332

1
4

Neglecting self-weight
Find

& plot
15

15

15

1 7.5
1332 3

2.5
2

3
3

2.5
6

1
7.5
1332

2.5
6

1
15
1332

2.5

2.5
24
2.5
120
94

3
3

140

ENSC3008

2016

Other B.C

2.5
4
120

7.5
5
3

0
7

7
6

2.5
4
6

15 5

7
2

Solve
7.8105
6.3401

15
15

7.5
3

2
2

2.5
2

2.5
120

2.5
6

3
3

7.8105
7.8105

7.8105
6

6.3401

6.3401
2

1
1332

Plot yourself

Summary
Can now solve for
,
&
for any single span beam (const ) subject to any
load combination (point/dist. & various combinations of end supports (pin, fixed & free) or
prescribed B.C (e.g. settlement)

Behaviour of Beams Subject to Temp Change


-

Consider deflection of beam caused by thermal effects


which
Assume beam initially straight with a reference (or installation) temp
is constant over the height of beam (h). This is the state from which we calculate
deflections.

95

ENSC3008

Temp change to

2016

on top of beam &

on the bottom

1. If
then the temp change
constant over the height of beam
i.e.at

No curvature of the beam results & beam behaves as an axial bar.


96

ENSC3008

2016

i.e.
0

See notes on axial bars


2.

then temperature change is not constant over the height of the beam.
This cause curvature and deflection
e.g.

Assume a linear temp change over the height.


At

This temp change can be written as the sum of the components


97

ENSC3008

2016

=
(A)

Const over the height of beam

(B)
Temp change not const over height

Notes

For temperature distribution A for double symmetric sections (e.g. I,


centroid = N.A, so axial response can be computed based on

) Mid-height =

e.g.

See notes on bars

Temp difference from B,

will produce curvature & hence deflections.


98

ENSC3008

Consider an element of length

2016

cut from the beam

Recall arc length formula

99

ENSC3008

2016

Compute change in length at top & bottom of beam due to temp differential
Original Length =
Change from original length

Top

Bottom

Exploiting geometry

.
.

Define

Given

(i.e. curvature)

So deflection can be written as a function of temp change through height of beams

If additional loads or B.Cs are applied to the beam, the total curvature is

100

ENSC3008

2016

0 (No transverse loads)

For

&

&

depend on B.C.s (i.e. if the deformation of the beam is restrained)

1
2

Example
0

B.C.s

0
0

i.e.
101

ENSC3008

2016

This gives a non-zero , but internal B.M & S.F are both = 0. This is general result for
(compare to stat. det. axial bar
stat. det. for a beam with
0, with temp change
with
0)
For

0 + Temp change

&

0 but this is due to

only (stat. det)

Stat. Indet Beam

B.C.s
0
0

&

Note

For

B.M & S.F


102

ENSC3008

2016
0

Summary

1. Have separated temp change into 2 components

axial

transverse

2. This was developed for a beam with a doubly symmetric cross section (I,
For a non-symmetric beam, the only change to the procedure is the value of

compute at centroid or
.

N.A. Mid-height

tute 4 Q2.
103

).

ENSC3008

2016

Axial & Transverse Behaviour


So far we have separately considered axial & transverse (vending) behaviour.
A general member has both.
As a consequence of the small deflection assumption (Lecture 1), the axial behaviour does
not affect the bending behaviour & vice versa. This is because the length of a members
neutral axis is assumed to change only by axial deformation & not by bending.

(On neutral axis)

This is only a good approximation when

Implication

Axial B.C.s do not affect bending B.C.s & vice versa


Can separately define det.indet. status of a member for axial/trans actions

A member that stat. indet overall may be


1. Indet for axial only
2. Indet for transverse (B.M. & S.F.) only
3. Indet for both.
e.g.
104

ENSC3008

2016

Unknown Reaction

=
Indet axially
+
There is no difference for these
members in axial response
Indet trans

=
Indet axially

There is no difference of those


members for bending.
Det trans

=
Det axially

Det trans
A member that stat. indet overall is always stat. det. for both axial & transverse. When
dealing with beams (i.e. solving trans response) it is acceptable to neglect the difference
between
&

105

ENSC3008

2016

Example

20
5

/
Install

40
10
Axial

5 sin 20

10 sin 40

Solve as bar

Trans

5 cos 20

10 cos 40
Solve as beam
106

ENSC3008

2016

Summary of Where We Are


General Member
General Load
Small Disp Assumption

AXIAL BEHAVIOUR

TRANSVERSE BEHAVIOUR

External Load Function

External Load Function

Internal actions

Internal actions

If member is statically determinate integration constants can be found


at this stage from B.C.s on force/moment. Internal actions can then be
computed directly & plotted M x , V x & F x

All remaining constants of integration can now be found


from remaining B.C.s on disp/slope

M x , V x , F x , x &

107

2
1

ENSC3008

2016

Flexibility Method for Beams


So far we have solved single span beams subject to any dis/force B.C. Now we consider
multi-span beams using Flexibility Method.

e.g.

12

1000

Introduce releases in the form of hinges over the supports each span becomes stat. det

Hinges

Deflections under Loads

108

ENSC3008

2016

We need a sign convention for the rotation at the releases (compare overlaps in bars).
Using a positive moment applied at the release to correspond to a positive movement/rotation
in beam.

Span 1

Span 2

Then rotation is measured +ve anti-clockwise from the tangent of the 2nd span to the tangent
of the 1st span.

1st & 2nd Span

/
5
5
2.5

2.5 4

10

10
1
10
1000

109

2.5
2.5

ENSC3008

2016
1
5
1000

1 5
1000 3

2.5
3

2.5
12

1
75
We want end rotation

tan

Recall

For small

1
5
1000

2.5
3

1
4
&
75

1
75

1
75

i.e.

3rd Span
12
12

110

12

12

ENSC3008

2016

B.C
4

0
1
3
1000

1
1000

6
2

2
2

1
4
1000

2 2

3
250

1
3
1000

3
250

3
4
&
250

3
250

We can now find the rotation at the releases (equivalent to overlaps)

1
75

1
75

2

75
111

1
75

3
250

76
3000

ENSC3008

2016

Now want to find the (redundant) moment required at the hinges to reduce the rotations in
both hinges to zero at the same time (i.e. restore compatibility)

Proceed as before with moments instead of axial forces.

Unit Moment at Release 1

Where
= rotation at release 1 due to unit moment at 1
= rotation at release 2 due to unit moment at 1

112

ENSC3008
To find

2016
&

we need to solve

M=1kNm
From

Solve in general terms so can re-use

1
1

6
0

0
0

6
0
6

&

113

ENSC3008

2016

Back Problem

1
375

1
1500

Now influence of unit moment at release 2

1
375
1
1500

114

ENSC3008

2016

To reduce both hinge rotation to zero solve compatibility equations to determine


Release 1

Release 2

Substitute in values
1
375

1
1500

2
75

1
1500

1
375

76
3000

Solve
8.133
7.467

8.133

7.467

How to draw B.M.D for this loading

115

&

ENSC3008

2016


B.M.D

8.133
7.467

12

Complete the problem by superposing the 2 soln


Release Soln

10

10

116

12

ENSC3008

2016

+
Redundant Soln
8.133
7.467

12

8.133
7.467
10

10
12

117

ENSC3008

2016

Stiffness Method Multi-span Beams


Solve the beam from last example

12
1000

Lock joints over the supports

Deformed
(spans are now independent of each other)

Span 1 & 2

5
5
4

1 1
1000 2

5
6

118

Shape

ENSC3008

2016
5
24

1 1
1000 6

0 &
4

1
2

0
5
4
6

4
40
3

1
6

64

0 &

5 4
24

4
2

40
3

0
6

2
3

So
10
0

2.5

2
6
3

2
3
6

2
3
Internal Convention

B.M.D

+
6

6
Negative by
external
convention

Positive by
external convention
119

ENSC3008

2016

Locking Moments
6

3rd Span
12

6
6

12

12

1
3
1000

1
1000

12

0 3 4

6 2

6
6
0

12
6

Internal Convention
120

ENSC3008

2016

B.M.D

+
6

6
Negative by
external

Positive by
external

Locking Moments
6

Now sum up the locking moments

6
i.e.

