Structural Analysis
2016
James P Doherty
ENSC3008
2016
To check strength
To check serviceability (deflections).
Design Process:
Architect/
Draft Person/
Design Engineer
Proposed
Structure
Revise Design
Over
Conservative
Revise Design
Check Strength
Check Serviceability
Inadequate
Give to Draft person
ENSC3008
2016
Restrictions:
This course is restricted to
a) Material that is linear elastic
With d<<L (i.e. large aspect ratio ) subject to some combination of loads/actions.
We use the
coordinate system
positive right
positive up
3
ENSC3008
2016
Check Strength
Determine Stress Resultant (axial force, Bending movement & shear force) within the
member caused by design actions and compare with member capacity.
Stress Resultant:
At any crosssection of a beam (member) say
through the depth of the member.
. .
dA
ENSC3008
and
2016
e.g.
Convention:
is positive when tensile
+
is negative when compression
Where
.
ENSC3008
2016
Convention
The negative sign is introduced to preserve smiling beam convention, so that
3. In addition to normal stress (), shear stress may also be present and may vary through
the depth of the member.
,
6
ENSC3008
2016
1.
2.
3.
B.M.D
A.F.D
S.F.D
ENSC3008
2016
&
For Structures Subject to: Any combination of design actions (external loads, prescribed or
imposed displacements & temperature variations.)
We want a general method that can handle any case we encounter. We restrict ourselves to
linear elasticity, but many of the principles can be extended to plastic analysis.
ENSC3008
2016
, so that
10
10
5
2
Because the bar statically determinate, we can find the external reaction from equilibrium of
the structure directly:
Draw a Free Body Diagram (F.B.D)
2
Note: For consistency, we always put the unknown reaction in the positive direction & not in
the direction we know/think they act. (i.e. is drawn in the positive sense)
9
ENSC3008
2016
2.5
10
&
10
10
5
2.5
ENSC3008
2016
Fixed End
10
Free end
0
2
Displacements:
A differential equation .
the definition of strain
comes from
Assuming constant
Parallel
ENSC3008
2016
Note:
represents the displacement that occurs through deformation of the bar only. If
the bar does not have a fixed support at
0, then the displacement at
0 must be added.
0
0
0 may be considered an integration constant.
Substituting
10
10
2.5
2.5
3
10
2.5
3
ENSC3008
2016
. .
1
0.08
10
1.667
10 2
2.5
2
3
10
1.67
10
0
2
Note: The Procedure
1. Find reactions from statics by summing (integrating) the load over the length (L) of
the bar
13
ENSC3008
2016
displacement
More Generally
If
& compatibility with the displacement B.Cs provides the second integration constant
This is the general governing differential equation ( . ) for the deformation of an axial bar.
We solve it by integrating the applied load
twice and using boundary conditions to solve
for the constant &
The B.Cs are
2
0
Free end
0 at
14
ENSC3008
2016
2.5
Impose B.C
2
2.5 2
10
&
2.5
10
Integrate again
1
0.08
10
10
2.5
3
0
0
as an integratable
The example we considered had a simple continuous load. Now consider the more complex
patch loading case:
5
0.08
1
15
10
ENSC3008
2016
To be able to express such loads as function valid over all , we use Macaulay Brackets,
which are defined as
When
1
1
2
&
16
ENSC3008
2016
5
Free end
A.F.D
5
Free end
x (m)
Integrate again
1
0.08
10
5
2
B.C
0
Displacement diagram
.
.
2
17
ENSC3008
2016
Any patch loading with constant, linear or polynomial variation can be represented using a
combination of Macaulay Brackets
e.g.
5
0.5
0.5
=
5
0.5
1.5
1.5
0.5
0.5
18
1.5
ENSC3008
2016
Step function
Linear Increase
19
ENSC3008
2016
Parabolic Increase
Further Example
10
5
0.5
0.5
=
5
5
0.5
0.5
2
20
ENSC3008
2016
+
5
0.5
5
0.5
1.5
+
1.5
10
1.5
+
1.5
1.5
2.5
0.5
0.5
10
1.5
1.5
Point Loads
As shown, Macaulay Brackets can handle any combination of continuous and discontinuous
load. If we could also handle point loads, all possible load combinations are covered. Point
loads are actually a convenient fiction. In reality, every load is distributed over some area,
although possibly a very small area. Calling it a Point Load means the area it is distributed
over is too small to matter.
e.g.
21
ENSC3008
2016
Col
Beam
=
To represent a point load as being applied over an infinitely small area, Dirac delta function
is used
. This represents a spike at
i.e.
0
(For small
Hence if
then
.
0)
ENSC3008
2016
Furthermore, the Dirac delta function is the derivative of the Macaulay Bracket step function
so that
To see how this can be used, put two point loads on the usual bar
EA
0.08
10
20
Note: The 10
10
load acts just inside the end of the bar so that the bar retains a free end
(i.e.
0
10
1.9999
Impose B.C
10
1.99999
0
switch on just inside
0
20
10
10
23
ENSC3008
2016
20
10
10
10
0
10
Integrate again
1
0.08
10
20
10
2nd B.C
0
2
24
ENSC3008
2016
With this addition we can express any loading by a single loading function
.
subject to B.Cs on displacement at one point & a B.C on force at another. It is possible to
account for variations in the bar crosssection by placing
inside the integral in the second
integration
i.e.
0.5
0.3
0.05
10 0.3
0.25
10
1.5
However, the integrals become too difficult to solve by hand. Later we will see there is a
better way to handle change in crosssectional area/properties.
25
ENSC3008
2016
i.e.
Two unknown reactions
&
. Cannot solve.
In such cases the constitutive behaviour of the material (i.e. the relationship between stress &
strain) must be included.
In fact, we have already done this by constructing the governing . for an axial bar
i.e.
26
ENSC3008
2016
Statically Determinate
Using internal force at free end
0 equilibrium provides
and hence
throughout without reference to deformation. (i.e. no constitutive info required)
is found
Statically Indeterminate
which is an unknown
remains unknown
0
0
27
ENSC3008
2016
OR
1mm
0
0.001
Prescribed displacement
Solve noting
1st B.C at
0
0
0
0
2nd B.C at
.
1
Example
10
2
28
ENSC3008
2016
5
0.08
10
Integrate
once
5 .
5
2
Integrate again
0
1
5 2
6
Now substitute
&
5
2
29
ENSC3008
2016
2
Note: in both F.B.Ds above, F is drawn in the positive internal sense and R is drawn in the
positive external sense.
30
ENSC3008
2016
Overall F.B.D
10
A.F.D
Dis
3.20
0 . .
10
0
1.155
to
ENSC3008
2016
External Load
B.C
Second Example
0.3
0.08
0.2
10
0.5
1.5
10
Draw A.F.D
1.8
0.5
1.5
10
0.2
1.8
0.5
1.5
10
0.2
Integrate again
32
1.8
ENSC3008
2016
1
5
2
5
2
0.5
1.5
10
0.2
1.8
Impose B.Cs
1st B.C
0
2nd B.C
0.0003
1
0.08
10
0.0003
5
1.5
2
5
1.5
2
10 1.8
3 0.2
0.5
1.5
10
0.2
1.8
23.2
13.2
11.2
8.2
0
0.2
0.5
1.5
33
1.8
23.2
ENSC3008
2016
Thermal strain t
and is assumed
There is no stress associated with thermal strain, but there is displacement. Taking as the
total strain (strain due to both internal stress resultant & thermal strain).
Mechanical strain
Simple Case
Recall
34
ENSC3008
2016
Statically Determinate
Apply B.C to above equation
0
35
ENSC3008
2016
Statically Indeterminate
where
0
.
. .
(i.e.
is constant)
36
ENSC3008
2016
Example
60
20
0
20
0.08
10
20
10
Apply B.C
0
2
0.08
Solving
32
32
10
10
20 2
(i.e. in comp)
37
10 2
20
10
ENSC3008
2016
10
20
20
2
(m)
A.F.D
10
32
However, if
0,
38
ENSC3008
2016
Example
5
10
0.5
1.0
1.5
0.08
10
20
20
0.001
2.0
60
20
10
0.5
0.08
10
10
10
1
0.08
10
10
0.5
20
1.5
5
2
5
2
1.5
20
10
20
1.5
.
1
0.5
20
Apply B.C
0
0
2
0.001
1
0.08
10
10 1.5
5
1
2
0.001
5
0.5
2
39
10
20 2
20
ENSC3008
2016
0.001
1
0.08
0.001
10
80
13.125
10
1.4375
40
0.08
2
80
10
10
13.125
ENSC3008
2016
Review:
We can now work out internal axial force
and displacement u
for statically
determinate and statically indeterminate bars subject to any combination of loading and/or
temperature variation with any combination of force or displacement B.Cs
Now, what if the B.C provides a relationship between force and displacement?
Idealise
41
ENSC3008
2016
Note: Positive
results in negative
We cant apply the usual analysis because displacements at the ends are unknown
Need an alternative approach
This simple problem allows us to introduce the two classes of structural analysis techniques
Example Problem
10
/
5
0.08
/
10
2
2000
2000
42
ENSC3008
2016
43
5
2
ENSC3008
2016
At L.H End
0
10
0.005
1
0.08
0
2
10
10
5
6
0.005
0.005
5 2
6
0.005
1
0.08
10
0.005167
10 2
Note: The R.H end spring has no force (since it was cut/released) & therefore does not move.
44
ENSC3008
2016
By releasing the spring we have introduced a compatibility problem in the structure i.e. the
displacements at the cut points dont match.
0.005167
Note: The force pair are drawn in the positive sense for internal force.
Once we determine the value for to restore compatibility (remove overlap) we can then add
this to the original solution for the cut structure to determine the final solution that satisfies
both equilibrium and compatibility. Adding two solutions is valid as the structure is elastic
(principle of super position).
To find the value of , we first find the influence of a unit force pair on the overlap i.e. find
the size of the overlap generated by unit forces.
45
ENSC3008
2016
Position of Overlap
Position of Force
1
0
1
1
2000
0
2
2
0.08
0.525
46
10
10
1
2000
ENSC3008
2016
0.5
10
Total overlap
0.525
1.025
0.5
10
10
5.167
1.025
10
10
5.041
5.041
5.041
5.041
5.041
2000
47
ENSC3008
2016
5.041
0.08 10
5.041
2000
Release Soln
A.F.D
Force in spring
0
2
Dis
0.05167
0.005
Spring dis
48
ENSC3008
2016
Second Soln
A.F.D
2
0
5.041
0.0025
0.00265
49
ENSC3008
2016
Final Result
4.954
2
5.041
0.0252
0.00245
50
ENSC3008
2016
0.08
10
2
2000
2000
Instead of releasing the bar, we turn the bar into a structure we can solve by fixing both ends.
0.08
10
Note: We have already solved this problem (Tuesday, week 2) & found.
51
ENSC3008
2016
A.F.D
1.155
This is known as
If these fixed end forces were applied to our actual structure, the ends would not move.
52
ENSC3008
2016
However, in reality these fixed end forces do not exist. So, just as the overlap in the force
method was removed, we must now remove the fixed end forces from the displacement
method. This can be done by superposing the soln to:
53
ENSC3008
2016
+
(b)
54
ENSC3008
2016
(c)
To solve this new problem (b), we compute the displacements at the bar ends ( & ) that
are in equilibrium with the reverse of the fixing forces. To do this, we consider the influence
of a unit displacement at bar ends and calculate the corresponding force.
55
ENSC3008
2016
Where
= force at end 1 required to cause a unit displacement at end 1.
Location of force
Location of dis
0 . .
1,
consists of the force required to deform the spring at end 1 and the force required to
deform the bar.
Spring
1
1
Bar
(+ve tension)
56
ENSC3008
2016
Note:
End 2
?
Spring
57
ENSC3008
2016
Bar
Summing (+)
58
ENSC3008
2016
&
10
3
20
3
0.08
10
40
2
2
42
40
10 .
10 .
40
42
10
10
10
3
10 .
20
3
10 .
Or
10
42
40
40
42
Soln
59
10
3
20
3
ENSC3008
2016
0.00248
0.00252
2000
4.954
Spring 2
2000
Bar
60
5.04
ENSC3008
2016
1.626
Fixed
OR
61
ENSC3008
2016
A.F.D
3.33
1.155
6.667
3.20
10
1.155
62
ENSC3008
2016
1.626
0.0252
0.0248
2
63
ENSC3008
2016
Final Result
3.33
1.626
4.954
2
6.667
1.626
5.041
0.0252
0.0248
(m)
64
ENSC3008
2016
2
FLEX/FORCE
STIFFNESS/DIS
Release/Cut Structure
forces)
by
summing overlaps
Superpose
FLEXIBILITY TERMS
STIFFNESS TERMS
Spring =
Spring =
Bar =
Bar =
65
ENSC3008
2016
Final Example
0.2
10
0.08
2
30,000
Flexibility Method
release 1
release 2
66
10
ENSC3008
2016
Solution to two statically determinate bars with uniformly distributed load for released
and right bar squashes by 125 10
).
structure (left hand bar extends by 50 10
Work out the overlaps (
) at the releases.
50
10
50
75
50
10
125
10 m
10 m
125
unaffected
35
10
67
10 /
10 /
10
10
ENSC3008
2016
remains unaffected
1
43.3
10
10 /
10 /
&
Rel 1
. 35
10
. 10
10
68
0
75
10
ENSC3008
2016
Rel 2
. 10
10
. 43
10
0
50
10
Solve simultaneously or
35
10
10
43.3
75
50
2.647
1.7647
Soln
Now superpose A.F.D (kN)
1. Released soln
10
10
69
ENSC3008
2016
+
2. Redundant soln
2.6471
0.8824
=
3. Final soln
10.8824
0.8824
1.7647
7.3524
70
ENSC3008
2016
Calculate
for yourselves
Introduce 1 fixity (D.O.F) at step change. Then we have two independent bars fixed at both
ends.
5
2