121

ENSC3008

2016

So instead of analysing the actual structure, we have just found a soln to the following

12

We must now find a soln to the reverse of these locking moments & superpose to get final
soln

To do this we look at the moments in equilibrium with a unit rotation at each joint in turn,
keeping the other joints locked (stiffness terms - compare with bars).
For this, we need a soln for beam subjected to a unit rotation at one end

122

ENSC3008

2016

Solve generally so we can re-use


Recall

.
0

2
0

0
6

1
6

&

2
4

So
0

&

Internal Convention

123

ENSC3008

2016

B.M.D

Now consider a unit rotation at each D.O.F in turn, holding others to zero:

D.O.F 1

500

1000
D.O.F
where moment
is applied

D.O.F
of rotation

124

ENSC3008

2016

D.O.F 2

2000
500
500

1
1

D.O.F 3

500

2000

500

500

1000

D.O.F 4

Want to calculate the actual rotations


moments (i.e. be in equilibrium)

which will produce the reverse of the locking

125

ENSC3008

2016

D.O.F 1
6

2
3

D.O.F 2
0
D.O.F 3
0
D.O.F 4
0
Substituting in Values
1000

500
2000

500
0

500
0

500

2000
500

0
2
3

500
1000

2
3

solve (Matrix Inversion)

0.0079111
0.0024889
0.0020444
0.0070222

rotations in
equilibrium with
the reverse of
the fixing forces (radians)

To work out final soln, consider each span in turn. We compute the internal moments
(B.M.D) due to end rotations using standard soln derived for a beam with a unit rotation.

0
126

ENSC3008

2016

2
External Convention

B.M.D

127

ENSC3008

2016
B.M.D by tension side

Fixed ended moments under applied loads are superposed to find final soln
1000

Note:

500

Span 1
1000

0.0079111

500 0.0024889

6.667
500

0.0079111

1000 0.0024889

1.4667

+
1.4667

6.667

10

128

ENSC3008

2016

=
6

1.4667

Expected due to
pin

Span 2
1000 0.0024889

500

0.0020444

1.4667
500 0.0024889

1000

0.0020444

0.8

+
1.4667

0.8

+
6

129

8.133

ENSC3008

2016

=
8.137

7.4667
10

Equilibrium
with Span 1

Span 3
1.4667

+
Fixed end
6

6
12

130

ENSC3008

2016

7.4667

12

Equilibrium
with Span 2

pin

Complete B.M.D

8.133
7.4667
10

10
12

Shear force diagrams are constructed in a similar way. For any span, the shear force caused
by end rotations (only) is a constant.
6
(From

or

131

to general equation)

ENSC3008

2016

&

It is usually easier to use the second form as


end shear forces must then be superposed.

have already been calculated. The fixed

S.F.D
Fixed End Soln

10

10

2
6
10

10

132

ENSC3008

2016

Reverse of the fixing forces

2.033

1.8667

0.1687

=
Final soln

7.9667

10.1687

7.8667

4.133
12.033

9.822

133

ENSC3008

2016

Displacements

Fixed End Soln

+
Soln due to reverse of fixed end moments

How?

Span 1

1.4667

2.033

6.667

2.033

6.667
134

2.037

ENSC3008

2016

Solve for

&

using B.Cs
0

Same process to get

0 &

for span 2 & span 3

=
Final soln

Note: Can compute displacements for flexibility method in similar way.

i.e. released soln

+
Soln due to redundant moments
i.e. for each span

135

ENSC3008

2016

=
Final Soln

Notes:
1. Summary Sheet applies to single span with given force or displacement B.Cs

etc.
2. For single span with B.Cs specified by a force-displacement relationship (springs) or
multi-span beams, must use either the flexibility or the stiffness method.

Etc
136

ENSC3008

2016

3. Separate axial from transverse loads & B.Cs (small displacement assumption)

Axial

Trans

Must also be able to split temp change into axial & transverse components (See Notes)

Flexibility & Stiffness Methods (Main Ideas)

a) Turn problems into something we can solve (like in 1 above) soln 1

137

ENSC3008

2016

b) Reverse the effect of the change


i.e.
Flexibility restore compatibility by redundant moment/force
Stiffness solve for reverse of fixing force/moments
Soln 2
c) Superpose soln 1 + soln 2 = final soln

138

ENSC3008

2016

Generalising the Stiffness Method


Recall that the stiffness method generates a set of these equations that can be expressed
conveniently in matrix form.

e.g.

Stiffness terms

reverse of fixing moments

The rotation of the joints over the supports are called structure degrees of freedom (structure
d.o.f) i.e. describe ways in which the structure can deform.
In general, structure d.o.fs
behaviour).

may include translation as well as rotations (e.g. axial

We will use the symbol r to represent both translations and rotations at a structure dof. In
the stiffness method we find the locking forces & locking moments at the structure d.o.f
in equilibrium with zero displacement/rotation at these d.o.f.s (i.e. we solve the fixed end soln
for each member).
The net reverse of these are then applied to the structure d.o.f.s to unlock the structure.
These reverse forces/moments will be termed equivalent structure actions and be represented
by the symbol R.

139

ENSC3008

2016

For 3 span beam from previous lectures

12
1000

= joint
We use circled number to indicate structure d.o.f.s

, ..

Net reverse of locking moments


From previous lecture

i.e.
6 ,

0, ..
140

ENSC3008

2016

With this terminology, the matrix stiffness equations become

1000

500

500

2000

500

500

2000

500

500

1000

Structure
disp

(Stiffness Matrix)

To solve, invert

: . .| |

Equivalent
structure actions

| |

In this case we obtained


from our previous manual calculation method (i.e. calculated
,
etc. as moments in equilibrium with unit rotations at each structure d.o.f) and must
go back to these calculations to obtain internal moment
within each member.
However, we would prefer to have a complete Matrix Method:

Look at a single beam member


(One member = one span)

For transvers loading only, the behaviour of the member is completely described by the
rotations of the ends relative to the centreline. These rotations can be considered member
d.o.f.s (i.e. ways in which a member can deform)

Drawn in positive
external sense
141

ENSC3008

2016

Use to represent displacements/rotations at member d.o.f and to represent force/moments


at the member d.o.f.s. We use positive anti-clockwise for both member end rotations and
moments (external convention).

or

Member Stiffness Matrix


(for single member)

A structure usually has multiple members. Member d.o.f.s are number sequentially:

142

ENSC3008

2016

The member stiffness equation becomes


4

Member stiffness matrix


Or
| |

| |

can be assembled very easily as shown. We have | | from soln to


| |
To get | | we relate | |
out the corresponding | |

| |

| | by putting a unit disp at each structure d.o.f in turn and work

i.e

1
1

143

ENSC3008

2016
1

1
1
1

1
1

144

ENSC3008

2016

Now can put together in matrix form

Influence of
on

This is called the compatibility matrix & is denoted


| |

| |
| |

| |
| |

| |

Structure D.O.F
| | - Rotn/disp of structure d.o.f
| | - Reverse of locking actions (force/moment) at structure d.o.f
equivalent structure actions
| |

| |
Structure stiffness matrix

Member d.o.f
| |- Member end rotation
145

ENSC3008

2016

| | - Member end moments


| |

| |
Member stiffness matrix

We want a better way to form

| |

| |

| |

| |

| |

| |

Now need to relate | | & | | to complete the structure stiffness equation.