Bars have the same length and same load. So we end up with the same reactions as each end.
i..e (for both bars)
5kN
10
10
71
ENSC3008
2016
10
(Summing Stiffness)
0.2
10
0.08
10
2
0.17
30000
10
5.8824
10
Force in spring
30000
1.7647
72
5.8824
10
ENSC3008
2016
1. Fixed soln
5.8824
2.3524
73
ENSC3008
2016
10.8824
5
0.8824
2.6471
1.7647
7.3524
2.3524
Same soln
Stiffness Method simpler for this problem
74
(Spring force)
ENSC3008
2016
Beams
We have now covered the general cases of statically determinate statically indeterminate
axial bars (dis/loads in xdirection). Now we will do the same for statically determinate/
indeterminate beams. The new content is strongly related to what we have covered.
A beam has a longitudinal axis in the xdirection a transverse load
direction.
applied in the y
It is assumed the beam is symmetric about the plane of bending & all loads are applied in this
plane.
Section AA1
N.A
75
ENSC3008
2016
&
Example:
Complete & plot the bending moment diagram (B.M.D) & the shear force diagram (S.F.D)
for simply prismatic beam with constant flexural rigidity
7.5
200
10000
2
1.5
1.5
7.5
1.5
5
We want the S.F. function
1.5
1.5
ENSC3008
2016
External
Internal
77
ENSC3008
2016
Reaction
7.5
1.5
5.625
7.5
0.5
1.5
1.5
5.625
3
5.625
5.625 2.5
3
0
2.5
5.625
4.6875
4.6875
0.9375
&
1.5
F.B.D
0.9375
78
ENSC3008
2016
0.9375
0.9375
0.9375
0.9375
1.5
F.B.D
2
1.5 /3
1.5 /3
5
1.5
1.5
0.9375
0.9375
0.9375
1.5
5
0.9375
1.5
2.5
1.5
79
0
1
2
1.5
1.5
3
1.5
2
0.9375
0.9375
1.5
1
2
1.5
2
1.5
3
1.5
ENSC3008
2016
5
6
0.9375
1.5
Note:
1. Due to use of Macaulay Brackets the above expression is valid for all .
i.e. 0
3
2.
Reaction
80
ENSC3008
2016
we can obtain
Plotting S.F.D
Plotted positive side up
0.9375
2.5
1.5
0.9375
1.5
4.6875
Note: ends of S.F.D provide reactions
L.H. end
0
0
81
ENSC3008
2016
R.H. end
3
3
0
3
B.M.D
For B.M.D we plot positive down. This is equivalent to tension side plotting i.e. positive
B.M indicates the tension side of the member.
tension
82
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D
5
6
0.9375
1.5
0.9375
1.5
2.11
1.5
3
1.784
0.9375
2.5
1.5
2.11
2.11
1.784
Displacements
When a beam has a small angle of rotation
tan
83
ENSC3008
2016
may be approximated by
& the
Curvature
Slope
Deflection
0
0
0
0
Back to Example
84
&
. .
&
ENSC3008
2016
2.5
3
0.9375
1.5
0.9375
2
2.5
12
1.5
1 0.9375
6
2.5
60
1.5
1
4.21875
2
0.31641
0.6504
1.7
1.5
0.7119
0.722
85
ENSC3008
2016
Procedure
Traditional approach
1. Find reactions at supports from global
equilibrium
New approach
1. Write
2. Use equilibrium at cut sections to get
,
3.
2. Use B.C on
&
86
&
.
&
to find
ENSC3008
2016
BEAMS
BARS
Form
Form
1 Int
Int
2 Int
Int
Int
Stat det
Int
0
0
0
0
87
ENSC3008
2016
0 &
2 degrees of indeterminacy
As for the axial bar, the additional equation comes from using material constitutive
behaviour. This can be done by solving the governing d.e for the deflection of the beam &
impose the B.Cs to obtain integration constants
Governing
d.e
for
& Also
88
beam:
ENSC3008
2016
So given
1
1
2
1
6
89
ENSC3008
2016
Example
Plot S.F.D, B.M.D and compute the reactions for the following statically indeterminate beam.
10
1. 0
2.
3. 4
4.
0
0
&
Solve for
10
10
10
1
2
1
2
1
2
5
5
3
10
1
1
90
ENSC3008
2016
Apply B.C
4
4
5
3
6
4
12
5 3
2
4
4
4
4
4
2
45
2
45
2
4
Solve to get
5.625
8.4375
Then
10
10
1
1
8.475
8.4375
5.625
Plot
8.4375
1.5625
91
ENSC3008
2016
5.625
1.875
2
2.8125
Reactions
5.625
+
0
8.4375
8.4375
8.4375
5.625
92
ENSC3008
2016
1.5625
1.875
1.5625
Note:
1. Could have a prescribed displacement at end (e.g. L.H support move up by 5mm)
2. Material is linear elastic, so superposition applies
So if we have complex load case can solve for each component separately & add up the final
answer.
93
ENSC3008
2016
So if we have complex load case can solve for each component separately & add up the final
answer.
e.g.
Second Example
150
15
10
/
6.66
10
200
1332
1
4
Neglecting selfweight
Find
& plot
15
15
15
1 7.5
1332 3
2.5
2
3
3
2.5
6
1
7.5
1332
2.5
6
1
15
1332
2.5
2.5
24
2.5
120
94
3
3
140
ENSC3008
2016
Other B.C
2.5
4
120
7.5
5
3
0
7
7
6
2.5
4
6
15 5
7
2
Solve
7.8105
6.3401
15
15
7.5
3
2
2
2.5
2
2.5
120
2.5
6
3
3
7.8105
7.8105
7.8105
6
6.3401
6.3401
2
1
1332
Plot yourself
Summary
Can now solve for
,
&
for any single span beam (const ) subject to any
load combination (point/dist. & various combinations of end supports (pin, fixed & free) or
prescribed B.C (e.g. settlement)
95
ENSC3008
Temp change to
2016
on the bottom
1. If
then the temp change
constant over the height of beam
i.e.at
ENSC3008
2016
i.e.
0
then temperature change is not constant over the height of the beam.
This cause curvature and deflection
e.g.
ENSC3008
2016
=
(A)
(B)
Temp change not const over height
Notes
) Midheight =
e.g.
ENSC3008
2016
99
ENSC3008
2016
Compute change in length at top & bottom of beam due to temp differential
Original Length =
Change from original length
Top
Bottom
Exploiting geometry
.
.
Define
Given
(i.e. curvature)
If additional loads or B.Cs are applied to the beam, the total curvature is
100
ENSC3008
2016
For
&
&
1
2
Example
0
B.C.s
0
0
i.e.
101
ENSC3008
2016
This gives a nonzero , but internal B.M & S.F are both = 0. This is general result for
(compare to stat. det. axial bar
stat. det. for a beam with
0, with temp change
with
0)
For
0 + Temp change
&
B.C.s
0
0
&
Note
For
ENSC3008
2016
0
Summary
axial
transverse
2. This was developed for a beam with a doubly symmetric cross section (I,
For a nonsymmetric beam, the only change to the procedure is the value of
compute at centroid or
.
N.A. Midheight
tute 4 Q2.
103
).
ENSC3008
2016
Implication
ENSC3008
2016
Unknown Reaction
=
Indet axially
+
There is no difference for these
members in axial response
Indet trans
=
Indet axially
=
Det axially
Det trans
A member that stat. indet overall is always stat. det. for both axial & transverse. When
dealing with beams (i.e. solving trans response) it is acceptable to neglect the difference
between
&
105
ENSC3008
2016
Example
20
5
/
Install
40
10
Axial
5 sin 20
10 sin 40
Solve as bar
Trans
5 cos 20
10 cos 40
Solve as beam
106
ENSC3008
2016
AXIAL BEHAVIOUR
TRANSVERSE BEHAVIOUR
Internal actions
Internal actions
M x , V x , F x , x &
107
2
1
ENSC3008
2016
e.g.
12
1000
Introduce releases in the form of hinges over the supports each span becomes stat. det
Hinges
108
ENSC3008
2016
We need a sign convention for the rotation at the releases (compare overlaps in bars).
Using a positive moment applied at the release to correspond to a positive movement/rotation
in beam.
Span 1
Span 2
Then rotation is measured +ve anticlockwise from the tangent of the 2nd span to the tangent
of the 1st span.
/
5
5
2.5
2.5 4
10
10
1
10
1000
109
2.5
2.5
ENSC3008
2016
1
5
1000
1 5
1000 3
2.5
3
2.5
12
1
75
We want end rotation
tan
Recall
For small
1
5
1000
2.5
3
1
4
&
75
1
75
1
75
i.e.
3rd Span
12
12
110
12
12
ENSC3008
2016
B.C
4
0
1
3
1000
1
1000
6
2
2
2
1
4
1000
2 2
3
250
1
3
1000
3
250
3
4
&
250
3
250
1
75
1
75
2
75
111
1
75
3
250
76
3000
ENSC3008
2016
Now want to find the (redundant) moment required at the hinges to reduce the rotations in
both hinges to zero at the same time (i.e. restore compatibility)
Where
= rotation at release 1 due to unit moment at 1
= rotation at release 2 due to unit moment at 1
112
ENSC3008
To find
2016
&
we need to solve
M=1kNm
From
1
1
6
0
0
0
6
0
6
&
113
ENSC3008
2016
Back Problem
1
375
1
1500
1
375
1
1500
114
ENSC3008
2016
Release 2
Substitute in values
1
375
1
1500
2
75
1
1500
1
375
76
3000
Solve
8.133
7.467
8.133
7.467
115
&
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D
8.133
7.467
12
10
10
116
12
ENSC3008
2016
+
Redundant Soln
8.133
7.467
12
8.133
7.467
10
10
12
117
ENSC3008
2016
12
1000
Deformed
(spans are now independent of each other)
Span 1 & 2
5
5
4
1 1
1000 2
5
6
118
Shape
ENSC3008
2016
5
24
1 1
1000 6
0 &
4
1
2
0
5
4
6
4
40
3
1
6
64
0 &
5 4
24
4
2
40
3
0
6
2
3
So
10
0
2.5
2
6
3
2
3
6
2
3
Internal Convention
B.M.D
+
6
6
Negative by
external
convention
Positive by
external convention
119
ENSC3008
2016
Locking Moments
6
3rd Span
12
6
6
12
12
1
3
1000
1
1000
12
0 3 4
6 2
6
6
0
12
6
Internal Convention
120
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D
+
6
6
Negative by
external
Positive by
external
Locking Moments
6
6
i.e.
121
ENSC3008
2016
So instead of analysing the actual structure, we have just found a soln to the following
12
We must now find a soln to the reverse of these locking moments & superpose to get final
soln
To do this we look at the moments in equilibrium with a unit rotation at each joint in turn,
keeping the other joints locked (stiffness terms  compare with bars).
For this, we need a soln for beam subjected to a unit rotation at one end
122
ENSC3008
2016
.
0
2
0
0
6
1
6
&
2
4
So
0
&
Internal Convention
123
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D
Now consider a unit rotation at each D.O.F in turn, holding others to zero:
D.O.F 1
500
1000
D.O.F
where moment
is applied
D.O.F
of rotation
124
ENSC3008
2016
D.O.F 2
2000
500
500
1
1
D.O.F 3
500
2000
500
500
1000
D.O.F 4
125
ENSC3008
2016
D.O.F 1
6
2
3
D.O.F 2
0
D.O.F 3
0
D.O.F 4
0
Substituting in Values
1000
500
2000
500
0
500
0
500
2000
500
0
2
3
500
1000
2
3
0.0079111
0.0024889
0.0020444
0.0070222
rotations in
equilibrium with
the reverse of
the fixing forces (radians)
To work out final soln, consider each span in turn. We compute the internal moments
(B.M.D) due to end rotations using standard soln derived for a beam with a unit rotation.
0
126
ENSC3008
2016
2
External Convention
B.M.D
127
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D by tension side
Fixed ended moments under applied loads are superposed to find final soln
1000
Note:
500
Span 1
1000
0.0079111
500 0.0024889
6.667
500
0.0079111
1000 0.0024889
1.4667
+
1.4667
6.667
10
128
ENSC3008
2016
=
6
1.4667
Expected due to
pin
Span 2
1000 0.0024889
500
0.0020444
1.4667
500 0.0024889
1000
0.0020444
0.8
+
1.4667
0.8
+
6
129
8.133
ENSC3008
2016
=
8.137
7.4667
10
Equilibrium
with Span 1
Span 3
1.4667
+
Fixed end
6
6
12
130
ENSC3008
2016
7.4667
12
Equilibrium
with Span 2
pin
Complete B.M.D
8.133
7.4667
10
10
12
Shear force diagrams are constructed in a similar way. For any span, the shear force caused
by end rotations (only) is a constant.
6
(From
or
131
to general equation)
ENSC3008
2016
&
S.F.D
Fixed End Soln
10
10
2
6
10
10
132
ENSC3008
2016
2.033
1.8667
0.1687
=
Final soln
7.9667
10.1687
7.8667
4.133
12.033
9.822
133
ENSC3008
2016
Displacements
+
Soln due to reverse of fixed end moments
How?
Span 1
1.4667
2.033
6.667
2.033
6.667
134
2.037
ENSC3008
2016
Solve for
&
using B.Cs
0
0 &
=
Final soln
+
Soln due to redundant moments
i.e. for each span
135
ENSC3008
2016
=
Final Soln
Notes:
1. Summary Sheet applies to single span with given force or displacement B.Cs
etc.
2. For single span with B.Cs specified by a forcedisplacement relationship (springs) or
multispan beams, must use either the flexibility or the stiffness method.
Etc
136
ENSC3008
2016
3. Separate axial from transverse loads & B.Cs (small displacement assumption)
Axial
Trans
Must also be able to split temp change into axial & transverse components (See Notes)
137
ENSC3008
2016
138
ENSC3008
2016
e.g.
Stiffness terms
The rotation of the joints over the supports are called structure degrees of freedom (structure
d.o.f) i.e. describe ways in which the structure can deform.
In general, structure d.o.fs
behaviour).
We will use the symbol r to represent both translations and rotations at a structure dof. In
the stiffness method we find the locking forces & locking moments at the structure d.o.f
in equilibrium with zero displacement/rotation at these d.o.f.s (i.e. we solve the fixed end soln
for each member).
The net reverse of these are then applied to the structure d.o.f.s to unlock the structure.
These reverse forces/moments will be termed equivalent structure actions and be represented
by the symbol R.
139
ENSC3008
2016
12
1000
= joint
We use circled number to indicate structure d.o.f.s
, ..
i.e.
6 ,
0, ..
140
ENSC3008
2016
1000
500
500
2000
500
500
2000
500
500
1000
Structure
disp
(Stiffness Matrix)
To solve, invert
: . . 
Equivalent
structure actions
 