To do this, look equilibrium at each joint

Summing the moments

0 at the joints



Or in matrix form

146

ENSC3008

2016

Note: This is the transpose of the compatibility matrix

. This is a general result.

So:
| |

| |

| |

| |

| |

| |

| |

| |

| |

| |

This implies the stiffness matrix can be formed from

as follows.

This is a general procedure for matrix stiffness analysis:


1. Assign structure d.o.f.s (to joints) and member d.o.f.s (to end of members)
2. Work out the compatibility matrix
by placing unit disp/rotn at each structure d.o.f
in turn & compute the corresponding disp/rotation at member d.o.f
| |

| |

(i.e. put 1
solve for | | to give jth column in
3. Form member stiffness matrix from individual member stiffness
4. Compute the structure stiffness matrix

147

ENSC3008

2016

5. Compute the fixed ended soln for each member (soln 1) sum the locking actions at
each structure d.o.f.
Reverse of these

| |

equivalent structure actions.

6. Compute the structure disp/rotns


| |

| |

7. Compute the corresponding member actions due to | |


| |
| |

(soln 2)

8. Superpose soln 1 & 2 for each member to obtain final result.

Note:
a) Steps 5 to 8 can be repeated for multiple load cases.
need only be formed once.
b) This is the general method used by commercial frame analysis software (Space Gass,
Multi Frame etc.).

148

ENSC3008

2016

Working through the last example


5

12
1000

1.
1

2.

3.
149

ENSC3008

2016

1000

500

500

1000

1000

500

500

1000

1000

1000

500

500

1000

500

4.

1000

500

500

2000

500

500

2000

500

500

1000

(Same result as for manual method)

150

ENSC3008

2016

5.

2/3
10

10

12

Net reverse
6

+
6
0

| |

2
3
6
151

2
3

ENSC3008

2016

6.

+
0.007911
| |

0.0024889

| |

(radians)

0.002044
0.0070222

7.

+
6.667
1.4667
| |

1.4667

| |

0.8
1.4667
6

8. Superpose

| |

| |

10

10

Fixed
End
Soln

152

12

ENSC3008

2016

+
BMD (kNm) From | |
1.4667

0.8

1.4667

=
Final BMD (kNm) Soln

8.133
7.4667
10

10

0
12

S.F.D
For each span compute constant shear due to end moments | | resulting from | |
6.667

1.4667
4

0.1666
1.866

153

2.033

ENSC3008

2016

& superpose with the fixed end shear forces.


7.9667

10.166

7.866
1.866

10

0.1666

10

10
2.037

4.134

12.033

9.833

Fixed End Shear Forces


12

Spans 1 & 2
10
6

10
6
Notes:
1.
is max where
0
2. Reactions at supports come from S.F.D

154

ENSC3008

2016

+
e.g. support 1

7.9667

7.9667
Support 2
12.037

10.166

22.2

155

ENSC3008

2016

Standard Fixed ended solutions (transverse behaviour) previously computed from beam.
d.e

B.M.D

S.F.D

156

ENSC3008

2016

B.M.D

S.F.D

Simplifies use of the stiffness method


Should memorise

Notes:
(1) For non-standard cases (non-symmetric loads, thermal effects, movement of a
support) you still need to solve the beam d.e

to get locking actions

157

ENSC3008

2016

(2)

15

(Stand soln)

Fixed end soln can be superposed.

158

15

ENSC3008

2016

Beams with a change in section at interior of span.


5

/
400

1000

We need to introduce a joint at the change of section, splitting the second span into two
members.

2
1

Note: The joint introduced between supports has two structure d.o.fs i.e. a transverse
displacement (positive in the positive y-direction ) and a rotation ( + ). In fact all joint in
2D beams have 2 structure d.o.fs unless restrained by support conditions.

159

ENSC3008

2016

Free

y-roller
No-rotation

Fixed

Back to example problem

0
1
| |

1
0
0
0

160

ENSC3008

2016

1
Centreline

Although is given a unit disp, dont think of it as being 1 as this violates the small
disp assumption. Instead, think of it as being some small unit disp, say ~1
. In the
calculation (for | |) the 1 is multiplied by & assumes the units of hence it is unitless
(similarly 1 radian). Redraw the above
Member/joint angle is unchanged

Centreline

Member/joint angle
is unchange

If 1

tan

(radians) since the rotations from the centreline to the member

tangent are clockwise, they are negative.


i.e.

1
161

ENSC3008

2016

other members

0
0

| |

162

ENSC3008

2016

=1
0

1
1

0
0
| |

0
1

1
0

1
0

1
0
0
| |

0
0
0
1

163

ENSC3008

2016

Hence

| |

| |

The member d.o.f are till end rotations relative to centreline so


usual way.

Member 1 & 2:
4

1000
4

1000,

400
5

320,

500

Member 3:
4

So

164

160

is constructed in the

ENSC3008

2016
1000

500

500

1000
1000

500

500

1000

320 160
160 320

Also, the relationship


| |

| |

still holds. If we multiply out we get

165

ENSC3008

2016
4

Therefore, the following still holds

Structure Stiffness Matrix

Compute the fixed end soln for each member & sum the locking actions.

Using the standard soln s


166

ENSC3008

2016

10.41167

10.41167

Built-in (fixed) end in original problem, so no structure d.o.f assigned here only consider
fixing actions at structure d.o.f

Fixing Force

22.5

+
Net reverse at structure d.o.f (equivalent structure actions)

22.5

0
| |

22.5
3.75
10.41167
167

10.41167
3.75

10.41167

ENSC3008

2016

(radians)
0.04566
| |

0.35258

| |

0.08179
0.17922

+
22.83
45.66
| |

45.66

| |

27.60

Soln 2

31.35
10.42

Superpose for final soln

168

ENSC3008

2016

B.M.D (kNm)
Due to | |

45.66

13

27.6
22.83

10.42

81.35

Fixed end soln

10.42
6
10

10

15.625

Final B.M.D

52.37

10

Pin
10

16.16

15.625
20.93
169

ENSC3008

2016

S.F.D (kN)

(1)
Due | |

18.315

4.186

17.12

(2)

10

12.5

10

10

10

170

12.5

ENSC3008

2016

Final S.F.D (kN)

28.31

18.315

10

8.315
12.5 4.186
8.315

7.12
16.69
27.12

Action applied at structure D.O.F

The equivalent structure action of any action (Force/moment) applied at a structure d.o.f is
just the action itself.

Locking actions

Reverse of locking action

| |
171

ENSC3008

2016

Further uses for joints interior to spans


e.g. Patch

172

ENSC3008

2016

could model
2

4
5

Fixed end soln

This prevents having to solve the beam d.e to find the fixed ended actions for the patch load
member
i.e.

. . . . . . etc.
can use standard soln s at cost of adding more joints (=more standard d.o.f = longer
matrices).

173

ENSC3008

2016

Pinned joints & internal Pins

Hinge

We introduce joints so that pins only occur at the ends of the members.

Side is arbitrary

The pin(s) are considered to be internal to the member so the structure d.o.f s are not affected.

However, the compatibility matrix

is changed.
1
Pin

0
174

ENSC3008

2016

Note: Previously considered no pin

0
0

2
0

0
0

1
6

2
6

2
Then

1 3
2

175

ENSC3008

2016
3
2

1
2

Or on general
1
2

This is always the case i.e. the rotation at the pinned end is

the rotation at the end

where the member is fixed to a joint.

Use this when constructing

e.g.

10
2000

1.5

1000

1.5

176

ENSC3008

2016

Follow steps 1 to 8

(1)
1

(2) Form

177

ENSC3008

2016
1

tan

| |

=0

=1

0
| |

1
4

0
1

1
4

1
8

1
3

1
3

178

ENSC3008

2016

(3)
1000

500

500

1000

0
8000 4000
3
3
4000 8000
3
3

(Usual Way)
(4)

935.76

1333.33

1333.33 2666.667

(5) Assemble | | must account for pin

Pin is not fixed,


only the structure d.o.f.
Need to solve the beam d.e using appropriated end conditions

Or can use standard soln

179

ENSC3008

2016

B.M.D

Back to example
10

3.75

12.5

180

ENSC3008

2016

So

| |

12.5
3.75

(6)
| |

| |

(7)
Pin
7.403
| |

| |

3.75
28.198
Soln 2

(8) Superpose B.M.D & S.F.D

Soln 1

10

3.75

+
Soln 2
181

3.75

ENSC3008

2016

+
28.198
7.403

3.75
Final Soln

31.948
17.403

Pin

Do S.F.D in own time.

Internal hinges: Alternative Approach


1

1
pin

182

ENSC3008

2016

Single member stiffness gives us:

4
2

1
2

pin

Since

&

are both known so can omit the member d.o.f at the hinge.

To do this
1. Modify the
(see below)
2. Modify the single member stiffness

| |

| |

Put this into

Removing a member d.o.f in this manner is optional but does reduce the size of matrices to
be manipulated (especially good when doing hand calcs).

For previous problem


(1)
183

ENSC3008

2016
1

2
3

2
4

3
No member d.o.f at pin

(2)

0
1

Remove row of previous

(3)
0

0
(4)

935.76

1333.33

1333.33 2666.67
184

associated with

ENSC3008

2016
(same as before)

Soln proceeds as usual: | |

| |

| |

| |

| |
Superpose with fixed end soln to get final soln

now 3

185

ENSC3008

2016

Axial behaviour
Weve already analysed axial behaviour using the manual stiffness method. We now restate
in matrix terms.

Recall the example

5
0.0810

2
2000

2000

A spring has 1 member d.o.f i.e. stretch in the spring, this is denoted

Arrows drawn to indicate stretch is +ve

The corresponding member action is the force in the spring (tension +ve). The member
is just the spring constant
stiffness
| |

| |

Similarly, an axial bar has 1 member d.o.f, i.e. stretching of the member centreline. Member
d.o.f is drawn as for a spring.
186

ENSC3008

2016

The corresponding member action is the internal axial force (tension +ve). The member
stiffness is

(from manual method).

| |

| |

187

ENSC3008

2016

Based on this, can apply the generalised Stiffness Method (matrix analysis)
(1)

(2)

=1

1
1
0

0
1
1

(3)
188

ENSC3008

2016
0
0
0

2000

4000

2000

(4)

42000
40000

40000
42000

Same matrix as for the Manual Method


(5)
Fixed ended soln & equivalent structure actions are obtained as before (i.e. by solving the
member d.e)

10

Locking actions
2

+
| |

(reverse of locking actions)

Soln proceeds in the usual way i.e. steps (6) to (8)


189

ENSC3008

2016

(do in own time)

Standard fixed ended solutions (axial behaviour)


(1)

Locking actions

Equivalent structure actions

A.F.D

190

ENSC3008

2016

(2)

Locking actions

Equivalent structure actions

A.F.D (KW)

Note: we could also add springs to beams

hinge

191

ENSC3008

2016

4
2

10

Find

&

in the usual way except for the spring

5 6

1
2
3
4

5
6

7
8
9
10 0

spring

192

ENSC3008

2016
1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
1
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
10

Spring const
Soln proceeds in usual way

193

ENSC3008

2016

Combining Axial & Transverse Behaviour to Model Trusses & Frames

3
3
1

Joint d.o.f

2
Member d.o.f

In the analysis of a frame (instead of line member beams) joint translation causes both axial
and transverse behaviour in the member

i.e. the member is stretched bent

stretching
Bending with respect to the centreline

Before we move to the above case, lets consider what happens when both ends of each
member are pinned (i.e. pin-jointed truss)

1
2
pin

pin
194

ENSC3008

2016

No matter what we do to the joints,


&
(measured + from member centreline to
tangent) are zero. As are & (end moments)

Rotate joint

Hence, for pin joint trusses, these d.o.f s can be left out, leaving only axial member d.o.f
i.e.

195

ENSC3008

2016

Simply supported

Fixed Ended Solutions

B.M.D

i.e. Equivalent structure actions are forces only placed on jointly (i.e. no moments)

The joint have no rotational stiffness conceptually

Free to rotate
Free to rotate

196

ENSC3008

2016

Since the joint is free to rotate & no moment is applied to it, the rotational structure d.o.f. can
be left out of the analysis leaving only translational structure d.o.f

For this type of structure, draw joints as


e.g.
2

Since all member loads can be replaced by equivalent structure actions at the structure d.o.f
(joints). We just consider cases with forces at the joints.

197

ENSC3008

2016

Example: Stat. det. truss

80

120
10000
Find all member forces &
deflections at joints &

(1)

2
1

198

ENSC3008

2016

(2)
Form

1&

0
0

| |

1
0

Assumed no axial deformation due to small displacement assumption

199

ENSC3008

2016

Now

1&

1
0

| |

0
0
0

Small disp at

(others are zero)


1

0
Squash
?

Stretch
?

200

ENSC3008

2016

Member 3

Component parallel to
the original member
position

Original position
42

cos

cos

4
Stretch

Member 4

5
cos

. .

squash

Original position

201

ENSC3008

2016
0
1
| |

Small disp at

(others are zero)

0
Squash
Stretch
?

202

ENSC3008

2016

Member 3

sin

Original position

Member 4

sin

So

Original position
0
0
| |

203

ENSC3008

2016

Assemble together
0
1

Step 3
Assemble member stiffness matrix

using

1
4

0
1
4
1
42
0

Step 4

Step 5
0
80

| |

0
120

204

1
5

ENSC3008

2016

Step 6
0.0026
0.032

| |

| |

0.026
0.055

Joint A moves down by 32 mm


Joint B moves down by 55 mm

Step 7

80
| |

| |

0
72.73
85.7

There are no fixed axial force to superpose in this case

205

(tension +ve)

ENSC3008

2016

Simple rules for forming


1

Original position
of member

i.e. move joint in x-direction


stretch is

i.e. move joint in x-direction


stretch is

(i.e. squash)

i.e. move joint in the y-direction &


Original position

stretch is

move joint in y-direction


stretch is

(i.e. squash)
206

ENSC3008

2016

Example: Stat. Indet Truss


Note: The matrix stiffness method can be applied without modification
100

Find all member forces


20,000
Not connected

8
Step 1

4
2
3
6

6 member d.o.f

5 structure d.o.f
3

4
2

8
6
207

10

ENSC3008

2016

8 &

Step 2
Form

208

ENSC3008

2016

1
1

1
0

1
0

209

ENSC3008

2016

1
0

So
1

4
5

3
5

0
0
4
5

1
0

3
0
5

Step 3

210

3
5

ENSC3008

2016
1
8

1
8

2000

0
1
6

1
6

1
10

1
10

Step 4
5 x 5 matrix
Step 5

0
0

| |

100
0

Step 6

0.023
0.105
| |

| |

0.030
0.118
0.013

Step 7

211

ENSC3008

2016
58.33
75
| |

| |

43.75
43.75
93.75
72.98

212

(positive tension)

ENSC3008

2016

Rigid Jointed Frame (Rectangular)


Members in a frame can bend as well as stretch. All members rigidly connected to a joint
rotate by the same amount. The joint rotations become another d.o.f (as for beams).
In a 2D rigid jointed frame (axial deformation included), each joint has 3 structure d.o.f,
unless restrained by a support.