For transvers loading only, the behaviour of the member is completely described by the
rotations of the ends relative to the centreline. These rotations can be considered member
d.o.f.s (i.e. ways in which a member can deform)
Drawn in positive
external sense
141
ENSC3008
2016
or
A structure usually has multiple members. Member d.o.f.s are number sequentially:
142
ENSC3008
2016
 
 
i.e
1
1
143
ENSC3008
2016
1
1
1
1
1
1
144
ENSC3008
2016
Influence of
on
 
 
 
 
 
Structure D.O.F
   Rotn/disp of structure d.o.f
   Reverse of locking actions (force/moment) at structure d.o.f
equivalent structure actions
 
 
Structure stiffness matrix
Member d.o.f
  Member end rotation
145
ENSC3008
2016
 
Member stiffness matrix
 
 
 
 
 
 
0 at the joints
Or in matrix form
146
ENSC3008
2016
So:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
as follows.
 
(i.e. put 1
solve for   to give jth column in
3. Form member stiffness matrix from individual member stiffness
4. Compute the structure stiffness matrix
147
ENSC3008
2016
5. Compute the fixed ended soln for each member (soln 1) sum the locking actions at
each structure d.o.f.
Reverse of these
 
 
(soln 2)
Note:
a) Steps 5 to 8 can be repeated for multiple load cases.
need only be formed once.
b) This is the general method used by commercial frame analysis software (Space Gass,
Multi Frame etc.).
148
ENSC3008
2016
12
1000
1.
1
2.
3.
149
ENSC3008
2016
1000
500
500
1000
1000
500
500
1000
1000
1000
500
500
1000
500
4.
1000
500
500
2000
500
500
2000
500
500
1000
150
ENSC3008
2016
5.
2/3
10
10
12
Net reverse
6
+
6
0
 
2
3
6
151
2
3
ENSC3008
2016
6.
+
0.007911
 
0.0024889
 
(radians)
0.002044
0.0070222
7.
+
6.667
1.4667
 
1.4667
 
0.8
1.4667
6
8. Superpose
 
 
10
10
Fixed
End
Soln
152
12
ENSC3008
2016
+
BMD (kNm) From  
1.4667
0.8
1.4667
=
Final BMD (kNm) Soln
8.133
7.4667
10
10
0
12
S.F.D
For each span compute constant shear due to end moments   resulting from  
6.667
1.4667
4
0.1666
1.866
153
2.033
ENSC3008
2016
10.166
7.866
1.866
10
0.1666
10
10
2.037
4.134
12.033
9.833
Spans 1 & 2
10
6
10
6
Notes:
1.
is max where
0
2. Reactions at supports come from S.F.D
154
ENSC3008
2016
+
e.g. support 1
7.9667
7.9667
Support 2
12.037
10.166
22.2
155
ENSC3008
2016
Standard Fixed ended solutions (transverse behaviour) previously computed from beam.
d.e
B.M.D
S.F.D
156
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D
S.F.D
Notes:
(1) For nonstandard cases (nonsymmetric loads, thermal effects, movement of a
support) you still need to solve the beam d.e
157
ENSC3008
2016
(2)
15
(Stand soln)
158
15
ENSC3008
2016
/
400
1000
We need to introduce a joint at the change of section, splitting the second span into two
members.
2
1
Note: The joint introduced between supports has two structure d.o.fs i.e. a transverse
displacement (positive in the positive ydirection ) and a rotation ( + ). In fact all joint in
2D beams have 2 structure d.o.fs unless restrained by support conditions.
159
ENSC3008
2016
Free
yroller
Norotation
Fixed
0
1
 
1
0
0
0
160
ENSC3008
2016
1
Centreline
Although is given a unit disp, dont think of it as being 1 as this violates the small
disp assumption. Instead, think of it as being some small unit disp, say ~1
. In the
calculation (for  ) the 1 is multiplied by & assumes the units of hence it is unitless
(similarly 1 radian). Redraw the above
Member/joint angle is unchanged
Centreline
Member/joint angle
is unchange
If 1
tan
1
161
ENSC3008
2016
other members
0
0
 
162
ENSC3008
2016
=1
0
1
1
0
0
 
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
 
0
0
0
1
163
ENSC3008
2016
Hence
 
 
Member 1 & 2:
4
1000
4
1000,
400
5
320,
500
Member 3:
4
So
164
160
is constructed in the
ENSC3008
2016
1000
500
500
1000
1000
500
500
1000
320 160
160 320
 
165
ENSC3008
2016
4
Compute the fixed end soln for each member & sum the locking actions.
ENSC3008
2016
10.41167
10.41167
Builtin (fixed) end in original problem, so no structure d.o.f assigned here only consider
fixing actions at structure d.o.f
Fixing Force
22.5
+
Net reverse at structure d.o.f (equivalent structure actions)
22.5
0
 
22.5
3.75
10.41167
167
10.41167
3.75
10.41167
ENSC3008
2016
(radians)
0.04566
 
0.35258
 
0.08179
0.17922
+
22.83
45.66
 
45.66
 
27.60
Soln 2
31.35
10.42
168
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D (kNm)
Due to  
45.66
13
27.6
22.83
10.42
81.35
10.42
6
10
10
15.625
Final B.M.D
52.37
10
Pin
10
16.16
15.625
20.93
169
ENSC3008
2016
S.F.D (kN)
(1)
Due  
18.315
4.186
17.12
(2)
10
12.5
10
10
10
170
12.5
ENSC3008
2016
28.31
18.315
10
8.315
12.5 4.186
8.315
7.12
16.69
27.12
The equivalent structure action of any action (Force/moment) applied at a structure d.o.f is
just the action itself.
Locking actions
 
171
ENSC3008
2016
172
ENSC3008
2016
could model
2
4
5
This prevents having to solve the beam d.e to find the fixed ended actions for the patch load
member
i.e.
. . . . . . etc.
can use standard soln s at cost of adding more joints (=more standard d.o.f = longer
matrices).
173
ENSC3008
2016
Hinge
We introduce joints so that pins only occur at the ends of the members.
Side is arbitrary
The pin(s) are considered to be internal to the member so the structure d.o.f s are not affected.
is changed.
1
Pin
0
174
ENSC3008
2016
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
6
2
6
2
Then
1 3
2
175
ENSC3008
2016
3
2
1
2
Or on general
1
2
This is always the case i.e. the rotation at the pinned end is
e.g.
10
2000
1.5
1000
1.5
176
ENSC3008
2016
Follow steps 1 to 8
(1)
1
(2) Form
177
ENSC3008
2016
1
tan
 
=0
=1
0
 
1
4
0
1
1
4
1
8
1
3
1
3
178
ENSC3008
2016
(3)
1000
500
500
1000
0
8000 4000
3
3
4000 8000
3
3
(Usual Way)
(4)
935.76
1333.33
1333.33 2666.667
179
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D
Back to example
10
3.75
12.5
180
ENSC3008
2016
So
 
12.5
3.75
(6)
 
 
(7)
Pin
7.403
 
 
3.75
28.198
Soln 2
Soln 1
10
3.75
+
Soln 2
181
3.75
ENSC3008
2016
+
28.198
7.403
3.75
Final Soln
31.948
17.403
Pin
1
pin
182
ENSC3008
2016
4
2
1
2
pin
Since
&
are both known so can omit the member d.o.f at the hinge.
To do this
1. Modify the
(see below)
2. Modify the single member stiffness
 
 
Removing a member d.o.f in this manner is optional but does reduce the size of matrices to
be manipulated (especially good when doing hand calcs).
ENSC3008
2016
1
2
3
2
4
3
No member d.o.f at pin
(2)
0
1
(3)
0
0
(4)
935.76
1333.33
1333.33 2666.67
184
associated with
ENSC3008
2016
(same as before)
 
 
 
 
Superpose with fixed end soln to get final soln
now 3
185
ENSC3008
2016
Axial behaviour
Weve already analysed axial behaviour using the manual stiffness method. We now restate
in matrix terms.
5
0.0810
2
2000
2000
A spring has 1 member d.o.f i.e. stretch in the spring, this is denoted
The corresponding member action is the force in the spring (tension +ve). The member
is just the spring constant
stiffness
 
 
Similarly, an axial bar has 1 member d.o.f, i.e. stretching of the member centreline. Member
d.o.f is drawn as for a spring.
186
ENSC3008
2016
The corresponding member action is the internal axial force (tension +ve). The member
stiffness is
 
 
187
ENSC3008
2016
Based on this, can apply the generalised Stiffness Method (matrix analysis)
(1)
(2)
=1
1
1
0
0
1
1
(3)
188
ENSC3008
2016
0
0
0
2000
4000
2000
(4)
42000
40000
40000
42000
10
Locking actions
2
+
 
ENSC3008
2016
Locking actions
A.F.D
190
ENSC3008
2016
(2)
Locking actions
A.F.D (KW)
hinge
191
ENSC3008
2016
4
2
10
Find
&
5 6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 0
spring
192
ENSC3008
2016
1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
10
Spring const
Soln proceeds in usual way
193
ENSC3008
2016
3
3
1
Joint d.o.f
2
Member d.o.f
In the analysis of a frame (instead of line member beams) joint translation causes both axial
and transverse behaviour in the member
stretching
Bending with respect to the centreline
Before we move to the above case, lets consider what happens when both ends of each
member are pinned (i.e. pinjointed truss)
1
2
pin
pin
194
ENSC3008
2016
Rotate joint
Hence, for pin joint trusses, these d.o.f s can be left out, leaving only axial member d.o.f
i.e.
195
ENSC3008
2016
Simply supported
B.M.D
i.e. Equivalent structure actions are forces only placed on jointly (i.e. no moments)
Free to rotate
Free to rotate
196
ENSC3008
2016
Since the joint is free to rotate & no moment is applied to it, the rotational structure d.o.f. can
be left out of the analysis leaving only translational structure d.o.f
Since all member loads can be replaced by equivalent structure actions at the structure d.o.f
(joints). We just consider cases with forces at the joints.
197
ENSC3008
2016
80
120
10000
Find all member forces &
deflections at joints &
(1)
2
1
198
ENSC3008
2016
(2)
Form
1&
0
0
 