2 translation
3

1 rotation
1

The member can be considered to have 3 member d.o.f


Joint
movement
1 = stretching of member centreline
3
1
Original
position of
member

2 & 3 = rotation of ends relative to (new)


centreline measured anticlockwise from
member centre line to member tangent

New
undeformed
member centre

We already have the axial stiffness

213

ENSC3008

2016

& the bending stiffness

Combining them into matrix form we have:


0

0
0
Axial force

end moments

The member stiffness

end rotation

stretch

for a 2D frame can then be assembled together as follows:

0
0
0
0
0

214

ENSC3008

2016

If the loads are applied directly at a structure d.o.f (like a truss), the matrix stiffness method
can be used without change. However, generation of the
matrix becomes more difficult.
Differences to the method occur when the loads are distributed.

Example: load at structure d.o.f

10

1000

100,000
1. Find movement of
3

joint A
2. Find all member
actions & draw
BMD, SFD, & AFD

3. Compute all
external reation

Step (1)

5
3

4
3

9. Member d.o.f
6. Structure d.o.f

3 degrees of
indeterminacy

215

ENSC3008

2016

Step (2)
Form
1

tan

For small , tan


0 since stretch is

when joint is moved in x-direction & for member 1

Others = 0
1

1
0

Others = 0

216

ENSC3008

2016
4

1
Others = 0

Others = 0

217

ENSC3008

2016

Others = 0

1
Others = 0

218

ENSC3008

2016

Influence of

219

etc.

ENSC3008

2016

Step (3)

0
0

1000

0
0
0

0
0

Note: Size of matrix is (MDOF x MDOF i.e. 9 x 9)

Step (4)
6
Step (5)

10
1

220

ENSC3008

2016
10
0
| |

0
0
0
0

Step (6)

| |

| |

17.54
0.092

4.165
17.34
0.092

4.092

10

Movement of joint
0.092

17.8
4.165

10

Step (7)

+ ve tension

3.062
1

8.918
6.142
4.980

| |

| |

6.142
6.106
3.062

6.106
8.834

221

end moment

ENSC3008

2016

BMD/SFD/AFD
From analysis provides the axial forces & member moments | | due to | |. Internal axial
forces/bending moments/shear forces are best represented by diagrams.

For a 2D frame, BMD, SFD & AFD are drawn by plotting the individual diagram for each
member on the members themselves.

Recall

Indicates direction
Equilibrium

Constant
Constant

222

ENSC3008

2016

If the BMD is plotted positive down then changing the x-direction for the member doesnt
change the shape of the BMD, but it does change the signs

Consequently, BMD are plotted on the tension side


omitted.

the sign/member direction are often

No sign

tension

Conversely, changing the member direction does change the shape of the AFD & SFD
223

ENSC3008

2016

i.e.

S.F.D

Member

different shape

A.F.D

Member

Hence, on both the AFD & SFD member direction should always be indicated by a small
arrow on the member i.e. in direction of positive .

Note: This applies to diagrams for frames & trusses


224

ENSC3008

2016

It is preferable to run members from left to right & bottom to top (but doesnt really matters
provided you indicate the direction)
e.g.

: Tension side
convention

Note: When member loads are included AFD & SFD will also vary along the length of the
member.

225

ENSC3008

2016

(tension side convention)

BMD

6.106

1. Equilb
2. Tension side
remains same

6.106
6.142

6.142
(from | |)

8.918

8.834
Support moments

8.918

8.834

S.F.D
.

3.062

5.02
226

4.98

ENSC3008

2016

5.02

4.98

Horizontal reactions
= End Shears
5.02

4.98

A.F.D

3.062

3.062
4.98

3.062

3.062

227

Vertical reaction

ENSC3008

2016

Reactions

10

5.02

4.98

3.062

3.062

8.918

8.834

Load Paths
These diagrams show how the load is being carried from the point of application through to
the supports i.e. the load path. This structure has 2 load paths.
(1)

5.02

load carried

i.e. bending causes shear

by shear

5.02
228

ENSC3008

2016

(2)

4.98

load carried in compression


load carried
by shear

4.98

Since the structure is indeterminate, stiffening the members in one load path will attract load
away from the other e.g. what happens if
of the right hand column is 10

10

reduced shear

increased shear

10

Could test by changing

in

. In an indeterminate structure stiffness attracts loads.

229

ENSC3008

2016

Rigid Jointed Frames with Inclined Members


If members are inclined, when generating
break the unit displacement into components
normal & parallel to the member (original position)

Parallel component Stretching


Normal component Divide the member length to give rotation

For a joint movement in the x-direction

- stretch

Original position

tan

A.C.W member end rotation +ve

230

ENSC3008

2016

For a joint movement in the y-direction

- stretch

Example

20

3
10

100,000
1000

Plot BMD, SFD & AFD


3

pin
4
231

ENSC3008

2016

Step (1)

4
3

9 . . .
7 . . .

Matrix Sizes

5
7
1

| |9

Step (2)
1

C.W
232

| || | 7

1
1

ENSC3008

2016
1

1
1

1
1
1
Others = 0

233

ENSC3008

2016
1

1
0

234

ENSC3008

2016
1

1
1
Others = 0

1
Others = 0

235

ENSC3008

2016

Influence of

Step (3)

Form

in usual way 9

Step (4)

236

ENSC3008

2016

Step (5)

0
20
10
| |

5
0
0
0

Step (6)

| |

| |

Step (7)

27.065
11.739

1.244
7.701
| |

| |

11.244

4.035
7.065
4.035
0
pin

237

ENSC3008

2016

BMD (kNm)

4.035

1.244

11.24
11.24

1.24

10

11.739

applied moment

Reactions:

11.739

238

ENSC3008

2016

S.F.D

3.055
.

.
.

4.327

0.673

4.327

0.673

239

ENSC3008

2016

A.F.D

7.701

27.067

7.065

27.067

7.067

Check global equilibrium in own time


(i.e.

0,

240

0 &

0)

ENSC3008

2016

Member end Rotations: Positive (ACW) Negative (CW)?


To maintain the same angle of connection between the joint and the rigidly connected
member, the member ends must rotate in the opposite direction to the rotation of the member
centreline (for forming
)

ACW Member end rotations


Original position

Member centreline rotates clockwise

CW Member end rotations


Original position

Member centreline rotates A.C.W

241

ENSC3008

2016

General Restraint Conditions for Frames


So far

Unrestrained
2
3
1

Full Fixed

Model

Pinned supports

1
Joint

pin

Note: the pinned restraint could be modelled with the joint on the other side of the pin
i.e.

242

ENSC3008

2016

In this case the joint is fixed & has no structure d.o.f. However, we must account for the pin
when forming
(like an internal hinge)

Others

Pinned roller x

2
1

Fixed roller x

Pinned roller y

1
2

Fixed roller y

243

ENSC3008

2016

Frames with Member Loads


So far we have analysed frames with loads only at the structure d.o.f.s Now apply the work
done for beams and bars with member loads (i.e. distributed or intermediate point loads) to
frames.
Basic principles remain the same

1. Lock joints from displacement/rotation (i.e. hold structure d.o.f at zero) and solve

Fixed ended soln

Equivalent structure
actions

Final Soln

Cancel out
Disp

+
Fixed ended soln

=
Equivalent structure
actions

244

Final

ENSC3008

2016

B.M.D

Equilibrium

Fixed ended

Example

100,000
1000
3

245

ENSC3008

2016
2

5
3

4
3

Note: Already have

&

as they are same as example problem from last week


(see notes).