1
0
199
ENSC3008
2016
Now
1&
1
0
 
0
0
0
Small disp at
0
Squash
?
Stretch
?
200
ENSC3008
2016
Member 3
Component parallel to
the original member
position
Original position
42
cos
cos
4
Stretch
Member 4
5
cos
. .
squash
Original position
201
ENSC3008
2016
0
1
 
Small disp at
0
Squash
Stretch
?
202
ENSC3008
2016
Member 3
sin
Original position
Member 4
sin
So
Original position
0
0
 
203
ENSC3008
2016
Assemble together
0
1
Step 3
Assemble member stiffness matrix
using
1
4
0
1
4
1
42
0
Step 4
Step 5
0
80
 
0
120
204
1
5
ENSC3008
2016
Step 6
0.0026
0.032
 
 
0.026
0.055
Step 7
80
 
 
0
72.73
85.7
205
(tension +ve)
ENSC3008
2016
Original position
of member
(i.e. squash)
stretch is
(i.e. squash)
206
ENSC3008
2016
8
Step 1
4
2
3
6
6 member d.o.f
5 structure d.o.f
3
4
2
8
6
207
10
ENSC3008
2016
8 &
Step 2
Form
208
ENSC3008
2016
1
1
1
0
1
0
209
ENSC3008
2016
1
0
So
1
4
5
3
5
0
0
4
5
1
0
3
0
5
Step 3
210
3
5
ENSC3008
2016
1
8
1
8
2000
0
1
6
1
6
1
10
1
10
Step 4
5 x 5 matrix
Step 5
0
0
 
100
0
Step 6
0.023
0.105
 
 
0.030
0.118
0.013
Step 7
211
ENSC3008
2016
58.33
75
 
 
43.75
43.75
93.75
72.98
212
(positive tension)
ENSC3008
2016
2 translation
3
1 rotation
1
New
undeformed
member centre
213
ENSC3008
2016
0
0
Axial force
end moments
end rotation
stretch
0
0
0
0
0
214
ENSC3008
2016
If the loads are applied directly at a structure d.o.f (like a truss), the matrix stiffness method
can be used without change. However, generation of the
matrix becomes more difficult.
Differences to the method occur when the loads are distributed.
10
1000
100,000
1. Find movement of
3
joint A
2. Find all member
actions & draw
BMD, SFD, & AFD
3. Compute all
external reation
Step (1)
5
3
4
3
9. Member d.o.f
6. Structure d.o.f
3 degrees of
indeterminacy
215
ENSC3008
2016
Step (2)
Form
1
tan
0 since stretch is
Others = 0
1
1
0
Others = 0
216
ENSC3008
2016
4
1
Others = 0
Others = 0
217
ENSC3008
2016
Others = 0
1
Others = 0
218
ENSC3008
2016
Influence of
219
etc.
ENSC3008
2016
Step (3)
0
0
1000
0
0
0
0
0
Step (4)
6
Step (5)
10
1
220
ENSC3008
2016
10
0
 
0
0
0
0
Step (6)
 
 
17.54
0.092
4.165
17.34
0.092
4.092
10
Movement of joint
0.092
17.8
4.165
10
Step (7)
+ ve tension
3.062
1
8.918
6.142
4.980
 
 
6.142
6.106
3.062
6.106
8.834
221
end moment
ENSC3008
2016
BMD/SFD/AFD
From analysis provides the axial forces & member moments   due to  . Internal axial
forces/bending moments/shear forces are best represented by diagrams.
For a 2D frame, BMD, SFD & AFD are drawn by plotting the individual diagram for each
member on the members themselves.
Recall
Indicates direction
Equilibrium
Constant
Constant
222
ENSC3008
2016
If the BMD is plotted positive down then changing the xdirection for the member doesnt
change the shape of the BMD, but it does change the signs
No sign
tension
Conversely, changing the member direction does change the shape of the AFD & SFD
223
ENSC3008
2016
i.e.
S.F.D
Member
different shape
A.F.D
Member
Hence, on both the AFD & SFD member direction should always be indicated by a small
arrow on the member i.e. in direction of positive .
ENSC3008
2016
It is preferable to run members from left to right & bottom to top (but doesnt really matters
provided you indicate the direction)
e.g.
: Tension side
convention
Note: When member loads are included AFD & SFD will also vary along the length of the
member.
225
ENSC3008
2016
BMD
6.106
1. Equilb
2. Tension side
remains same
6.106
6.142
6.142
(from  )
8.918
8.834
Support moments
8.918
8.834
S.F.D
.
3.062
5.02
226
4.98
ENSC3008
2016
5.02
4.98
Horizontal reactions
= End Shears
5.02
4.98
A.F.D
3.062
3.062
4.98
3.062
3.062
227
Vertical reaction
ENSC3008
2016
Reactions
10
5.02
4.98
3.062
3.062
8.918
8.834
Load Paths
These diagrams show how the load is being carried from the point of application through to
the supports i.e. the load path. This structure has 2 load paths.
(1)
5.02
load carried
by shear
5.02
228
ENSC3008
2016
(2)
4.98
4.98
Since the structure is indeterminate, stiffening the members in one load path will attract load
away from the other e.g. what happens if
of the right hand column is 10
10
reduced shear
increased shear
10
in
229
ENSC3008
2016
 stretch
Original position
tan
230
ENSC3008
2016
 stretch
Example
20
3
10
100,000
1000
pin
4
231
ENSC3008
2016
Step (1)
4
3
9 . . .
7 . . .
Matrix Sizes
5
7
1
 9
Step (2)
1
C.W
232
   7
1
1
ENSC3008
2016
1
1
1
1
1
1
Others = 0
233
ENSC3008
2016
1
1
0
234
ENSC3008
2016
1
1
1
Others = 0
1
Others = 0
235
ENSC3008
2016
Influence of
Step (3)
Form
in usual way 9
Step (4)
236
ENSC3008
2016
Step (5)
0
20
10
 
5
0
0
0
Step (6)
 
 
Step (7)
27.065
11.739
1.244
7.701
 
 
11.244
4.035
7.065
4.035
0
pin
237
ENSC3008
2016
BMD (kNm)
4.035
1.244
11.24
11.24
1.24
10
11.739
applied moment
Reactions:
11.739
238
ENSC3008
2016
S.F.D
3.055
.
.
.
4.327
0.673
4.327
0.673
239
ENSC3008
2016
A.F.D
7.701
27.067
7.065
27.067
7.067
0,
240
0 &
0)
ENSC3008
2016
241
ENSC3008
2016
Unrestrained
2
3
1
Full Fixed
Model
Pinned supports
1
Joint
pin
Note: the pinned restraint could be modelled with the joint on the other side of the pin
i.e.
242
ENSC3008
2016
In this case the joint is fixed & has no structure d.o.f. However, we must account for the pin
when forming
(like an internal hinge)
Others
Pinned roller x
2
1
Fixed roller x
Pinned roller y
1
2
Fixed roller y
243
ENSC3008
2016
1. Lock joints from displacement/rotation (i.e. hold structure d.o.f at zero) and solve
Equivalent structure
actions
Final Soln
Cancel out
Disp
+
Fixed ended soln
=
Equivalent structure
actions
244
Final
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D
Equilibrium
Fixed ended
Example
100,000
1000
3
245
ENSC3008
2016
2
5
3
4
3
&
Columns
no loads
246
ENSC3008
2016
Beams
5
4
10
10
10
10
2. Apply reverse of locking actions at joints = equivalent structure actions   & solve
10
(soln (2))
10
247
ENSC3008
2016
0
10
20
3
 
0
10
20
3
0.0483
0.3
 
 
10
3.654
0.0483
0.3
3.654
10
2.404
4.840
2.414
 
 
1.827
1.827
10
4.840
2.404
Soln (2)
248
ENSC3008
2016
4.84
4.84
1.827
10
2.404
1.827
4.84
4.84
10
2.404
Reaction
2.404
2.404
S.F.D
Due  
2.404
4.840 /3
1.827
1.827 /4
4.840
2.404 /3
249
2.414
0
2.414
4.84
ENSC3008
2016
10
10
10
10
2.414
2.414
2.414
Reactions
2.414
2.414
2.414
A.F.D
2.414
10
2.414
10
10
10
Reactions
10
250
10
ENSC3008
2016
5
3
8
5
15 MDOF
7
6
3.75
4
10
3.75
3
10
7.5
7.5
10
17.5
7.5
3.75
3.75
2.917
251
ENSC3008
2016
0
10
20
3
0
 
17.5
2.917
0
7.5
3.75
252
ENSC3008
2016
In general, a load may have components both normal & tangential to the member e.g.
253
ENSC3008
2016
A.F.D
A.F.D
254
ENSC3008
2016
For nonstandard cases, solve the member axial d.e to find fixed ended soln
In general, member loads are broken into normal and tangential components in order to find
the fixed ended solution. This can be done using similar triangles.
B.M.D
255
ENSC3008
2016
A.F.D
256
ENSC3008
2016
A.F.D
Other loads (e.g. a noncentral point load) will have both vertical & horizontal fixed ended
forces.
Example
3
100,000
1000
3
3
4
257
ENSC3008
2016
,
4
3
5
7
1
9
7
2
8.33
8.33
12.5
12.5
258
5
5
ENSC3008
2016
12.5
12.5
8.33
8.33
0
12.5
8.33
0
 
0
12.5
8.33
0
 
 
12.94
1.78
4.39
0.96
 
 
3.95
3.12
12.05
5.12
0
pin
Now drawing the BMD, SFD & AFD by superposing the fixed ended soln directly
259
ENSC3008
2016
BMD
8.33
3.12
5.12
5.12
8.33
3.95
4.39
3.12
4.39
1.78
Reactions
1.78
S.F.D
1.78
4.34 /3
3.95
5.12
0.17
0.87
3.12 /5
0 /6
0.17
0.87
9.83
0.17
10.17
0.17
0.87
0.87
260
ENSC3008
2016
Reactions
0.87
0.87
A.F.D
0.96
6.54
0.96
0.96
8.46
0.673
12.05
12.95
Reactions
12.95
12.05
261
Vertical Equilibrium
ENSC3008
2016
Second Example
20
2.5
2.5
12
1
4
Fixed ended soln
A.F.D
12
(Standard soln)
262
ENSC3008
2016
Beam
20
10
10
20
20
16
12
10
10
B.M.D
S.F.D
A.F.D
10
16
12
10
10
8
263
ENSC3008
2016
10
10
18
10
10
0
18
10
0
 
0
10
10
0
Shear Deformation
So far we have assumed that all beam displacements under transverse loads are due to
bending
i.e.
= transverse displacement
264
ENSC3008
2016
This assumes that the shear forces & hence shear stress in the beam causes no deformation
i.e.
265
ENSC3008
2016
For small deflections, we ignore interaction between shear & bending deformation & simply
superpose
G= Shear Modulus
Hooks Law
2 1
= Poissons ratio
266
ENSC3008
2016
= Area
Shear force
267
ENSC3008
2016
Magnitude of
It is only shear in the web which carries . i.e. we use the area of the web
effective shear area
to compute the
i.e.
1.2
for an Ibeam on its side
268
ENSC3008
2016
Effective web
.
Once we know the average shear stress we can work out the average shear strain
hence
269
ENSC3008
2016
tan
12
2.6
1.2
Parametric study
270
ENSC3008
2016
1.0078
1.0312
1.0867
1.195
(Aspect Ratios)
10
5
3
2
depth
kg/m
large flanges at large
distance from .
large
small web
small
1.0267
1.1068
1.2467
1.6627
(Aspect Ratios)
10
5
3
2
271
ENSC3008
2016
is virtually unchanged
Concrete
Steel UB
Web area is largely unchanged
Since we can directly add the bending & shear deformation (small disp assumption) it is
easiest to start from member flexibility matrix
 
 
1
3
1
6
Due bending
1
6
1
3
ENSC3008
2016
Where
due shear
1
3
1
6
1
6
1 1
1
3
1 1
bending
shear
273
ENSC3008
2016
12
1
1
3
1
1
6
4
2
1
1
6
1
1
3
2
4
As 0, the shear component disappears & the matrix goes back to standard form (i.e.
bending deformation >> shear deformation)
Removing constant
If is of similar magnitude to
Conversely if
then
274
ENSC3008
2016
Single member stiffness for a general frame member (axial deformation included)
0
0
Deflections
Bending
(Standard soln)
275
ENSC3008
2016
S.F.D
(at centre)
Conversely, if the member loads are unsymmetric fixed ended actions are changed e.g. noncentral point load.
276
ENSC3008
2016
B.M.D
S.F.D
From these shears, we can work out the shear deformation (tan
small deflection)
L.H.S
277
ENSC3008
2016
R.H.S
Together
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.25
0.26
0.24
0.18
0.1
0.25
0.21
0.15
0.08
0.03
0
(i.e. gap at right hand support)
278
ENSC3008
2016
Obviously a gap doesnt exist so our fixed ended moments (computed assuming bending
deformation only) must be wrong. They must be corrected to remove .
We do this by making the beam bend i.e. superpose
(CW)
Can now use the member stiffness (which includes shear deformation) to find the
corresponding changes in fixed ended moments &
6
1
Subst
12
279
ENSC3008
2016
2 1
If 0 then
Shear forces
Complex! If you can split members up by adding joints to make loads symmetric then do so!
280
ENSC3008
2016
e.g.
281
ENSC3008
2016
Example
now update
4
3
100,000
Beam
7
1000
6
9
1200
Column
1600
Column 1
12 1000
1600 3
0.8333
Beam
reducing importance of
shear deformation
12 1000
1600 5
0.4
Column 2
12 1000
1600 6
282
0.208
ENSC3008
2016
0
0
0
0
0
1000
0
0
0
0
as usual.
Load case (1)
283
ENSC3008
Note:
2016
component is symmetric about midpoint of beam, so fixed ended actions are
unchanged by shear deformation
0
12.5
8.33
 
0
12.5
8.3
0
 
 
 
 
12.979
1.917
4.412
0.953
 
3.921
3.343
12.021
4.990
0
284
ENSC3008
2016
16
2
12
285
ENSC3008
2016
Or
 No unsymmetrical loading
 No fixed ended soln
 Larger matrices
ENSC3008
2016
Before
B.M.D
After.B.M.D
Say 50
of differential settlement
The maximum (differential) settlement may be estimated from geotechnical analyses & must
be applied to the structure as a load case.
We will now extend the matrix stiffness method to include prescribed (imposed)
displacement and explicitly calculate reactions.
287
ENSC3008
2016
How?
Restraints (supports) can be thought of as structure d.o.f at which we know the
displacement/rotation i.e. zero (our usual restraint condition) or a prescribed displacement
(e.g. 50
)
5
3
4
3
Unstrained
structure d.o.f
12
9
Restrained
10
structure d.o.f
11
4
If 0 then these structure d.o.f do not affect the member d.o.f.s and so far we
have ignored them. To find the effect of prescribed displacement at these d.o.f.s And/Or to
compute reactions explicitly we must include them.
288
ENSC3008
2016
Compatibility
 
Augmented compatibility
matrix
289
Restrained
structure d.o.f
ENSC3008
2016
 
 usual compatibility
 Compat between retrained structure d.o.f & member d.o.f
   Disp/rotn of unrestrained structure d.o.f (unknown)
   Disp/rotn of restrained structure d.o.f (known)
   No changes (member action only)
 
 
Subs
 
  into above
ENSC3008
2016
Where
 usual structure stiffness matrix
 Relates the disp/rotn at the restrained structure d.o.f & the actions at the unrestrained
structure d.o.f
 Relates the displacement/rotn at the restrained structure d.o.f to the actions at the
restrained structure d.o.f
unknown
unknown
known
known
So
 
 
291
 
ENSC3008
2016
0  
  (as before)
However, if prescribed disp are nonzero, the new equation allows the rest of the structure
disp to be found. After this step
 
 
Note:   are only the reactions due to the equivalent structure actions  . For the complete
son, any fixed ended reactions
must be superposed.