1. Lock joints & calculate the fixed ended actions

Columns

no loads

no fixed ended actions

246

ENSC3008

2016

Beams
5

4
10

10

Fixed ended actions


B.M.D

10

10

2. Apply reverse of locking actions at joints = equivalent structure actions | | & solve

10

(soln (2))

10

Since equivalent structure actions are applied


at the structure d.o.f, solve using the matrix
stiffness method.

247

ENSC3008

2016

0
10
20
3

| |

0
10
20
3

0.0483
0.3
| |

| |

10

3.654
0.0483
0.3
3.654

10
2.404
4.840
2.414
| |

| |

1.827
1.827
10
4.840
2.404

Soln (2)

248

ENSC3008

2016

3. Superpose two solns

4.84

4.84

1.827

10

2.404

1.827
4.84

4.84
10
2.404

Reaction

2.404

2.404

S.F.D
Due | |
2.404

4.840 /3

1.827

1.827 /4

4.840

2.404 /3
249

2.414
0
2.414

4.84

ENSC3008

2016

10

10

10

10

2.414

2.414

2.414

Reactions
2.414

2.414

2.414

A.F.D

2.414

10

2.414

10

10

10

Reactions

10
250

10

ENSC3008

2016

Multiple Members at a joint


2
1

5
3

8
5

15 MDOF

7
6

Fixed ended soln

3.75

4
10

3.75

3
10

7.5

7.5

Equivalent structure actions

10

17.5

7.5

3.75

3.75
2.917

251

ENSC3008

2016
0
10
20
3
0
| |

17.5
2.917
0
7.5
3.75

soln proceeds in usual way.

Assignment II due Wednesday

Note: Will always equilibrium of all members attached to joint

252

ENSC3008

2016

Loads on sloping members

So far we have looked at transverse loads, which act normal to members

In general, a load may have components both normal & tangential to the member e.g.

Normal components moments & shears but no axial

Tangential Component (i.e. along member) axial force only

253

ENSC3008

2016

Standard fixed ended solutions for tangential loads

A.F.D

A.F.D

254

ENSC3008

2016

For non-standard cases, solve the member axial d.e to find fixed ended soln
In general, member loads are broken into normal and tangential components in order to find
the fixed ended solution. This can be done using similar triangles.

Fixed ended solutions of uniformly distributed loads (U.D.L)

B.M.D

255

ENSC3008

2016

A.F.D

256

ENSC3008

2016

A.F.D

Other loads (e.g. a non-central point load) will have both vertical & horizontal fixed ended
forces.

Example

3
100,000
1000

3
3

4
257

ENSC3008

2016
,

This frame was analysed in previous lectures so already have

4
3

5
7
1

9
7
2

Fixed ended soln


Columns none
Beams

8.33

8.33

12.5

12.5

258

5
5

ENSC3008

2016

Equivalent structure actions

12.5
12.5
8.33

8.33

0
12.5
8.33
0

| |

0
12.5
8.33
0

| |

| |

12.94
1.78
4.39
0.96
| |

| |

3.95
3.12
12.05
5.12
0

pin

Now drawing the BMD, SFD & AFD by superposing the fixed ended soln directly
259

ENSC3008

2016

BMD
8.33

3.12

5.12
5.12

8.33

3.95

4.39

3.12

4.39

Dashed line = moments


from | | due to | |,
3.95

Need to superpose fixed

1.78

ended actions onto this.

Reactions
1.78

S.F.D
1.78

4.34 /3

3.95
5.12

0.17

0.87

3.12 /5
0 /6

0.17

0.87

9.83

0.17
10.17

0.17

0.87
0.87

260

ENSC3008

2016

Reactions
0.87

0.87

Equal & opposite

A.F.D

0.96
6.54

0.96
0.96
8.46

0.673

12.05
12.95
Reactions

12.95

12.05

261

Vertical Equilibrium

ENSC3008

2016

Second Example

Same frame, different load case

20
2.5
2.5
12
1

4
Fixed ended soln

A.F.D

12

(Standard soln)

262

ENSC3008

2016

Beam

20

10

10

20
20

16
12

10

10

B.M.D

S.F.D

A.F.D

10

16
12

10

10
8

263

ENSC3008

2016

Reverse of fixed ended Actions

10
10

18

10

10

0
18
10
0

| |

0
10
10
0

Shear Deformation
So far we have assumed that all beam displacements under transverse loads are due to
bending
i.e.

= transverse displacement

264

ENSC3008

2016

This gave the general member stiffness equation

This assumes that the shear forces & hence shear stress in the beam causes no deformation
i.e.

plane sections remain plane

265

ENSC3008

2016

However, shear forces in the beam will also cause deformation

Shear strain (deformation due to shear)

Plane section no longer plane

For small deflections, we ignore interaction between shear & bending deformation & simply
superpose

To work out the shear deformation

G= Shear Modulus

Hooks Law
2 1
= Poissons ratio

266

ENSC3008

2016

However, shear stress in not constant over the depth of a beam:


Profile of

= Area

To take this into account we will use an effective shear area


shear stress

to compute the average

Shear force

For a rectangular beam,



1.2

267

ENSC3008

2016

What about I-beams?

Magnitude of

It is only shear in the web which carries . i.e. we use the area of the web
effective shear area

to compute the

i.e.
1.2
for an I-beam on its side

effective shear area


.

268

ENSC3008

2016

Concrete box girder

Effective web
.

Once we know the average shear stress we can work out the average shear strain


hence

Consider the effect of shear deformation on simple cantilever


e.g.

(Standard soln found by solving beam d.e)


S.F.D

269

ENSC3008

2016

tan

For a steel rectangular beam


Poissons Ratios = 0.3

12
2.6
1.2

Parametric study

270

ENSC3008

2016

1.0078
1.0312
1.0867
1.195

(Aspect Ratios)
10
5
3
2

Standard beam assumption


not valid as bending alone will
underestimate total deflection
More significant for large I beams- (UB) and composites
e.g. 610 UB 125

depth

kg/m
large flanges at large
distance from .
large

small web
small

1.0267
1.1068
1.2467
1.6627

(Aspect Ratios)
10
5
3
2

beam bending only


assumption not valid

271

ENSC3008

2016

Composites can be worse because is increased, while

is virtually unchanged
Concrete

Steel UB
Web area is largely unchanged

Including shear deformation into matrix stiffness method

Since we can directly add the bending & shear deformation (small disp assumption) it is
easiest to start from member flexibility matrix

| |

| |

1
3
1
6

Due bending

1
6
1
3

Member flexibility matrix


272

ENSC3008

2016

For equilibrium, the beam must have constant shear

This shear will cause deformation

Where

The movement of the centreline causes effective member end rotations of

due shear

1
3

1
6

1
6

1 1

1
3

1 1

bending

shear

273

ENSC3008

2016

Introduce dimensionless section properly

12

1
1
3
1
1
6

4
2

1
1
6
1
1
3

2
4

Member flexibility matrix


including shear
Inverting

Member stiffness matrix


including shear deformation

As 0, the shear component disappears & the matrix goes back to standard form (i.e.
bending deformation >> shear deformation)

Removing constant

is the important factor

If is of similar magnitude to

Conversely if

then shear deformation will be significant.

then

274

ENSC3008

2016

Single member stiffness for a general frame member (axial deformation included)

0
0

Axial stiffness unaffected by shear


Effect on member fixed ended Actions

If the member loads are symmetric (e.g. u.d.L

or central point load

shear deformation does not change the fixed ended actions.

However, the central deflection will be increased.


e.g

Fixed ended actions are unchanged

Deflections

Bending

(Standard soln)

275

ENSC3008

2016

S.F.D

(at centre)

Conversely, if the member loads are unsymmetric fixed ended actions are changed e.g. noncentral point load.