ENSC3008
2016
3. Form   (from fixed ended soln) &   & use the top of the matrix to find disp/rotn
at unrestrained structure d.o.f  
 
 
 
 
due  
complete
fixed
5. Use the bottom portion of the matrix to find reactions due to   & superpose fixed
ended reaction

 
Or




complete
 

 
due to
fixed
Example 1
Beam
8
1000
1.5
3.5
293
ENSC3008
2016
settlement of the
4
3
3
Compatibility
unrestrained structure d. o. f
 
294
restrained structure d. o. f
ENSC3008
2016
1000
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
3
4
5
2
5
2
5
4
5
1333
667
667
667
667
2133
400
667
427
240
400
800
667
667
444
667
427
240
Manually partition
295
240
240
444
0
420
444
540
96
240
0
96
96
ENSC3008
2016
5.88
3
3.5
6.272
1.728
Standard Solutions
Hence
3
 
5.88
2.88
2.52
6
6
6.272
12.272
1.728
 
2.52
 
0.005
0
296
ENSC3008
2016
 
667
667
667
247
240
240
3.33
0.005
240
2.133
1.2
Reactions
1.717

  2.075
0.358
Or

 
 
2.075
6
12.272
0.358
1.728
4.283
14.347
1.370
4
20
4.283
14.347
1.370
ENSC3008
2016
Example (2)
5
/
1800
120,000
1200
3
by 5
.
Reactions are Not required.
Shear deformation to be
included.
6
4
5
3
7
2
2
1
9
Insert restrained structure d.o.f only where prescribed
disp occurs of full reactions not required.
298
ENSC3008
2016
0.005
 
0.008
4
10
10
0
0
10
20
3
 
0
10
20
3
299
ENSC3008
2016
0.333333
0.333333
0.333333
0.333333
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.333333
0.333333
2
7
Column
0.888889
Beam
0.5
300
ENSC3008
40000
2016
1035.294 235.2941
235.2941 1035.294
30000
900 300
300 900
40000
1035.294 235.2941
235.2941 1035.294
301
ENSC3008
2016
1035.294
423.5294
235.2941
423.5294
30282.35
423.5294
40150
300
150
300
235.2941
423.5294
300
1935.294
300
300
30282.35
150
300
40150
30000
423.5294
0
300
282.3529
0
300
423.5294
40000
0
30000
423.5294
423.5294
282.3529
300
0.003775
0.003265
0.00825
0.001735
0.003314
0.00025
0.005679
423.5294
40000
423.5294
0
1035.294
300
282.3529
40000
0
0
10
6.666667
0
10
6.6666667
9.983191
8.88
16
4.408719
1.469573
2.257948
2.1907111
10.01681
4.475956
0.067237
0.005
0.008
2.117647
1.411765
320
2.117647
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6.6666667
6.666667
0
0
0
302
2.117647
1.411765
330
4.54902
0
10
6.666667
9.983191
8.88
16
4.408719
1.469573
4.408719
4.475956
10.01681
4.475956
0.067237
ENSC3008
2016
ENSC3008
2016
2. Internal pins for a rigid jointed frame again solve as for beams i.e. insert a joint
adjacent to hinge
 Modify
Alternative: Remove member d.o.f at hinge and modify
PIN
304
ENSC3008
2016
PIN
PIN
3. Reminder: All work done solving the beam d.e.s to obtain displacements
and
and hence internal actions
,
and
under any condition of axial
and transverse loading may be used to obtain the fixed ended actions which are
needed for the matrix stiffness method.
e.g.
Boundary
Conditions
Installation temp
305
Reverse =
ENSC3008
2016
e.g.
Thermal Loading
Can also be treated separately and superposed.
Operating temp.
Installation Temp
306
ENSC3008
2016
At
Linear variation
4. Since analysis is linear, the results from various loads may be directly superposed.
e.g.
Dead G {
Live Q
1.2
1.5 1.2
307
1.5
ENSC3008
2016
5. 3D frames.
Most real structures can be idealised as 2D rigid jointed frames/trusses. However,
some structures have significant 3D behaviour and must be analysed as such e.g.
Bridge deck (grillage), towers subject to trust, etc.
The matrix stiffness method can be extended to do this.
Joints: If unrestrained, can translate and rotate in 3 directions.
2
3
1
4
3
Or drawing rotations as a double headed arrow [Right hand rule to give direction].
3
6
308
ENSC3008
2016
Members. Previously stretch, bend about are principal axis. Now: bend about a second
principal axis + trust (torsion)
5
3
4
+
2
1
6
Displaced Shape
Twist
Displaced Shape
Elevation
5
4
Plan
2
3
309
ENSC3008
2016
Inplane bending
Axial
2,3
0
0
0
0
Twist
6
Since
.
Touque
twist
Solving problems
(1) Assign member & structure d.o.f
(2) Compatibility
Formed in usual way Matrix
Much larger. Note: rotation of joint may cause both member and rotations AND trust
of connected members
13 18
7 12
19 20
1 6
Member d.o.f 1 6 etc.
310
ENSC3008
(3)
(4)
2016
Assemble 6
loads are user specified and
is
From (1) to (4) program can form
,
automatically found from preprogrammed Standard Solutions. The program then follows
the same steps as weve used to compute and display the final solution.
311
ENSC3008
2016
Summary
A course in analysis of 2D structures
Beam/bars
Pinjoined trusses
Rigid frames
Small deflection theory break the behaviour of member into axial & transverse
components.
Differential equations for a single member can be solved independently for two components
if the boundary conditions are known.
For more complicated structures, the members interact, so member end conditions are not
known. Two possible solution options
1) Flexibility/force Method
Soln 1:

Soln 2

Soln 2.

Solved for disp/rotn at structure d.o.f (i.e.  ) to educe fixing actions to zero
312
ENSC3008
2016
Compatibility
# . . .
 
Structure Stiffness
 
 
 
For each load case
 
Structure disp  
Member actions
Superpose
 
 
Enhancements
&  
, 
Optionally

ENSC3008

2016
Manual
 
 
 
Reactions

314
ENSC3008
2016
Exam
2hr & 10 minutes
No manual stiffness/flexibility
3 Question

Beam
Truss
Must know fixed ended soln for standard load cases given in lectures
 symmetric
Must be able to compute fixed ended actions for a member with thermal loads
Titles
Units
Must be able
No past exams
Redo tutes & Assignments.
315
ENSC3008
2016
Formulae
4EI
l
2EI
l
2EI
l
4EI
l
s1
*
s2
(4+)EI
(1+)l
(2)EI
(1+)l
(2)EI
(1+)l
(4+)EI
(1+)l
s1
*
s2
1
1 d
= adbc
c
b
316
where =
12 EI
GAs l 2
Bien plus que des documents.
Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.
Annulez à tout moment.