276

ENSC3008

2016

Standard fixed ended action (neglecting shear deformation i.e. solving

B.M.D

S.F.D

From these shears, we can work out the shear deformation (tan

small deflection)

L.H.S

277

ENSC3008

2016

R.H.S

Together

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.18
0.1

0.25
0.21
0.15
0.08
0.03

0 No gap (symmetric load)

(i.e. symmetric load)

0
(i.e. gap at right hand support)

278

ENSC3008

2016

Obviously a gap doesnt exist so our fixed ended moments (computed assuming bending
deformation only) must be wrong. They must be corrected to remove .
We do this by making the beam bend i.e. superpose

The change in member end rotations to restore compatibility is:

(CW)
Can now use the member stiffness (which includes shear deformation) to find the
corresponding changes in fixed ended moments &


6
1

Subst
12

279

ENSC3008

2016


2 1

Superpose for fixed ended moments i.e.

If 0 then

0 & we have the original fixed ended soln.

Shear forces

Complex! If you can split members up by adding joints to make loads symmetric then do so!

280

ENSC3008

2016

e.g.

Addition member/structure dof, but fixed ended solutions are easier.

281

ENSC3008

2016

Example

now update

Using previous frame so already have

4
3

100,000

Beam
7

1000

6
9

1200
Column

1600

Column 1
12 1000
1600 3

0.8333

Beam

reducing importance of
shear deformation
12 1000
1600 5

0.4

Column 2
12 1000
1600 6

282

0.208

ENSC3008

2016
0

0
0

0
0

1000

0
0

0
0

as usual.
Load case (1)

(Done previously without shear deformation)

283

ENSC3008
Note:

2016
component is symmetric about midpoint of beam, so fixed ended actions are
unchanged by shear deformation

0
12.5
8.33

| |

0
12.5
8.3
0

Unchanged see previous example

| |

| |

| |

| |
12.979
1.917
4.412
0.953

| |

3.921
3.343
12.021
4.990
0

284

ENSC3008

2016

Load case (2)


20

16
2

12

is unsymmetric (i.e. about midpoint of beam). Two solution options

- Use formula from before


- Then proceed as usual

285

ENSC3008

2016

Or

Insert additional joint at load point


adds 3 number & structure d.o.f

- No unsymmetrical loading
- No fixed ended soln
- Larger matrices

Shear deformation summary


1. Shear deformation can change the bending stiffness of structural elements
altering the distribution of shear & moments within an indeterminate structure.
2. Usually only significant for short stocky members with small web areas.
3. Can be important for composite (steel-concrete) beam large I small
4. Fixed ended actions are altered only for unsymmetric loading.
5. Dont forget about it just because it can be ignored in most situations.

Reactions and Prescribed Displacements


So far we have computed reactions from equilibrium (with internal actions) and have not
developed a general method for solving problems with prescribed displacements.
Settlements of supports (e.g. foundations) can cause significant redistribution of load within a
structure.
e.g. 2 span beam
286

ENSC3008

2016

Before

B.M.D

After.B.M.D

Say 50

of differential settlement

The maximum (differential) settlement may be estimated from geotechnical analyses & must
be applied to the structure as a load case.

We will now extend the matrix stiffness method to include prescribed (imposed)
displacement and explicitly calculate reactions.

287

ENSC3008

2016

How?
Restraints (supports) can be thought of as structure d.o.f at which we know the
displacement/rotation i.e. zero (our usual restraint condition) or a prescribed displacement
(e.g. 50
)

5
3

4
3

Unstrained
structure d.o.f

12
9

Restrained
10

structure d.o.f

11
4

If 0 then these structure d.o.f do not affect the member d.o.f.s and so far we
have ignored them. To find the effect of prescribed displacement at these d.o.f.s And/Or to
compute reactions explicitly we must include them.

288

ENSC3008

2016

Compatibility

Unrestrained structure d.o.f

| |

Augmented compatibility
matrix

289

Restrained
structure d.o.f

ENSC3008

2016

| |
- usual compatibility
- Compat between retrained structure d.o.f & member d.o.f
| | - Disp/rotn of unrestrained structure d.o.f (unknown)
| | - Disp/rotn of restrained structure d.o.f (known)
| | - No changes (member action only)

| |

Previously showed by joint equilibrium that


| |

| |

Similarly can be shown that


| |
|

| - Structure action associated with restrained d.o.f (i.e. reactions)

Subs

| |

| | into above

Augmented structure stiffness matrix


290

ENSC3008

2016

Where
- usual structure stiffness matrix
- Relates the disp/rotn at the restrained structure d.o.f & the actions at the unrestrained
structure d.o.f
- Relates the displacement/rotn at the restrained structure d.o.f to the actions at the
restrained structure d.o.f

How large is each portion of the augmented structure stiffness matrix


Num of unrestrained structure d.o.f
Num of restrained structure d.o.f

Looking at the final matrix equation


known

unknown

unknown

known

known

So
| |

| |
291

| |

ENSC3008

2016

If the displacement at restrained d.o.f are zero


| |

0 | |

| | (as before)

However, if prescribed disp are non-zero, the new equation allows the rest of the structure
disp to be found. After this step

are now known. Hence to find the forces at the restrained

structure d.o.f (i.e. reaction)


|

| |

| |

Note: | | are only the reactions due to the equivalent structure actions | |. For the complete
son, any fixed ended reactions
must be superposed.
|

Summary: for finding reactions & including prescribed displacements

1. Add restrained structure d.o.f at points where:


a) Prescribed displacement occur and/at
b) Where you want to explicitly calculate the reactions
Then augment the compatibility matrix
| |
2. Form
(in usual way), then form the Augmented structure stiffness matrix by
multiplication.

Define size of each portion manually


292

ENSC3008

2016

3. Form | | (from fixed ended soln) & | | & use the top of the matrix to find disp/rotn
at unrestrained structure d.o.f | |
| |

| |

| |

4. Find member actions, superpose fixed ended actions


| |
&
| |

| |
due | |

complete

fixed

5. Use the bottom portion of the matrix to find reactions due to | | & superpose fixed
ended reaction
|

| |

Or
|
|

|
|

complete

| |
|

| |

due to

fixed

Example 1
Beam

8
1000

1.5

3.5

293

ENSC3008

2016

Compute member actions & all reactions explicitly when there is 5


central support.

settlement of the

4
3
3

Compatibility

unrestrained structure d. o. f

| |

294

restrained structure d. o. f

ENSC3008

2016

1000

4
3

2
3

2
3

4
3

4
5

2
5

2
5

4
5

1333

667

667

667

667

2133

400

667

427

240

400

800

667

667

444

667

427

240

Manually partition

295

240
240

444
0

420
444
540
96

240
0
96
96

ENSC3008

2016

Fixed Ended Actions

5.88
3

3.5

6.272

1.728

Standard Solutions
Hence

3
| |

5.88

2.88

2.52
6
6

6.272

12.272

1.728

Top portion of matrix


0
| |

| |

2.52

| |

0.005
0

296

ENSC3008

2016

| |

667

667

667

247

240

240

3.33

0.005

240

2.133

1.2

Reactions
1.717
|

| | 2.075
0.358

Or
|

| |

| |

Superpose with fixed ended actions


1.717
|

2.075

6
12.272

0.358

1.728

4.283
14.347
1.370
4

20

vertical equilibrium satisfied

4.283

14.347

1.370

Alternative: can calculate from S.F.D


297

ENSC3008

2016

Example (2)
5

/
1800
120,000
1200
3

Fixed member actions when


left hand support settles by

& moves to the right

by 5
.
Reactions are Not required.

Shear deformation to be
included.

6
4

5
3

7
2

2
1

9
Insert restrained structure d.o.f only where prescribed
disp occurs of full reactions not required.
298

ENSC3008

2016

0.005
| |
0.008

Fixed Ended Soln


4
10

10

0
0
10
20
3

| |

0
10
20
3

299

ENSC3008

2016

0.333333

0.333333

0.333333

0.333333

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.333333

0.333333

2
7
Column

0.888889

Beam

0.5

300

ENSC3008

40000

2016

1035.294 235.2941

235.2941 1035.294

30000

900 300

300 900

40000

1035.294 235.2941

235.2941 1035.294

301

ENSC3008

2016

1035.294

423.5294

235.2941

423.5294

30282.35

423.5294

40150

300

150

300

235.2941

423.5294

300

1935.294

300

300

30282.35

150

300

40150

30000

423.5294
0

300

282.3529
0

300
423.5294

40000

0
30000

423.5294

423.5294

282.3529

300

0.003775
0.003265
0.00825
0.001735
0.003314
0.00025
0.005679

423.5294

40000

423.5294
0

1035.294

300

282.3529

40000

0
0
10
6.666667
0
10
6.6666667

9.983191
8.88
16
4.408719
1.469573
2.257948
2.1907111
10.01681
4.475956
0.067237

0.005
0.008

2.117647
1.411765
320
2.117647
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
6.6666667
6.666667
0
0
0
302

2.117647
1.411765
330
4.54902
0
10
6.666667

9.983191
8.88
16
4.408719
1.469573
4.408719
4.475956
10.01681
4.475956
0.067237

ENSC3008

2016

Draw BMD, SFD, and AFD in the usual way


303

ENSC3008

2016

Further extensions to the Matrix Stiffness Method


1. Step change in member section property for a rigid jointed frame.
Solve as for beams i.e. Insert a joint at change point and solution proceeds as usual.

2. Internal pins for a rigid jointed frame again solve as for beams i.e. insert a joint
adjacent to hinge
- Modify
Alternative: Remove member d.o.f at hinge and modify

PIN

304

ENSC3008

2016

PIN

PIN

Modifies fixed ended solution e.g.


Solution proceeds as usual.
PIN

3. Reminder: All work done solving the beam d.e.s to obtain displacements
and
and hence internal actions
,
and
under any condition of axial
and transverse loading may be used to obtain the fixed ended actions which are
needed for the matrix stiffness method.
e.g.

Solve d.e to obtain


fixed ended solution
locking actions

Boundary
Conditions

Installation temp

305

Reverse =

ENSC3008

2016

Note: For common loading conditions


,
, the d.e.s have been solved to provide
standard solution. Since analysis is linear, these solutions may be superposed.

e.g.

Thermal Loading
Can also be treated separately and superposed.

Operating temp.

Installation Temp

306

ENSC3008

2016

At

Linear variation

Change from installation temp

Beams/Rigid jointed frame members


Axial Force

Fixed ended moments

Truss members (bars)


No fixed ended moments

4. Since analysis is linear, the results from various loads may be directly superposed.
e.g.

Dead G {

Live Q

1.2

1.5 1.2
307

1.5

ENSC3008

2016

5. 3D frames.
Most real structures can be idealised as 2D rigid jointed frames/trusses. However,
some structures have significant 3D behaviour and must be analysed as such e.g.
Bridge deck (grillage), towers subject to trust, etc.
The matrix stiffness method can be extended to do this.
Joints: If unrestrained, can translate and rotate in 3 directions.

2
3
1

4
3

Or drawing rotations as a double headed arrow [Right hand rule to give direction].

3
6

308

ENSC3008

2016

Members. Previously stretch, bend about are principal axis. Now: bend about a second
principal axis + trust (torsion)

5
3
4
+
2

1
6
Displaced Shape

Twist

Displaced Shape

Or using rotation as above

Elevation
5
4

Plan

2
3

309

ENSC3008

2016

So local stiffness (are member)

In-plane bending

Axial

2,3

Out of plane bending 4,5

0
0

0
0
Twist
6

Non-zero term if unsymmetric bending

Since
.

Touque

twist

Solving problems
(1) Assign member & structure d.o.f
(2) Compatibility
Formed in usual way Matrix
Much larger. Note: rotation of joint may cause both member and rotations AND trust
of connected members
13 18

7 12

19 20
1 6
Member d.o.f 1 6 etc.
310

ENSC3008
(3)
(4)

2016
Assemble 6

6 matrices along main diagonal in the usual way.


. etc.
Method proceeds in usual way.

This analysis is too complex to do by hand.


Use a frame analysis program e.g. Multiframe or Space Gass. In these programs specify
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Co-ordinates of nodes (joints)


Members connected between nodes.
Individual member properties e.g. , , , etc.
Connection between joints and members (e.g. Rigid or pin, etc.)

Member/Structure d.o.f. are automatically assigned.


loads are user specified and
is
From (1) to (4) program can form
,
automatically found from pre-programmed Standard Solutions. The program then follows
the same steps as weve used to compute and display the final solution.

311

ENSC3008

2016

Summary
A course in analysis of 2D structures

Beam/bars
Pin-joined trusses
Rigid frames

Small deflection theory break the behaviour of member into axial & transverse
components.
Differential equations for a single member can be solved independently for two components
if the boundary conditions are known.
For more complicated structures, the members interact, so member end conditions are not
known. Two possible solution options

1) Flexibility/force Method
Soln 1:
-

Introduced releases so member end conditions are known

Compute disp/rotn in each release

Soln 2
-

Solve force/moments in releases to simultaneously reduce all release disp/rotn to


zero

2) Stiffness Method (disp method)


Soln 1.
-

Fixed, so end conditions are known

Compute the fixing actions

Soln 2.
-

Solved for disp/rotn at structure d.o.f (i.e. | |) to educe fixing actions to zero

312

ENSC3008

2016

Matrix Stiffness Method

Member d.o.f & structure d.o.f


Degree of indeterminancy =
# . . .

Compatibility

Member stiffness matrix


| |

# . . .

| |

Structure Stiffness
| |

| |

| |
For each load case
| |

Find fixing action

Reverse = Equivalent structure actions

Structure disp | |

Member actions

Superpose

| |

for complete soln


| |

| |

Enhancements

Thermal loading - affects

Internal hinges - affect

& | |
,| |

Optionally
-

Shear deformation - affects

& for unsymmetric loads affects


313

ENSC3008
-

2016

Prescribed displacements - restrained structure d.o.f

Manual

| |

| |

| |

Reactions
|

Fixed ended reactions

314

ENSC3008

2016

Exam
2hr & 10 minutes

Focus is on Matrix Stiffness Method


-

No manual stiffness/flexibility

3 Question
-

Beam

Truss

Rigid jointed frame

Not all worth same marks

Must know fixed ended soln for standard load cases given in lectures
- symmetric

Must be able to compute fixed ended actions for a member with thermal loads

Must be able to compute & draw BMD, SFD & AFD


-

Titles

Units

Arrows (where appropriate)

Must be able

No past exams
Redo tutes & Assignments.

The following formulae will be provide in exam

315

ENSC3008

2016
Formulae

Member stiffness matrix (trusses):


EA
{S1} = l * {s1}

Member stiffness matrix (beams, no shear deformation):


S1
=
S2

4EI
l

2EI
l

2EI
l

4EI
l

s1
*
s2

Member stiffness matrix (beams, including shear deformation):


S1
=
S2

(4+)EI
(1+)l

(2-)EI
(1+)l

(2-)EI
(1+)l

(4+)EI
(1+)l

s1
*
s2

Inverse of a 2x2 matrix:


a

-1

1 d
= ad-bc
-c

-b

316

where =

12 EI

GAs l 2